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Cornell University Library
UA646 .K78 1890
Armies of Euroj

3 1924 030 725 836

olin Overs
Cornell University

The original of this book is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in

the United States on the use of the text.


Printed by Q. LihveneoJm, Fuertji Bavaria

and. |.

Published ly William Clowes & Bam, Ld




Grenadier Guards,







Contents . . .


" Si vis pacem, para bellum !

I ET him who is desirous of peace prepare himself for war." Thus

runs the proverb which sums up the experiences and history of

the most powerful Empire of old. If this maxim held good in the old

Roman days, how much more applicable is it to the present time, when
war-clouds are darkening the horizon, and threaten to burst in ruin and

devastation on all nations who have not heeded the warning ! There

are, however, few who have not heeded it, and the governments of all

nations have been for some time, and are still, reorganising their Armies

and bringing them to a high state of efficiency in accordance with the

experience taught them by the great wars of the last thirty years.


\ It is ^therefore (necessary for all who take an interest in military

matters, or in foreign politics, to become acquainted with the strength

and organisation of the armed forces of the different European Powers,

for it is only by a study of these Armies that we get to know the

relative value of our own. J


I^HE matter contained in the following pages has been corrected

up to date. The Corrigenda at the end of Germany, France,

Italy, and Russia, refer to the alterations that have taken place

during the progress of this work through the press.

A few words of the original text, such as " Landwehr " and " Ersatz,"

have been retained in the translation, although applied to other than

German countries. For their meaning, v. " The German Army,"

p. 21, etc. There are no corresponding English words.

November, 1890.

i j imi

Stuff Off'iocr Off'iaep of Rij^le BpigacLe. Off'iace of Ro^al Hopge Sptillep^.

(Iagvee Bpg&s).

Printed by 0. LBwmtokn, Fuertli Bavaria

d. II.

Published by William Clowes & Bom, L, London.



THE British Army

purely original system.
is constructed on a
It is like

ho other army in the world, and for this Colonial Forces 84,000
very good reason, that there is no empire Indian Native Army 152,000
in the world like the British Empire.
The Great Britain and Ireland alone do not altogether, 864,000 men at the outside^
Empire. constitute the Empire. India, Australia, This apparently large number, however,
Canada, the Cape, and shoals of other includes every single able-bodied man,
colonies in every quarter of the globe, all
British or Native, who has been trained

help, to build it up, and for its defence we to bear arms :{*the Regular Army forms

must have an Imperial Army constructed not quite a quarter of it.

Taken alto-

to fit it. Let us see what we have got. gether, this gives an average of about

The first thing that strikes us about the combatant to 350 non-combatants not
1 —
Army is that, although of a decent size, it a large proportion. Germany's proportion
is not by any means too large — in fact, is 1 to 99. This is a large proportion, it

some people say that it is nothing like is true, but then she is threatened by
large enough. That, however, is a question powerful enemies on her eastern and

which chiefly concerns the British taxpayer western frontiers, whereas We are
an island,

and his pocket, and with which we have and look to our Navy as 'the first line of

nothing to do at this moment, so we will defence. This being so, we can do with

ourselves to contemplating its a moderately small Army, and need not

(yet) have recourse to the system of all
actuaj size.

The Empire contains, roughly, over other European countries —namely, uni-

of square miles, and over versal conscription. /

{ It is absolutely necessary, however, that
326,000,000 of inhabitants. To defend
follow the principle which under-
these we have an Army which numbers we should
lies the military systems of all countries,
roughly as follows :

whether their armies are composed of

Strength Regular Forces .... 202,000 conscripts or not. This principle is that of
of Imperial
1st and 2nd Class Reserves . 57.°°° keeping a small number of troops under
Militia and Militia Reserve . 134,000 arms in peace-time, with a large reserve of

* This article has been entirely re-written by the Translator.

trained men ready to be called out in case ing, and this is hardly a matter for con-
of war. In our case, the small number gratulation. Up till now, the system has
under arms in peace-time is represented by sufficed : let us hope we shall never have
the Active Army, both British, Indian, and to change it.

Colonial,* and the large reserve by the 1st It is not generally known that there exists

and 2nd Class Army Reserves, the Militia, an Act* which has to be suspended annually
the Militia Reserve, the Yeomanry, and by Parliament (or else it would now be in
the Volunteers. force), by which the Crown is empowered
Before starting on the details of these to raise by ballot as many men as may be
different forces, it would be as well to give necessary for the Army. In other words,
the mode of enlistment and terms of the country is liable to conscription, as far
service of the British soldier, with a slight as may be determined by the Crown's
sketch of his history. advisers. This Act has, however, not been
Recruit- The system of recruitment throughout enforced since 1815. N.B. —This mode
the Army is that of voluntary enlist- of raising troops must not be confounded
ment. As mentioned above, we are the *o with the" Em-
only country in Europe whose soldiers are ^T\ Bgbodiment of
thus enlisted. The subjects of all other ||the Militia,"
European countries are liable to be enrolled of which more
jn the army whether they like it or not, hereafter.
and, as a rule, they do not like it. This Recruiting
I voluntary enlist- * The Militia
ment is a great Ballot Act.
advantage for us
in one way, . in

that only those

need be soldiers
who want to be ;

but, on the other

hand, the strength
• of our Army is

chiefly dependent
on the number of
men who happen
to fancy soldier-

* The Colonial
forces really form a
'class between the
two, but may be
taken here with the
Mounted Irz|anti?}?. Active Army. CaValpO.

(Tropical Fieia Kit,) (Tropical Fieia Kit.)


is carried out by paid recruiters (non-com-

missioned officers) in the different districts.

Formerly, the recruiting-sergeant used to

clinch the bargain with the would-be re-
ciuit by presenting him with a shilling, on
which the recruit usually got drunk. The
" Queen's Shilling " has, however, been
done away with, and the recruit has now
to get drunk at his own expe'nse.
After going through certain formalities
and answering certain questions before a
magistrate, the recruit signs his "attesta-
tion-paper," and is then considered as

( The terms of service are, as a rule, seven

years with the colours and five years there-
after in the Reserve. / Th ere are a few
exceptions to
this ; men join-
ing the House- Oj^ieei?, 5 t{) (j^opfjjamBerlancl) Fugiliei??!.

hold Cavalry,
Colonial Corps,* and one or two other
smaller branches of the Service, enlist

for twelve years with the colours ; men

for the Royal Engineers or Foot Guards
have the alternative of the usual term, or
three years with the colours and nine years
in the Reserve ;
whilst the Army Service
Corps and Medical Staff Corps men and
a few others serve for only three years
with the colours and a varying term of
years in the Reserve.
Recruits, at the date of their enlistment,
must have the physical equivalent of 19
years of age, must be at least 5 ft. 4 in.
high, and must have a minimum chest-

measurement of 33 inches, f
Re-engagements up to seven or twelve

* I.e., West India Regiment, Malta Artillery,

of Higl)lan3. laigljt Infant*^ an3.
Officer?;* t More than 40 per cent, of would-be recruits'

Rpg$\ ancl Sulgetflancl Higl)lancl.e:£% are annually rejected by the doctors.


years with the colours are permitted in " raising or keeping a standing army within
most, and up to twenty-one years in special, the kingdom in time of peace is against'
cases. law," but such is the fact. Parliament has
Sketch of At a very early period of English history every year to specially notify its consent

tory ofOur
ever y able-bodied man was bound to to a standing army ; otherwise the Army
Army, take up arms in the event of a civil would cease to exist.

war or invasion. He was, however, only Since Charles I I.'s time, the Standing
liable to serve in his own county. This Army has gradually been increasing and.-

force thus formed was called the General improving. Voluntary enlistment dates*
Levy. from his reign, but it apparently has not
During the Middle Ages the feudal system always been sufficiently productive of men^,
was in force, i.e., the retainers, tenants, and for we find in the last century that debtors:
vassals of every knight were required to and criminals were obliged to serve in the
attend their master if he went to fight ranks, in order to keep the Army up to'

abroad. The knights in their turn were strength. The pressgang was also in force
bound when he went to till 1780. It is hardly astonishing then
to attend the king
fight abroad, and thus a very respectable that some, nay, a. great many, ill-educatecL
army was formed for the time being. This people have been taught, by means of
army, i.e., the knights and their followers, traditions handed down from their great-
was Towards the grandfathers, to look upon the Army as a
called the Feudal Levy.
end of the sixteenth century, members sink of iniquity, and that they still hold
of the General Levy were told off for the extraordinary and utterly unreasonable
service and defence of the Crown. They views on the subject. They need be under
were trained and exercised in the profes- no apprehension about letting their sons

sion of arms, and received the name of and relations enlist. The Army is now
Trained Bands. The Honourable Artillery composed of a very good class of men,
Company, a similar force, was raised about drawn chiefly from the labouring and not
this time. The Sovereign could, if from the criminal classes (as some people
necessary, hire additional mercenary seem to imagine). CThe proportion of
soldiers to assist him in war, and these educated recruits is rapidly increasing, a
were paid by Parliament. The Civil better class of men is now enlisting, and
War, however, in Charles I.'s reign,, the military crime of to-day is absurdly
upset the general military system, and small as compared with that of twenty
forsome time there was no National years ago, and is still decreasing. )

Army. The Active Army is divided into

- On the Restoration, in 1660, consider-
1. The Regular Army
able changes and improvements took ;
2. The Native Indian Army and tion.
place. The Feudal Levy was abolished, ;

3. The Colonial Forces.

the General Levy became the Militia, and
the foundations were laid of the present 1. The Regular Army consists of Cavalry,
Standing Army.. Artillery, Engineers, and Infantry ;besides
( It may be news to some people that the these are the non-combatant branches,


consisting of the Army Service Corps, are never .quartered abroad, the Hussars

the Ordnance Store Corps, the Medical are light, and -all the rest are medium
Staff Corps, the Pay, Medical, Chaplains, Cavalry.
and Veterinary Departments, and a few TheLife Guards, Dragoon Guards (except
more. the 6th), Dragoons, and 16th Lancers wear
Cavalry. The Cavalry consists of 31 regiments, scarlet, the remainder of the Cavalry dark
-including blue, tunics.
The Life Guards and Blues are the only
2 Regiments of Life Guards (Household
regiments who wear cuirasses, and these
on they would probably leave behind -:

1 Regiment of Royal Horse Guards;

active service. They, the Dragoon Guards
(Blues) (Household Cavalry). <

and the Dragoons (except the 2nd Scots

7 Regiments of Dragoon Guards (1st
Greys, who wear bearskins), wear steel or
. to 7th).
brass helmets, with glumes varying in
3 Regiments^of
Dragoons (1st, 2nd, and
' colour according to the regiment. The
6th). •

Lancers wear the well-known Lancer cap,

5 Regiments of Lancers (5th, 9th, 12th,
with the scarlet * " plastron " in front
1 6th, and 17th).
of their tunics. ,The Hussars wear the
13 Regiments of Hussars (3rd, 4th, 7th,
busby, with busby-bag and plume of
8th, 10th, nth, 13th to 15th, and 18th
different colours according to the regiment ;
to 2 1 st inclusive);
and they have also six rows of yellow braid
The British Cavalry is the smartest in across the front, of the tunic. All the

the world. In the Cavalry of nearly all

Cavalry wear dark, blue pantaloons f or

foreign armies, Germany for instance, and overalls, with red, white, or yellow stripes,
France, the horses are trained to a degree and the Household Cavalry has in addition
that is unheard of in the English arm ; thus white leather breeches and jackboots for
their men require but little skill in riding, full dress* The Cavalry forage-cap is a

and may be described as good soldiers on small round one, and always worn over the
horseback. Ours, on the contrary, are born right ear..

horsemen, and do not need to have their Their arms are sword and carbine

horses so thoroughly trained. The con- throughout ; the Lancer regiments in

sequence isthat when our men find them- addition carry the lance of male bamboo,

selves in a predicament not provided for and with a red and white pennon. The
by the Regulations, their natural qualities Cavalry carbine is of the Martini-Henry

stand them in good stead, and by their pattern, with a bore of -450 in.; it is

and dash they turn to good sighted up to i,0oo

brilliant riding
yds., and is a first-rate

account a situation which might otherwise little weapon;

offer serious difficulties. The British
* Blue in the 16th. and white in the 17th
Cavalry is divided into Heavy, Medium, and
Light, according to the size and weight + Crimson in the nth Hussars and brick-
of the men. The Household Cavalry, red in the le've'e dress of the officers of the 10th
1st and 2nd Dragoons, are heavy, and Hussars.
—— -


The establishment of a Cavalry Squadron 1 major, 1 captain, 3 subalterns, 21
(2 troops) in the field is :
N. C. O.'s, and 160 men (of which 73 are
drivers), 193 horses, 6 guns, 6 ammunition
6 officers,
wagons, and 7 other wagons,
16 non-commissioned officers, and
122 rank and file, of whom 26 are dis-
AField Artillery Battery of much the
same, but with 9 men and 52 horses less.
mounted, and
The guns in use are at present of four
144 horses, including draught-horses. —
different patterns :

A Regiment (4 squadrons) is composed

I lieutenant-colonel,

3 majors,
6 captains,
16 subalterns, and 6 other officers, in-

cluding adjutant, quartermaster,

surgeon, paymaster, and 2 " vets."
75 N. C. O.'s,

666 rank and file, and

614 horses.

A Cavalry Brigade numbers 3 regiments,

and details altogether 114 officers, 2,280
men, and 2,200 horses.
A Cavalry Division numbers 2 brigades
(6 regiments), 2 batteries Horse Artillery,
1 battalion Mounted Infantry, and details

altogether 325 officers, 6,600 men, and 6,500

tillery. The Artillery forms one "Royal Regi-
ment,"" consisting of :

20 Batteries of Royal Horse Artillery,

80 „ „ Field Artillery,
10 Mountain Batteries, and
96 Garrison Batteries,

with several dep6ts and 3 dep6t batteries

for their maintenance and supply. The
Horse and Field Batteries are formed into

groups of 2 or 3 batteries, chiefly for

tactical reasons, called Brigade Divisions,

each under a Heutenant-colonel.

A Horse Artillery Battery consists of


guns o f| of a spike. They are armed with Martini-
which are] Henry carbines, and either swcrd or sword-
drawn by] bayonet, according to their branch of the
elephants,' arm. The forage-cap is a small, round,
and the] brimless one, with a band of orange braid.
wagons by- The corps of Royal Engineers is divided Enginee
bullocks. into a number of battalions, dep6ts,
The Gar- and other units, which are given below
rison Artil- as far as possible. As will be seen, their
1 e r y is duties, and especially those of the officers,

grouped in; are extremely various.

3 divisions The officers are employed sometimes
the Eastern; with their men and sometimes apart from
(29 batter them. A large number of R. E. officers

ies), South (between 350 and 400) serve in India, in

ern (42), and connection with Native Engineer troops ;

Western! employed either at home or in

others are
(2 S ). Al a colony on staff work, public works,
though Sergeant - Dpummep,
these divi-
(£olcUtr>e:am Gruapcb!.
sions are by
way of corresponding with the different
points of the compass in Great Britain,
the batteries composing them are scattered
in every quarter of the globe, and the
Militia Brigades attached are not neces-
sarily Eastern, Southern, and Western ones.
The Mountain Artillery is armed with
2^-inch 7-pounder jointed guns, each gun
and gun-carriage being carried in pieces on

5 mules. One battery is in England (New-

port), one in South Africa, and the rest in

The Royal Malta Artillery is for the

defence of that island, and is composed of

Maltese officers and men.
Men of the Horse Artillery are dressed
in dark-blue Hussar-like jackets, and
busbies with a white plume and scarlet,

busby-bag ; the remainder of the Artillery

in dark-blue tunics with red facings, and
black felt helmets with a brass ball instead Ofj\azr?, 6tj) Dpagoon dmapcU (CapBlneepg),


-Military Schools, the Ordnance Survey, A proportion of the company, from one-
military telegraphy and railways, Engineer fifth to one-third, is mounted. •

Militia and Volunteers, and a host of other These companies, as their name implies,

.duties too numerous to mention. In. fact, are employed in digging, sapping, making
the Engineers form the Scientific Corps of field-works, and blowing up places, on active
the Army. The officers are trained in the service.
R. M. Academy at Woolwich, and the rank (c.) A Telegraph Battalion of 2. divisions
and file are nearly all well-educated men, (in war, of 4 sections), the whole consisting
-skilled mechanics and trained workmen of 6
. officers, 15 N. C. O.'s, 224 men, 171
forming the bulk of them. That their horses, and 22 vehicles. Their duties
work does not interfere with their worth as consist in laying lines of field telegraphs,
soldiers has been shown on many a and making themselves generally useful in

and individual instances of their gallantry their branch of science wherever they may
are numerous. happen to be.
Formerly the Corps was composed of a (d.) A Submarine Mining Battalion,
large number (about 40) of independent consisting of one dep6t and II service
companies, split up and quartered through- companies (the old Nos. 4, 21, 22, 27, 28,
out the Empire. Now tbey have been 30, 33, 34, 35, 39, and 40), numbering about
collated together and formed into different 760 of all ranks. Thejr strength varies
battalions and other units, according to according to the locality in which they are
their work. employed.
The Corps is now composed as (e.) A Coast Battalion of 3 divisions,
follows :
altogether about 240 of all ranks, em-
(a.) A Bridging Battalion, consisting ployed in defensive works on the sea-
of 2 pontoon troops, each troop num- coast.
bering S officers, and 183
28 N. C.(f.) 4 Survey Companies (Nos. 13, 14,16,

men, with 2o pontoon- and 8 other wagons, and 19), 330 men in all, engaged in the
and 190 horses. Each troop carries Ordnance and other official Surveys.
the material for i2o yards of pontoon- (g.) 17 Fortress Companies, of varying
bridge. strengths (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 15, 18, 20,
(b.) 2 Field Battalions, each of 4 24, 25, 29, 31, 32, 36, 41, and 42), which
companies. The companies however still are employed in the repair and keeping
preserve their independence
a great up of fortresses. In war-time they would

extent, being quartered in widely divergent design arid execute siege-batteries, par-
localities, according to requirements.
allels, and all work connected with either

The former the attack or defence of fortresses.

1st Battalion consists of the In
Nos. 7, 11, 17, and 23 independent peace-time they number altogether about
companies, and the 2nd of Nos. 1 2, 26, 37, 1600 men.
and 38. (h.) 8 Dep6t Companies, which are
A Field Company consists of 7 officers, employed in the training and drilling of
26 N. C. O.'s, 184 sappers, etc., 70 horses, recruits, work relating
and in to the Corps.
and 13 vehicles. They number 820 men.
— : •


(i.) 2 Railway Companies (Nos. 8 and than enough of them in the Crimea." And
io), which number 140 men together, and Moltke said of the late Nile Expedition in

would be employed in the laying and ,1885 : " No one but English soldiers 'could
repairing of railway lines on service. have .done what they did."
(k.) A Supernumerary Staff of nearly Such remarks speak for themselves.
400 men, which is employed in a great The Brigade of Guards consists of three
variety of duties too numerous to regiments —
The Grenadier Guajds, of. which there
420 more men are' distributed in different
.are 3 battalions.
parts of the world and in military schools
The Coldstream Guards, of which there
of different sorts.
are 2 battalions.
The grand total of Royal Engineers in
The Scots Guards, of which there, are 2
-peace-time is therefore about 7,300 men.
Officers and men are dressed, armed, and
equipped verysimilarly to the Infantry of These three regiments form the Sove-
"theLine (q. v.). They may, however, be reign'sBody-Guard, and do not usually
readily by the broad red serve out of Europe. The late campaigns
•stripe and by the Royal in Egypt, however (1882 and 1885), and the
on their trousers,
Arms in front of the helmet. The forage- prospective campaign in Canada in 1864,
caps of the rank-and-file are small round in all of which two or more battalions of
ones with a broad yellow band and no Guards took part, go to prove that every
-brim, worn on the top of the head. Officers rule has its exceptions.

wear a black and gold pOuch belt instead At home, usually five battalions are
"of a sash. The facings are of dark-blue quartered in London, and the other two in
velvet, with yellow edging. Windsor and Dublin respectively.
Infantry. The British Infantry is composed of The uniform of the Guards differs from
that of the Infantry of the Line chiefly in
The Brigade of Guards (3 regiments).
the shape of the facings and in the head-
69 Regiments of Infantry of, the Line.
gear, the latter being the well-known
1 West India Regiment.
bearskin, with white or red plumes for

Napoleon the Great said of the British Grenadiers or Coldstream respectively.

Infantry: "It is the best infantry in the The forage-cap is round, with bands of
world ; luckily, there is not much of it." red, white, and dice for the three regiments

It has certainly not deteriorated since his respectively. The armament and equip-

day but, unfortunately,

; it is not much ment is precisely that of the Infantry of

more numerous now than it was then. the Line.

Two years ago a distinguished Russian Of the 69 Regiments of the Line, one

general said to an English Guardsman (Cameron Highlanders) consists of 1

" Are your men as fine a lot as they were battalion ; two' (60th King's Royal Rifle

in '54?" and on receiving an answer in the Corps and Rifle Brigade) of 4 battalions ;

affirmative, said : "I am sorry for it, if we and the remainder of 2 battalions each.

ever have to fight you again. I had more Total 141 battalions.

The regiments are now .called after their officers wear round forage-caps, trailing

"Territorial Districts," which are the swords, and a few other Cavalry-like
districts whence their recruits are drawn, details ; and the late head-gear used to be
and in which their dep6t is situated. Up a Hussar-like black busby. The helmet
to 1881, the Infantry of the Line consisted of all Rifle regiments is at present black,
of 109 regiments, mostly of I battalion but it will shortly be exchanged for a black-
each, and numbered up to 109. In that Astrakhan fatigue-cap, with plume for full

year, however, the system was changed, dress.

and a regiment is now known by the The five Highland regiments are the
county or part of the. country it recruits in, Black Watch (Royal Highlanders), the
with occasionally the addition of a few Seaforth, the Gordon, the Cameron, and
other titles, such as "Borderers," "King's the Argyll-and-Sutherland Highlanders.
Own," " Loyal," etc., etc. They wear the feather-bonnet and well-
Of the 69 regiments we have-^- —
known Highland dress plaid, kilt, hose,
white gaiters, and shoes. The tartan,
9 Regiments of Fusiliers.
sporran, hose, and a few other details differ
4 „ „ Rifles.
in the various regiments.
5 „ „ Highlanders.
Light Infantry. The remainder of the Infantry, whether
7 „ „
Light Infantry or not, wear* black felt
44 „ „ Infantry (pure and
helmets with brass spike and fixings, the
scarlet tunic aforesaid, and blue-black
The Infantry, with the exception of the
trousers. Their forage-cap is the "Glen-
four Rifle regiments, is, of course, clothed garry,"
in scarlet tunics, with facings of dark blue, The West India Regiment consists of
white, yellow, or green, according as two battalions of negroes, officered by
whether the regiment is a " Royal," Englishmen. The battalions are quartered,
English, Scottish, or Irish one.
turn and turn about, in the West Indies
The head-dress of the Fusiliers is a
and in our possessions on the West Coast
busby of rough sealskin, shaped similarly of Africa. The men are dressed
in white
to the Guards' bearskin, but much smaller.
jackets, with a red vest over them, loose
The (5th) Northumberland Fusiliers wear blue Zouave knickerbockers,
and yellow
a red and white plume, the remainder gaiters. The head-dress
is a turban.
The Infantry, whose weapon for the last
The regiments are clothed in a
seventeen years has been the Martini-Henry
very dark green, almost black, uniform.
rifle, will very shortly be all armed with the
The Rifle Brigade facings are black, those new magazine rifle,
which has already been
of the 60th K. R. R. red, and those of the
other two,- Scottish and Irish Rifles, dark to England after Waterloo, and their uniform
and light green respectively. The first two was so greatly admired that the 60th and 95th,
mentioned are historically connected with who were in process of being changed from
Hussar regiments,* and consequently the Light Infantry to Rifle regiments, adapted
their Hussar uniform to the Infantry pattern.
* The Black Brunswick Hussars came over * With one or two exceptions.

issued to a considerable number. The new rifle cartridges, however, and new
action is on the breech-loading bolt pouches, it is expected that each man will

system ; by it cartridges may be fired be able to carry 1 50 rounds.

either singly or by means of composed of
the magazine, A battalion of Infantry is

which is a black tin box, holding eight 8 companies, each company numbering 3
cartridges, and suspended immediately in officers, 10 N. C. O.'s, and III men on a
front of the trigger-guard. The bore is field establishment. In peace-time, the
extremely -small, being only •
303 inches. company rarely numbers above 90 men all

The bullet is coated -with a hard metal told, except in India. The battalion
composition, for if it were of lead, it would consists therefore of—
" strip " in the grooves of the barrel, and
30 officers (1 lieut.-colonel, 4 majors, 5
by degrees choke it up. The powder is
captains, 1 6 subalterns, etc., etc.),
as yet not definitely fixed on, though
91 N.C.O.'s,
numerous varieties have been tried with
975 men,
great success. It shoots point blank up to
70 horses,
300 yards, and is sighted on the back sight
16 carts.
up to 2,000 yards. By a hanging foresight
arrangement, it These horses and carts belong for the
can be sighted up to 3,500

yards nearly two miles The cartridges most part to the Regimental Transport,

are so small and light that more than twice which has been issued to each battalion
the amount of ammunition can now be forming part of the 1st Army Corps (of
carried than was possible in the case of which more hereafter).
the late weapon. An Infantry Brigade consists of four

The new bayonet is a much shorter battalions and details, and numbers in

implement than the late one, looking more war-time 130 officers, 4,350 men, and 530
like a large knife than a bayonet. The horses.

name of the new rifle is the Burton-Lee. An Infantry Division consists of 2

The equipment consists of a valise and brigades, 3 batteries Field Artillery, I
canteen, suspended by leather braces to squ&dron of Cavalry and details total, —
the belt, a havresack, wooden water-bottle, 327 officers, 10,060 men, and 2000 horses.

and bayonet-frog. Inside the valise is carried An Army Corps is to consist of 3

the great-coat (under the valise flap), and Divisions of Infantry, 3 Horse Artillery,

such articles as are necessary for the time and 2' Field Artillery batteries, Royal

being, such as"' boots, shirt, socks, hold- Engineers, Cavalry squadron and details

—total, 1,158 officers, 35,000 men, and

all, etc.

A new equipment, slightly different from 10,000 horses.

the above, is now being issued. The Medical Staff Corps consists of 17 Medical
/— Stall
Twopouches are attached to the belt Divisions, distributed throughout corps.

in front, holding twenty rounds Martini- Britain and Ireland,

and numbering alto-
medical "officers and
Henry ammunition each. Thirty more gether about 400.
rounds are carried in the valise and havre- 2,000 N. C. O.'s and men. The

sack, making seventy in all. With the and training-school is at Aldershot, and '

the Army Medical School at Netley. This changing from station to station in accord-
: Corps does not include the Indian Medical ance with different rosters and requirements.
Staff Corps. . The whole of the Regular Forces, with Foreign
Army The Army Service Corps
r corresponds to the exception of the five Heavy Cavalry
Service ,
Corps. the former Commissariat and Transport and Brigade of Guards, take
Corps, and deals with the issue of rations their turn at foreign service in India and
and general is divided the Colonies. .As a rule," one battalion

transport, duty. It
into 37 companies, distributed throughout of each regiment of the Line is abroad
.Great Britain, and Ireland,' and numbering for sixteen years, arid is " fed " with men
230 officers, 3,363 N. C .O.'s and men, and from the other battalion at home. This
1,300. horses ,and mules.. system, by which all the best and soundest
Chaplains' The Chaplains' Department consists of men of a regiment are sent abroad, can
Depart- ,

ment. about 80 chaplains, divided into' four hardly be called a good one, but it is difficult

classes. There are four official denomi- to suggest another. For foreign service it is

nations allowed, Church of England, no use having the youngest and unmatured
Roman Catholic, Presbyterians, and, soldiers —they would probably only fall

Wesleyans. Men belonging to any sick in a hot climate. . It is, therefore,

other of the numerous sects of religion necessary to keep and train the men till

prevalent in England are officially entered they know their duty thoroughly, and theo
as " Church of England." send them out as full-grown men. It is

The organisation of the remaining for this reason that complaints are so
departments, i.e., Ordnance Store, Vete- often seen in the newspapers that certain
rinary, and Pay, is uninteresting, and need regiments are apparently composed of
not be detailed here. " beardless boys." This may be so with the
Military Of the Regular Forces, 21 regiments of home battalion, but if the complaint-makers
Districts. _, , , . . . .,.
Cavalry, 91 batteries of Artillery, most were to journey to the Colonies and see
of the Engineers, and 73 battalions of the other battalion, they would soon alter
Infantry are quartered in Great Britain their opinion.
and Ireland. Great Britain is divided It sometimes occurs that both battalions
into ir, Ireland into 3, and the Channel are abroad together, in which case the
Islands into 2, Districts, each under the com- depdt of the regiment is largely increased;

mand of a major-general. These districts in order to feed the two.

are sub-divided into Regimental Districts, Cavalry regiments stay abroad from
each of these latter comprising the recruiting twelve to fifteen years, and are fed by their
ground, depdt, and Volunteer battalions of depdt.
a Territorial (i.e., Line Infantry) Regiment This foreign service is one of the main
of two Regular and two or more Militia impediments in the way of recruiting by.
. . battalions. The Artillery and Engineers, conscription.
both Regular, Militia, and Volunteer, are Of the Regular Forces abroad, 9 Cavalry
also apportioned to each district. The* regiments, 88 batteries of Artillery, 3 com-
Regular Corps of all arms rarely remain panies R. E., and 53 battalions of Infantry
more than two years in the same quarters, are in India; and I, Cavalry regiment, 27

— '


batteries Artillery, 13 companies R. E., and The English officers are drawn from the
20 battalions of Infantry are in the Colonies. three Staff Corps of those Presidencies,
Marines. The Royal Marines, although not coming which they have entered after serving forat
strictly under the head of the Army, are Least one year with their English regiments.
yet soldiers in the widest sense of the word,
The Army of Bengal numbers
for they have been engaged by land and
sea in every single campaign since their 19 Regiments of Bengal
. Cavalry, in-

formation in 1755. They consist of two cluding 7 Lancer regiments.

divisions, i.e. Artillery (16 companies) and 4 Regiments Punjab Cavalry.

Light Infantry (48 companies), in all nearly Central India Horse.

14,000 men. They enlist for twelve -years' 2 Bengal Mountain Batteries.
service, and may re-engage for nine years 5 Punjab Mountain Batteries.

more. In garrison they perform the sarhe Corps of Bengal Sappers.

duties as the Regular army, and on board , Corps of Guides,. Cavalry (6 troops), and,
Infantry (8 companies).
ship wdrk of a military character,- such as
guard mbunting, working big guns, forming 45 Regiments Bengal Infantry.
5 Regiments Goorkha Light Infantry.
part of armed force on boat service, qr. fight-

ing on shore under all sorts of conditions 4 Regiments Sikh Infantry,

The development 6 Regiments Punjab Infantry.
and in all climates. latest

of the Marine is not a Horse-, but a Camel- Hyderabad Contingent, 4 batteries F.,
Artillery, 4 regiments Cavalry, and 6
Marine, a force of Marines having served
regiments. Infantry.
up the Nile with the Camel Corps.
Several Irregular Corps, and a Medicals
The 'Marines have done well wherever
Department, chiefly Englishmen.
they have been, and still form, chiefly no
doubt owing to' their long service, some of The Army of Madras numbers
our steadiest troops on service.
4 Regiments Cavalry, 2 of which are
Their uniform and equipment is very
Lancer regiments.
similar to those of the corresponding
Corps of Madras Sappers.
branches of the Regular Army. A Marine
33 Regiments Madras Infantry, and a.
may always be told from a Linesman by
Madras Medical Department, etc.
the badge on his helmet and shoulder-
straps —a globe with the thoroughly ap- The Army of Bombay numbers —
posite motto of " Per Mare, per Terram."
7 Regiments Cavalry, 2 of which are
Lancer regiments.
Native The Native Indian Army is composed 2 'Mountain Batteries.
Army. of Native Cavalry, Artillery, Engineers,
Corps of Bombay Sappers.
Infantry, Medical Corps, etc., etc., partly
30 Regiments Bombay Infantry, and a
officered by Englishmen, and numbering Bombay Medical Department, etc.
altogether about 152,000 men, including
1 3,000 Volunteers. Natives enlist for any period of service,
It is divided into the Armies of the from three years to thirty.. Most of the
E,e/igal,. Madras, and Bombay Presidencies. troops enlist for nine or fifteen years. They.


must be physically fit and physically Empire for its own protection. With
equivalent to a full-grown man. They are the exception of a few of the smaller
for the most part very keen soldiers, islands in the West Indies and Pacific, it

especially those that come from the North- may be said that every one of our

West Provinces and Punjab. In many Colonies has trained a certain number
regiments the men have to find everything of men for home defence.
except firearms —even horses, accoutre- The system of enlistment and service

ments, and food, on their pay of about varies in almost every colony, according to
eighteenpence a day ; and yet in some requirements. In very few of them are
hundred there permanent forces under arms. They
popular regiments there are several
candidates waiting for admission. mostly correspond to our Militia, and are
The Infantry is armed and equipped called out for an annual training only..
similarly to the British Infantry. Their The native forces of Canada are
rifle is of "the Snider pattern, and is
Cavalry, 4 regiments of Dragoons.
being exchanged for the Martini-Henry
5 „ of Hussars.
rifle. The uniforms of the Indian Army
4 Independent troops.
are very variegated, ranging from scarlet to
Artillery, 19 batteries Field Artillery.
yellow, and drab to green. The usual
5 Brigades and 13 batteries
head-dress is the turban, but the other
Garrison Artillery.
details of costume vary too much for
4- battery Mountain Artillery.
description. The English officers wear in
Engineers, 2 companies.
some regiments the native uniform, in
Infantry, 74 battalions of Infantry.
others an English one.
21 „ of Rifles.
A Native Cavalry regiment consists of
Independent companies.
4 squadrons of 2 troops each, with an

Medical Staff Corps.

establishment of 10 English officers, Native
Total. strength 38,500.
officers, N. C. O.'s, and about 540
privates. Of the above troops, a very small number
A Native Infantry Regiment consists of are permanent troops; the remainder
I battalion of 8 companies, with an consist of Militia, called out for about
establishment of 9 English officers, Native twelve days' training in the year. There
officers, N. C. O.'s, and about 820 is universal liability to service in the Militia
privates. Each Infantry regiment is linked Reserve for all men between 18 and 60, so
with two others, one of them supplying the that in case of war the armed levy of the
other two with men, etc., in time of war. country would amount to over 600,000
The establishment of the Mountain men ! Not
more than 45,000 of these
Batteries varies according to locality. however are regularly trained. The country
A Native Reserve is being formed, but is divided into twelve Military Districts,
is not yet completely organised. and these again into Brigade and Regi-
mental Divisions.
Colonial The Colonial Forces consist of those Besides this force, there is a Royal
raised by each Colony of the British Military College, and Royal Schools of


Instruction for Infantry, Cavalry, and classes, numbering altogether over 4,500
Artillery. men.
Cape Colony has a force of about 4,500 1st Class
—"Permanent Defence" — 135
men, consisting of Corps of men.
2nd Class — Defence —2,600 men.
" "

Class — "Volunteers" — about 1,800

Cape Mounted Riflemen (practically a
Police Force),
men ; besides 4 Lines of Reserves in
Volunteer Artillery,
case of national danger, composed of
„ Engineers,
every male between 18 and 60.
Mounted Infantry,
South Australia has 2 troops of Lancers,
„ Infantry, and a
I Field and 2 Garrison Batteries, 2 bat-
„ Corps of Cadets.
talions Rifles, and numerous Mounted Rifle

Ceylon possesses a force of about 900 Corps, numbering altogether 2,700 men,
Volunteer Light Infantry. including Volunteers.
Hong Kong possesses a force of Volun- Victoria has a force of several Cavalry
and Military Police (370).
teer Artillery and Artillery Corps, 4 battalions Rifles,
Jamaica possesses a force of Volunteer Mounted Infantry, and numerous Rifle
Militia, Mounted Rifles, and Garrison Volunteer Corps, besides a Reserve. Total
Artillery (1,300). 8,300 men.
Natal possesses a paid Volunteer Ca- Tasmania has a small force of Artillery
valry, Field Artillery, and Rifles, 1,500 and 2 regiments of Rifles, total 930 of all
altogether. ranks.
Singapore possesses a paid Volunteer Western Australia has a small force of
Artillery. and Military Police (1,000). Volunteer, Infantry, and Artillery —640
New Zealand possesses a Corps of paid altogether.

Light Horse Volunteers, 13 batteries Trinidad and other islands in the West
Volunteer Artillery, Engineer Corps, Force Indies have raised small forces for

of Militia Infantry, and 7 or more Rifle their defence, about 1,000 altogether.

battalions. A total of 7,400 men. Total Colonial Forces, about 84,100 men.
New South Wales has a force of 6,350
men, consisting of— Let us now turn to the Reserve Forces at ;

home, composed of the two classes of Army

b Artillery) ,
} 940
of all ranks. Reserves, Militia, Militia Reserve, Yeomanry,
Volunteer „ )
and Volunteers. We will not take into
Engineers, 200 of all ranks.
account either the Native Indian Reserves,
Mounted Infantry 160 of all ranks.
as they are not yet fully formed, or the
4 Regiments Infantry, 2,100 of all ranks.
Colonial Militia or Reserves, as they are
Reserve Force of Cavalry, Artillery, and inextricably mixed up with the Colonial
Infantry, 2,700 of all ranks besides a Forces already described.

Naval Brigade and Naval Artillery The 1st Class Army Reserve, created in Army
Volunteers numbering nearly 500 men. 1877, consists of men who have served

Queensland has a Defence Force of three their three, seven, or eight years with


the Colours, and who then pass to this The Militia comprises Artillery, En-
Reserve to complete their service to twelve gineers, and Infantry.
years. They are liable to .service at home The Artillery consists of 34 brigades of
and abroad when called out this would Garrison Artillery, attached to the regular

happen only in case of war or national Garrison Artillery Divisions as follows :-—
danger. The men would then either join to the Eastern, 21 to the Southern, and 9 to
their own regiments or be formed into the Western Division. The Engineer
separate corps, or, with their consent, be Militia numbers 7 companies.
attached to a regiment or corps other than The Infantry consists of 1 3 1 battalions,
their old one. This class numbers over attached to the different regiments of
54,000 men. Infantry of the Line as their 3rd and 4th or
The 2nd Class Army Reserve, in which other battalions, and belonging to the same
there are not quite 3,000. men, is composed regimental districts. Some regiments have
of those men who have served twelve years only one Militia battalion attached, others
with the Colours' and then choose to enter as many" as five.

this Reserve, and of, a few other special The Militia is clothed, equipped, and
classes of men. They do not serve out of armed identically with the Regular Army,
Great Britain. Both classes are liable to the only distinction being that a Militia

be called out an annual training, but private wears the number -of his battalion,

have never yet been so called" out. and a Militia officer the letter in M
The Militia consists of men voluntarily- addition on his shoulder-straps.
enlisted for six years, with power to re- The Channel Islands have 4 regiments,
engage for periods "of four years up. .to of Artillery, and 6 of Infantry Militia.

forty-five years of age.The; recruits are Malta has 1 regiment of the latter.
trained for six months or less at.the dep6t The Militia numbers altogether 103,500
of the regimental district, and have subse- men.
quently to undergo only twenty-eight days'* The Militia Reserve consists' of men Militia
training a year with their corps when called enlisted from the Militia for six years Eeserve -

out. During these, twenty-eight days the or for the remainder of their Militia-
men receive regular pay, with a " bounty engagements. These are. liable to an
of ioj. or upward'at the end of the training. annual training, or to embodiment in

They are then dismissed till next year. case of national danger. The body
, In cases of national emergency, the was created in 1867 as a temporary
Militia may be called out, Le. ''
embodied," expedient for an Army Reserve, the
for active service. This has occurred four Austro-Prussiah war of 1866 having
times already in this century ; during the caused . extreme uneasiness to our
Crimean War, for instance, ten battalions authorities ; for they discovered then that
of Militia were garrisoning our possessions we had absolutely no reserves whatever,
in the Mediterranean, and no fewer than in case we went to war. The inducement to
•3 2,000 entered the Regulars and fought join is a pecuniary one, i.e. £ 1 bounty, paid
before Sevastopol., . . in advance, for. every year's service in the*-

* Though liable to fifty-six days. Militia. It numbers altogether.30,160 men.


Fidel Offiece, Ro^al Buck?. YeomanP}?.

Private, Iaon&on Rifle Brigade.

Sergeant, konclon Seottial)

Ppivate, <j p 3- £«>n3.«n R. V.
(i6tg Miaaiese* R. V.).

Printed by O. LVwetuohn, Fuerth Bavaria

md. III.

Majop, ife Kent Bvtfflerg E. D.

Ppivate (fall Mapef)ing Op3.e;p)'ana Offiatr?,
Ro^al Hptillepy,.
x P t;?b (aoig Miaaiw* r. v.).



v,.... ^.->m '%

Company Ppivate, Iaonloa Ipi^

Infantry ani Tpoopep, Hon. Hptilkpj?
(i6t§ M;aaie*e* r, v.)

Publiahed by William Clowes & Son*, Lf London.



Yeomanry. The Yeomanry is composed of 39 originally intended to be self-supporting,

county regiments of Cavalry, and forms finding themselves in everything except
a species of Cavalry Militia or Volunteers. arms. Now, however, the Government,
They are called out annually for only one having awoke to their importance as a
week's training. They are liable to be great national reserve for home defence,
called out, in addition, for service in any gives a Capitation Grant of 35J. a year to
part of Great Britain in case of threatened the different Corps for every efficient

invasion, or to suppress a riot. They Volunteer on their lists, and £2 10s. more
receive allowances and pay during their for every officer and sergeant who obtains
training, an allowance for clothing, and a certificate of proficiency.

their arms, from the Government but have ; Volunteers are liable to be called out for
to find their own horses. There is no active military service in Great Britain, in
Yeomanry in Ireland. case of a threatened invasion.
The Yeomanry numbered, in 1889, It is, however, a fact that, if they chose,

10,739 men - the Volunteers might, on the eve of the

Volnn- The Volunteers consist of a large num- invasion, all disappear within fourteen days
ber of Corps, both Artillery, Engineers, by simply giving notice of their wish to retire
Infantry, and Medical Staff Corps, with 2 A
little legislation on this point might not

Corps of Light Horse and 1 of Mounted be out of place, though of course such a
Rifles. The Honourable Artillery Company catastrophe is not to be dreamt of.

(composed of I battery Field Artillery, 6 Volunteers are exempt from service in

troops Light Cavalry, and 8 companies the Militia, and cannot be employed as a
Infantry), although not strictly Volunteers, military body in aid of the Civil Power.
may be considered as coming under this They receive no pay, and have to attend
head. a certain number of drills of different sorts
The Artillery Volunteers are divided into every year, otherwise they are not con-
9 Divisions according to their locality, sidered efficient.
forming 62 Corps. The Volunteers are not yet thoroughly
The Engineer Volunteers form 16 Corps equipped for service, but strenuous efforts
of Engineers, 9 Divisions Submarine Miners, are being made in this direction by private
and Railway Staff-Corps.
I and public enterprise.

The Infantry comprises no less than 211 Their uniforms vary greatly in colour,
battalions, distributed throughout Great from green or scarlet to drab or grey, and
Britain, and attached to the different in appearance. It is, however, expected
regular regimental districts. 31 Infantry that all Corps will in time present a similar
Volunteer Brigades have now been formed, appearance to the Regular Forces, with the
each consisting of five or more battalions, main distinction of silver or white-metal
and each commanded by a colonel of embroidery and buttons instead of the gold
Auxiliary Forces. or brass of the Regulars.

The number of Volunteers is unlimited, The rifle of the Volunteers is either the

and has gone on steadily increasing, since Martini-Henry or the Snider.

their formation in 1859. The Corps were The organisation of the Volunteer Corps
— " •


is identical with that of the corresponding officer- is attached for two months each .

Regular Forces. to the two branches of the service other

' . There were on the 1st January, 1890, than that which he belongs to, and then
216,999 efficient Volunteers, besides 7,022 rejoins his own regiment ; he is then

non-efficients — total 224,021. entitled to put p.s.c. after his name in the

Entrance The mode of entrance of officers to Army List.

jf Officers
the Regular Army is as follows :
—The (b.) School of Gunnery at Shoebury-
candidate, if wishing to enter the Cavalry ness, where experiments are carried out
or Infantry has two routes open to him. and new inventions in gunnery tried, etc.,

He may either pass a competitive "pre- etc.

liminary" and "further" examination for (c.) Artillery College at Woolwich. —

the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Instiuction, etc.,. in the higher branches of

remain there one year, and then enter his gunnery.

regiment direct (if successful in passing the (d.) School of Military Engineering at

" final "examination), or else' he may be Chatham, where officers and N. C. O.'s of
appointed as 2nd lieutenant to a Militia different Corps are put through a course,
battalion, undergo two annual trainings, and experiments in engineering tried, etc., etc.
then pass an examination equivalent to the (e.) School of Musketry at Hythe, for
Sandhurst "final." Formerly this latter instruction of officers and N. C. O.'s in the

mode of. entrance, i.e. through the Militia, use of, and in details and experiments
was considered much the easiest, but now concerning, small arms.
there is not much to choose between the (f.) Schools of Gymnasium and Signal-
two. ling at Aldershot, the Army Medical
A candidate for the Artillery or Engineers School at Netley, the Veterinary School at
has to pass two examinations in the Aldershot,and the School of Music at
R. M. Academy, Woolwich, and then Hounslow, whose titles sufficiently explain
spend two years there. The order of their raison cFitre.

merit in which the cadets pass the " final A glance at the latest accessories to the
determines which branch they are to join. Army in the shape of Mounted Infantry,
As a rule, those passing out high up Machine-guns, and Cyclists, may not be
join the Engineers, and the others the out of place here.
Artillery. The authorities consider that a force
Other Military establishments are :
of Mounted Infantry (i.e., Infantry with

Military a
( -)
The Staff College near Sandhurst, rifles on horseback) will be of the greatest
which an officer may enter by means of use to the Army in case of war. Accord-
a competitive examination, after he has ingly, a force is being trained, little by
served five years at least with his regiment. which would be available to act as

Here he remains for two years, and is such on active service.

instructed in the various acquirements For the past two or three years 2 com-
necessary for a good Staff officer, and in panies at Aldershot, formed of volunteers
the higher branches of his profession. from the different Infantry battalions
Having passed the final examination, the quartered there, and 1 company at the

Curragh, consisting of 1 50 men each, have Finally, mention must be made of the Army
been trained during the winter months to act recent apportioning of the British Regular
as Mounted Infantry. On the conclusion of Army into Army Corps. Serious diffi-

the course, the men are sent back to their culties have arisen in organising this

regiments, and a fresh lot come on the follow- matter, for, since regiments are always
ing winter. These companies are intended on the move from point to point at home,
to be formed into battalions when required. or between home, India, and the Colonies, it
The duty of this force on service will be. to is a very difficult task indeed to arrange so
act as Infantry, but with a rapidity of that even one Army Corps should be ready
transport from one place to another un- to take the field at the shortest possible
attainable by ordinary Infantry. Thus notice. It has, however, been done, and
they may be pushed forward to attack a the 1st Army Corps is an accomplished
village, to hold a defensive position till fact. The 2nd is on the high road to
supported by other Infantry, to assist the completion, though as yet it is badly off for
Cavalry, or to perform a hundred other horses.
duties of Infantry far in front of the real The above gives a tolerably fair idea of
Infantry. the strength and constitution of the Army
It is proposed that every battalion of In- of the British Empire. The Navy, it is

fantry and regiment of Cavalry should in true, is still our first line of defence, as it

future wars have a Machine-gun Detach- has been for hundreds of years ;
ment of 2 machine-guns, worked by I officer although the best in the world, it is not yet
and 12 men, attached to it. A large number large enough for our needs. Our Regular
of men have been trained in this work, but Army has also been shown to be barely
there are at this moment but few complete large enough. It is, therefore, doubly
detachments in existence. necessary to keep the Army at a high
Corps of Cyclists, chiefly Volunteer, have pitch of efficiency, and fully supplied with
also lately been started, but it seems very everything needful, in order that if we ever
questionable whether they would ever be come into collision with one of the colossal

of any use in a hostile country except to European powers detailed in the following

carry messages to and fro along good roads. pages, we shall not be found wanting.

The TT was in the autumn of 1870, during to a successful conclusion, and on the 18th

Empire. -* the Franco-German War, that the January, 1871, William of Prussia was
preliminary arrangements were made for declared Emperor of Germany with the
the forthcoming consolidation of the Ger- title of William I. At the same time
man Empire. Up the forces of the
to that time, Ger- different States
many consisted of a were combined, and
multitude of States, the present Ger-
each with its own man Army is the
Government and its result.

own Army. The In peace and

interests of these war this United
States, ranging as Army is under the
they did from command of the
kingdoms down to Emperor, and each
small principalities, man is bound by
were extremely oath to render him
conflicting, and faithful and loyal
internal hostility service.
was frequently the Several of the
result. The one States, whilst keep-
great aim of King ing their own
William of Prussia troops, have, by
was to see them means of special
all united into one military conven-
Empire, and de- tions, attached
fended by one themselves and
Army.. Aided by their forces still

the genius of Bis- closer to the chief Pptiggian drapcle: 3.U

Ppujsjsian Husjsap of marck, the negotia- military power of Coppst, Coupi |ull-
te <auap3.. tions were brought the Empire, ctae??;.
German Ei

Qpumm<zp of
Ppu&sian (auap3.?,


(Mapefjing Opclep. )

Pp&ggian Offiez* of Housjsapa. (Fiel3.-3.a£ OpIcp.)

Printed by O. LSwensohn, Fuertli Bavaria

npire. I.

Published by William Clowes & Sons, L , London-

. — —


namely, Prussia. On the other hand, a A man is bound to commence his Terms of
. •,, 1 • Service,
few of the larger States have reserved for service, as a rule, with his 21st year.
themselves a certain independence in the The period of service is as follows :

management of their armies. The chief 3 years with the Colours.*

outward and visible sign thereof is seen in 4 years in the Reserve of the Active
the variations of uniform from the strict Army.*
Prussian pattern. Thus, the Bavarian In- 5 years in the 1st Class Landwehr.
fantry has kept its light-blue tunic, the 7 years in the 2nd Class Landwehr.
Saxons still have red piping round their 6 years in the 2nd Class Landsturm.
skirts, and the Wiirttembergers wear By this time the soldier is in his 45th
double-breasted tunics and grey great- year.
coats. The 1st Class Landwehr is divided into
Organisa- The Army may be roughly divided into complete units, and these are formed into
tion. .
four groups : Reserve Divisions for the Active Army.
1. The combined forces of Prussia and The 2nd Class Landwehr garrisons the
the following States, which have concluded interior and fortresses, and acts, if called

conventions with her : Saxe- Weimar, SaxeT out, as a- reserve for the above-mentioned
Meiningen, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Al- Landwehr Reserve divisions.
tenburg, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, the two All men between the ages of 17 and 45
principalities of Reuss, Oldenburg, Schwarz- who are fit to bear arms and who are not
burg-Sondershausen, Lippe, Schaumburg- serving in either the Active Army (including
Lippe, Lubeck, Bremen, Hamburg, Wal- the Ersatz Reserve) or in the Landwehr,
deck, Brunswick,Grand Duchies of Meck- are enrolled in the 1st Class Landsturm.
lenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Stre- This body can only be called out in case
litz, Grand Duchy, of Baden, and Grand of national invasion, or for garrison duty at

Duchy of Hesse. home.

2. The Saxon Army Corps (one). — The Ersatz (i.e. Supply) Reserve consists
3. The Bavarian Army Corps (two) — men who are physically fit, but have,
of those

4. The Wiirttemberg Army Corps owing to surplus numbers or other causes,

(one) escaped being sent to serve in the Regular
Universal Conscription is the keystone Army. Part of this Reserve undergoes a
of the Army. Introduced on September training of ten weeks in the first, six
3rd, 1 8 14, first of all, it was amended by weeks in the second, and four weeks in the
the law of the 16th April, 1871, and per- third year. These are considered as
fected by subsequent laws passed in 1 874 belonging to the so-called "Furlough
and 1881. The recent edict of the Ilth Men " t class, and serve when required to
February, 1888, has put the finishing complete the Army in the field. On the

touches to it, so that it now holds sway completion of their thirty-first year, the
throughout the whole Empire. According men are sent to the Landwehr and 2nd
to this law, every German who is physi- * Or in the Navy and Naval Reserve re-

cally capable and who is in the enjoyment spectively as required,

bound to serve as a soldier. " Beurlaubtenstand."
of civil rights, is f


Class Landsturm, and there they remain it industrial or scientific. This disadvantage
till the termination of their liability to of the conscription law makes itself felt in

service, i.e., their forty-fifth year. The proportion to the progress in education
men of the untrained portion of the Ersatz and general culture made in the country.

Reserve remain available for service up to At the same time it is obvious that a
their thirty-second year, and then pass over man who has the assistance of a well-
to the 1st and 2nd Classes of the Landsturm educated and well-trained mind does not
in due order. require so long a period to master the
If every single able-bodied young man intricacies of soldiering as one who is less

were to be taken for the Regular Army, two intelligent.

disadvantages would accrue to the State For this reason the Government allows
on the one hand an immense amount of young men who have either received a
industrial labour would be lost to the certificate of educational efficiency from one
country, and on the other, it would be of the higher schools or else passed an
impossible for the State to support such examination before a commission appointed
a huge Army. PFor this reason the law for the purpose, to enter the service as
of the constitution has laid down that volunteers on completing their seventeenth
the peace Army is not to exceed one per year. After one year with the Colours they
cent, of the population. This gives the are sent " on furlough " to the Active
Army the respectable peace-strength of Reserve, and for this privilege they have
468,409 men (not including officers and to find themselves in uniform, equipment,
one-year volunteers). Of these numbers and food during the period of their service.
about 156,000 annually enter the ranks They may become officers in the following
as recruits. manner : If they have behaved well and
There is a supplementary clause to the have subsequently, during two trainings
law of universal conscription, and that is of several weeks each, whilst attached to a
the one which allows of One-year Volunteers. Corps, shown themselves professionally and
It stands to reason that with a three-years' socially qualified to become officers, they
bout of compulsory service, a large portion of are balloted for by the officers of their
the youth of the country are interrupted in district. If the ballot is favourable, they
the studies which are to prepare them for are commissioned by his Majesty and
their particular professions,
. and that at a become full-blown officers of the Reserve.
period when they can least afford to' lose the These have, in case of war, to complete the
time. For the labourer, who needs but little active establishment of officers to war-
knowledge for his daily task, and for those strength, or have to fill vacancies as officers
handicraftsmen whose work demands but in the Landwehr.
little brain capacity or culture of any sort, The German Army represents the people Officors.

this interruption of business is of small under arms, and their officers represent the
moment. It is far otherwise, however, with cream of the Army. The road to the
the young man who requires to spend some higher, and even to the highest ranks, lies
time in the higher schools in order to fit open to every educated man, without
himself for the profession he has chosen, be reference to social standing or birth, if
— —


he only have the necessary qualifications proverb that " the apple falls close to the
thereto. stem " is well
exemplified here, for amongst
Every candidate for an officer's com- the cadets are many who bear celebrated
mission must possess soldiers' names, such as Roon, Steinmetz,

1. A good general education, of which Canstein, etc., etc.

the candidate must give satisfactory proof, Although the training in the Cadet Corps
either by the possession of an " Abitu- is chiefly a military one, yet on the whole
rient " certificate,* or by passing an the cadets receive an education equal to
examination before a commission held in that of a first-class civilian college. Thus
Berlin. they are enabled in after-life, when they
2. Physical qualifications for military have left the Service, to pursue a civilian
service, including good eyes. calling with greater ease than if their

3. An honourable character. education had been purely military.

Having satisfied the authorities on these Mention may also be made here of the
establishments in which the " Porte-dpee
subjects, the candidate now serves as a
Fahnrichs " (ensigns) are instructed they
private for five months, generally with the :

regiment he intends to enter. At the end of are the military colleges . of Potsdam,
this time, during which he is called an Engers, Neisse, Glogau, Hanover, Cassel,
" avantageur," he undergoes an examination Anklam, Metz, and Munich. The higher
in military duties, etc., and on receiving branches of military science are pursued
a certificate of satisfactory service from in the United Artillery and Engineer
his superior officers, he becomes an School, and the Staff College. (Kriegs-

ensign ("Porte-epee Fahnrich "). and is akademie), both in Berlin. The entire

sent to a military college for a year. military education and training of the
There he passes a final examination in country are managed by an Inspection-
military knowledge, and, if balloted for General.

successfully by the officers of the regi- As in all large armies, the three great

ment of his choice, he joins as second branches of the German service are Infantry,
lieutenant. Cavalry, and Artillery, besides the En-
As much 40 to 45 per cent, of the
as gineers and Transport Corps, the latter of

officers are drawn from the Cadet Corps, which is called the " Train."
which is distributed amongst establishments As everybody knows, Infantry is intended Infantry,

at Lichterfelde (near Berlin, head college), to go anywhere and fight anywhere. It is,
Kulm, Potsdam, Wahlstatt, Bensberg, therefore, equipped for all contingencies

Plon and Oranienstein, in Prussia Dresden ;

that may arise, and is armed with a weapon
in Saxony, and Munich in Bavaria. A
new for use either at a long range or in close
college will shortly open in Karlsruhe. hand-to-hand fighting.
This Corps is chiefly composed of the sons The German Infantry is * armed with a
of officers, who receive a cheap and capital magazine-rifle, with a bore of "315

excellent training and education. The inches, which, with a point-blank range of
* Corresponding somewhat to our University over 300 yards, will carry up to 2,400 yards.

Degree. * Or rather, will be, in the near future. Tr.


The maga- of instruction and training, with the sole

zine is de- exception that the Rifle battalions. (Jager)

tachable, spend somewhat more time and pains on
and holds their musketry than the other troops.
cart- " Grenadiers " first sprang into existence
rid ge s. in the seventeenth century ; as their name
The bayo- indicates, they were originally intended to
net is a throw hand-grenades amongst the enemy's
short ranks. Tor this object, particularly powerful
sword- men were selected, and in France,, under
bayonet, Louis; XIV., four Grenadiers were at first

very simi- attached to each company ; subsequently,

lar to the each battalion received a Grenadier com-
new Eng- pany. Grenadiers were now introduced
lish bayo- into every civilised army, but as there was
net. seldom an opportunity for the employment
As a of their special weapon, they were given
WiifttemBepg. Sepgeani oj> rule, the muskets, and remained Grenadiers only in
i§e Train. German name, and thus the name came to be
foot-sol- applied to particularly fine bodies of troops
dier has to carry his own equipment, both only. The Prussian Grenadier battalions
on the march and in action. The equipment of Frederick the Great were the flower of
consists of a knapsack with large mess-tin his Army, and in memory of these troops
attached, great coat, bayonet and scabbard
(to which latter is fastened a small spade),
havresack, and water-bottle, and three
pouches, two in front and one behind. These
pouches hold, altogether, 1 50 rounds. The
whole thing can be put on or taken off at a

moment's by simply buckling or


unbuckling the waist-belt and slipping the

arms into, or out of, the knapsack braces.
This new arrangement also obviates to a
great extent the discomfort caused by the
older pattern of equipment, which com-
pressed the man's chest considerably.
The old division of the Infantry into
Grenadiers, Musketeers, and Fusiliers has
now no significance, except from a historical
point of view. Nowadays, the whole of
the Infantry being identically equipped,
they all receive exactly the same amount -
— — —""


the 1st Prussian Foot-Guard Regiment motto engraved on their " hirschfanger
still wears the old sugar-loaf brass helmet (lit. " stag-sticker," a large knife still worn
on big review days and other special by keepers for the purpose of giving the
occasions. The title of "Grenadier Regi- stag his coup de grdce) in his day, and it is

ments," which the first twelve Prussian still the watchword of the Prussian Rifle-
Infantry regiments received in 1861, was men of to-day. Frederick recognised that
only bestowed in order to keep' green the the true method of employing Riflemen was
memory of the old Grenadiers. to extend them as skirmishers, and there p-

The names of "Musketeers" and a story which tells how, when one day, in
"Fusiliers" come from the different fire- Potsdam, the Rifles were marching past
arms their predecessors bore, i.e., the musket him in close order, the old king shook his
and the rifle (fusil), first introduced into crutch-stick at them and shouted: "Get
France in the seventeenth century. The out of that, get out of that, you scoundrels !

Musketeers were at first the Heavy Infantry, and made them march past in extended

in contradistinction to the Fusiliers, who order.

represented the Light Infantry. Later, On the 1st of April, 1890, the German
however, on each branch receiving the numbered
Infantry 171 regiments of 3

same firearm, the distinction ceased, and battalions each, and 21 Rifle battalions

it is now only remembered through the old total S 34 battalions.

Fusilier songs, of which there exist several, The Guard and' Grenadier Regiments
and whose burden is the chaffing of the are :

heavy Musketeer. 4 Regiments of Foot-Guards,

The peculiar qualities necessary for good 4. Regiments of Guard Grenadiers,
Light Infantry have been developed par 12 Prussian Grenadier regiments (Nos.
excellence in the Prussian Rifle battalions. 1-12),
These draw ,a very large proportion of 1 Mecklenburg Grenadier regiment
their recruits from the gamekeepers and (No. 89),
forester class of the country. Such men 2 Baden Grenadier regiments (Nos. 109
have of necessity been already trained in
and no),
the attainments required for that branch of 2 Saxon Grenadier regiments (Nos. 100
the Infantry. They are. well acquainted and 101),
with firearms and can shoot ; they can put 2 Wiirttemberg Grenadier regiments
up with considerable hardships, they can (Nos. 119 and 123).
find their way about a strange country, 1 Bavarian Body-Guard regiment,
and they have studied in the school of Hessian Body-Guard regiment (No.

nature — in short,, they are the very men to

make into and marksmen,
The Fusilier and Rifle (Schutzen)
and are in their element on outpost or
Regiments are :

patrol duty. Frederick the Great was the

first to train the J.ager as Light Infantry, 12 Prussian Fusilier regiments (composed

and his influence is seen to this day. Guard Fusilier regiment, and Nos. 33-
of 1.

" Vive le roi et ses chasseurs " was the 40/73, 80, and 86 of the Line).

; ;


i Mecklenburg Fusilier regiment (No. generally confined to the attack in close

go), and order.
I Saxon Rifle (Schiitzen) regiment (No. Although both branches of the Cavalry,
108). theHeavy and the Light, receive an identical
training, yet the distinction between them
Of the remaining Line regiments, 81 are
has not yet entirely lost its old significance.
Prussian, i.e., Nos. 13-32, 41-72, 74-79.
The Cavalry of the German Army is
8[-8s, 87-88,97-99, 128-132, 135-138, and
divided into four groups, distinguished by
different equipment and arms ; they are
No. 91 is Oldenburg,
the Cuirassiers, the Dragoons, the Lancers,
No. 92 „ Brunswick,
No. 93 Anhalt,
and the Hussars. The chief weapon

throughout is the sword, though the
No. 94 „ Saxe- Weimar,
Cuirassiers differ from the others in being
No. 95 „ Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-
armed with a long straight sword, whilst
that of the latter is slightly curved.
No. g6 is Saxe-Altenburg, Schwarzburg-
Besides this weapon, the whole of the
Rudolstadt, and the two principalities
of Reuss,
Cavalry is being armed with lances. As it
Nos. 111-114, and 144, are Baden, and
may happen that the men may have to
dismount and use firearms on foot, at
Nos. 116-118 are Hessian.
Total, 95 regiments of the first group.
present they are all armed with a useful
carbine (Mauser, 1871 pattern) the non-
Nine belong to the 2nd group, Saxony, ;

commissioned officers and trumpeters wear

i.e., Nos. 102-107, 133. 134- and 139.
a revolver instead.
Six belong to the 3rd group, Wiirttem-
The main point in a Cavalry fight is the
berg, i.e., Nos. 120-122 and 124-126.
shock, i.e., the moment when they come
The 4th group, Bavaria, has 1 8 regiments
into contact with the enemy. This must
of the Line, which are numbered apart
be the result of gradually quickening the
from the rest of the Army.
pace till at the supreme moment an
The Rifle (Jager) battalions are thus
irresistible mass is hurled with crushing
divided :

force on the ranks of the enemy. The

Prussia 1 battalion Rifles of the Guard
best powers of man and horse must there-
I battalion Schiitzen of the Guard
fore be reserved for this moment, and it is
II battalions Rifles of the Line
a fact that the turning-point of an action
(Nos. 1-1 1) ; I battalion Mecklenburg
has often been decided by the mere
Rifles. Total, 14 battalions.
impetus of the charge, and without any
Saxony : 3 battalions Rifles of the Line
use whatever of cold steel.
(Nos. 12, 13, and 15).
Of the whole German Cavalry the
Bavaria : 4 battalions Rifles (numbered
Prussian arm has the best record. This
dates from the time of Frederick the Great
Cavalry. The Cavalry is intended for fighting and his celebrated Cavalry leaders Zieten,
chiefly at close quarters and on open Seydlitz, and others, who made use of bold
ground. Their use on the battle-field is and clever offensive tactics which led to

German E


Saxon Rifleman. (Mapeljing Opclep.)

OlclenBapg Bpagoore ancl Bpunswick Hujsgap.
(Review OpJerC)

i 1 v k-'-^'d&m^

SaXoti Iai^e-druapcUman arccl Iaaneef. §aj(ort Hop?e-Spl!llepV' Tpumpetep.
(Review 0p3.ep,

Printed by O. Liheenxrfm, fuerth Bavaria


mpire, II.

^alen (Irpenacliep (auap&gmart & Oji|iee:p oj> Bpagoon Kesxian _g Bpagoon.

(auapclss. (Mapping Op&ep. (Bismoantecl.)

{csklercBupg-Segwepin ® uap ^* man - Wcipl«:mBa«gfclhfan,ip\p ' Sergeant oj? WiiptemEepg Aptillcpjj.

(Full E>p***0 in Jsivouae. (M&pefjing Opclep. )

Published by William Climes & Sons, h , London


grand results at Rossbach, Leuthen, Zorn- yet with the lance, just introduced a
dorf, and other actions. Prussian horses genuine knightly weapon has been brought
are powerful, fast, and capable of con- in to take its place.
siderable endurance, so that they are The Prussian Regiment of Gardes-du-
particularly suited to military service. In Corps, whose chief is ex-officio the King
addition, the Prussian soldier is a capital of Prussia, is equipped and armed in the_
groom. These qualities, in same way as the Cuirassiers. Although it,
with thorough discipline and tactical forms a Royal body-guard, still the regi-
training, have brought the German Cavalry ment has seen a considerable amount of
to a height of excellence that is surpassed service. History tells of a memorable
by few. saying of the Commander of the regiment,
The Cuirassiers are the troops who from Colonel von Wacknitz, at the battle of
their outward appearance most resemble Zorndorf (25th August, 1758), where the
the knights of the Middle Ages. Although enemy, the Russians, were getting the best
the cuirass, from which they take their of the day Frederick the Great was with

name, has lately been abolished for field his regiment, the Gardes-du-Corps, and
service in consequence of its weight and said anxiously to Colonel von Wacknitz :

inability to keep off the enemy's bullets, " What do you think of it ? My idea is

WiipiiemEetfg. Dragoon.

we shall get the worst of the action." number of guns

that : as Frederick the Great
Von Wacknitz lowered his sword and said, " It is a feat unparalleled in history."
said :
" Your Majesty, no battle is lost, in This regiment was, at a later period, turned
my opinion, where the Gardes-du-Corps into a Cuirassier regiment, and is now
have not charged." "Very good," said known as the Queen's 2nd Cuirassiers
the king, " then charge." And the fortune (Pomeranians).
of the day was decided by the brilliant The Bavarian Chevau-legers correspond
and successful attack made by this regi- to the Prussian Dragoons, and many a
ment The battle was won, and the record testifies to their gallantry in action.
country saved. The spirit of Zieten, the " Hussar-father,"
Heavy and of old Blucher, "Field Marshal
In Bavaria the two regiments of
Cavalry, and Saxony the regiments Forwards," still lives in the Hussars of the

of Horse Guards and Carbineers, corre- German Empire. Activity, boldness, and
spond to the Prussian cheeriness are the attributes which make a
The Dragoons were good Hussar, and many are the songs
originally intended
to combine the fire-action of Infantry with which record their successes in camp and
the rapidity of movement of Cavalry, and field.
were therefore armed, on horseback, with a The Uhlans (Lancers) who spread such
light musket and bayonet. The Branden- terror amongst the enemy in the war of
burg Dragoons of the great Elector 1870-71, hail, as far as their name goes,
Frederick William came greatly to the from Tartary.* For this reason, the French
fore in this double capacity at the battles took them for a wild tribe, such as the
of Warsaw and Fehrbellin. The uncer- Kirghiz of the Steppes, or the African
tainty, however, of the results of shooting Turcos. The name is, however, the only
when mounted, and the inconvenience of foreign element about them, for their mode
dismounting or mounting according as to of fighting is German.
whether the fight raged on foot or on The chief weapon of the Uhlan, the
horseback, showed plainly as time went on lance, with which they caused such con-
that the idea of an intermediate arm, a sort sternation among the French, although it

of mounted infantry, could had been the most popular weapon of the
not yet be
brought to perfection. The Dragoons were Middle Ages, disappeared almost entirely
therefore, during the eighteenth century, from European armies on the introduction
gradually formed into Cavalry pure and of firearms; the Russian and Polish
simple, and at the present time they are Cavalry alone retaining it. After the second
horse-soldiers, and horse-soldiers only. Silesian war in 1745, Frederick the Great
One of the most celebrated Cavalry attacks armed a body of Light Horse with lances,
was that of the regiment of Anspach- and gave them the name of "Bosniaks."
Bayreuth Dragoons in the battle of Consisting at first of only 1 "company,"
Hohenfriedberg (4th June, 1745). In this their strength was increased afterwards to
action, the regiment rode down no fewer 10 companies, and jn the year 1800 they
than 20 battalions of Infantry, took 2,500 * The word Uhlan means " belonging to the
prisoners and 66 standards, besides a large hoof," in the language of that region.


were founded into a regiment under the altogether of 93 regiments of 5 squadrons

name of "Towarczys," i.e., experienced in each total, 465 squadrons. On the regi-
war. In 1808, the name was changed to ment being ordered on active service, one
" Uhlans," and the corps was divided into of the squadrons remains behind as supply-
several regiments, whose number was squadron for the rest. Its duty is to
increased at a later period. In 1870 the replace the partially-trained or unservice-
French peasantry called the whole of the able horses by good ones, and. also to fill
German Cavalry "ulans," and the sudden up the ranks of the other squadrons with
appearance of a few of their horsemen in good men when required. By this means,
a district at a the active part of the regiment is brought
time when the to a high state of readiness for action,

Frenchmen flat- and gains greatly in efficiency. There

tered themselves are :

that the enemy

was still far 14 regiments of Cuirassiers, including :

distant, caused The Garde-du- Corps regiment,

shouts Of " les The Guard Cuirassier regiment,
ulans! les 8 Prussian Cuirassier regiments,
ulans!" uni- Heavy Cavalry regiments,
2 Bavarian
versal conster- Saxon Horse Guards regiment, and

nation, and im- 1 Saxon regiment of Carbineers.

mediate flight. 34 Regiments of Dragoons, namely :

The German 2 Regiments of Dragoon Guards,

Uhlans were 16 Prussian Dragoon regiments (Nos.
everywhere at 1-16),
once. More than 2 Mecklenberg Dragoon regiments
one populous (Nos. 1 7 and 18),

town, e.g., Nancy 1 Oldenburg Dragoon regiment (No.

,on the 1 1 th 19).
August, 1870, 3 Baden Dragoon regiments (Nos. 20-
opened their 22),
gates at their 2 Hessian Dragoon regiments (Nos.
approach, and 23 and 24),
the small fort- 2 Wurttemberg Dragoon regiments
ress of Vitry (Nos. 25 and 26), and
le frangais sur- 6 Bavarian Chevau-leger Regiments.
rendered to a 20 Regiments of Hussars, namely :

mere handful of I Body-Guard Hussar regiment,

Uhlans. 16 Prussian „ regiments,
The Cavalry 1 Brunswick „ regiment, and

Bavarian HalEercliep, of the German 2 Saxon „ regiments (Nos.

(Fall-a«a«s.) Empire consists 18 and 19)..


25 Regiments of Uhlans, namely tinctive uniforms, would produce much

3 Guard-Uhlan regiments, more harm in the end than good.
16 Prussian Uhlan regiments (Nos. Before closing the subject of Cavalry,
1-16), mention ought to be made of the lately-
2 Saxon Uhlan regiments (Nos. 17 formed Empress's Body-Guard, composed
and 18), of one officer, two sergeants, and 24 men.
2 Wiirttemberg Uhlan regiments They were first put on duty in August,
(Nos. 19 and 20), and 1889, during the visit of the Emperor of
2 Bavarian Uhlan regiments. Austria. Their uniform is the usual dark-
blue tunic, with cerise collar and cuffs,
Of late years there has been a good deal besides a full-dress white Cuirassier tunic.
of talk about reorganising the present force The skirts are lined with cerise cloth and
into a so-called " General " Cavalry, and this fastened back with hooks. Both collar and
would be distinctly a move in the right cuffs have white braid-lace on them, like
direction. The term implies Guard Corps. The breeches
that all the rest of the
branches of the Cavalry arm should be are of white leather, and big knee-boots
equally and thoroughly equipped, armed, like those of the Cuirassiers complete the
and trained for any service in which costume.
Cavalry could be called on to take part. Artillery has but one r61e to play on the Artillery,

An important step has been made in this battle-field, and that is to come into action
by the recent arming of the whole and do as much harm as possible to the
of the Cavalry with lances. There is, enemy from a long distance off.
however, no intention whatever on the part The German arm is divided into Field
of the authorities to carry out the idea to Artillery and Garrison Artillery.
extremities. Such measures The Field Artillery is intended, as its
as taking
away their particular mode name implies, for action on the field of
of action from
the different branches of the Cavalry, or battle. One particular branch of it forms
giving them all exactly the same uniform, the Horse Artillery; in which all the men are
would never be entertained for a moment. mounted. The whole of the Field Artillery
It is obvious that such measures would be is armed with Krupp cast-steel guns (c.
the deathblow of all esprit de corps which, the Horse Artillery guns having a bore of
as we know, has led to such brilliant 2-95, and the others a bore of 3-43 inches.
results in the past. The shock of Cuirassiers They carry " double-ring shells " (a form of
on their big horses, the charge of Uhlans segment shell which fly into about 180
with their fluttering lance-pennons, the pieces), Shrapnel shells (each containing
sabre-work of Hussars, and the mobility cf 240bullets), and case-shot. The guns
Dragoons and Chevau-legers, each has its themselves are handy to work, and carry
particular effect on the enemy, and each with great accuracy up to about four miles.
distinctive attribute must be taken into A
Battery is formed of six guns, though
serious account. There can be no doubt as a rule not more than four in peace-time
that a total amalgamation of the four have teams (4 to 6 horses each) to draw
branches, and the abolition of their dis- them.


There are altogether 318 batteries of Horse Artillery, and also a common projec-
Field-and 46 batteries of Horse Artillery, tile which would combine the advantages
the whole forming 27 regiments. of common shell and shrapnel. The intro-
To the Prussian group belong 29 regi-
duction of this latter would tend greatly to
ments, forming 245 Field- and 38 Horse simplify both the action and the supply of
Artillery batteries —
total 283 batteries. the gun.
Saxony has 2 regiments (Nos. 12 and The men of the Garrison Artillery are
28) forming 21 Field- and 2 Horse Artillery employed in the attack and defence of
batteries. fortresses. They have no guns of their
Wiirttemberg has own, but simply
2 regiments (Nos. 1 3

^work the big guns

and 29), forming 18 \ of the Siege-train or
Field batteries. the fortresses, ac-
Bavaria has 4 cording to circum-
regiments, forming stances. These
34Field-and 6Horse gunners go by the
Artillery batteries. name of " cannon-
Grand Total, 364 iers." They are
batteries. armed with the
Of the 29 " Prus- Mauser carbine of
sian " regiments, 2 the 1 87 1 pattern.
are Guard Artillery, The Garrison Ar-
24 (Nos. 1— 11, 15- tillery consists of 14
24, 26, 27, and regiments of 2 bat-
31) are Prussian, 2 talions each, of 4
belong Baden
to companies each, be-
(Nos. 14 and 30), sides 3 independent

and 1 (No. 25) is battalions, alto-

Hessian. gether 31 battalions.
In the course of Bavarian Offiazp of Ijianeeps Of this force,

the next few years (AicLe-le-Camjp. Prussia has 11 regi-

the Field Artillery ments (1 Guard
will undergo considerable changes in ma- regiment and Nos. 1 to 8, 10 and 11) and
teriel as well as in organisation. It is 2 independent battalions (No. 9 and No. 14),
intended to give each Army Corps 3 F. A. the latter belonging to Baden.
regiments, each of 2 divisions of 3 batteries Saxony has 1 regiment (No. 12).

each. Thus each of the two divisions of Wiirttemberg has 1 battalion (No. 13),
the Army Corps would have one F. A. regi- and
ment of 6 batteries, and the 3rd regiment Bavaria has 2 regiments.
would be available as Corps Artillery. It There remain yet the Engineers and the Engineer*.

is also proposed to introduce a common Train.

calibre of gun for the whole, both Field and The officers of the corps of Engineers are
: —


divided into the Engineer Staff Corps {i.e., 14 battalions, each of 2 to 3 companies,
generals and field officers) and 4 Engineer- and a dep6t (the Guard battalion, and

Inspections " (captains and lieutenants). Nos. i-ii, 15 and 16), in Prussia; one
This is in the Prussian group. The Saxon, (No. 14), in Baden, and 1 Train company in
Wurttemberg, and Bavarian officers are not Hesse ; one (No. 12) in Saxony, one in'

so divided. Engineer officers are employed Wurttemberg (No. 13), and 2 in Bavaria.
either with the " fortification branch," i.e., To the dep6t of each battalion belong :

that branch which superintends the con- 5 provision sections, 3 medical detachments
struction, repair, etc., of fortresses, or with with field .hospitals and bearers, 1 remount-
the " Pioneers," i.e., Field Engineers. dep6t, 1 field bakery section, and 5 sections
There are in the German Army nineteen of transport.
Pioneer battalions, distributed thus :

1 Guard battalion and 14 others (Nos. The above account gives a general Tactical
I— II, 14-16), including I Baden battalion resume of the fighting force of Germany.^* 8**
(No. 13), to Prussia. It now remains to give the tactical organi-

1 battalion to Saxony (No. 12), sation of the different branches of the

1 battalion to Wurttemberg (No. 18), and Army.
2 battalions to Bavaria. In the Infantry, the smallest indepen-
Each numbers 4 companies
battalion dent body of troops, or " tactical unit," is a

of these the 1st is a Pontoon company, the battalion (except in the case of the inde-
2nd and 3rd are Sapper companies i.e., pendent Rifle battalions, where the unit is

for sap-work, construction of siege-batteries, represented by the company). In the

and field-works, etc. ; and the 4th is a Cavalry it is a squadron, and in the
Mining company, for laying mines and Artillery a battery. The war strength of
subterranean galleries in siege-work. a battalion is, at the outside, 1,000 men ;

Besides these, there is a Railway that of a squadron is about 150 mounted

Regiment of 4 battalions (including 1 men and that of a battery is 6 guns, with ;

Saxon and I Wurttemberg company), and 12 wagons and men in proportion. The
I Bavarian Railway battalion of 2 companies, peace-strength of each unit is dependent, on
for the construction of military railways the one hand, on the numbers
required for
and railway-bridges. Included in the its full strength in time of war
and, on ;

Railway Regiment are the Field-Telegraph the other hand, on the amount of training
and Balloon sections. requsite for its efficiency. In a less degree
The " Train " (corresponding to our also, it is dependent on the state of the
Army Service Corps) is for the transport Treasury.
of supplies, ammunition, and war-material The peace-strength of a Prussian Line
of all sorts. The
and men of the battalion (4 companies) is
drivers :

corps are trained in peace-time in the 1 major (commanding the battalion),

Train battalions, and the wagons are 4 captains,
stored in Train depdts. 12 lieutenants and 2nd lieutenants,
There are 19 Train battalions and 1 1 adjutant (usually a lieutenant),
company, thus divided 559 N. C. O.'s and men, and
German E

Bavarian Aptilki?^ Offiazr?. Bavarian Rifleman an3. Inj>antpV

(Review Op3.er<,) of Ige h'me..

Printed by G. LiSv-ensohn, Fuerth Bavaria

pire. 111.


(Fall B«« an3 WoAing Rig).

(Fall R*« ana U.nZ*c$%).

Published by William Clowes & Sons, LJ London.


7 others (paymaster, assistant-paymaster, Saxony is much the same. The Guard

4 privates trained as medical assistants, regiments and those in Alsace-Lorraine
and I armourer-sergeant). are somewhat stronger.
N.B. —A Regiment of Infantry consists
of three battalions, so that in calculating As a rule, two regiments of Infantry Formation
the strength of a regiment, the regimental (6 battalions), or two of Cavalry (8 to 10 Brigades,
staff (colonel, lieutenant-colonel, regi- squadrons), form a Brigade, under a Major-

mental-adjutant, surgeons, etc.), should be general as brigadier. Corps.

taken into account. The first unit composed of all three

That of a Prussian Cavalry Regiment of arms is the Infantry division. It consists

five squadrons is : of usually two brigades of Infantry and

25 officers, one regiment of Cavalry ; and, in the field,

2 or 3 surgeons, has in addition 6 batteries of Artillery and

686 N. C. O.'s and men, I company of Engineers, the whole under
14 others (paymasters, veterinary sur- the command of a lieutenant-general. A
geons, medical assistants, armourers, etc., Cavalry Division varies in strength, but has
etc.), and always, if possible, one or two batteries of
667 horses. Horse Artillery attached.
The peace-strength of the corresponding Two, or three, Infantry Divisions, with a
troops in Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and brigade (2 regiments) of Field Artillery,


Praggian 0||lee:p ancl Trumpetei? of Aftillei5 ^.


Engineers and Train, constitute an Armjy-

Corps, under the command of a full

general. The Army Cor-ps therefore

comprises all branches of the service, and
is thoroughly independent.
The 1 2th (Saxon) and 13th (Wurttem-
berg) Corps have a slightly different
composition. They each number 4
Infantry, 2 Cavalry and 1 Field Artillery
Brigades (each brigade consisting of 2
regiments), besides one battalion of Field
Engineers and one of the Train. The Guard
Corps also is constituted rather differently
from any other.

Size of On the 1st April, 1890, the entire

German Army consisted of 20 Army
Corps, quartered as follows :

The Guard Corps, in Berlin, Potsdam,

Charlottenburg, and Spandau (with the
exception of the 4th Guard Grenadier
Regiment, which is quartered at Coblenz).

— —


P. 25. The German Infantry now numbers 538 battalions of Infantry,

173 regiments and 19 Rifle battalions 465 squadrons of Cavalry,

total 538 battalions. 434 batteries of Artillery, with over

1700 guns.
P. 31. The Artillery has lately been
The latest estimate of the German Army
increased to 387 batteries of Field, and 47
at war-strength, i.e. Active Army, Active
batteries of Horse Artillery, the whole
Reserve, and 1st class Landwehr, is as
forming 43 regiments.
P. 32. The Engineers number 20 bat- 48,635 officers,

talions. 2,253,841 men,

P. 34. peace strength of the German 445,104 horses,
Army now numbers 3,982 guns.

and strength will necessarily depend on Although this tremendous Army of close
the theatre in which they are to be utilised, on two million of well-trained and well-
on the plan of campaign, and on the armed men may at first sight appear a
strength of the enemy. The resources of menace to the peace of the world, still we
the Empire will not, however, come to an must remember that Germany is absolutely
end with the 20 Army Corps whose strength obliged, for the preservation of her very
we have just been describing. Behind the existence, to keep up these huge forces,
men doing their seven years of service, who and that she has no intention of using
compose the Active Army, come those of the them except for that purpose. As an old
1st and 2nd Class Landwehr, and behind national proverb has it " He who wants

these again come the Ersatz Reserve and to come to grief in war had better try a
the Landsturm. fall with Germany."
— '


THE next on the

powerful neighbour, friend, and
list is Germany's purchase, formerly alio wed, is now abolished,
ally- The forces are divided into the Standing

on her southern frontier, Austria-Hun- Army, the Ersatz Reserve, the Landwehr,
gary. and the Landsturm,
There is in the Austro-Hungarian Army About 103,000 recruits are yearly ad-
a varied assemblage of different races : the mitted into the Standing Army, of which
honest Austrian, the proud and fiery Cis-Leithania contributes 54,000. Those
Hungarian, the smart Czech, the true- able-bodied young men who are not taken
hearted Tyrolese, the thin onion-eating into the Standing or Active Army are sent
Wallachian, the hot-blooded Croat, the for ten years to the Ersatz Reserve, which
nomad Slowak, the homeless gipsy, etc., is intended, as in Germany, to provide re-
etc., are all represented in its ranks. All inforcements for the Active Army. Service
these have been welded together by the in the latter is for three years with the Colours
iron bands of discipline into the " Imperial and seven years in the Active Reserve.
and Royal " Army.
The Emperor is Com- Service in the Landwehr is for two years
mander-in-Chief, and with him rests the for those who have served ten years in the
decision for peace or war. Active Army and Reserve or in the Ersatz
After the disastrous campaign of 1866 Reserve, and for twelve years for those who
the Austrian Army was entirely reorganised. have been sent straight thither, for various
The reorganisationnow almost com- reasons, on conscription. After the Land-

pleted, and the Army now takes its place wehr service, the soldier is sent for five
as one of the foremost in the world;/ The years to the 1st Class Landsturm, and for
division of the Empire into Cis- and Trans- five years more to the 2nd Class Landsturm.
Leithania i.e. and By this time he is forty-two years of age.
this side, the Austrian,

that side, i.e. the Hungarian, of the Leitha, The one-year Volunteers are enlisted in the
a tributary of the Danube, is only partially same manner as in Germany (q. v.).
carried out in the military system. The whole Empire is, for military Organisa-
According to the conscription law of purposes, divided into fifteen Territorial ..

December, 1868, universal conscription is Districts these are of various sizes, so that ;

now the rule )

in the whole Austro- the Austrian Army Corps are not all of the
Hungarian Empire, and exemption by same strength. In case of war, the whole


"Imperial and Royal" Army would be

grouped into three
armies, under one
supreme command, each army consisting of
three or more Army Corps. The Army
Corps consists of 2 Infantry Divisions, each
of 2 brigades. The division is commanded
by a " field-marshal-licutenant," corre-
sponding to our lieutenant-general, and the
brigade by a major-general.
Each Infantry brigade has as a rule 2
regiments, and i battalion of Rifles.
Besides the 2 Infantry brigades, each
Division has in addition 2 to 4 squadrons
of Cavalry, 1 battery division. (2 to 3
batteries of Field Artillery), and 1 company
of Engineers.
Infantry. The Infantry of the Active Army com-
prises 102 regiments, each of 4 Field and
1 Ersatz battalions the latter is in peace-
Cavalry Offices (UncLpegg),
time represented by a cadre only. The
4th Field battalions, so-called " Mobile
battalions, have mostly a stronger peace-
establishment than the others, and are used
to garrison Bosnia, Herzegovina, and the
Sanjak of Novi-Bazar ; i.e. they are com-
pletely separated from their regiments.
The Rifles comprise the Tyrolese Rifle
Regiment of 10 Active and 2 Ersatz
battalions, and 32 independent battalions
of Rifles, each of 4 Field and I Ersatz
The Infantry has (since 1868) laid

aside its historical white uniform, and is

now clothed in dark blue tunics or loose

jackets, and light blue trousers, the latter
in the Hungarian regiments being
ornamented with embroidery and fitting
like tights. The Hungarian regiments
wear lace-boots, the remainder Wellingtons.
The usual head-dress is the fatigue-cap,

and, on great occasions, the shako. The

Officer of Infanlfg (Mailing OpcLzp), Rifles are dressed in blue-grey. /

After 1866 the Austrian Infantry was and 41 Ersatz squadrons, besides the
armed with an excellent breech-loader, the Staff Cavalry.
Werndl rifle. Since the German Infantry The Cavalry Regiments are clothed
have attained a certain moral superiority according to their nationality. The
by being armed with a magazine- Dragoons wear a light-blue tunic, the
rifle, the authorities have introduced a Uhlans their tunic of peculiar cut, and the
magazine-rifle for the Infantry and Rifles. Hussars the jacket and attila, the latter as
So quickly has the work of manu- a rule suspended by yellow cords from the
and issuing them proceeded, that shoulder. The whole Cavalry wear red
by the autumn of this year (1890) it is breeches, tight in the Hussar regiments, and
expected that they will all be thus armed, loose in the others.

and will have overtaken the German The Hungarian Hussars, on their small
Infantry. The new Austrian magazine- but swift horses, are a peculiarly national
rifle, called after its inventor, Colonel institution. These Hussars (from a Magyar
Mannlicher, is of '315-inch bore, and can word " husz," meaning " twenty," from the
fire 30 to 40 shots in the minute. fact that every twenty houses in Hungary
Austria possesses an excellent Rifle had to provide one horseman in days gone
Regiment in the Tyrolese, the so-called by) have always been particularly promi-
Emperor's mentioned above, which nent in the Austrian Army and were long

is composed of men accustomed from their held to be pre-eminent in their mode of

youth up to the use of the rifle. They are fighting, until Frederick II. formed some
recruited in the Tyrol and Vorarlberg. regiments after their pattern. These were
Cavalry. The Cavalry of the Active Army consists afterwards increased to ten in number, and,
of— under celebrated leaders like Zieten, soon
14 Regiments of Dragoons (Austrians won for themselves renown equal to that
and Bohemians), of their Hungarian cousins.
16 Regiments of Hussars (Hungarians), The whole of the Cavalry is armed alike,

and with sword and Werndl carbine. The

11 Regiments of Lancers (with Polish Uhlans' lances have been done away
Reserve). with since 1884, but there is a question of
Each regiment consists of 6 squadrons the re-introduction of this old Polish
and a depot-cadre. In case of mobilisatron- weapon. After the Infantry has been
the latter develops into one Ersatz fully armed with the magazine-rifle, the
squadron (in which are trained the Ersatz Cavalry will, it is said, be armed with
men and the extra horses required), one repeating-carbines, which will have been
Reserve squadron for supply purposes, and served out by next spring (1891). This is
two sections of Staff Cavalry for service at an example which, it is to be hoped, other
the headquarters of Corps and at Field- armies will soon follow.*
Supply stores. The peace establishment of The Artillery comprises Field and Artillery.

the Austro-Hungarian Cavalry accordingly Garrison Artillery. The Field Artillery

comes to 246 squadrons, and the war- consists of 14 regiments of Corps Artillery,
establishment to 246 Field, 41 Reserve, * Turkey set this example long ago. — TV.

numbered according to their Army Corps and revolver, those of the Garrison Artillery
and each of 5 batteries and of 28 inde- carrying the Werndl rifle instead.

pendent Heavy Battery Divisions, each of The Corps of Engineers is composed of Engineers,
3 batteries. Several Corps Artillery the Engineer Staff and Engineer troops.
Regiments have in addition a couple of The former is exclusively composed of
Horse Artillery Batteries, or a Mountain officers ; the latter of 2 regiments of 5 bat-
Battery. talions each. Each battalion has 4 Field,
The batteries have each in peace-time. 1 Reserve, and 1 Dep6t-cadre companies.
4, and in war-time 8, fully-horsed guns. The Pioneer Regiment, not considered as
An exception to this are the Horse Engineers, consists of 5 battalions, similarly

Artillery batteries, which always have 6 constituted to the Engineer battalions.

guns in the battery. The* Railway and Telegraph Regiment,
The Mountain Batteries, which have been which has but recently been formed, after

found most useful in campaigns in Dalmatia, the German model, consists of 2 Field and
Bosnia and Herzegovina, are a peculiar 1 Dep6t-cadre battalions.
feature of the Austrian Artillery. Their The Train consists of 3 regiments of 5

guns can be dismounted and packed on the squadrons each and a Dep6t-cadre.
backs of mules, and in this way they can be There is no Guard Corps in the Austrian
transported along narrow mountain-paths. Army, so several bodies of troops have been
The Corps Artillery Regiments are to formed for the honour of protecting the
have their number of batteries increased Emperor's person and guarding his palaces.
by one each, but this will barely be com- These are the Arcieren squadron of Life-
pleted before 1892. Guards, the Hungarian Body-Guard, the
The Austrian Field Artillery has an Trabanten Body-Guard, the squadron of
excellent weapon in the shape of the 2-95- Horse-Guards, and the Infantry Company
inch Uchatius steel bronze gun, and also of the Guard. These troops are richly
that of the 343-inch bronze gun for the dressed in peculiar uniforms.
heavy batteries, both equal in worth to the The Landwehr is formed into two distinct Reserve
I00V B -

Krupp gun. The shells are of the German bodies, which are also quite distinct from
pattern, but the shrapnel have fewer bullets the Active Army ; each Landwehr is under
than the German ones. Besides these pro- its own ministry of defence. In peace-time

jectiles, case-shot, fire-shells, and so-called only the cadres exist ; that is to say, that

high-angle shells, for bursting among troops of 92 Infantry battalions and 6 Cavalry

behind cover, are carried with the battery. regiments (24 squadrons) of Cis-Leithanian
The Garrison Artillery numbers 12 Landwehr, only I strong company per
battalions, each of 5 Field and and 1 strong squadron per
I Depot- battalion
cadre companies. Eighteen more battalions Cavalry Regiment are kept up.

have been projected, and will be formed in The Native Rifles (Landesschiitzen) of
the course of the next few years according the Tyrol and Vorarlberg consist of 10 bat-

the amount of money in hand. talions in time of peace, which are in war-
The uniform of the Artillery is dark- time increased by ten Reserve battalions.
In Trans-Leithania the Landwehr forms
brown. The men are armed with sword

a peculiar national Hungarian Army, the Queen, Maria Theresa, came to her

The so-called Honved Army, which is subject Parliament at Presburg in dire distress.
in war-time only to the commander-in- Dressed in the national Hungarian dress,
chief, and in peace-time only to the Royal with her newly born son (destined to
Hungarian jurisdiction, i.e. the Ministry of become Joseph II.) in her arms, pain and
Defence and the Landwehr Ministry. It courage depicted on her noble countenance,

Ro^al Hungarian Bocly - draapcL

forms in peace-time the cadres for 92 battalions of

Infantry and 1 5 regiments of Honved Hussars (60 squad-
rons). The officers of this force are trained in the
Honved Ludovica Academy at Buda Pesth. It is on
this Army, whose standards and badges are of the

Hungarian colours, and which in time of war reaches

nearly 200,000 men, that the pride of Hungary rests. It

fs this Army whose predecessors saved the Austro-

Hungarian Monarchy from destruction a century and a
half ago. On the 2 j st of September, 1741, the Empress Hun^afian Palace (auapcL

Hungarian laanci.wef)*' Ii*fanip]j


(aenepal in Hungapian tlm^opm

(Review Ot=clep).


Hungarian Infant*)?
Kassaf of ifyz HonvecL
(J^ewj Equipment).

Printed by <?. Lifteeimkn, Fwerth Bavaria

ngary. ||.

ijgi &a#s.

Published by William Clowes <£• Sons, L , London.


she advanced towards the Hungarian nobles, (on a war establishment) of the Austro-
and in a powerful Latin speech asked for Hungarian Army, Line and Landwehr
the National Army to be called out, to included, exceeds one million of trained
protect her and her country from her many men, of which 778,889 belong to the 1st
foes. Then the Hungarian magnates tore Line, and we remember that the Cis-Lei-
their crooked swords from their scabbards, thanians are in no way inferior in warlike

clashed them wildly together, and shouted : spirit, that inheritance of their forefathers,
" Moriamur pro. rege nostra Maria to their brethren on the far side of the
Theresa !
" With the help of her brave Leitha, we come to the conclusion

Hungarians, Maria Theresa, after making that in the Austrian Army, with its excellent
peace with Prussia, Corps of officers and excellent material in
Frederick II. of
succeeded in numerous the shape of men and horses, any State in
beating off her
enemies. Europe would find either a powerful
Conclu- If we consider that the total strength adversary or a most desirable ally.

N Italy we have the third of the Powers Standing Army (three with the Colours and
r who have formed the Triple Alliance five in the Reserve) ; four years in the
in order to maintain the peace ofEurope Landwehr, and seven years in the Land-
and to make common cause against any sturm. Those who have been exempted
disturber thereof. The history of this from service by ballot are sent straight to
country has been very similar to that of the Landsturm for nineteen years.
Germany. In this instance also, an ener- When
young men attain the age
getic Prince, King Victor Emmanuel them liable to serve, those
of Sardinia (died 1878), supported by an physically unfit are "cast," and some
active statesman, Count Cavour, placed are put back who are ill or excused for
himself at the head of the national move- domestic reasons. The remainder of
ment in favour of unity, and formed the the men draw lots and are placed
various States of the Peninsula into one according to their lottery' number in the
kingdom under his rule. 1st or 2nd class, those excused being

The kingdom of Italy appears thence- placed in the 3rd class. The 1st class
forth as the last formed among the European conscripts are distributed throughout the
Powers, and it has raised an excellent Army Standing Army. The 2nd class go through
in order to maintain its position as such. three months' training, to form an Ersatz
The development of the latter has since (or reinforcing) Reserve, and the 3rd class
that time progressed considerably, and men are called out every four years for a
especially so during the last decade, when few days at a time for instruction in the

a distinct advance has been apparent. use and manipulation of their arms.
Constituted on the principle of Universal The Standing Army consists accordingly
Conscription, the land forces of Italy are of eight yearly batches of the 1st class and
formed, similarly to those of the German eight of the 2nd class the Landwehr of

Empire, into a Standing Army, a Landwehr four yearly batches of men who have
(Milizia mobile), and a Landsturm (Milizia served their time in the Standing Army,
territoriale). and four batches of the 2nd class and the ;

Terms of The liability to serve commences with the Landsturm comprises seven batches of the
t wen tieth year, and continues till the thirty- 1st, seven of the 2nd, and nineteen of the
ninth. It consists of eight years in the 3rd class.


Infantry. The Infantry of the Standing Army tion is paid to musketry instruction, and
consists of 96 regiments (including 2 facilities for shooting are given and en-
Grenadier regiments), each of 3 battalions couraged by the holding of National Rifle
and I Ersatz company. Besides these, Meetings at stated times. At these meet-
there are the special Corps d' Elite, the ings, any soldier on furlough is allowed to
Bersaglieri ("marksmen" from — bersaglia compete, with his Service rifle.

=a target), and the Alpini (Alpine Rifles). The Cavalry of the Italian Army, on Cavalry,

The Bersaglieri, in 12 regiments, each of account of the scarcity of useful horses,

3 battalions and 1 Ersatz company, are and the mountainous character of the land,
Light Infantry, trained to execute all is weak in comparison with the Cavalry of
movements at the "double," exceedingly other European armies.
good shots, and looking very smart in their It consists of 24 regiments, each of 6
neat uniforms, the large hats of which are squadrons and an Ersafz-cadre'; i.e., 10
ornamented with a waving bunch of cock's Lancer regiments and 14 regiments of Light
feathers. Cavalry (Cavalleggieri).
The Alpine Troops consist of 7 regiments The Light Cavalry are armed with a
(forming 75 ^companies), to which are long curved sword, and the Lancers with a
attached 9 mountain batteries. These are lance. In addition to these weapons, the
also considered Corps d' Elite. whole of the Cavalry is. armed with a rifled

Composed of herdsmen and game- breech-loading carbine.

keepers, familiar with every footpath in The Field Artillery consists of 24 regi- Artillery,

the Alps, never fatigued, quick of sight ments, each of 8 batteries ; there are also

and hearing, and excellent shots, they are 6 Horse Artillery and 9 Mountain batteries.

equally valuable in reconnoitring work or It can put in the field in war-time 1,196
on the field of battle, although their guns. The heavy batteries are armed with
original r61e is that of acting in defence of 3 54-inch breech-loaders •
; the Light and

mountain passes. The Alpine com- Horse Artillery batteries with 2* 76-inch
panies are placed in summer as near as breech-loaders. The mountain guns, for

possible to the particular mountain passes the transport of each of which three horses

whose defence is assigned to them, and are or mules are provided, are of 2 95-inch

stationed for only half the year in the calibre, of steel-bronze, and mounted on
towns as winter quarters. wooden carriages.
Their duty is carried out with a particular The Garrison Artillery consists of 5

object in view, and consists mostly in regiments ; the Siege-train of 2 parts

shooting, skirmishing, constant marches each of 200 guns.

over mountain paths, reconnaissance duty The Engineers consist of 4 regiments, Enginaer

and patrolling, and in minor tactics. including a Railway and Telegraph Com-
The whole of the Italian Infantry is at pany, a Pontoon and a Bridging Troop.

this moment armed (until the alteration The Artillery and Engineers provide

of their former weapon, the single-loader their own Train.

Vetterli, is completed) with an excellent 12 Commissariat companies are told off

repeating rifle, the Vitali. Particular atten- for, service in the dep6ts.


The men of the Field Artillery and

Engineers carry a revolver besides a
sword ; Garrison Artillerymen are armed
with a breech-loading carbine.
There is also a Corps closely connected
with the Army which deserves mention,
namely, the Gendarmes, or " Carabinieri

Reali," whose strength amounts to 543

officers,22,487 Foot Gendarmes, and II
legions of Mounted Gendarmes.
Formerly many a story was told of the
fights between the Carabinieri and the
banditti. Nowadays, both the robbers
and the old Carabinieri have disappeared,
and the present Carabinieri Reali form an
excellent Corps, whose duty it is to main-
tain peace and good order in the country.
In war-time a battalion of them is sent
with each Army Corps. They have then

provide orderlies for the Staff, as well

to act as Military Police.

The whole kingdom is divided into Organisa-
twelve Army Corps Districts.
In peace-time the Army Corps
vary in strength. In war, each
Army Corps consists of 2 Di-
visions, the Division numbering
2 Brigades (each brigade con-
sisting of 2 regi-
ments of In-
fantry), and an
Artillery Di-
vision of 3 bat-
teries. Besides

these, each
Army Corps has
1 regiment of
N, Bersaglieri, 1 or
2 Artillery Di-
visions, each of
BepgagVre o_f tge Kfnean Contingent 4 batteries, 1


Additional troops have lately 1 Battalion African Bersaglieri,

P. 43.
been raised for service in Africa. They 1 Squadron Native Cavalry,
3 Batteries African Mountain Artillery.
consist of
1 Regiment African Rifles (4 battalions),
These are all for service at Massowah.
1 Regiment Native African Infantry
(4 battalions),

regiment of Cavalry, 2 companies of troops, such as the Brigade of Guards in

Engineers, with bridging-train, and I bat- Hyde Park, or the German Foot-Guards
talion of Carabinieri, forming altogether at Potsdam, will find much that is strange
27 battalions of Infantry, 5 or 6 squadrons on seeing the Italian Army, resulting from
of Cavalry, 12 to 16 batteries of Artillery, the peculiarity of race. He will miss
and 2 companies of Engineers, etc. — total, the upright bearing, the regular move-
about 29,000 men and 112 guns. ments and the steady drill of the Infantry,
The Alpini are not included in the and the well-groomed and glossy horses of
Corps organisation. the Cavalry but he will be pleased with

Milirie. The Landwehr consists of 48 regiments the picturesque uniforms of the Army, the
of Infantry, 1 8 battalions of Bersaglieri, 22 extremely smart appearance and active
Alpine Companies, 61 batteries of Artillery, movements of the Bersaglieri, with their
and 35 companies of Engineers. It is waving green plumes, and with the, martial

formed into twelve divisions in time of war. and powerful bearing of the Alpini,- with
Besides the above, there are 342 their upright plumes in their head-dress ;

battalions, 30 Engineer companies, and and he will find that the cry of " Evviva il

100 companies of Foot Artillery of the Re Umberto " sounds just as loud and
Landsturm, for garrison purpose. In peace- strong here as our own English " God save
time dep6ts for the Landwehr and Land- the Queen." The impression that he will
sturm are not organised preparations are take away with him will be that the war-

however being made them.

for institutinglike spirit of the ancient Romans has not

Concln- In this manner is organised the Army been lost in their descendants, and that the
which has now for about ten years proudly young kingdom of Italy is well prepared
taken its place alongside the proved and to throw her Army as a decisive weight on
war-tried armies of the senior Powers. to the side of victory in some future

Anyone accustomed to English or German European war.


' I "HE next on the list is France, our thorough revision and reorganisation of
•*- nearest continental neighbour, who her Army.
for a long time was the foremost of The laws
of 1872 and 1873 were passed (

European Military Powers. In the dis- with a view to this object, and by them
astrous war of 1870 she lost this position Universal Conscription was introduced, as
entirely,and has ever since then been in Germany. On economical grounds, all
making the most strenuous exertions to able-bodied conscripts were divided into
regain something of her old strength by two classes, the first of which serves five
years with the Colours, and the second only
one year.
After his five years' active service (or Terms of
one year, as the case may be) the soldier
goes for four (or eight) years to the Active
Reserve. Thereafter he enters the Terri-
torial Army for five years, and the Terri-
torial Army Reserve for a subsequent six
years,making twenty years in all. The
Active Army and its Reserve form the
Army of the 1st Line, and the Territorial
Army and its Reserve the Army of the
2nd Line.
The institution of one-year Volunteers
covers a much larger area than in the
German Army. The main point looked to
in awould-be one-year Volunteer is whether
he can pay his 1,500 francs the scientific

and educational from

certificates required
such candidates in Germany are quite a
secondary consideration in France.
France was not content with following
Officer? of- Mountain Kptilkp^, the German model when she re-constituted

Offiezp of (Sulrasglees wii§ Stan3.ar3..

Si3.e-3.e-Carr.p. (aenCTal,

In^antr^ of ilje Iaine.

Printed by 0. Liiwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria

;e. i.

Ppivaie ancl Ofjjisep of Ri|kg.

(Zljaggeup a eijeval.

Tpanspopi Coppg. tttgtne&t

Published by William Glowet & Sons, L , London.


her Army, but endeavoured to organise a

system whereby an enormous number of
trained soldiers should be turned out in
the shortest possible time —something like

the " levee en masse " which took place at

the time of the French Revolution in 1793.
This has been the aim of successive war
ministers since 1 87 1. It seems to have been
New Law. brought to a conclusive issue by the law
of the 15th July, 1889, which for severity
and harshness appears to surpass any
military sacrifices and duties ever demanded
of any people.
The main points of this law are as
follows :

1. Extension of liability to service from

twenty to twenty-five years.
2. Change from five years' to three years'
Offiazp of Mountain Rifle?.
service with the Colours.

3. Abolition of all exemptions

from conclusion if, however, they have not ;

service even the only sons of widows, the given satisfaction in the ranks, they may

eldest sons of orphans, and those whose be kept on for another two years. Candi-
brothers are already serving, must serve dates for the higher professions and
one year, and may be sent away at its theological students will have to serve for
one year, the latter to serve as bearers
during active service.
4. One-year Volunteers to be drawn
exclusively from students of science, and
from a few moderately high schools.
Payment of a military tax by all, and

an extra one by those who are unfit for

service, and by any who are con scribed for

less than three years.

A final point is given to this law by
stating that no one is to accept a govern-
mental or departmental office without
having previously served for five years in

either Army or Navy, and during two of

these years to have served in the capacity
of either officer or non-commissioned

Hospital OpSerl^ >uP2Con. The war-strength of France was, before w*r-


Printed by 0. L&weiiaohn, Fuerth Bavaria

Marine inj'anipj?

(Tpopieal SFiop2 Rig)

Marine Kptillew (Tpopiea! S/jor-e Rig).

(tln3.pe.sg ai;3. Full ]9p£#g),

PvMhlied by William Cloives & Horn, L^, Limdmu


dress is shako and double-breasted dark-

blue tunic. The Rifle battalions wear
blue-grey trousers.
The foreign troops, chiefly African, form
a remarkable feature in the French Army ;

they consist of Zouaves, Turcos, Foreign

Legion, and Spahis, and take the field with
the French troops against any Power,
civilised or otherwise.

The Zouaves were originally an Arab

tribe, whom the French conquered and
forced to pay tribute. Their dress is 28
picturesque, consisting of an open blue
jacket, red sash, loose red knickerbockers,
and white gaiters, their head-gear being a
red fez with or without a white turban.
At the ^present time, there are but few
Africans amongst them, the greater portion
being Frenchmen, pure and simple.
The Turcos are natives of Algeria and
Tunis, induced to enlist by a bounty of
£16. Their dress is similar to that of the
Zouaves, excepting that their knicker-
bockers are blue, or white, instead of red.
Both Zouaves and Turcos have many
attributes of good Light Infantry. The
former are renowned for their energy and
activity in the attack, and the latter for

their stalking and crawling powers. As

long as there is a prospect of victory, these
troops are full Han and courage, but a
defeat takes much of their spirit out of
Another peculiar body of troops are the
five battalions of Z6phyrs Light African
Infantry. They consist of very bad
who are sent to the Corps as a
punishment for their crimes. They garrison
different districts in Algeria, as a rule the
most unpleasant ones, and though formerly
never employed in Europe, will now be
allowed to do so in future wars.

as many as 25,000 men, is more or less

connected with the Army, for though in

peace-time it is employed on police-duty,

in war-time it would be formed into as
many Field Divisions of military police as
would be required for keeping order in rear

of the Army. The Garde-Republicaine of

Paris (Cavalry and Infantry), is a branch
of the Gendarmerie, and not of the Army,
and the Regiment of Sapeurs-Pompiers,
though militarily organised, is in reality

only the Fire Brigade.

The Train consists of 19 squadrons of 5

companies each.
Besides the above troops, there are

military corps organised for Postal and

Telegraph service in the field ; also a
Hallway Troop.
Balloon Corps, a Carrier-pigeon Corps, a
and horse straining every muscle to be first Cyclist Corps, and a Dog-training Corps.

in the race.

Artillery. The Field Artillery consists of 19

brigades (one to each Army Corps), each

of 2 regiments. One of these regiments

has 12, the other n batteries, including

between them 3 batteries of Horse Artillery,

so that each Army Corps has 23 batteries.

Each battery has 6 guns, fully-horsed even

in peace-time. Besides these, some moun-
tain batteries are going to be formed, but
only in case of need.
The Artillery is armed with an excellent
(3'53-in.) gun, on the De Bange system.
It was entirely re-armed with these after

the 1870-71 campaign, and at an enormous


The Garrison Artillery, 16 battalions of

6 batteries each, is also armed with first-

rate new guns.

Engineers. Of Engineers there are 4 regiments,

each of 5 battalions. An independent
Trumpeted i§z Papig Mounted
Railway Regiment has lately been formed. o;f

The Corps of Gendarmerie, numbering (aapcle RepuBlieaine,


Military / There are numerous schools in France ceedingly numerous, it is well organised,
intended either for military education or well armed, and endowed with a proper
further military instruction. Chief amongst warlike spirit. Although not " the best in
them is the Military School of St. Cyr, into the world," as every Frenchman will tell
which 400 candidates are admitted every you, the French soldier is possessed of
year as cadets, after a competitive ex- many excellent and soldier-like qualities.
amination. The course lasts for two years, One cannot form one's judgment by the
and the cadets are then sent as 2nd extremely slack and unsmart appearance
lieutenants to the Infantry and Cavalry. of the men, both as regards physique and
The Polytechnic School in Paris sends 250 uniform. The " Piou-piou," as the Infantry
cadets annually under like conditions to soldier is called by his fellow-countrymen,
the Artillery who lounges
and Engineers. about with his
In the time of k^pi well on
Napoleon I., a the back of his
great many of head and his

the officers, in- hands deep in

cluding some hisbaggy trou-

of his most ser-pockets,
famous mar- does certainly
shals, rose from not present a
the ranks ; and soldier-like ap-

even now a pearance, but

very large pro- all the same
portion of them he is an active
come from the and handy man
same source. on service, and
Total The whole on the field of
of France is battle advances
divided for ad- Cfjaggeup 3.' Sfrigae: p 1 u c k i 1 y
ministrative through a mur-
and organising purposes into 18 Regions, derous fire, with little thought of danger or
in each of which an Army Corps is alarm.
quartered. The 19th Corps is in Algeria. If we now come to the question why,
Each Army Corps comprises 2 Infantry with an Army which has given such
Divisions, each of 2 brigades of 2 regiments numerous proofs in many campaigns of its

each, besides a battalion of Rifles, a brigade valour and excellence, France has not kept
of Cavalry (2 regiments), and a brigade of up her prestige, the answer is to be found,

Artillery. not in the morale of the Army, but in that

On reviewing the size and organisation of France herself, a country in which the
of the French Army, we cannot help being spirit of order and subjection, and that
struck by the fact that, besides being ex- stern devotion to duty which is the founda-

tion of all have never taken declaration of war, in conjunction with the
root. Ambition and desire of conquest troops she has had stationed on her frontier
form the motive-power of many great and during peace-time and for defence by ;

glorious deeds, and are certainly not want- means of a defensive system on a vast scale,
ing in the French character. Higher than the outer line of which consists of frontier-
these, however, stands the feeling of duty fortresses and stop-gap forts from the Swiss
which keeps a man at his post through to the Belgian frontier, from Belfort, over
all hardships and perils, without a thought the Vosges ridge to Epinal, now a strong
for his own gain or loss, simply because he fortress, Toul and Verdun, on the right
has learned to subject his will to a higher bank of the Meuse. Behind this firs.t line
one. On this foundation can be raised a of defence a second one has been built,
discipline which permits of no loosening of consisting of entrenched camps between
the bonds of training and order even in forty and fifty miles apart, and reaching from
times of disaster, and which keeps up the Langres to Rheims. There are, in fact, but
spirit of the Army and faith in ite final few roads into France which are not
success even under the heaviest blows of covered by the fire of some fortress or
misfortune. This feeling cannot be learnt other. The central point of the whole of
in a three years', nor five years', nor even this vast defensive system is the huge

twenty-five years' service, if it is not in- fortress of Paris, which, with her circle of
grained and actually born in the national protecting forts surrounding her on a fifteep-
character and national system of education. mile radius, is more like a fortified province

Without these main features even universal than a fortress.

conscription itself will not be successful, and The secret of victory, however, does not
the recent Draconian law in France, lie in vast armaments like these. "It is
although it may bring forth vast masses of the spirit which forms the body " and brings
armed men, will not produce that feeling of into subjection the material powers for its

combined action and willingness to follow own objects. War is not only a combat of
their leaders to the death which is so material forces ; it is in a higher sense a
characteristic of nations in whom
the combat of cultured forces. Let us, there-
military spirit is thoroughly implanted. fore, remember that the best preparation for

France is well-armed for attack as well trial by combat does not lie in continual
as defence for attack, by means of the striving to over-reach another in material

great armed masses which she can throw and brute force, but in the striving after a
into the enemy's country at the first more complete development of warlike skill.

Pp. 46, 47. Now that the new law has and young, who have ever received any
come into force, July 1890, the terms of military training, and is therefore hardly
service have been entirely changed. As a just estimate of the French fighting-
the law now stands, seven-tenths of the strength. The latest trustworthy estimates

annual contingent of recruits have to serve put it at 2,790,000 men.

for 3 years, and three-tenths for 1 year.
P. 49. The Cavalry is now, or will be
After his colour-service, a man joins the
very shortly, composed of 92 regiments of
Active Reserve for 7 (or 9) years, then the
5 squadrons, and 4 regiments of Spahis of
Territorial Army for 6 years, and after
that the Territorial Reserve for 9 years
6 squadrons each — total, 484 squadrons.
They consist of
more —total 25 years.
312,000 youths reach the military age 14 Regiments of Cuirassiers,

Of only 174,000 34 » Dragoons,

(20) every year. these ,.

are required for colour-service. The effect

22 „ „ Chasseurs a Cheval,

of the new law will be that by 19 15 A.D. 14 „ „ Hussars,

there will be no fewer than 3,500,000 of

8 „ „ Chasseurs dAfrique,

Frenchmen properly trained as soldiers 4 „ „ Spahis.

Total, 96 regiments.
and ready to take the field, and 60,000
trained men per annum will have been P. 49. 12 Mountain Batteries are being
added to the army !
formed. There are, in addition to the
N.B. — The war-strength of over 4,000,000 numbers given, 12 batteries in Corsica,
given on page 47 includes all men, old Algeria, and Tunis.


T) USSIA is situated, from a military The number of able-bodied young men

I\ point of view, quite differently to who annually attain the requisite age, 21
any other European country, for of the years, comes to about 800,000. Of these
whole Russian Empire only about a only 225,000 are conscribed, and the requi-
quarter lies in Europe. This quarter, it is site number for the Army are selected from
true, is larger, than the rest of all Europe these by lot the remainder are sent to ;

put together, but it contains only a third the Opoltschenie. The latter body, there-
of the population. Although by far the fore, consists of a huge mass of men, but
greater part of her dominions lies in mostly untrained. There is no middle
another continent, Russia has had a pretty body of men, like the German Landwehr,
large finger in the European pie, and will in the Russian Army.
in the future, no doubt, often mix herself The Regular Army is divided into four
up in European politics. Her policy, if it bodies, according to the respective duties
can be called so, is to try to influence required from them. They are the Field
Western questions in such a manner as Forces, Reserve Forces, Ersatz Forces, and
eventually to bring all Slav races under Local Forces.
her rule. The Field Forces are intended to be the
Russia has therefore organised her Army first to take the field in case of war.
on an European footing, and chiefly on the Their Infantry consists of 192 regiments Infantry,

German model. In 1874 she brought in of 4 battalions each, and 58^ Rifle
Universal Conscription, from which, how- battalions, as follows :

ever, the upper classes, i.e., the nobility,

12 Regiments of the Guard.
the clergy, and officials, are exempt. The
16 „ Grenadiers.
actual Colour service lasts six years ; after
164 „ Infantry of the Line.
that the soldier is sent for nine years more
4 Rifle Battalions of the Guard.
to the Reserve, which can be called out to
S4i » » „ Line.
reinforce the Standing Army. During the
rest of his time, i.e., up to his twentieth The Guard Regiments enjoy many
year of service he belongs to the privileges denied to the rest, and their
Opoltschenie —a body of men similar to officers rank one step higher in the Army.
the German Landsturm. Many alterations in the uniform have

been made by the present Czar. The

dark green colour has been preserved, but
the cut of the tunic has been altered from
that of the Prussian tunic to a loose
double-breasted jacket fastened with hook
and eye, and with no buttons. The head-
gear is a round fur-cap, white in the case
of Generals and Staff-officers, and black in
all others. The soldier has little to do in

the way of metal-polishing, it is true, but

still the eye misses the accustomed glint
which one usually associates with a mili-
tary uniform. The Regiments of the
Guard and Grenadiers have special dis-

tinguishing marks on their uniform.

The Infantry rifle is a useful breech-
loader with bayonet, on the system of the
American General Berdan. Regarding
the question of magazine-rifles, the
Government has not yet made up its
Cossaek of ifje (auapcL

Infant^ (5 eaV ^ mapel)mg ot=ckp) Cogsaek of ijjet Caueagu?,


mind ; so that, for the present at all Brigade of Guard Artillery, and 23
events, Russia is rather behindhand in the batteries of Horse Artillery of the Line ;

matter. besides the above, there are two Mounted

Cavalry. The Cavalry of the Field Forces consists Mountain Batteries.
of:— The Field Batteries have 8 guns, only 4
Guard Cavalry :
of which are horsed in peace-time. A
Horse Artillery Battery always has 6
4 Regiments of Cuirassiers,
fully-horsed guns.
2 „ „ Dragoons,
The materiel consists of excellent steel-
2 „ „ Hussars,
guns, mostly from Krupp's works in
2 „ „ Lancers.
Essen, the bore of the heavy field-guns
and 46 regiments of Dragoons of the being 4' 16 inches, and that of the light ones

Line. 3"39 inches.

The Cuirassier regiments have 4, the The Engineers consist of 17 battalions Engineers,
remainder 6 squadrons each. Besides the of Sappers (including I Guard and I

above, there is a Division (2 squadrons) of Grenadier Battalion), and a few inde-

Crimean Tartar Cavalry, which would be pendent companies, 8 battalions of
expanded in case -of war to a regiment. Pontonniers, 9 Railway battalions, 6 Field-
The uniform of the Guard Cavalry, as parks, 16 Military Telegraph-parks, and 2
can be seen by our plates, is very brilliant Siege-parks.
compared with that of the Dragoons of the There is no Train ; it is formed in war-
Line. The whole Cavalry is armed with a time by taking men from the Cavalry
light and slightly-curved sabre, called a Reserves. Hence it would appear that the
" Shashka," which is worn on a narrow mobility and manoeuvring power of the
band over the right shoulder. The front- Army in the field would not be very great.

ranks of the Cuirassiers and Lancers carry During peace-time the Reserve forces,

lances on garrison-duty and on full-dress which would have to complete the Army
occasions, but these would not be taken on to war strength on its taking the field, and
service. The Dragoons carry a rifle, the Ersatz forces, whose duty it would be
somewhat shorter than that of the to fill up gaps caused by death, wounds,
Infantry, the bayonet of which is worn on disease, etc., during the war, are only
the " Shashka "-scabbard other Cavalry represented by dep6t-cadres.

regiments carry the Berdan carbine. To the Local forces belong 50^ battalions
Artillery, The Field Artillery consists of :— of Garrison Artillery, distributed amongst
the fortresses of the country, besides 32
3 Brigades of Guard Field Artillery,
Line battalions, quartered in Asiatic Russia
4 Brigades of Grenadier Field
for garrison duties ; they may, however, if
necessary, be employed on Active Service.
44 Brigades of Field Artillery of the
To these forces also belong the " Instruction
troops," which practise new regulations,
Each brigade numbering 6 batteries. tactical and otherwise, as they are brought
The Horse Artillery consists of 1 out, and experimentalise with new arms

and equipment when necessary. The Corps have assisted in carrying the Russian
of Gendarmes and the Frontier Guards may dominion further into Asia. The history
also be said to form part of the Local of the settlement of these tribes in Siberia,
forces. led by the Cossack chief Jermac, is exceed-

Total The Field Forces are in peace-time divided ingly interesting. This bold leader crossed
into 19 Army Corps (including the Guard the Ural mountains in 1758 with a following
Corps and the Grenadier Corps) ; 2 to 3 of only 840 Cossacks. His conquering
Infantry Divisions, and 1 Cavalry Division, progress equalled that oi the Spaniards
with their Artillery, form an Army Corps. under Cortez in Mexico for adventure and
The Infantry Division numbers 2 Infantry for the great results that flowed from his
Brigades, each of 2 regiments and I brigade successes.

of Field Artillery. A Cavalry Division Although attached to Russia, the Cos-

numbers in the same way 2 brigades of 2 sacks are Russian in neither their language,
regiments each ; besides 2 batteries of religion, nor customs. Gifted with extra-

Horse Artillery. ordinarily sharp senses, good-humoured,

The peace-strength of the Regular Army and hospitable, born warriors, excellent

comes to something like 700,000 men and horsemen, and good shots, they are yet
1,538 field-guns, and the war-strength to difficult to govern, and inclined somewhat to
1,800,000 men and 3,260 guns. insubordination. Now that they have been
In addition to this enormous number bound down to stay in settled districts,
there are the Irregular troops —a force quite instead of wandering all over the country,
peculiar to Russia —namely, the Cossacks.* their wildness has been somewhat toned
Cossacks. The Cossacks are tribes of mixed down, and they are of inestimable value to
'Russian, Turkish, They Russia in her service on the Chinese frontier,
and Tatar blood.
are descended from tribes of horsemen, who in the Ural, in the Kuban, in Siberia, in the
after the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth Crimea, and on the Seas of Azov or of
century settled on the Don and Dnieper Aral. In return for lands granted by
and established their own forms of govern- the government on the different fron-
ment. Every three years they used to elect tiers, every Cossack is bound to serve as a

a "Hetman" as chief, with a council of soldier. They have a military organisation

elders, " Narschines," to assist him. The and are divided into Cavalry regiments, or
Don Cossacks of Great Russia have their " polks."
head-quarters north of the Sea of Azov and They are gradually being more and more
in the mountainous districts of that region. definitely organised, disciplined, and trained.

Branches of these Cossacks have settled onEach man has to provide himself with
the Volga, on the shores of the Sea of clothing and equipment according to regu-
Azov, along the Ural, in the Kuban North- lation, and with a horse, and keep them
western Caucasus and in Siberia. Ever up during his time of service. The uniform
since they became subject to Russia they consists in a short coat, "kasakin," or a
long one, " tcherkesska," with a woollen
* From the Turco-Tataric word Kasak,
and in Tatar shirt, " beshmet," loose trousers, k»g-boots,
which means in Turkish a robber,
a free lightly-armed warrior. no spurs, and a fur-cap, " papasha.'/ Their

Offieo? of Hz FieU Poliee (fall a«wi). Fielcl GkncLapme: (gepvlee kit).

chief weapon is a long pennonless lance, worst forage possible does not come amiss
with sabre ("shashka"), pistol, or in the to them.
case of Cossacks of the Caucasus, long A Cossack rides in the Oriental
knives, " kin- t.e. with a loose teristics.

z ha 1," and rein, high

finally, a rifle saddle, short

of some sort. stirrup, and

Their small toes down ; he
insignificant- is very fond

looking horses of his horse

are not to be and treats him

beaten for kindly.

speed and en- Their extra-

durance. A ordinary mo-
day's journey bility, endur-

of twenty hours a n c e, and

not too much cleverness in

them getting over

for ;

all obstacles of
their hardiness
extraordi- ground, parti-

nary, and the Cogjsaek of if)£ ^moup, cularly fit the


Cossack troops for outpost and recon- the Bashkirs and the Tunguses. Although
naissance duty, for rapid raids and bold these people render Russia most valuable
surprises, as well as for the pursuit of the service in her Asiatic possessions, still she
enemy. What is also by no means their can hardly count on their services in an
least advantage is that this mode of em- European war, so that an invasion by these
ploying them in war would leave the regular Asiatic races, like what happened in the
Russian Cavalry free for actual combat in times of Tamerlane or Jengiz-Khan, need
the field. not be taken into account by the Europe of
The Cossack Army which best shows to-day.
Laying the question of these Conclu-
the Cossack peculiarities of character and J a aside ^
organisation is that of the Don Cossacks, Irregular troops, we cannot deny that
which numbers in peace-time, besides the Russia possesses a well-disciplined Army,
Bodyguard Regiment of Cossacks, 15 and one which is prepared for war. It is a
regiments of Cavalry, 1 battery of Guard- mistaken idea to imagine the Russian
Cossacks, and 7 batteries of the Line. In soldier to be half a barbarian and a foe to
war-time these numbers can be considerably higher culture. Frederick the Great learnt
and the whole Cossack Army to respect Russia as a powerful adversary,
would amount to 14 battalions Infantry, and in the beginning of this century she
136 regiments Cavalry, and 40 Horse brought a heavy weight to bear in favour
Batteries (236 guns). of Austria and Prussia, and fought valiantly
This gipsy-like nation of horsemen, who as their ally against the power of Napoleon
eat, drink, sleep, live and die in their I. Since that period Russia has made
saddles, and, eager for plunder, either important progress, not only in her culture,
precede the Regular Army or attach them- but in the organisation and arming of her
selves to it, is well known in Germany, Army ; universal conscription has also acted
where it appeared during the Wars of the as a powerful assistant to universal
Liberation (1806-1815). One mightsay with education. Whether Russia will fight
Schiller :
" The rider and his swift horse are Germany in the near or in the distant
fearsome guests." On the whole, it seems to future is a matter that does not concern us
be the fate of the Cossacks to be regarded here ; we will leave the discussion of the
with feelings of greater respect as enemies probabilities pro and con to the news-
than as friends. papers.The time may come, but all we
Still less amenable to discipline than need know about the matter is that
the Cossacks are some of the other foreign Germany is fully prepared and, though
tribes found amongst the Russian Irregulars, respecting her possible adversary, is not.
such as the Tatars of the Crimea, the afraid of her.
inhabitants of the Caucasus, theTchcrkesses,
— —


P. 53. The Russian Infantry now num- 38 Rifle Battalions of the Line.
bers Pp. 56-58. The Cossacks form alto-

10 Regiments of the Guard, gether

18 „ „ Grenadiers, 32 Regiments Regular Cavalry,

164 „ „ the Line, 136 Squadrons Irregular „

20 „ „ Rifles (2 battalions each) 7 Battalions of Infantry,

4 Rifle Battalions of the Guard, 1 2 Batteries of Artillery.

Office? o| In|antp^.
OffiazT of Kpiilleev.

1 rinted by 0. LBweruohn, Fuerth Bavaria


Published by William Qlnw* & Sont, L , London-



T HE military organisations of the Great

Powers of Europe have served as gave them
patterns to the smaller Powers, for even the
separated the Duchies from

and courage,
to Prussia.
Denmark and
The resolution
however, with which the men
smallest State must have an Army of its of the tiny Danish Army withstood the
own wherewith to defend its independence vastly superior forces of the other two
and secure the vindication of its rights, Powers, and the determined opposition
actual or imaginary. Its strength would which they offered, more especially in their
depend on the size, geographical situation, fortifications at Danewirke, Duppel, and the
and historical associations of the State. Island of Alsen, until their last hope of
Historical. In recent times the small State of foreign intervention had gone, bear most
Denmark has once or twice been obliged honourable testimony to the excellence
to have recourse to arms, in order to keepand courage of the Danish troops.
possession of the Duchies of Schleswig- After this war Denmark made use of
Holstein, to the right of attaching which her bitter experience in reorganising her
to the Danish crown, or rather to their Army on new lines, a proof that she had,
absorption into the Danish commonwealth, in spite of the loss of her lands, by no
Prussia objected. In the year 1848-49 means given up the idea of being a Power
the small Danish Army succeeded in in the North of Europe. She has now Terms of
making such a gallant stand against the made an important step in the military
might of Prussia, that time was gained for by introducing universal
line conscription,
other great Powers, namely, Russia and the terms of which are four years with the
England, to step in in her favour. The Colours, four in the Reserve, and eight in
resultwas that Prussia was obliged to the " Reinforcement " Reserve.
stay her hand from taking under her The Danish Army is now constituted as Organisa-
r ,, tion.
protection the German inhabitants of the follows :

two Duchies.
In 1863-64, when Prussia and Austria Infantry Infantry,

took in hand the German rights in the I Battalion Foot Guards, with 4
Duchies, circumstances were considerably, battalions Reinforcement Reserve.
altered,and the war, which lasted a whole 10 Regiments of the Line, each of 3
year, was brought at last to a close by the battalions Active and 1 battalion Rein-
Treaty of Vienna, which once and for all forcement Reserve, forming 5 brigades


lions and batteries only exist as depdt-

The Infantry is still armed with a single-
loading rifle, the Remington, but it is in-

tended to shortly arm them with a magazine-

rifle, which is now in course of preparation.

The Cavalry is armed with the sabre and

Remington carbine. Their Jutland horses
are clumsy, but enduring, animals. Recently
large purchases of horses have been made
in Germany to improve the breed.
The Danish character is better adapted
for stout resistance and endurance than
for daring courage, and the Army accord-
ingly is better fitted for a defensive r61e,
such as holding a fortified position to the
last extremity, than for offensive action
and bold attack.
The general plan of national defence is

Foot dmapcUman. based on this characteristic, for the capital,

Copenhagen, is going to be turned into a
(2 Jutland, 2 Seeland and 1 Funen) great entrenched camp, which would be
of 2 regiments each. garrisoned by the larger portion of the
Danish Army in case of war.
Cavalry. Cavalry
1 Regiment Hussars of the Guard and
4 regiments of Dragoons, each of 4

Artillery. Artillery
Field Artillery —2 Regiments of 2 divi-
sions each —total,12 Line and 4
-•— v„

Reinforcement Reserve Batteries.

Garrison Artillery — 2 Battalions — total,

6 Line and 4 Reinforcement Reserve

Engineers. Engineers — 1 Regiment of 5 Line and 3
Reserve Companies.
Train —4 Sections.
The total strength of the Danish Army
is reckoned at about 50,000 men, with 128
guns. The Reinforcement Reserve batta-

aval Offieep.

Officer of tf)e Bo3.y-(suap3..

Dragoon -druapcU. Engineer*. Artillery.

Printed by O. LBwensohn, Fuerili Bavaria


(suapcU. Office? of Engineers.

Itrfantpj? (Maying Op&er).

Pvblithed by William Clowes & Som, Ld

, London.
—— —



QWEDEN, which once, in the time of Corps, whilst the latter are, during the
*"-* the Thirty Years' War, represented greater part of the year, on furlough,
the first Military Power in Europe, keeps looking after their farms.

up now only a small Army, just large The third portion is the "Bewaring,"
enough for the needs of the country. The which consists of all men between their
military system of Sweden is a peculiar twenty-first and twenty-sixth years of age.
one, and entirely different from that of In case of war they would have to reinforce
other States. the other two portions.
Military The whole land is divided into a great The Swedish A'rmy consists of Organisa-
many small " Rote " or Divisions, each of
Infantry Infantry.
which has to supply one able-bodied man
2 Regiments of the Body-Guard,
of the right age for the Army. This man
2 „ „ Body-Grenadiers,
serves for as long as his physical powers
17 » » Infantry,
last. He receives a small property, con-
2 Battalions of Body-Grenadiers, and
sisting of house, farm, and ploughland, and
4 Rifle battalions.
definite pay as long as he is actually with
the Colours. Each regiment consists of 2 battalions
Men for the Cavalry are provided in a in peace-and 3 in war-time this would :

very similar manner with their horses by give 48 and 69 battalions respectively.
the larger landowners or " Rusthalters," in Cavalry.
return for their exemption from certain
1 Regiment of Life-Guards of 4
These troops are called " Indelta " men.
4 Regiments of Hussars with altogether
The second portion of the Swedish Army 26 squadrons,
consists of the " Varfvade," the men of
2 Regiments of Dragoons with altogether
which body enlist voluntarily for from two
15 squadrons,
to six years' service, and may re-engage
1 Corps of Light Horse of 2 squadrons.
for further service.
Total, 47 squadrons.
The Varfvade men can be trained much
more thoroughly than those of the Indelta, Artillery — 3 Regiments of Field Artillery, Artillery,

for the former are continually with their of 5 divisions of 2 batteries each, the
: —


regiment consisting of 10 (2 " Driving," there are only cadres in existence. In the
6 Horse-Artillery, and 2 "Foot") event of war, the Line Infantry would
batteries, besides the Reserve Artillery consist of 5 brigades of 4 battalions
of 3 Foot —
and 6 Driving-batteries. each total, 20 battalions. The Cavalry of
Each battery has about 6 guns, which 1 brigade of 3 Corps of Light Dragoons
gives a total number of 234 field-guns. total, 1 1 squadrons the Artillery of 5 ;

Engineers. Engineers — 1 Pontoon battalion, including battalions =11 batteries with 66 guns ; the
a Field-Telegraph Company, and I Engineers of a small division. Grand total,

battalion of Sappers. about 18,000 men.

Train — 1 battalion of 2 companies. The rifle of the Swedish and Norwegian
The Swedish Infantry drill is somewhat Infantry is the Remington, which, however,
out of date. The quiet and leisurely way will shortly be replaced by a magazine-
in which a battalion drills is something
astonishing. The skirmishers have to keep
exactly in line and are directed by a
sergeant in the centre with uplifted rifle.

Every time a man in the firing-line snaps

his rifle, he shouts out "Piff-paff!" The
introduction of a new magazine-rifle will,
therefore, probably cause some fatigue to
the throats of the Swedish Infantry.

Although Norway is united under the
same Crown with Sweden, still her military
system differs entirely from that of the

Military Every able-bodied man of twenty-two

years old is sent to the so-called " Land-
armament," to serve five years in the Line,
four in the "Landwehr" and four in the
" Landsturm." The conscripts remain but
very few weeks With the Colours. The
main portion of the Army consists of men
voluntarily enlisted, who are bound to stay |

for six years.

Organisa- The Rifle Corps, of five companies, of

which one forms a Guard-Company, con-

sisting entirely of voluntarily-enlisted men, |


constitutes the only Corps under arms in Offleee (StancLapcl-Beape:)?) of ige hife.
time of peace ; of the remaining troops (auaPcU (KncLpa larfgapclet),
) —


rifle invented by Colonel Jarman of their The Cavalry carries the Remington
Army. carbine in addition to the sabre. The
Artillery is being re-armed with new guns,
made partly in the Krupp works at
Essen, and partly in the Swedish cast-steel
It is strange to find here, in the north of
Europe, a head-dress similar to that south
of the Alps. The Norwegian Rifleman
wears an almost identical hat with the
Italian Bersagliere.
The idea of having their Army organised
for a foreign campaign does not appear to
have been entertained by the Norwegian-
Swedish government. The men, however,
are tough fighters and good campaigners,
sturdy and enduring, abstemious and
unassuming, and there is every reason to
believe that the Scandinavian Army would
be in any case fully equal to its true and
Iaig§t Cavalpj?. (Jemilancbs destined use i.e., the defence of the
§asijagai»eeoifp2. country.


N most European States the Army is belong to certain named professions are
I worked by the Sovereign or Govern- allowed to buy exemptions from service for
ment of the country for the defence of the £60. Of the remaining able-bodied men
Crown and the nation, and for the up- it is the ballot which decides which are to
holding of the Law. This, however, was for enter the Active Army.
a long time not the case in the south-western Service is for twelve years on the whole,
portion of Europe, i.e. the Iberian Peninsula. of which six years, as a rule, or three, or
It could not be the case, for during even even less, are passed with the Colours. The
this century revolution has succeeded remainder of a man's service is passed in
revolution, and the different forms of the Active Reserve. All those who are not
government introduced at rapidly-recurring taken by lot to serve with the Colours,
intervals have made it impossible for the including those exempted by law and
Army to be always at the beck and call of purchase, are classed as " Disponible
the head of the State for the time being. Recruits ;
" these receive only a very short
The energetic young king, Alfonso XII., training and are called out to reinforce the
who ascended the Spanish throne in 1874 Army in case of necessity only. After six
(and died in experienced the years' service as such, the " Disponible
necessity of making himself chief of the 2nd Reserve.
recruits enter the
Army, and instituted a military system by The kingdom of Spain is divided up into Organisa-
which he hoped to put an end to the earlier 14 Military Districts, each under a Captain-
irregularities. These are again divided into 140
Organisa- The Army of Spain now Military Zones, each under a colonel, who
is therefore
divided into the Peninsular Army, which is responsible for mobilisation and supply
serves in Spain itself, and the Colonial details. Each Zone comprises 1 Active, infantry.
Army, which serves in Cuba, Puerto Rico, 1 Reserve, and 1 Dep6t battalions. These
and the Philippine Islands. latter two battalions are in peace-time
Terms of The Peninsular Army
founded on the represented only by cadres, which would

system of universal conscription, to which be expanded into either Field or 2nd Line
every Spaniard becomes liable on attaining battalions in case of mobilisation. Of the
his twentieth year. Those who are 140 active battalions 20 are Rifles ; the
exempted by law from the Army are only remainder form 60 Line regiments of 2
called out in time of war, and those who battalions each.

R.i|leman. Iaine InjWtpj; Offiee? of Offhzp of Mounted Rifle?. kanea?.

(Mapping OpcUp. ) GrencUpmepie.

Hopjse Sptillep^.
Ofjucep o| Ppineesg' Hw»ap;s.
(Mapping OpScp )

Printed % <?. Luwensohn, Fuerth Havana

ipain. Portugal.

Published by William Chives & Sons, Ld

, London-


Artillery — 5 Regiments of Divisional Ar- Artillery,

tillery of 6 batteries each, altogether

30 batteries with 1 80 guns ; 5 regi-

ments of Corps Artillery of 4 batteries

each, altogether 20 batteries with 1 20
guns ; 2 regiments of Mountain Artil-

lery, each of 6 batteries, altogether

72 guns, and 1 regiment of Siege and
Position Artillery, 4 batteries of 4 guns
each, altogether 16 guns. Total there-
fore, 388 guns, and 9 battalions
Fortress Artillery.
Engineers — 5 Pioneer regiments, 1 Rail- Engineers,

way battalion, 1 Telegraph battalion,

and S Reserve regiments.

There is no Train in time of peace.

The peace-strength of the Peninsular
Army amounts to 116,000 men.
Besides these there are 16 regiments of
Gendarmes (Guardia Civil), numbering
15,000 men, and 11,000 men of the
Carabineros, or Frontier Force.

Hal6ei?clie:i? of k§z Palaee.

There are in peace-time no

higher units than battalions ;

brigades, divisions, and army

corps would be formed only in
case of war.
The remainder of the Spanish
Army consists of :

Cavalry —8 Regiments of
Lancers, 14 Regiments of
Cazaderos (Light Horse), 2
Regiments of Hussars, 4 Re-
giments of Dragoons, each of
4 squadrons. Besides these
there are 28 Reserve regi-

ments, of which only cadres

exist in peace-time, and 1

(srencpal (|ull ctaejfg).

squadron of Life-Guards.

The Colonial Army, about 33,000 men in exchequer), so that the Army does not
all, is by any means comprise as many men as
formed by voluntary enlistment.
Armament. The Infantry is armed with the would appear from the strength as laid
Remington rifle, the Cavalry with sword down on paper. With a nominal peace
and Remington carbine. Three sections* strength of 37,000, the actual strength is
of each squadron of Lancers carry the only about 18,000.
lance. The Artillery is armed with cast- The terms of service are three years with
steel Krupp guns of 3*15 inches calibre; the Colours, five years in the 1st Class,
the Mountain Artillery with those of 2-95 and four in the 2nd Class Reserves.
inches. The guns have, however, been The Infantry consists of 24 Line and Organisa-
altered to Colonel Placentia's system. 12 Rifle regiments, each of 2 Active and
The two Royal Household Companies, 1 Dep6t battalions, altogether 72 battalions,
Halberdiers, are the only ones who wear the the Dep6t battalions being skeleton ones.
old Spanish dress. —
Cavalry 10 regiments, of which the
The Spaniard combines the two are Lancers, and the remainder
liveliness and first

hot blood of the southerner with the Light Dragoons (Cacadores a Cavallo).
determination and endurance of the Each regiment consists of 3 Active and 1
northerner, and would now count as one of Dep6t squadrons.
the best soldiers in Europe if it were not Artillery 3 Regiments of Field Artil- —
that, in consequence of the long civil wars lery of 12 batteries each, 2 Regiments of
and disturbances in the country, he had Garrison Artillery of 12 companies each, 1
become somewhat less amenable to dis- Mountain Brigade of 6 batteries. Total, —
cipline than formerly. If an instance is 32 Active and 10 Reserve batteries with
required' of what Spaniards can do when 132 guns.
fighting for their land and freedom, we Engineers —2 Active and 1 Reserve
have only to look at the guerilla and battalions, and 1 Torpedo Company.
mountain warfare waged by this plucky Portugal has, besides this Army, a
nation against the old campaigners of Colonial Force of 9,600 men, chiefly
Napoleon at the beginning of this century, natives.
before the English troops came to their The Infantry is now armed with the
assistance. Kropatschek repeating-rifle ; till quite
recently, they had the Enfield rifle. The
PORTUGAL. Field Artillery is chiefly armed with 3 • 54-
Terms of Universal Conscription is the rule in inch steel Krupp guns.
Service. „ , . ,.
Portugal as well as in most other countries, More attention appears to be paid in
but there are numerous exemptions and Portugal to the Navy than to the Army,
sendings on " unlimited furlough with the and it seems unlikely that the latter will be
Colours " (in order to save the national engaged in war, at all events for some time
* Out of four. to come.

— <voi*;o

THEFree Swiss Republic, or rather the large Army

Confederation of twenty-two time, however, this system, in order to be
in time of war. At the same

small Republics (Cantons), had its begin- of any use, would require the people to be
ning in the four " Forest " towns of Schwyz, naturally of a warlike tendency, and every
Uri, Unterwalden, and Glarus. It was by man to be thoroughly accustomed to the
the treaties of 1815, upon which, after the use of a rifle in fine, it would require that

downfall of Napoleon I., the present dis- there should always be a nucleus of
tribution of Powers was founded and still to thoroughly-trained troops, even in peace-
a great extent remains, that the neutrality time.
of Switzerland was recognised, so that she Every Swiss is liable to service from the
is now, to all intents and purposes, 20th to the 44th year of his age. Of these
excluded from taking part in an European twenty-five years of service, thirteen are
war. Being, however, surrounded by three spent in the Auszug (Active Army) and
" "

Great Powers, whose Armies may at any twelve in the "Landwehr." All able-bodied
time traverse her territories from any men between the ages of 17 to 50 who are
quarter, she is obliged to guard her not employed in either of the above branches
neutrality very strictly. This object she belong to the " Landsturm." Anyone who
seeks to accomplish by universal conscrip- is not fit to serve has to pay a small
tion and by a military system which is fine as a sort of compensation.
adapted to the exigencies of the country In case of war the " Auszug " would
and rests on the so-called "Militia provide the Army as follows :

According to this system the conscript Infantry —98 Fusilier and 8 Rifle Bat- Organisa-

has to pass only a few weeks or months talions.

in being trained, and is subsequently called Cavalry— 8 Regiments (24 squadrons)

out for only a few weeks annually during of Dragoons and 12 Companies of
peace-time. This system certainly allows Guides.
of universal service in the widest sense Artillery — 24 Regiments of Field
of the word, and also gives a small State Artillery, and 1 of Mountain Artil-
the power of calling out a proportionally lery, each of 2 batteries of 6 guns

each — total, 300 guns, besides 10 nations. The Infantry is armed with the
batteries of Position Artillery. repeating Vetterli rifle, the Rifles with a
Engineers —9 Battalions. similar short repeating-rifle, and the
Train —8 Battalions. Dragoons with a repeating-carbine. The
Field Artillery has three patterns of guns :

Strength The strength of the Field Army comes the light 3-28-in., the heavy 3-93-^., and
to a jj OUt IOOOO o men. It consists of the the mountain 2 92-inch guns.
The Swiss
Army Staff and 8 Divisions, each com- soldier is more of a Light Infantry man
prising 2 Infantry Brigades^ each Brigade than anything else ; as for the Swiss
comprising 2 Regiments of Infantry, 1 Cavalry, it is not to be considered on the
Rifle Battalion, 1 Regiment of Dragoons, same footing as the Cavalry of other
1 Company of Guides, 1 Brigade of Artillery, nations, being feeble.
1 .Battalion' of Engineers, 1 of Train, 1 The Swiss Militiaman is trained for a'

Field Hospital and 1 Administration short time and then sent home with his
Company. uniform and rifle. Thereafter he appears
The Landwehr consists of nearly as yearly for a short training, in order to
many men as the Auszug, but the former " keep his eye in." This sketchy military
are only called on to serve on garrison education is, however, greatly helped by the
duty at home. As for arms, the Swiss numerous Cadet divisions in the schools, and

troops are not behindhand with other by Volunteer Rifle and Gymnastic clubs.

Printed by G. LSweneohn, Fuertii Bavaria


drcticle, Engineers. CapaB.iniep.

Published by William Clowes & Sons, L , Lcmdtm*

; :



HTHE " Kingdom of the Netherlands," that the training of the Militiamen is not
-*- instituted by the Vienna Congress so thorough as it might be, and also that
In 1815, was, after the revolt of the southern the troops are not always kept up to their
provinces,divided into two kingdoms, full establishment.
Holland and Belgium, the former extending The Standing Dutch Army consists of— Organisa-
from the mouth of the Ems to those of the
Rhine, Maas, and Scheldt, and the latter
Infantry — 1 Grenadier and Rifle Regi-
ment (comprising 3 battalions of
from these mouths to the north-eastern
Grenadiers and 2 of Rifles), and
frontier of France, The neutrality of
8 Line Regiments of 5 battalions
these two States, recognised by the other
Great Powers of Europe,
— Grand
each 45 total, battalions.

Cavalry — 3
have so far
Regiments of Hussars,
exempted them from keeping up large
each of 5 Field and one Dep6t
standing armies, that their organisation
remains very much as was in 1830.

The Dutch

military system is a com-

Artillery — 1 - Corps of Horse Artillery,

3 regiments Field Artillery, alto-

bination of the old Voluntary Enlistment
gether 42 batteries with 252 guns
and the Militia systems. Every able-
and 4 regiments of Garrison Artil-
bodied young man between 20 and 25
years of age bound
the number

to enter the Militia
these not to exceed 1 1,000
Engineers —3 Field Companies, 3
Fortress, I Railway and Telegraph
annually. The length of service of these
Company, and 1 Instruction and-
men, nominally one year, is as a matter
Dep6t Company.
of fact shortened to nine or even six
months. Besides the above there is a Colonial
The Army consists partly of voluntarily- Army Depdt of three companies, and the
enlisted men, who bind themselves to six Corps of Mar^chaussee, which corresponds
years' service, and partly of Militiamen. to the Gendarmerie in other States, 373
Gaps are often caused by the impossibility men.
of filling Volunteer vacancies by Militia- The total strength of the Active Army Strength

men, and this leads to the disadvantage approaches 64,000 men and 270 guns. The

devoted to the furthering of her commercial

and colonial interests, the chief duty of the

Army will probably be confined to that of

national defence. The numerous sluices

and canals, which would offer numerous

L obstacles to an invading army, would be
of great assistance in case of war. It has,

in fact, already happened that the country

has been by letting in the sea
through the sluices and forming a general

Belgium also is not one of the warlike
States. She has, however, often served as
a theatre of war for other nations, and her
neutrality has not been always duly

Infinity of i§z Seljuitcpij.

respected. She must therefore possess an
Army, if only to watch her frontiers, and to
Colonial Army, recruited entirely by volun- prevent her total dependence on the will of

tary enlistment, comes to about 30,000 other Powers. Her Army is, however, not
men. numerous, and is considerably behindhand
In case a necessity should arise for re- both in organisation and training.
inforcing the Dutch Army,
another body of men has
been formed, called the
" Schutterij," of all Dutch-
men between their 20th and
30th years not included in
the Active Army or Militia.
No great expectations can
be formed of this body, for
the members are only
trained for forty to fifty

hours annually.
The Landsturm and Rifle
Clubs are also destined to
increase the strength of the
Army in case of emergency.
Since Holland has been
declared a neutral State,
and her energy is chiefly Officer? of How Sptllkifg. (HolW.)
: : — )


This makes altogether 58 Active and 20

Dep6t, battalions.
The Cavalry numbers 2 Divisions of 2
brigades of 2 regiments each, i.e. :

2 Regiments of Light Dragoons,,

2 Regiments of Guides (similar to
Hussars), and
4 Regiments of Lancers,
each regiment numbering 4 Active and
1 Dep6t squadrons— Grand total, 8 regi-

ments, forming 32 Active and 8 Depdt


Artillery —4 Regiments Field Artillery,

consisting of 30 Field, 4 Horse and

6 Reserve batteries. The Reserve
batteries are skeleton ones and have
no guns. The remainder have 6

guns each total, 34 batteries with
204 guns, besides 3 regiments of

0||iee:p o| dti?e:nacl.ie:i?;s turn.

Terms of Conscripts are chosen by ballot at the

yearly so-called "Appels," but this is

easily evaded by either paying a substitute,

or by paying an exemption of £64, in
consideration of which the Government
provides a substitute of its own finding.
The Belgian Army is formed as follows
Infantry numbers 4 Divisions, or 9
Brigades of 2 or 3 regiments each, i.e

1 Regiment of Carbineers.
1 Regiment of Grenadiers.
3 Regiments of Rifles.
14 Regiments of Infantry of the Line.

The Carbineer Regiment consists of 4

Active and 2 Dep6t battalions ; the remain-
der of 3 Active and 1 Dep6t battalions,
the latter being only skeleton battalions. Oj>jnee:p oj^ CafZmCe:f$. (Bdgiam,

Siege Artillery, each of 16 Siege, I present intention of introducing magazine-

Reserve, and 1 Depdt batteries. rifles.

Engineers — 1 Regiment of 3 battalions, The Belgian Army is clothed chiefly

and companies for special work, according to the French model ; the tall

i.e., pontooning, railway, telegraph, bearskins of the Grenadiers and Guides are
pyrotechnic and general trades. peculiar and striking.

Both Holland and Belgium will have to

Train — 1 Battalion of 6 companies.
follow the example of other nations in

strength The whole peace-strength numbers about adopting strict universal conscription. It
of Army.
4 ^ 000 menj w j t 1 2Q^ guns j}^ Y) utch
] _ will be only when this is accomplished that
and Belgian Infantry are armed with single their Armies will represent the armed
breech-loaders, the Beaumont and Albini strength of the nation and satisfy the
rifles respectively, and there seems no demands made en a National Army.

Historical. N the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries itself master of Constantinople, the capital
I the inhabitants of Europe were several of the Eastern Roman Empire, in 1453,
times alarmed by a common danger, that and set up its government there under a
of invasion of their territories by a foreign Padishah or Sultan. From this point they
race, Asiatic by extraction, and connected extended their empire further and further
primarily with the Mongols. This race< to the north-west, over Hungary and the
known as Turks or Osmanli, had made intervening lands, and took possession of
the Hungarian capital, Buda, or Ofen. In
1683 they actually besieged Vienna, and
this city would undoubtedly have fallen if

it had not been for its heroic defence by

Field-Marshal Riidiger von Starhemberg,

Offices? of l§& BoroBanje: (full clfe:^). Offizev of t§e Ro|ioi?i (un3.r>e:gs),


who held outhe was succoured by Duke and who was sent for that purpose to

Charles of Lorraine with the Army of the Turkey, at the request of the then Sultan
Austrian Empire, and John Sobieski, King Mahmoud II., from 1835 to 1839, is no less
of Poland. a personage than Field-Marshal Count
The Turkish power now began to wane, Moltke.
and its forces gradually declined in strength Since his time, the Turkish Army has

during the wars with Russia in the improved after every war. is Though it

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One yet by no means equal to that of any of the
by one the provinces of the Turkish Empire great Powers, still that is the fault of neither

became detached from Turkish rule and the military system nor yet of the Turkish
proclaimed their independence under their soldier. The responsibility lies with the

own sovereigns. In this way arose the confused system of military administration,
independent kingdoms of Greece, Servia, which deals in the most hopeless and in
and Roumania, and the principality of the worst possible way with the clothing
Bulgaria (under Turkish suzerainty), all of and equipment, and even with the feeding
them during the present century. Eastern and pay of the Army.
Terms o£
Roumelia is still in the hands of the According to the Law, every able-bodied
Turks, but she has her own administra- Mahomedan inhabitant of Turkey is bound
tion. The Turkish Empire —
once the terror to serve in the Army. Christians are

of Christendom is now fighting for very exempted on payment of a fine.

existence,and to retain her hold over the Service in the " Nizam," or Active Army,
small remnants of her European possessions. lasts six years, of which the Infantry soldier
Russia, who considers herself the champion spends three and the Cavalry and Artillery-
of the Greek-Catholic Church in the East, man four years with the Colours and the
would by this time have undoubtedly seized remaining time in the Active Reserve or
the lands of the "Sick Man" on the " Ikhtiat." After this the soldier joins the
Bosphorus, if it were not that the ambition Landwehr or " Redif " for eight years, and
of other Powers has secured a frail but subsequently six years in the Landsturm or
fleeting life for him. Since, however, Turkey " Muhstafiz." As a matter of fact, the period
is determined not to let go of her European of service with the Colours is usually reduced
possessions without a them, to two years, or three at the outside.
stiff fight for

and since no one can foretell what far- The whole Turkish Empire is divided Organisa-
reaching consequences such a war would into 7 military districts or " Ordu," of which

entail, we must not skip her over, but must the seventh, Arabia, is exceptionally con-
give a short account of her Army as well as stituted. "Ordus" 1 to 6 have each in
of the others. peace-time to supply 1 Army Corps of
Turkey has now, since the disbanding of Nizam troops, and, besides this, 1 to 2
the Janissaries (who formed the Sultan's Army Corps of the Redif in case of necessity.
body-guard, of 12,000 men at first, and The seventh Ordu only possesses 1 Army
later of 100,000), organised her Army on a Corps altogether.
purely European footing. The officer who Each Corps consists of 2 Infantry
is chiefly responsible for this organisation, Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, 1 Regiment
— —


of Field Artillery, i battalion of Pioneers of strong positions, has faded. In vain does
and i of the Train. one now look for the Spahis and Delhis on
A Division consists of 2 brigades ; an their fiery horses, with crooked swords,
Infantry brigade numbers 2, and a Ca- flashing turbans and waving garments.
valry 3, regiments. A regiment of Infantry With the exception of the red fez, the
numbers 5 battalions, of which 1 is a uniform of the Turkish troops has a dis-
Dep6t battalion a regiment of Cavalry, 5 tinctly European cut. The " Nizam " wear

squadrons, of which 1 is a Dep6t squadron. a dark-blue coat, usually wide in the body,
The Artillery Regiment numbers 14 to allow of the growth and alterations of
batteries, of which 3 are Horse Artillery the body, which take place during their
and 2 mountain batteries, each of 6 guns. six years' service, and the "Redif" wear
The 18 Army Corps of the Turkish jackets or sleeved waistcoats. The most
Field Army, (including Redif) comprise a adventurous-looking are the Bashi-Bazouks
strength of 612,000 men, with 1,512 guns,* (i.e. " lost heads "), a wild body of Irregular

and these could be heavily reinforced by troops who carry on war in their own
drawing on the " Muhstafiz." fashion, and who are little amenable to dis-
The Infantry is armed with three different cipline. These wear bizarre and wild-
patterns of rifles at this moment, but will looking dresses, and are armed with long
shortly be armed altogether with a magazine- rifles. The Army is extremely plucky in
rifle. Cavalry and Field Artillerymen are war, but is sadly deficient in good officers
armed with a repeating carbine. The guns and non-commissioned officers.

are good cast-steel breech-loaders from the

Krupp works. The mountain batteries The armies of the smaller States of the
have steel guns. Balkan Peninsula, organised on the lines of

As regards discipline and training, the great European Powers, will in future wars
Turkish soldier cannot be compared on the probably only act as allies to either Russia
same grounds with his European comrade. or Turkey. We need therefore cast but a
As for a discipline founded on feelings of hasty glance at them.
honour, respect, and love of country, the
Turks wots not of it. These feelings are, Greece has, in consequence of her Greece.
however, compensated for to some extent by universal conscription
a religious fanaticism and a warlike spirit. Infantry 27 battalions of the Line and —
The Turkish soldier is easily satisfied, 9 battalions of Rifles,

quiet in his demeanour, unruffled, sparing Cavalry — 12 squadrons.

of words, dignified, obedient, and true to Artillery —2 and
Field, 2 Mountain bat-
the death. The romantic halo which talions, and 1 Garrison Artillery
formerly endowed the Turks with un- battalion, altogether 10 batteries with
equalled fighting powers in the assault and 64 guns.
unconquerable stubbornness in the defence The Army (including Engineers and
Train, as well as Gendarmerie) consists of
* Numbering 468 battalions Infantry, 432
squadrons Cavalry, 252 batteries Artillery, and about 30,000 in peace-time, which could be
72 companies Engineers. Tr. reinforced in war-time to 80,000 men
— — ; —


Servia can put into the field 5 Divisions, SEBVIA.

namely :

Field Army —45 battalions, 25 squadrons,

25 batteries, besides Engineers and

Train— total, 65,000 men and iooguns.
Reserve Army — 65,000 men, formed
similarly to the above.
Landsturm —60 battalions, comprising
30,000 men. Total war-strength

ID 1 30,000 men and 200 guns.

Bulgaria, although her constitution is as BTC-

yet not definitely settled, is not at all

behindhand in the organisation of her

Army; The principality would be able to
put into the field an Army of over 30,000

Tupki?B Inf&nity of ilje ReSi|,

Roumania can bring into the ist Line

4 Army Corps, well-drilled and well-armed

(with repeating rifles and Krupp guns), and
into the 2nd Line 4 more Divisions. Her
peace strength consists of
Infantry — 16 battalions of the Line, 4
battalions of Rifles and 65 battalions
of the Dorobanze (a Territorial Militia)
— total, 85 battalions.
Cavalry — 16 squadrons of Rosiori,
(Hussars) and 54 squadrons of Kala-
raschi (a species of Gendarmerie)
total, 70 squadrons.
Artillery— 54 batteries with 312 guns.
The peace-strength of Roumania numbers
over 30,000 men.
The war-strength consists of 120
battalions of Infantry, 80 squadrons of
Cavalry, 72 batteries of Artillery, 20
companies of Engineers, and details
altogether 1 50,000 men and 448 guns.
Besides these there are 32 Local Militia
battalions and a body of men corresponding
to the German Landsturm. Bagf)i - Ba?oukg



(Review 0p3.ep.

Fnnfed Jy (?. LSwamhn, Fuertk Bavaria


Engineers Transport. of denaapmcptz.

{evie* OrcUp.) (Ma*e§ing OrcleF.) (In (speai-eoate.)

PubSthed % JP»W*oto CAhkk <6 $»>*, £ , London.



a tiny country of only about 2,300 square

miles. The inhabitants are as wild as
their country. They are a small, liberty-
loving nation, of great physical beauty, and
born warriors. When the Czar, the other
day, called the Prince of Montenegro the
best friend he had on earth, his speech

probably referred less to the Prince him-

self than to the people whose merit
and determined bravery he so much
This nation has for centuries known how
to preserve its independence. Turkey, who
tried to exercise a sovereignty, over the
people, came to grief when met by their

determined opposition. In 1862 the

inhabitants of Herzegovina rebelled against
the sovereignty of the Crescent, and were

Montenegro : Solcliep. supported in their revolt by the

Montenegrins. The Turkish Government
well-trained men, besides 24,000 Landwehr thereupon recalled their best general, Omar
and 7,000 Landsturm.

eastern The Army of Eastern Roumelia is a

LIA. species of Militia, which would in war-

time amount to 64,000 men. The Standing

Army numbers only 3,400 men, and their
efficiency is not very great.

MONTE- Montenegro. In the western portion of

the Balkan Peninsula, between the Dinaric
Mountains and the Adriatic, though not
touching the latter, lies a wild and craggy
mountain land. According to the inhabi-
tants, " When the Creator was walking over
the earth, distributing rocks and plains, the
bag in which the rocks were split, and
those which remained fell on to Monte-
There can certainly not have>been many
rocks in the bag, for the land of the Black
Mountains (Montenegro or Tzernagora) is Monienegpo :
Jj°i 2

Pasha, from exile, and gave him the chief to this day a rocky fortress and a bulwark
command of the forces sent against against the advance of the Crescent.
Herzegovina and her ally. Montenegro requires no law of universal
Omar Pasha forced his way into conscription, for every able-bodied man
Montenegro at the head of a powerful has, as a matter of course, been trained to
Army. His forces were so superior to arms from his youth up. It has also no
those of the Montenegrins that the latter Standing Army, only a Body-Guard for the
could not keep up their brave opposition Prince, composed of 300 men,* of whom 50
for very long, but the Turkish losses were are mounted. It is, however, stated that at
so considerable, and their enemy so leasjt 35,000 men and a few mountain-guns
impossible to get at, that the former were could be put in the field in case of war, in
glad when the Montenegrins showed them- order to defend the country against an
selves willing to treat for peace on easy invader from any quarter.
conditions. Montenegro, therefore, stands * "Peganicis."
— — —



\T 7"E have now finished with our bird's- Brought forward . 259
VV e y e v ; ew f the Armies of Europe. Torpedo-boats .120
A country's armed strength does not, Torpedo-ships, mine-layers, etc. . . 43
however, consist exclusively of her Army ;
Despatch-vessels and survey-ships . 33
her Navy has to be reckoned with as well. Transports, sailing-vessels, and turret-
We will, therefore, glance at the naval ships . . . .... . . .29
European States. Various, for coast and harbour
forces of the chief of the service 195
The first place amongst Naval Powers is Auxiliary ocean steamers .... 23
undoubtedly still held by Great Britain as
Total 702
queen of the seas, however much other
nations may try to overhaul her in ships
India .28
South Africa 2
and material. There have certainly been
Australia .
voices heard lately in Parliament anent the
alleged standstill i.e., backsliding, when Grand total 763
the race with foreign nations is taken into
account — in the naval development of
England. The late great Naval Review,
France possesses now FRANCE.
Men-of-war 25
however, last August, appeared to disarm
Other ironclads 29
all hostile criticism as to the strength and
Cruisers 58
efficiency of the British Fleet. There were
at that time, off Portsmouth, several square
Gunboats and avisos ..... 82
Gun-sloops (small) 54
miles of vessels, altogether 112 fighting-
Torpedo- vessels, etc 16
ships. Yet this was but a small portion of
Torpedo-boats 136
England's Navy, for the total English Fleet
amounts to altogether 763 vessels, as
Transports and sailing-ships ... 72

follows :
Coast and harbour service, etc. . .107
Auxiliary ocean steamers . . . 14
Turreted and belted men-of-war
. . 37
Ironclad corvettes and cruisers . . 80 Total 593
Sloops and gun-vessels 40
Gunboats ........ 102 Besides over 200 small sailing-vessels and
"Carried forward . 259 hulks.
— — — 81


RUSSIA. Russia has of late years considerably Brought forward . 5

increased her fleet, spending her substance Torpedo-boats 56

on large ironclads, which appear to Harbour and coast service

chiefly . . . . 19
be the fashion nowadays. Her biggest
Total 126
ironclads are those in the Black Sea. The
Russian Navy should not be, all the same,
considered as a very powerful one, for a The latest recruit to the Naval Powers is GER-
great many of her ironclads and- torpedo- Germany,
" last not least," of whose naval
boats are out of date, and not up to the organisation we will give a few details.

requirements of modern naval warfare. The officers of the German Navy consist

The Russian fleet numbers altogether of 2 "Station-Chiefs" at Kiel and Wil-

Men-of-war 21 helmshaven with 2 flag-lieutenants, 3 vice-

Monitors, and cruisers admirals, 17 post-captains, 33 corvette-

.. ..
Torpedo-.vessels and gunboats 21 captains, 64 "captain-lieutenants," 120

Torpedo-boats (old and new) I40 lieutenants, and 114 sub-lieutenants.

Sailing-vessels, etc. Besides these, there are 1 00 naval cadets,,

. So
123 and engineers, paymasters, and
Transports, etc...
surgeons in

Coast and harbour service proportion.

Boat-flotilla.. The men, when on shore, are formed
. . .
into 2 Divisions ofseamen and 2 Divisions
Total 482 of dockyard men, at Kiel and Wilhelms-
haven. Besides these, there is a Division
ITALY. The naval forces of Italy have increased of "ship-boys," a Naval Police Corps, 2

very rapidly during the last twelve years. battalions of Marine Infantry at Kiel and
At present they number Wilhelmshaven, and 2 companies of
Men-of-war Marine Artillery at Friedrichsort and
Corvettes Wilhelmshaven, and the Naval Medical
Torpedo-vessels and avisos ... 26 Department.
Gunboats 10 The Marine Reserve and " Seewehr " are
Torpedo-boats 122 formed similarly to the Army Reserve and
Transports and survey-ships Landwehr.
. . . 19
Harbour and coast service .... 92 The materiel consists of—
Auxiliary ocean steamers .... 7 Men-of-war and other ironclads . . 26
Cruisers 26
Total 314 Torpedo- vessels, gunboats, and avisos 1

Torpedo-boats 93
AUSTRIA. Austria also has considerably increased Various for harbour service ... 42
her fleet. It now consists of
Total 205
Men-of-war and cruisers . . . . 15
Torpedo-vessels and gunboats . . 15 The original plan for forming a fleet,
Corvettes, Transports, and avisos . . 21 started in 1872-73, has. been departed
Carried forward . 51 from in several details/ gained from the

experience of other nations and from the the foreign invasion of her coasts an im-
knowledge of German requirements possibility. It is difficult to forecast the

economy had also something to do with probable development of the German

the matter. The building of huge ironclads Navy, for the colonies which the country
was not persevered in, and more attention has recently founded and is still founding
was paid to increasing the torpedo-flotilla will increase its task and may lead to the
for the defence of the coasts and ports. formation of a much larger fleet.
Although the Imperial Navy is not yet The recognition which the German Navy
strong enough to compete successfully with has lately won on all sides, especially on
those of other great naval powers on the the part of England, allows of the hope
open sea, still one great object has been that it will soon be considered as fit to go
gained, i.e., the protection of trade and the hand in hand with the German Army.
merchant service. Germany is also now One thing is certain, arid that is, that its

enabled to enter into commercial and successes, whether in the hoisting of the
political relations with distant countries, national flag in distant parts of the world,
and to make the German flag respected in or in the more peaceful task of cementing
all parts Of the world in a way which friendly relations with other Powers, are
would not otherwise have been possible. followed with the greatest interest and
The Navy will also be able in the future to appreciation by the whole of the German
defend the German coast-line and make Empire



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transport. From Cairo to Khartoum is 1000 miles in a straight line, and 1400 miles by the
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Water Colours, as well as Fresco, House, Transparency, Sign, and Carriage Painting
Photography — —
Plastering — —
Polishes Scouring Silvering Soap — —
Solders Tanning—
— —
Taxidermy Tempering Metals Treating Horn, Mother-o'-Pearl, and like substances-
— — —
Varnishes, Manufacture and Use of Veneering Washing Waterproofing Welding. —
Besides Receipts relating to the lesser Technological matters and processes, such as the
manufacture and use of Stencil Plates, Blacking, Crayons, Paste, Putty, Wax, Size, Alloys,
Catgut, Tunbridge Ware, Picture Frame and Architectural Mouldings, Compos, Cameos, and
others too numerous to mention.

In Demy 8vo. cloth, 600 pages, and 1420 Illustrations, 6s.

MechanicalDrawing— Casting and Founding—Forging and Finishing Iron—Sheetmetal
Working— Soldering, Brazing, and Burning— Carpentry and Joinery— Details of Construc-
tion of Workshop appliances, Rough Furniture, Garden and Yard Erections, and House
Building— Cabinet-Making and Veneering— Carving and Fretcutting— Upholstery— Painting,
Graining, and Marbling— Staining Furniture, Woods,- Floors, and Fittings— Gilding
Polishing Marble, Metals, and Wood—Varnishing— Mechanical Movements—Turning in
Wood and Metals— Masonry— Roofing— Glazing—Plastering—-Whitewashing— Paperhanging
— —
Gas-fitting Bell-hanging, Ordinary, and Electric Systems, &c. &c.

London: E. &; ]E\ IV. SPON, 125, Strtrnd.


Mr. WOLFFRAM, The Manor House, Lee, London, S.E.
have passed the competitive Examinations direct from Mr. Wolffiram's Establishment into the Eoyal
m-i^P" Candidates
Military College, Sandhurst, and the Royal military Academy, "Woolwich, and for Direct Commissions. This'
sum total has never been equalled by any tutor in or oiit of London. . '


237 have passed from Mr. Wolflram's Estahlishment, and during the
Militia Officers three years the place has been taken three times :— la'st first
l8j8 place ...
I 1st Lieut. A Martyn . 1760 marks. _. . . .
i88c..< 1st Lieut. C. H. Turner . . ,,. ... 1929 marks. L
. •.. . .
l89° ' »st place ...
Lieut. S. Fitzgerald Cox. . -. 2034 marks.
lne Mihtia Military n
>™_ *.-... ..... . - ..-

_ Competitive Classes areundcr the direction of Lieut-Colonel J. L. Needham, R.M.A., P.S.C., late Professor of Fortifica-
tion and Instructor of Tactics and Military Topography at the R.N. College, Greenwich, and formerly Garrison Instructor.


In addition to the above numbers, 864 Candidates.have passed the Preliminary Army Examinations in all subjects.


1874 „ 1875 . . . .
... .....
have passed from Mr. Wolffram for Woolwich, Sandhurst, Direct Commissions, and Commissionsthroueh the Militia :—
187a and r873
,. .

.• . . Eight
.Thirty-eight 38
. . . .

1876 „
1877 . . . „. . , . . . . '
. , iFitty-six 56
1878 „ 1879 . . . . . . . .- ..',..•.. Sixty-seven, 67 ,

1880 „ 1881 r --r •,'-:•-"'' Sixty-two

.1882 „ 1883 .'.;,.
1884, „.' 1885 • '.'„
. ...... -.

.. T.

. One hundred and seven 107
..../,', i Eighty-oije

; .

1886 ,,..1887 ~.," '.

One hundred and twenty-one I2r
1888' „' 1889 '

One hundred 'and twenty-two 122

Total . . . "' -.
, . .Six hundred and sixty-two. 662 '/
N.B.—The above Lists include only pupils who were reading in Mr. Wolflram's Establishment up to the date, of the Examinatioh,in question.

In compliance with- the wishes of several clients, Mr. Wolffram will open in London in January, 1891, for Non-Resident'.
Students only;, a Branch Establishment of Classes for the Militia Military Competitive Examinations.
1 -

All applications to be addressed to. H. WOLITRAM:, The Manor House, Lee, London, S.E.



4, Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, W.C.
f atara— REV. Dr. EDGHILL.
ftesttfottt -GENERAL SIR A. J. LA^RE.NCEj K.C.B.


Committee make' an EARNEST APPEAL FOR .'FUNDS to
THEmoral who. have the religious and:- all
elevation of our Army at heart, and who 'would wish to see the hands, of the Military
.Chaplains strengthenleci.. by the assistance. of a. body of men of the. Soldiers' own station in life, whq,\
without the restraint unavoidable in the intercourse of different classes of Society j may commend to
them the love of; Christ, read to them the. Word of Life, and. strive to lead.them from the deceitful,
pleasures of sin to that peace which the world can neither give nor take away.

There are now 90 Scripture Readers on the lists of the. Society at home and abroad.

Contributions in. aid of the Society will be: thankfully received by the Treasurer, G. M, Holt, Esq.,
'I7j Whitehall Place; and at the National provincial Bank of 'England; Piccadilly, W. and by the

Secretary, Rev. William A. Blake, at the Offices* 4, Trafalgar Square,; Charing Cross, W.C.



His Imperial Majesty the German Emperor,
Her Majesty the Queen Regent of the Netherlands.
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales,. K.G.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence atad Avondale.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, K.G. .
His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught, K.G. ;

Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise. ,..,.*

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Fife^
.Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Albany. ,.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, K.G.

Also to the Embassies Of GERMANY," RUSSIA, JTALY, and SPAIN.


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i >

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'°aif^t hOT ,e s!
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for gentlemen's driving.

OJiA.K-A-JjA.JN uO for a pair or a team, our speciality, in various sues, a unique carriage for the country. .
. .

SOCIABLES, as tuilt by Hooper S»Co., for Royalty and the Nobility. »

Private use, compact and comfortable. *

JtvEPAIXvS at moderate prices ; estimates free.

CAB>XvIACrES of all kinds, new and slightly used, to let on hire with option of purchase.
— ,

The Cash Sales at these Stores mm exceed a Quarter of a Million Sterlingper annum.
All Ooods Carriage Paid to any part of the
United Kingdom.



This favourite Suit, consisting

'REEFERS. This style of Suit is kept in a •

In super Black and Diagonal o A

Two-gaVment Suit for rf Blue Serge Blouse (with
Badge on arm)' and Knicker- very
- -
large variety of m-iterialsi
and general wear,- In Serges y10 ™'! My well made arid cut
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Tweeds, 10/b, ia/ii» 14/u,

years of age. otage. , -

In Nap— 4/ir, 6/11, 8/n, 11/9, %6/U, 19/n, 22/6
For Boys from 9 In Real West of England -'

r. ,-. „/„ .„ „./„ !> durable Tweeds and 8/ii, 11/9, mA'i 'g, 16/11, .19/11.
Quality! .. .. 17/91025/9 Cheviots., '
*9/" In Twe'e^4 */."• 5/"' Cloths, Scotch Cheviots', &c;.-
,, a .... 32/6 «o 31/6 8/|i, 12/11, Sailor Costumes. '
67ii, 9/ii, it/9, igA
In Fine Worsted-, Clo
af/6, 33/?-

p& 4i/6,' 4.J*.'-
Jn Black Diagonals^ .
3 ..... 27/6 to 41/6 In Scotch Cheviots, &c. 8/1 1. 11/9, 13/9,
14/u 19/11 iu/11 to '41/6 !
Trousers, 8/11, J0/9, 12/11, 14/11 14/", '9/«
ap'nnnwPTlili nniHrt nrniDTMCUTC are open at each of OHAS. BAKER & CO.'S DEPOT8. Purchasers
BESPOKE TAILORING DEPARTMENTS are asked to inspect the extensive stocks of REAL WEST
CLOTHS, TROUSERINGS, etc, showing m
" Bakclav, Bev an, Tritton & Co.
these Departments. Cheques, Postal Orders, etc.,





City Branch: 82, FLEET S -fe&s') West End Braneh: 192 & 194,
TOTTENHAM CT. B D.i 137, 138, 139 & 140, TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD (puggggg
_%innn-r- nrnT «-HAS BAKER & CO., Limited; forward consignments of goods any of the World on of order
their to part receipt

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