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Chapter 13 Creating Learning Environments

Meghan Hull,


The Need for Organization

Article: Teachers, Students, and Classroom Organization

Theoretical Bases: A longitudinal project studying 3 bilingual classrooms during the 1980-81 school year. Analyzing the linguistic information provided by the teacher directives, but also the non-verbal input involving teacher student organizing instructional situations. Participants: Kindergarten, 2nd grade, and 5th grade classes which is an average 33 students per class 2/3 of the students being of the Spanish native and 1/3 of class being of the English native. 3 experienced bilingual woman teachers who volunteered to participate in the study.

Data Collection: 2 video cameras one on the teachers and one on the students and also a researcher off to the side taking field notes. This occurred for one hour every day in each classroom. Research Problems: Students had a hard time recognizing the difference between what is said and what is intended. Directives were the major language used in the classrooms and by not matching expectations with behaviors would cause unintentional conflict.

Emerging Findings: Accountability mechanisms operate to organize classrooms maybe grouped into categories. The physical organization of the classrooms and the interactive nature of classroom organization.
Thesis of the Study:For students to be successful and for the classrooms to be organized the need to understand both the rules of the game and the academic information.

Creating a Positive Learning Environment:

Research Results Routines and Rules Required Planning Spaces for Learning Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class



Chapter 17 Identifying Adaptive Classrooms: Dimensions of the Classroom Social

Positive environments Classroom environment Four important dimensions of the classroom environment: Support, Respect, Goals, Task Interaction Stats and Results

Journal Educational Psychology Web Site http://www.springer.com/ Article Moore, Kristin Anderson; Lippman, Laura H. WHAT DO CHILDREN NEED TO FLOURISH Learning Environment 2005, Springer.

Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning

Classroom Order Engaging Students Teacher Supervision Positive Student/Teacher Relationships


Classroom Management: A Critical Part of Educational Psychology with Implications for Teacher Education
By Edmund T. Emmer & Laura M. Stough

Classroom Management: Actions taken by

teacher to establish order, engage student, or bring out their cooperation.

Having classroom management reflects the teachers knowledge

Allow teachers to develop in other areas of instruction


Jacob Kounin (1970)

Teacher Behaviors and Lesson Characteristics:
Withitness: Communication with students that lets them know you are aware of everything that happens in the classroom Overlapping: Keeping track of and supervising several activities at the same time

Movement Management: Keeping lessons and group moving at an appropriate and flexible pace

Jones (1996) 5 Characteristics:

Understanding of current research

Positive teacher-student relationship

Use of instructional methods that influence students learning Use of organizational and group management methods Ability to use counseling and behavior methods

Emmer, E. M. (2001). Classroom Management: A Critical Part of Educational Psychology, With Implications for Teacher Education. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 103-112.


Dealing with Discipline Problems

Stopping Problems Quickly Bullying and Cyber-Bullying Special Problems with High School Students


The Student Teacher and Discipline Problems

Lian-Hwang Chiu

Student teachers in charge of their own class evaluated to see how they dealt with disciplinary problems. Their behaviors or acts were categorized into seven sections.
Approval Withholding of approval Threat to withhold approval Disapproval Personal conference Threat of disapproval Ignoring JH

Emmer and Everston(2009) & Levin and Nolan(2000)

Suggest 7 ways to stop misbehavior quickly Make eye contact and use nonverbal signals. Try verbal hints. Ask students if they know the consequences. Remind the students of the task at hand. Calmly ask the student to state the correct rule or procedure. Tell the student assertively to stop the behavior. Offer a choice, comply or face consequences.

Chiu, L.(1975). The Student Teacher and Discipline Problems. The Journal of Educational Research. Vol.69, No.2. Pg 69-72.

The Need For Communication- Part 1

Message sent: What the teacher said Message received: What the student heard

Sometimes teachers believe they are sending one message, but their voices, body positions, choices of words, and gestures may communicate a different message. (495)

Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It?

It takes some practice in diagnosing who owns the problem:
For example: A student draws inappropriate pictures in a school textbook; This would be the teachers problem because school teaching materials are damaged A student tells you that she hates her mother and her parents are always fighting; This would be considered the students problem because although you feel bad, it does not affect your teaching. A student quietly reads a comic book in the back of the classroom; This one is more difficult to diagnose, it can be either the students problem because it is not interfering with the teacher, or some could say it is the teachers problem because they find it distracting. This is one of those gray areas.

In either case, once it has been decided whose problem is it, it must be addressed.

Counseling: The Students Problem

If a student finds a problem with something like a reading assignment, the teacher must use empathetic listening to actively help solve this issue.
The four components of active listening: 1)Blocking out external stimuli 2)Attending carefully to both the verbal and nonverbal messages 3)Differentiating between the intellectual and the emotional content of the message 4)Making inferences regarding the speakers feelings

Meeting Communication Needs

METHOD This study was designed to: * Identify and quantify topics of talk in nursing home staff resident interactions. * Evaluate the effect of a communication intervention on topics of talk. * Examine how staff role (e.g., nurse, certified nursing assistant, housekeeping staff) determines conversation topics with nursing home residents.
RESULTS Results of this analysis revealed that 8 of 12 staff participants (67%) used predominantly individualized communication with residents in baseline interactions.

Williams, Kristine Nordlie,R.N., PhD., Ilten, Teresa Buchhorn,R.N., M.S., & Bower, H. (2005). Meeting communication needs. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 43(7), 38-45. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/225549302?accountid=7122

Confrontation & Assertive Discipline

I Meesages: the professor tells student what he/she is doing to disrupt the class Assertive Discipline: never follow through, ask instead of tell, one more chance. Assertive professors are calm and confident and never debate. 3 methods for solving issues between students and teachers
1. Teacher will impose a solution: necessary during emergency 2. Teacher gives in to students demands: shouldnt be used 3. No-lose method: meet me halfway situation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define the problem Make solutions Evaluate each solution Make decision Generate a plan to do solution Evaluate decision

5 step negotiation process:

Identify the conflict: remove person from issue Exchange positions: listen and be cooperative Reverse perspectives: be in the other persons shoes Elaborate 3 agreements that contain mutual gain: listen to every solution Reach a consensus: a mediator can be reached.

Communication is key

Caring, group management strategies and caring can create positive learning. (Youyan Nie and Shun Lu 2009)
If teacher feels threatened the process can go unsolved.

METHOD This study was designed to: *Help students develop self-discipline and accept responsibility in the classroom by giving behavior points as rewards donated by local businesses. Points were entered into drawing for better gifts(bikes, tvs, etc). If student did not participate, the points were removed and a penalty card was given( counseling) * create an effective teaching and learning atmosphere Create a culture of achievement. RESULTS Very positive praise and reward system. In the first term, only 10 % of the students didnt participate and 82% received awards for participation which reduce negative approaches.

Birch, Andy (1992) Volume 2 Improving Student Performance Using Assertive Discipline. Sage Publications Pg 16-19 http://imp.sagepub.com/content/2/2/16.citation

Culturally Responsive Classroom Management

Maria: Immigrated from Mexico Houng: Vietnamese girl James: African American boy

Prerequisites of Culturally Responsive Classroom Mangagment

the self

We are all cultural beings

the other We must acknowledge cultural differences

Creating a physical setting that supports academic and social goals
establishing expectations of behavior

communicating with students in culturally consistent ways

developing a caring classroom environment working with families

Physical Environment
Posters Include culturally relevant material in the classroom setting Group Work

Mix groups up

Establishing Expectations

Beginning of the year rules: This helps create norms for your classroom to avoid confusion


Understanding where students come from: This helps you evaluate what way to communicate with your students

Inclusive Classrooms

Involving every student making personal connections

Working With Families

Creating consistent expectations Help families and parents help their children


Culturally Responsive Classroom Management: Awareness into ActionAuthor(s): Carol Weinstein, Mary Curran and Saundra Tomlinson-ClarkeSource: Theory into Practice, Vol. 42, No. 4, Classroom Management in a Diverse Society(Autumn, 2003), pp. 269-276Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1477388 .