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The Concept of Counterterrorism in the Russian Federation

Approved by Russian President Medvedev on October 5, 2009


Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Published October 20, 2009
This concept defines the basic principles of state policy in the field of counterterrorism in the Russian Federation, the
objective, missions, and directions of further development of the general state counterterrorism system in the Russian
Federation.
I. Terrorism
as a threat to Russian Federation national security
1. The basic tendencies of modern terrorism are:
a) increase in the number of terrorist acts and victims of them
b) expansion of the geography of terrorism, the international nature of terrorist organizations, and the use of the ethno-
religious factor by international terrorist organizations
c) intensification of the reciprocal influence of various internal and external social, political, economic, and other factors
on the onset and spread of terrorism
d) increase in the level of organization of terrorist activities, and creation of major terrorist formations with a developed
infrastructure
e) intensification of a mutual relationship with organized crime, including transnational organized crime
f) increase in the level of financing of terrorist activities and the logistical equipment of terrorist organizations
g) desire of terrorist entities to seize weapons of mass destruction
h) attempts to use terrorism as an instrument of interference in states' internal affairs
i) development of new and improvement of existing forms and methods of terrorist activities, aimed at increasing the
scope of the aftermath of terrorist acts and the number of victims
2. The appearance and spread of terrorism in the Russian Federation have specific historical prerequisites and are
associated both with domestic, economic, political, social, interethnic, and religious contradictions, and with foreign
terrorist threats, including some that are common to the entire world community.
3. The basic domestic factors bringing about the onset and spread of terrorism in the Russian Federation or the causes
and conditions promoting it are:
a) interethnic, interreligious, and other social contradictions
b) the presence of conditions for the activities of persons and associations of extremist bent
c) low effectiveness of law-enforcement, administrative-legal, and other counterterrorist measures
d) unsuitable monitoring of the spread of radical ideas, and of the promotion of violence and cruelty in the uniform
information space of the Russian Federation
e) the ineffective fight against organized crime and corruption, and illegal trafficking in weapons, ammunition, and
explosives
4. The basic foreign factors promoting the onset and spread of terrorism in the Russian Federation are:
a) attempts of international terrorist organizations to penetrate individual regions of the Russian Federation
b) the presence of centers of terrorist activity close to the Russian Federation state border and the borders of its allies
c) the presence, in foreign states, of training camps for fighters of international terrorist and extremist organizations,
including those with an anti-Russian focus, as well as theological educational institutions that spread the ideology of
religious extremism
d) financial support of terrorist and extremist organizations operating on the territory of the Russian Federation by
international terrorist and extremist organizations
e) the aspiration of a number of foreign states, even in the scope of implementation of anti-terrorist activities, to weaken
the Russian Federation and its position in the world, to establish their political, economic, or other influence in individual
Russian Federation components
f) dissemination of the ideas of terrorism and extremism through the information and telecommunications network of the
Internet and mass media
g) the interest of terrorist entities in broad coverage of their activities in the mass media in order to obtain the greatest
public resonance
h) the absence of a unified approach in the international community to defining the causes for the onset and spread of
terrorism and its motivating forces, and the presence of double standards in the application of laws in the fight against
terrorism
i) the lack of a unified anti-terrorist information space at the international and national levels

II. The Nationwide Counterterrorism System

5. The nationwide counterterrorism system is an aggregate of counterterrorist entities and regulatory legal acts governing
their activities to identify, forestall (prevent), interdict, reveal, and investigate terrorist activities, and to minimize and/or
eliminate the consequences of manifestations of terrorism.
6. The nationwide counterterrorism system is intended to support the conduct of a uniform state policy in the area of
counterterrorism and is aimed at protection of basic human and civil rights and freedoms, and at safeguarding the national
security of the Russian Federation.
7. Authorized agencies of state authority and local self-government whose writ includes the conduct of counterterrorism
measures, non-governmental organizations and associations, as well as citizens who provide assistance to agencies of
state authority and agencies of local self-government in implementing counterterrorist measures are counterterrorism
entities.
8. The National Anti-terrorist Committee, the Federal Operational Staff, and anti-terrorist commissions and operational
staffs in the Russian Federation components coordinate counterterrorist activities and organize planning on the use of
manpower and resources of the federal executive agencies and their territorial agencies to combat terrorism, and also
manage counterterrorist operations.
9. The legal basis for the nationwide counterterrorism system consists of the Russian Federation Constitution, generally
recognized principles and standards of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, federal
constitutional laws, federal laws, normative legal acts of the Russian Federation President and Government, the Russian
Federation National Security Strategy until 2020, the Russian Federation Foreign Policy Concept, the Russian Federation
Military Doctrine, and this Concept, as well as the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation aimed at improving
activities in this area.
10. The purpose of counterterrorism in the Russian Federation is to protect the individual, society, and the state from
terrorist acts and other manifestations of terrorism.
11. The basic tasks of counterterrorism are:
a) identification and elimination of the causes and conditions facilitating the onset and spread of terrorism
b) identification, prevention, and interdiction of actions of persons and organizations aimed at the preparation and
conduct of terrorist acts and other crimes of a terrorist nature
c) prosecution of terrorist entities in accordance with Russian Federation law
d) maintenance, in a state of constant readiness for effective use, of the manpower and resources intended to identify,
prevent, and interdict terrorist activities and to minimize and/or eliminate the consequences of manifestations of terrorism
e) assurance of citizen safety and anti-terrorist security of potential targets of terrorist encroachments, including critically
important infrastructure and life-sustaining facilities, as well as areas with large concentrations of people
f) resistance to the spread of the ideology of terrorism and activation of work of information and propaganda support of
counterterrorist measures
12. In the Russian Federation, counterterrorism is implemented in the following areas:
a) prevention (prophylaxis) of terrorism
b) combating of terrorism
c) minimization and/or elimination of the consequences of manifestations of terrorism
13. Prevention (prophylaxis) of terrorism is carried out in three basic areas:
a) creation of a system to counter the ideology of terrorism
b) implementation of measures of a legal, organizational, operational, administrative, security, military, and technical
nature aimed at providing anti-terrorist security to potential targets of terrorist encroachments
c) increased monitoring of compliance with administrative and legal regimes
14. A special role in the prevention (prophylaxis) of terrorism is played by effective implementation of administrative and
legal measures provided for by Russian Federation legislation.
15. Prevention (prophylaxis) of terrorism presupposes accomplishment of the following tasks:
a) development of measures and implementation of actions to eliminate causes and conditions promoting the onset and
spread of terrorism
b) resistance to the spread of terrorist ideology by protecting the uniform information space of the Russian Federation;
refinement of a system of information countermeasures to terrorism
c) improvement in the socioeconomic, sociopolitical, and legal situation in the country
d) prediction, identification, and elimination of terrorist threats; notification of the agencies of state authority, the agencies
of local self-government, and the public about them
e) use of legally authorized methods of influencing the behavior of individuals (groups of persons) inclined to perform
actions of a terrorist nature
f) development of measures and implementation of preventive actions to counteract terrorism on the territories of Russian
Federation components
g) specification of the rights, obligations, and responsibilities of the leaders of federal executive agencies, executive
agencies of Russian Federation components, agencies of local self-government, and economic entities in organizing
actions for anti-terrorist security of the installations in their jurisdiction
h) development and introduction of standard requirements to assure the protection of critically important infrastructure
and life-sustaining facilities, as well as mass concentrations of people
i) improvement in the regulatory framework governing the issues of compensation for harm done to the life, health, and
property of persons participating in the fight against terrorism, as well as of victims of a terrorist act
j) strengthening of coordination of the federal executive agencies and strengthening of international cooperation in the
area of counterterrorism
k) support of coordinated work of state agencies with public and religious organizations (associations), other institutions
of civil society, and citizens
16. The fight against terrorism is organized on the basis of an integrated approach to analyzing the causes of the onset
and spread of terrorism and identifying terrorist entities; and on a precise delimitation of the functions and areas of
responsibility of counterterrorist entities; timely determination of priorities in the accomplishment of assigned missions;
improvement of the organization and coordination of operational, operational-combat, troop, and investigative subunits by
introducing the staff principle of organization of command and control of counterterrorist operations and providing the
indicated subjects with information resources, including modern hardware and software systems.

One of the basic requirements for improving the results of the fight against terrorism is to obtain advance information on
terrorist organizations' plans to carry out terrorist acts; activities to spread the ideology of terrorism; the sources and
channels of financing and provision of weapons, ammunition, and other resources to carry out terrorist activities.
One requirement for effective organization of the fight against terrorism is timely preparation of the manpower and
sources of counterterrorist entities to interdict the terrorist act in the course of command-staff, tactical-special, and
operational-tactical exercises organized by the Federal Operational Staff and the operational staffs in Russian Federation
components.
17. Activities to minimize and/or eliminate the consequences of manifestations of terrorism are planned ahead of time on
the basis of forecasts of possible consequences of terrorist acts. These activities must be oriented toward accomplishing
the following basic tasks:
a) prevention (minimization) of human casualties based on the priority of human life and health over material and
financial resources
b) timely conduct of emergency rescue operations when a terrorist act is committed; provision of medical and other
assistance to persons participating in its interdiction, as well as to persons victimized as a result of a terrorist act, and their
subsequent social and psychological rehabilitation
c) minimization of the consequences of a terrorist act and its unfavorable moral and psychological effects on society or
individual social groups
d) restoration of facilities damaged or destroyed as a result of a terrorist act
e) compensation in accordance with Russian Federation laws for harm done to physical or legal persons victimized as a
result of a terrorist act
18. The requirements for successful performance of measures to eliminate the consequences of a terrorist act are:
consideration of the specifics of the emergency situations associated with its commission, as well as the nature of the
facilities subjected to terrorist effects, and the methods of terrorist activities; development of standard plans to activate of
manpower and resources of the nationwide counterterrorism system and their timely preparation, including in the course
of exercises;
19. In accordance with the basic areas of counterterrorism provided for by this Concept, anti-terrorist activities are
implemented by means of a system of measures, the implementation of which involves various interrelated and
coordinated forms, methods, techniques, and means for influencing terrorist entities.
20. In implementing activities for the prevention (prophylaxis) of terrorism, measures are utilized that are aimed at
reducing the threat level of terrorist acts; settling the economic, political, social, ethnic, and religious contradictions that
can lead to the onset of armed conflicts, and as a consequence can promote manifestations of terrorism; warning citizens
of terrorist intentions; hampering the actions terrorist entities. At the same time, various forms of general and targeted
prevention are used, implemented taking into account the demographic, ethno-religious, individual-psychological, and
other specific features of the target against which preventive actions are utilized.
21. The basic measures for the prevention (prophylaxis) of terrorism include:
a) political measures (normalization of the sociopolitical situation, resolution of social conflicts, reduction of the level of
sociopolitical tension, implementation of international cooperation in the counterterrorism area)
b) socioeconomic measures (economic recovery of areas of the Russian Federation and equalization of their level of
development, reduction in the extent of social marginalization and social and monetary stratification and differentiation,
and assurance of social protection for the population)
c) legal measures (implementation of the principle of inevitability of punishment for crimes of a terrorist nature; illegal
trafficking in arms, ammunition, explosives, narcotics, psychotropic substances and their precursors, radioactive
materials, dangerous biological substances and chemical reagents; and financing of terrorism; as well as regulation of
migration processes and procedures for the use of information and communications systems)
d) informational measures (explanation of the essence of terrorism and its social danger, creation of stern social
disapproval for the ideology of violence, as well as recruitment of citizens to participate in counterterrorism)
e) cultural and educational measures(promotion of socially important values and creation of conditions for peaceful
interethnic and interreligious dialogue)
f) organizational-technical measures (development and implementation of targeted programs and actions to safeguard
critically important infrastructure and life-sustaining facilities, as well areas with heavy concentrations of persons, using
technical security systems; improvement of the mechanism of responsibility for failure to meet the requirements for
assuring anti-terrorist security for targets of terrorist activities, and improvement in the technical equipment of
counterterrorist entities)
22. The choice of specific counterterrorist measures depends on the level of identified terrorist threats, for the elimination
of which the corresponding legal regimes are introduced, including administrative-security, operational-investigative, and
other measures implemented by the operational staffs of Russian Federation components in coordination with
counterterrorist commissions in Russian Federation components and by subunits of federal executive agencies, as well as
temporary restrictions aimed at prevention of a terrorist act and minimization of its consequences.
23. The basic form of interdiction of a terrorist act is the counterterrorist operation, which provides for the implementation
of a group of special, operational-combat, troop, or other measures involving the use of combat equipment, weapons, and
special systems to interdict the terrorist act, neutralize the terrorists, and safeguard the security of citizens, organizations,
and institutions, as well as to minimize and/or eliminate the consequences of manifestations of terrorism.
24. In the course of implementation of measures to minimize and/or eliminate the consequences of manifestations of
terrorism, the following tasks are carried out:
a) provision of emergency medical assistance
b) medical and psychological support of emergency rescue and fire-fighting actions
c) social rehabilitation of the victims of a terrorist act, and of persons participating in its interdiction
d) restoration of the normal operation and ecological safety of installations subjected to terrorist effects
e) compensation for moral and material damage to the victims of a terrorist act

III. Legal, informational-analytical, scientific, logistical, financial, and personnel support of counterterrorism

25. Legal support of counterterrorism includes constant monitoring and analysis of terrorism as a phenomenon, problems
in organizing the activities of counterterrorist entities, the legislation of the Russian Federation, and international
experience in this field, and preparation and adoption of the relevant statutes aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of
counterterrorism.
26. The regulatory framework for counterterrorism must meet the following requirements:
a) flexibly and adequately react to constant changes in the means, forms, methods, and tactics of activities of terrorist
entities
b) allow for international experience, and real sociopolitical, ethnic, ethnic-religious, and other factors
c) determine the jurisdiction of counterterrorist entities that is adequate to the threats of terrorist acts
d) establish the responsibility of physical and legal persons for failure to comply with Russian Federation laws in the area
of counterterrorism
e) define measures for incentivization and social protection of persons participating in counterterrorism actions that are
adequate to the threats of terrorist acts
f) ensure the effectiveness of criminal prosecution for terrorist activities
27. International legal cooperation in counterterrorism must be oriented toward overcoming double standards in the
approaches of foreign partners to criminal prosecution of terrorists, and toward the adequate use of available international
legal tools in matters related to counterterrorism and the extradition of terrorists.
28. One important task of counterterrorism is assurance of legality in implementation of this activity, and participation of
counterterrorist entities in the development and refinement of the regulatory framework, as well as in the formation of the
legal culture of the populace.
29. All authorized agencies of state authority and the agencies of local self-government take part in the legal support of
counterterrorism.
30. Informational and analytical support of counterterrorism includes the collection, accumulation, systematization,
analysis, and evaluation of information regarding terrorist threats, and its exchange with and issuance to the users of such
information.
31. In the process of informational and analytical support of counterterrorism, the following basic tasks are carried out:
a) investigation of the basic factors defining the substance and status of terrorist threats
b) prediction of probable trends and patterns of development of terrorist threats, development of proposals for timely
adoption of decisions for their neutralization
c) analysis of information about manifestations of terrorism, as well as political, socioeconomic, and other social
processes in the Russian Federation and in the world that exert a negative influence on the situation as regards
counterterrorism
d) organization and implementation of information coordination of counterterrorist entities
e) monitoring and analysis of national and international experience in counterterrorism
f) implementation, including through the introduction of up-to-date information and telecommunications technologies, of
information-analysis support of coordination of counterterrorist activities of federal executive agencies, anti-terrorist
commissions in Russian Federation components, and operational staffs in Russian Federation components, agencies of
local self-government, and institutions of civil society, and conduct of situational analyses of terrorism risks for these
purposes, with the involvement of specialists of scientific-research institutes
g) creation of a uniform anti-terrorist information space at the national and international levels;
h) development of data banks and bases, data telecommunications networks, automated systems and hardware/software
complexes using advanced data technologies and their maintenance;
i) timely preparation of proposals for the development and refinement of the regulatory framework of information and
analytical support of counterterrorism;
j) systematic enhancement of professional training of specialists and analysts in the counterterrorism field
32. Provision of information to the highest officials of the agencies of state authority on counterterrorism-related issues
presupposes the optimization of the information streams and the distribution of authority among the counterterrorist
entities as regards information and analysis activities, the centralization of information on the records (including statistical)
of manifestations of terrorism and the results of counterterrorist activities of all entities of the nationwide counterterrorism
system.
33. The National Anti-terrorist Committee coordinates the activities of the federal executive agencies whose leaders are
Committee members in the informational and analytical work on counterterrorist problems, and organizes the preparation
of information and analytical materials on problems requiring an interdepartmental expert assessment and discussion in
Committee sessions. The Committee synthesizes reference and reporting information from counterterrorist entities for
preparation of an annual summary report to the Russian Federation President.
34. The federal executive agencies, in accordance with their jurisdiction, inform the users of information on terrorist
threats about specific issues requiring an immediate response.
35. Scientific-research institutes, as well as public associations and other institutions of civil society, are recruited for
information-analysis support of counterterrorism.
36. Scientific support of counterterrorism includes:
a) development of theoretical and methodological principles of counterterrorism and recommendations for
accomplishment of practical tasks in specific areas of activities in the field of counterterrorism
b) conduct of applied scientific research for making political, legal, organizational, and administrative decisions in the
counterterrorism field at various levels
c) study of international experience in the fight against terrorism, submission of proposals to the Russian Federation
President to improve the strategy and system of counterterrorist measures
37. Priority areas of scientific-technical development in counterterrorism must include the creation and introduction of the
following:
a) means of protecting associates of counterterrorist subunits and the targets of terrorist activities using the latest
scientific achievements
b) new models of arms for counterterrorist subunits, including non-lethal weapons and special weapons capable of
significantly reducing human casualties and reducing material damage during the conduct of operational measures
c) effective communication systems that meet information security requirements, including the requirements for security
against computer attacks, systems for detection of the latest types of explosive devices, explosives, and other especially
dangerous terrorist tools, and of the terrorists themselves, as well systems for camouflaging the actions of anti-terrorist
subunits
38. For successful functioning of the nationwide counterterrorism system, it is necessary to endow one or several federal
executive agencies with the functions of coordinator of scientific and scientific-technical development in the field of
counterterrorism.
39. Further development of the nationwide counterterrorism system presupposes the concentration of logistical and
financial resources in priority areas of support of activities of counterterrorist entities; creation of the corresponding
infrastructure for the development of a generally accessible network of scientific-technical and commercial information;
incentivization of innovation and investment policy by the agencies of state authority in order to improve anti-terrorist
security for the targets of terrorist activities, as well as to form a system of insurance protection of the population against
terrorist risks.
40. Financial support of counterterrorism is implemented with funds from the federal budget, the budgets of Russian
Federation components, local budgets, and the funds of economic entities.
41. Financing of federal targeted programs in the counterterrorist field is implemented with funds from the federal budget.
42. Expenditures for financing actions in the counterterrorist field are determined by each Russian Federation component
and agency of local self-government independently from their own budgets.
In planning the federal budget, budgets of Russian Federation components, and local budgets, one urgent problem is to
define targeted line items for counterterrorist actions, so that it is necessary to develop the corresponding regulatory
framework.
43. Financing of actions in the field of counterterrorism, in particular the creation of funds and the awarding of grants to
encourage activities in this field, and to improve their effectiveness, must be implemented not only by increasing the
volumes of financing from the budgets at various levels, but also by attracting funds from extrabudgetary sources.
44. A judicious personnel policy is one of the basic ways to enhance the operating effectiveness of the nationwide
counterterrorism system. Subunits participating in counterterrorism must be manned by highly qualified specialists
possessing the necessary qualities and skills. Raising the prestige of service in these subunits is a priority of personnel
policy.
45. Personnel support of counterterrorism is implemented in the following basic areas:
a) training and retraining of associates participating in counterterrorism
b) counterterrorist training of associates of federal executive agencies, agencies of executive authority of Russian
Federation components, and agencies of local self-government participating within the scope of their authority in
counterterrorism
c) anti-terrorist specialization of associates of non-governmental security structures, taking into account for the specifics
of their tasks;
d) training of specialists in specific fields of counterterrorism (countering terrorist ideology; nuclear, chemical, and
biological terrorism; cyberterrorism; and other types)
e) creation of expert consulting groups of representatives from counterterrorist entities possessing special knowledge and
skills
46. Counterterrorist training and re-training of personnel is carried out on the basis of interdepartmental and
departmental training centers and higher educational institutions, as well as educational institutions for higher professional
education.
47. Along with opportunities in Russia for the training of personnel for counterterrorism, they can also be trained abroad,
in the framework of international cooperation.

IV. International cooperation in the field of counterterrorism

48. International cooperation is a necessary condition for assuring the effectiveness of counterterrorism, and is
implemented on the basis of and in strict accord with the principles and standards of international law, as well as in
accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation.
49. The Russian Federation is working to achieve confirmation of a central, coordinating role for the United Nations in the
cause of international cooperation in the field of counterterrorism, and strict implementation of UN Security Council
Resolutions and provisions of the universal conventions in this field, and effective implementation of the Global
Counterterrorist Strategy adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2006.
50. Basic efforts of the Russian Federation in the scope of international counterterrorist cooperation must be
concentrated on the following areas:
a) identification and elimination of gaps in international law regarding the regulation of cooperation of states in combating
terrorism
b) advancement of Russian international initiatives on counterterrorism, including the Global Initiative to Combat Acts of
Nuclear Terrorism, and the State and Business Partnership Strategy to Counter Terrorism;
c) assurance of effective operation of both multilateral mechanisms (in the format of the Commonwealth of Independent
States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, and other international
organizations), as well as bilateral coordination with partners in a counterterrorist coalition
d) execution of practical actions to close the financial channels of terrorist organizations; interdict the illegal trafficking in
weapons, ammunition, and explosives; bar the passage of terrorist entities across state borders; combat the spread of
terrorist propaganda and ideology; and provide assistance to terrorism victims
51. In order to conduct a uniform foreign-policy line of the Russian Federation in the field of international counterterrorist
cooperation, the Russian Federation Ministry of Foreign Affairs coordinates the activities of the federal executive agencies
in this field.
The National Anti-terrorist Committee helps coordinate the activities of the federal executive agencies, the agencies of
executive authority of Russian Federation components, and the agencies of local self-government in the field of
counterterrorism on the territory of the Russian Federation, including during implementation of decisions made in the
scope of international counterterrorist cooperation.
With the National Anti-terrorist Committee in a coordinating role, the provisions of this Concept are carried out by
counterterrorist entities implementing a set of measures in the field of counterterrorism that are interrelated in terms of
time, resources, and results.