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Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54 (2010) 337347

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Resources, Conservation and Recycling


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/resconrec

Production of innovative, recycled and high-performance asphalt for road pavements


Clara Celauro , Celauro Bernardo, Boscaino Gabriele
Dipartimento di Ingegneria delle Infrastrutture Viarie, Universit degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, Italy

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
The paper deals with a specic laboratory study aiming at perfectioning recycled asphalt with high mechanical performance, for surface and structural layers of exible pavements. The aim of the research was to combine in the same material the maximum possible quantity of recycled asphalt (RA), coming from degraded asphalt layers, together with high structural performance of the recycled mixtures obtained (mainly stability, load spreading properties, rutting and fatigue resistance) that should not be lower, or possibly better than those offered by traditional asphalt mixture, made with virgin binder and aggregate. For this purpose, innovative recycled mixtures, close-graded and with high mechanical performance, characterized by high content of recycled asphalt (up to 50%) and designed for surface, binder and base layers were investigated in a laboratory study. The results of physical and mechanical characterization tests show that, by controlling the homogeneity of recycled material and by using new bitumen with adequate rheological properties, it is possible to obtain paving mixtures with high content of recycled materials that, in relation to their intended use (surface, binder or base layer), can be considered as high-performance mixtures. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 4 March 2009 Received in revised form 18 August 2009 Accepted 18 August 2009 Keywords: Recycled asphalt High-performance mixture Flexible pavements

1. Introduction Every year, construction and reconstruction of road pavements imply a considerable consumption of valuable and non-renewable natural resources and, in particular, the component materials of bituminous mixtures: bitumen and, above all, mineral aggregate. Furthermore, maintenance work on road networks involves the production of high quantities of discarded materials coming from degraded bituminous pavements, with severe environmental consequences related to their transport to the landll site. For sustainable development, the objectives of reducing consumption of valuable natural resources and, at the same time, reusing to the maximum those natural resources, in any case, involved in road works have urged road technologists to consider several recycling techniques for new surface and/or structural layers of road bituminous pavement (SETRA, 1997; Huet and Poirier, 1986). The aim of the research was to perfect in a laboratory study some innovative recycled asphalt mixtures, having physical and mechanical properties not lower than those specied by the current

Italian Specication (MIT, 2002; ANAS, 2003; Autostrade, 2004) for asphalt, characterized by high content of recycled asphalt (30%, 40% and 50%) and designed for all layers (surface, binder and base). On account of this, knowledge and know-how on traditional asphalt mix design (Roberts et al., 1996; Cominsky et al., 1994) was used and it was aimed at striking a balance between the properties needed for laying and assuring durability of recycled mixtures and their functional and structural properties (Pereira et al., 2004). 2. Material studied and experimental plan In consideration of the type of mixture to be tested, as detailed in the following paragraphs, the experimental study was specically planned in order to determine the effect of the bitumen content as well as of the maximum aggregate size in the mixture, besides the effect of the content in recycled material. The plan was focused on the characterization of each material used for producing the mixtures, both recycled and virgin, as well as on experimental tests for physical and mechanical characterization of the nal product, in order to guarantee high quality and performance even though using high percentages of RA (Widyatmoko, 2008), detailed as follows: for each mixture studied, at each selected binder content and at each studied RA percentage:

Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 091 488062; fax: +39 091 487068. E-mail address: clara.celauro@unipa.it (C. Celauro). 0921-3449/$ see front matter 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.08.009

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Table 1 Qualitative characteristics of the bitumen as recovered from the RA. Characteristic Bitumen content Penetration at 25 C Ring&Ball Temperature R&B Penetration Index b% Pen TR&B I.P. Minimum value 4.64 18 64 +0.1 Maximum value 4.87 21 66 Range 0.23 3 2 Units % [dmm] [ C] Standard ASTM D1856 (ASTM, 1979) EN 1426 (EN, 2000a,b) EN 1427 (EN, 2000b) UNI 4163 (UNI, 1959)

Table 2 Physical and mechanical characterization of the recovered mineral aggregates, used for the production of the mixtures studied. Characteristic Particle density (r) Apparent particle density (a) Los Angeles Abrasion (L.A.) Micro-Deval abrasion resistance in water (M.D.U.) Sand equivalent (SE) Polished stone value (PSV) Flakiness index (FI) Percent fractured face Rigden voids of compacted ller Mineral aggregate 2.87 2.85 19.78 9.2 78 0.40 1.43 100 Filler 2.89 Units g/cm3 g/cm3 % % % % % Standard EN 1907-6 (EN, 2000c) EN 1907-6 (EN, 2000c) EN 1097-2 (EN, 1998b) EN 1097-1 (EN, 1996) EN 933-8 (EN, 1997b) EN 1097-8 (EN, 1999b) EN 933-3 (EN, 1997a,b) EN 933-5 (EN, 1998a,b) EN 1907-4 (EN, 1999c)

100 32.95

compactibility test at the Shear Gyratory Compactor SGC, according to Standard EN 12697-10 (EN, 2002); Marshall stability test, according to Standard EN 12697-34 (EN, 2004a); indirect tension test, according to Standard EN 12697-23 (EN, 2003a); indirect tension test at 25 C, after 7 and 15 days of water immersion, according to Italian Standard CNR B.U. 134/91 (CNR, 1991); Cantabro loss of weight test on Marshall specimen, according to Standard EN 12697-17 (EN, 2004b); for the optimized surface mixture only, as determined from the previous tests: dynamic test for complex moduli determination, at different temperatures and loading frequency, for determining the master curves of the mixtures studied; dynamic test for fatigue resistance, via repeated bending force applied at T = 15 C and with a loading frequency set equal to f = 35 Hz; test for determining mixtures rutting resistance, according to Standard EN 12697-22 (EN, 2003b). 2.1. Results from preliminary testing of component materials 2.1.1. Reclycled asphalt characterization The RA used for the present study, after due consideration, is to be classied as high-quality RA of type F1, according to Standard EN 13108-8 (EN, 2005a), totally free from foreign materials, with reference to both its component materials and their homogeneity. Indeed, it is a RA from a single source, obtained by down-milling of surface layers only, whose composition and origin were perfectly known. The rheological characteristics of the bitumen recovered from the RA according to Standard ASTM D1856 (ASTM, 1979), are given in Table 1. The results from testing for physical and mechanical characterization of the recovered mineral aggregates are given in Table 2. The gradation analysis carried out according to Standard EN 12697-2 (EN, 2008) on the aggregate as recovered from the RA makes it possible to underline the high level of consistency and homogeneity of this characteristic (see Table 3). 2.1.2. Characterization of the new rejuvenating binder Amongst those commercially available, for the purposes of this study a special bitumen was selected, characterized by rejuve-

nating properties (fully dispersed structure, SOL type) so that it makes the use of other additives superuous (Bicheron et al., 1986). Therefore, a 70/100 graded highly aromatic bitumen was chosen, obtained via propane deasphalting of selected raw bitumens and following uxing with aromatic oils. The S.A.R.A. Analysis performed with an MK-5 Iatroscan (Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) performed with a Flame Ionisation Detector (FID)) provided the following value for the Colloidal Index, Ic , based on the ratio of the four main chemical components (asphaltenes, resins, aromatics, saturates). Ic = (asphaltenes + saturates) = 0.17 aromatics + resins

The classical tests for rheological characterization, carried out in accordance with Standards EN 1426 (EN, 2000a), EN 1427 (EN, 2000b), UNI 4163 (UNI, 1959) and EN 12607-1 (EN, 2005b), provided the following results: for the new bitumen, Pen = 73 dmm: TR&B = 46 C and I.P. = 1.4; for the same bitumen, after aging at the RTFOT: Pen = 50.4 dmm, TR&B = 51.2 C. 2.1.3. Physical and mechanical characterization of the virgin mineral aggregate The mineral aggregate used for this experimental plan comes from a single quarry. Thus, the mixtures studied are obtained from the combination of the different sized fractions of aggregate as available at the production plant, denominated from a1 to a4 , with
Table 3 Gradation analysis of the recovered mineral aggregates, used for the production of the mixtures studied. Riddle or sieve Nominal size, d (mm) Cumulative passing (%)

Test A Riddle 40 Riddle 30 Riddle 25 Riddle 15 Riddle 10 Riddle 5 Sieve 2 Sieve 0.4 Sieve 0.18 Sieve 0.074 32 24 20 12 8 4 2 0.4 0.18 0.074 100 100 100 97.7 95.9 72.5 47.4 19.9 15.1 10.4

Test B 100 100 100 95.3 91.4 71.0 45.6 23.1 13.9 9.9

Test C 100 100 100 100 97.3 75.1 49.5 21.7 16.2 11.5

Test D 100 100 100 99.6 96.5 73.7 48.6 21.4 15.4 11.6

Average 100.00 100.00 100.00 98.2 95.3 73.1 47.8 21.5 15.1 10.9

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ues as suggested by the most commonly used Italian technical Specications for road and airport maintenance, construction or reconstruction work. The target mixtures can be ascribed to each possible intended use in a exible pavement, that is to say mixtures for: thin surface layers for maintenance purposes; structural surface layers; binder courses; base courses.

Fig. 1. Gradation of the aggregate fractions used for the production of the mixtures studied.

the addition of mineral ller, as needed. For each aggregate fraction, the gradation is shown in Fig. 1. The laboratory tests for physical and mechanical characterization, carried out for each aggregate fraction as indicated above, provided the results presented in Table 4. 2.2. Denition of mixtures studied 2.2.1. Aggregate grading For this study, already optimized recipes for asphalt mixture were chosen, characterized by gradations and component mutual proportions that are in accordance with the typical range of val-

The formulation criterion aimed at preliminarily guaranteeing adequate workability and compactibility of the recycled asphalt, thanks to the use of both high bitumen content (that, in what follows, is expressed via the richness modulus, K) and high mastic content (Celauro et al., 2004). As far as the mixture gradation was concerned, for each different layer to consider (surface, binder and base layer), reference was made to those indicated by the current standard specication for hot mix asphalt (MIT, 2002; ANAS, 2003). The mixtures to be used for surface layers were denominated as U3 and U5, with reference to the typical layer thickness (3 and 5 cm, respectively) to be considered for each of them. For the binder and base course, a mixture denominated Bi was chosen (falling within the gradation band for the AC16 dened by Swiss Standard 640 431-1aNA (SNV, 2003), because it complies with the prescriptions of technical Standards and specications for both the layers, as well as for surface layers: the only distinguishing factor would be the bitumen content (richness modulus). Therefore, the mixtures studied are those presented in Table 5:

Table 4 Physical and mechanical characteristics of the virgin aggregate used for the production of the mixtures studied. Aggregate property Particle density (r) Apparent particle density (a) Los Angeles Abrasion, (L.A.) Micro-Deval abrasion resistance in water (M.D.U.) Sand equivalent (SE) Polished stone value (PSV) Flakiness index (FI) Shape index (SI) Water absorption Rigden voids of compacted ller Fraction a1 (20/25) 2.83 17.7 8.5 Fraction a2 (10/15) 2.84 19.6 Fraction a3 (6/10) 2.86 19.7 Fraction a4 (0/6) 2.89 2.87 Filler 2.89 Units g/cm3 g/cm3 % % % % % % Standard EN 1907-6 (EN, 2000c) EN 1907-6 (EN, 2000c) EN 1097-2 (EN, 1998a,b) EN 1097-1 (EN, 1996) EN 933-8 (EN, 1999b) UNI 1097-8 (EN, 1999b) EN 933-3 (EN, 1997a,b) EN 933-4 (EN, 1999d) EN 1907-6 (EN, 2000c) EN 1907-4 (EN, 1999c)

77 2.02 3.96 0.31 0.40 1.70 3.24 0.44

0.70

0.97 32.70

Table 5 Composition of the mixtures studied and related typical laying thicknesses. Riddle or sieve Riddle 40 Riddle 30 Riddle 25 Riddle 15 Riddle 10 Sieve 5.6 Riddle 5 Sieve 2 Sieve 1 Sieve 0.5 Sieve 0.4 Sieve 0.18 Sieve 0.074 Sieve 0.063 Nominal sizes (mm) 32 24 20 12 8 5.6 4 2 1 0.5 0.4 0.18 0.074 0.063 Mixture U3 100 100 100 100 96 61 35 Mixture U5 100 100 100 100 93 80 56 33 52 31 Mixture Bi 100 100 97 85

14 11 9 b0 = 5.17 (K0 = 3.25), b1 = 5.57 (K1 = 3.50), b2 = 6.03 (K2 = 3.75) 2535

13 11 8 b1 = 5.03 (K1 = 3.25), b2 = 5.55 (K2 = 3.50) 3550

12 10 b1 = 4.48 (K1 = 2.90), b2 = 4.87 (K2 = 3.15), b3 = 5.26 (K3 = 3.40) 4570

Bitumen content b% (richness modulus, K)

Typical laying thickness (mm)

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Table 6 Richness Modulus and binder content chosen for the studied mixture and recommended range. Mixture Recommended value b (%) (SNV, 2003) Thin surface for maintenance purposes (U3) 6.2 L 6.0 N 5.8 S 5.8 wearing course L 5.6 wearing course N 5.4 wearing course S or 4.8 binder S or 5.2 base L 5.0 base N 5.4 wearing course L 5.5 wearing course N 4.4 binder 4.8 base L 4.8 base N 5.4 base S b (%) (MIT, 2002) 5.2 6.2 Adopted value Richness modulus, K K0 = 3.25 K1 = 3.50 K2 = 3.75 b (%) b0 = 5.17 b1 = 5.57 b2 = 6.03

Structural surface layer (U5)

5.0 6.0

K1 = 3.25, K2 = 3.50

b1 = 5.03, b2 = 5.55

Thick surface (BiK3) Binder (BiK2) Base (BiK1)

4.5 5.5 4.05.0 4.0 5.0

K3 = 3.40 K2 = 3.15 K1 = 2.90

b3 = 5.26 b2 = 4.87 b1 = 4.48

Note: According to Swiss Standard, L, N, S refer respectively to road for high, normal or low levels of trafc.

2.2.2. Bitumen content (richness modulus) The bitumen content for each mixture was chosen in order to fall within the range given by the Italian Specications taken as reference and also with respect to the minimum bitumen content (by aggregate weight) recommended by Swiss Standard SN 640 431-1a NA (see Table 6). 2.2.3. Selecting the recycling percentage The selection of the recycling percentage was made on the reason behind this study (maximum reuse of RA, for producing high-performance recycled mixtures) as well as on some technical considerations such as: the consistency of the mixtures properties to be guaranteed; the homogeneity and consistency of the RA to be used (to be necessarily high, when using a high percentage of recycled material) (AIPCR, 2002); the rejuvenating characteristics of the selected virgin bitumen; the characteristics of the asphalt production plant, specically modied and calibrated with a parallel drum for the RA, to allow a high percentage of recycling. Therefore, the following percentage of recycling were considered: 0%, 40%, and 50%, respectively indicated with Therefore, the following percentage of recycling were considered: 0%, 40%, and 50%, respectively indicated with: F0: reference mixture, without recycled material; F40: mixture characterized by the maximum allowable recycling percentage (40%), as recommended by the technical literature (SETRA, 2004), when using high-quality RA, like the one studied; F50: mixture characterized by the maximum quantity of RA (50%) chosen for this study, in consideration of the available materials as well as of the special facilities available at the asphalt plant. The previously detailed recycling percentages were evaluated at different binder content, by varying the new bitumen content in the mixture. Therefore, an identication code (Layer Code RAP%-richness modulus) was adopted, as detailed in Table 6.

3. Test result and discussion 3.1. Compaction test at the Shear Gyratory Compactor Compaction tests at the Shear Gyratory Compactor (SGC) was carried out on specimen of bituminous mixture, in accordance with EN 12697-31 (EN, 2004c). Figs. 2 and 3 depict, by way of example, the results obtained for mixtures of type U3, and compare them all in order to highlight the inuence of the RA content on this characteristic, for a xed bitumen content of the mixtures. During the test, the gyratory shear ratio (Celauro et al., 2004) was also measured, in order to monitor the internal stability of the mixture during compaction. Densication curves recorded during the compaction test at the SGC made it possible to obtain the residual void content, and also the parameters k and C, the slope and the intercept of the straight part of the curves, which are useful for dening, respectively, the workability and the densication of the mixtures (see Table 7). From the results, it is possible to note that the workability, k, of the mixtures studied can be considered independent of the RA content whilst the latter has an inuence on the densication, C. In this connection, it is simple to observe that the compaction straight

Fig. 2. Compactibility curve at the SGC, for different RA contents mixtures of type U3K0.

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lines have, for the same bitumen content and different RA content, a slope that is quite constant, and thus they prove parallel to each other, the ones with RA having higher compaction values than those measured for the corresponding control mixtures (see Fig. 2). 3.2. Cantabro test Due to the introduction of high quantities of RA in the studied mixtures and, therefore, to the consequent high amount of aged bitumen, it was thought appropriate to adopt a testing method that made it possible to evaluate the quality of the bitumen/aggregate bond, in order to guarantee satisfactory durability of the mixtures, once in place. For this purpose, the abrasion loss Cantabro proved to be quite quick to perform, effective and sufciently adequate for evaluating the behaviour of the binder in the mixture, as deriving from binder characteristics such as cohesion, thermal susceptivity, adhesion and ageing. This test was carried out in accordance with Standard EN 12697-17 (EN, 2004b), at 18 C. The results obtained, expressed as average Cantabro loss value, are given in Fig. 4 as a function of the RA percentage in the mixture. For each mixture Fig. 4 clearly shows a worsening trend of the internal cohesion with an increase in the RA percentage. Furthermore, for each mixture, a reduction in the percentage mass loss can be observed for higher bitumen contents. 3.3. Marshall test and results The Marshall test as well as the indirect tensile test were performed for each studied mixture in order to evaluate their suitability in providing high mechanical performances, according to the requirements given in Table 8, for each intended use. The test results are summarized in Table 9. Examining the test results, it is easy to observe that all the mixtures considered in this study comply not only with the minimum levels for Marshall stability and quotient as required by the Italian Specications but also with the higher performances pursued by this research. As far as the Marshall residual air voids are concerned, only type U3 mixtures for thin surfaces have too low values, corresponding with the higher bitumen contents. Therefore, for

Fig. 3. Compactibility curve at the SGC, for different RA contents mixtures of type U3K1. Table 7 Residual void content obtained with the SGC. Mixture U3 F0 K0 U3 F0 K1 U3 F0 K2 U3 F40 K0 U3 F40 K1 U3 F50 K0 U3 F50 K1 U5 F0 K1 U5 F0 K2 U5 F40 K1 U5 F40 K2 U5 F50 K1 U5 F50 K2 Bi F0 K1 Bi F0 K2 Bi F0 K3 Bi F40 K1 Bi F40 K2 Bi F40 K3 Bi F50 K1 Bi F50 K2 Bi F50 K3

vPG at 10 Ng (%)
13.10 11.69 12.32 11.62 10.64 11.44 10.86 12.01 12.25 14.55 14.34 13.54 13.37 13.52 13.16 10.08 12.75 12.13 11.33 13.11 12.10 10.35

vPG at 100 Ng (%)


5.44 4.63 4.51 3.71 2.87 3.13 2.16 4.74 4.26 5.53 5.12 4.15 3.91 5.03 5.12 2.16 4.28 3.57 2.17 4.25 3.26 1.53

C (%) 20.8 18.7 20.2 19.5 18.4 19.8 19.6 19.3 20.2 23.5 23.5 22.9 22.8 21.7 21.2 17.9 21.2 20.7 20.4 21.9 20.9 19.2

k 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.038 0.032 0.034 0.039 0.040 0.041 0.041 0.035 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.037 0.040 0.038 0.038 0.039

R2 0.996 0.986 0.994 0.994 0.988 0.994 0.996 0.992 0.998 0.998 0.998 0.998 0.998 0.999 0.999 0.998 0.994 0.997 0.995 0.997 0.997 0.995

Fig. 4. Cantabro loss for the mixtures studied, at different RA contents.

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Table 8 Marshall target values for the studied mixtures with high percentage of RA. Type of mixture Surface course Binder course Base course Marshall stability, MS (kN) >12 >10 >9 Marshall quotient, QM (kN/mm) QM > 3.5 QM > 3.5 QM > 3.0 Marshall voids, Voids lled with bitumen, VFB (%) <84 <82 <80

vM (%)
35 36 37

Table 9 Marshall results for the mixtures studied. Mixture U3 F0 K0 U3 F0 K1 U3 F0 K2 U3 F40 K0 U3 F40 K1 U3 F50 K0 U3 F50 K1 U5 F0 K1 U5 F0 K2 U5 F40 K1 U5 F40 K2 U5 F50 K1 U5 F50 K2 Bi F0 K1 Bi F0 K2 Bi F0 K3 Bi F40 K1 Bi F40 K2 Bi F40 K3 Bi F50 K1 Bi F50 K2 Bi F50 K3 Marshall stability, MS (kN) 16.00 14.67 13.21 16.12 15.05 16.26 15.87 14.95 14.78 21.45 19.01 25.33 19.53 13.99 13.37 12.81 21.49 20.35 18.91 28.13 26.12 24.10 Flow, fM (mm) 3.12 3.47 4.15 2.90 3.32 2.78 3.18 2.83 2.91 2.65 2.83 2.24 2.67 2.36 2.38 3.15 2.22 2.77 3.11 2.12 2.58 3.04 Marshall quotient, QM (kN/mm) 5.136 4.224 3.185 5.564 4.534 5.842 4.998 5.284 5.082 8.110 6.712 11.333 7.323 5.920 4.723 4.073 9.668 7.340 6.089 13.298 10.114 7.940 Marshall voids, vM (%) 3.80 2.90 2.50 4.7 3.6 5.0 3.9 4.0 3.5 4.9 3.9 5.2 4.2 5.4 3.7 2.8 6.1 4.3 3.5 6.8 4.8 4.1 Voids lled with bitumen, VFB (%) 76.6 82.0 84.5 72.3 78.4 70.9 76.9 74.9 78.4 70.8 76.5 69.6 75.1 66.2 75.8 81.9 63.6 73.0 78.3 60.6 70.6 75.1

the following investigations, for these mixtures it was necessary to reduce the richness modulus and to test just at the lower binder contents, namely K1 and K2 . In order to provide an understandable representation of the variation in Marshall quotient as a function of both bitumen and RA content in the mixture, the results from Marshall testing are presented in Fig. 5, in which the thresholds set by the ANAS specications (ANAS, 2003) are also given, differentiated for each target layer.

From the results obtained it is possible to observe, for each mixture studied, a decrease in Marshall stability with an increase in binder content. This is due to the fact that, in order to favour compactibility and resistance to water-induced damage as well as to ageing of the mixtures, a priori it was chosen to have thicker binder lm on the aggregates or, which is the same, binder contents (richness moduli) always higher than the optimum value for this characteristic.

Fig. 5. Marshall stability MS for each mixture studied, for different RA contents, with performance minimum levels required by the ANAS Specication for surface course (types U3 and U5), base course (type BiK1) and binder courses (types BiK2 and BiK3).

C. Celauro et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54 (2010) 337347 Table 10 Testing results for the indirect tensile strength, ITS, for the mixtures studied. Mixture U3 F0 K0 U3 F0 K1 U3 F40 K0 U3 F40 K1 U3 F50 K0 U3 F50 K1 U5 F0 K1 U5 F0 K2 U5 F40 K1 U5 F40 K2 U5 F50 K1 U5 F50 K2 Bi F0 K1 Bi F0 K2 Bi F0 K3 Bi F40 K1 Bi F40 K2 Bi F40 K3 Bi F50 K1 Bi F50 K2 Bi F50 K3 ITS (N/mm2 ) at 25 C 1.316 1.569 2.210 2.037 2.361 2.185 1.393 1.318 2.248 1.896 2.612 1.975 1.387 1.272 1.148 2.422 2.212 1.821 2.963 2.667 2.234 ITS7gg (N/mm2 ) after 7 days of soaking at 40 C 1.287 1.515 2.053 1.838 2.25 2.112 1.328 1.293 2.158 1.828 2.548 1.893 1.341 1.231 1.083 2.090 1.844 1.557 2.602 2.312 1.984 ITS14gg (N/mm2 ) after 14 days of soaking at 40 C 1.281 1.479 2.074 1.866 2.220 2.049 1.336 1.270 2.154 1.806 2.485 1.873 1.335 1.235 1.136 2.011 1.876 1.520 2.632 2.292 1.936 R7 = 0.98 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.95 0.97 0.95 0.98 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.94 0.86 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.87 0.89
ITS7gg ITS

343

R14 = 0.97 0.94 0.94 0.92 0.94 0.94 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.99 0.83 0.85 0.83 0.89 0.86 0.87

ITS14gg ITS

The same decreasing trend with the bitumen content can be observed for the Marshall quotient, QM . By contrast, when examining the results as a function of the RA content, an increasing trend of the Marshall stability, MS, can be noticed. This result is consistent with what was expected (Pratic, 2004), since the hardness of the total bitumen in the mixture increases with the RA content. The previous result is corroborated by the results for the Marshall quotient, which increases with the increase in RA content as well. For the same reason, the Marshall voids increase with the RA content, and consequently, the calculated values for voids lled with bitumen, VFB, decrease (see Table 9). Using a high percentage of recycled material in the mixture, in fact, is the same as using harder bitumen, which, for warmer climates, makes it possible to accept quite a high bitumen content to improve fatigue resistance and bearing capacity (complex modulus), though maintaining high rutting resistance.

3.4. Indirect tension test and results The very high content of recycled material in the mixture made it necessary to evaluate the resistance of the mixtures studied to water-induced damage by performing indirect tensile strength tests, before and after soaking in water. The tests were conducted at 25 C, after standard conditioning of asphalt specimen according to standard EN 12697-23 (EN, 2003a) or after soaking in a water bath at 40 C for 7 or 14 days, according to Italian Standard CNR 134/91 (CNR, 1991). Results are given in Table 10. From Table 10 it can be seen that all the mixtures studied comply with the requirements of the Italian Specications for both the indirect tensile strength and the water-induced damage resistance of asphalt mixtures, as depicted in Figs. 6 and 7. From the results given it can be noticed that the ITS decreases with the increase in binder content (richness modulus, K), as already seen for the Marshall stability MS.

Fig. 6. Indirect tensile strength ITS [N/mm2 ], as a function of RA content.

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Fig. 7. Retained tensile strength ratio R as a function of RA content, after 14 days of soaking in a water bath at 40 C.

Finally, as far as the water susceptivity is concerned, it is possible to conclude that: 1. for all the mixtures the ratio R fully complies with the requirements of the Italian Specications; 2. as expected, testing after 14 days of soaking at 40 C is more severe compared with testing after 7 days, also considered by some specications; 3. in any case, the testing methods considered by most of the Italian Specications, are not able to take into account the effect of binder content, as happens for other experimental methods such as the standard test described in ASTM D4867 (ASTM, 2004), the Duriez test and the modied Lottman test AASHTO T283 (AASHTO, 2007) that, conveniently, account for the water saturation of specimens. Apart from the normal scattering of testing results, a certain reduction of the indirect tensile strength for a longer conditioning period in water at 40 C can be noticed. Furthermore, regardless of bitumen content, the indirect tensile strength increases with the RA content. This result matches what was observed for Marshall stability and has to be related, at a constant level of the bitumen content, with the steady increase in bitumen hardening due to the use of larger quantities of recycled asphalt. Again, for all the mixtures studied, the value obtained as calculated for the ratio R complies with the requirements of the Italian Specications (R > 0.70) for both the water conditioning periods considered: the shorter one, of 7 days, and the longer one, of 14 days. Lastly, the water-induced damage seems to be more dependent on the type on mixture than on the RA content in the mixture. 3.5. Rutting resistance In order to evaluate the mixtures rutting resistance, rutting tests were carried out according to Standard EN 12697-22 (EN, 2003b). Considering the meaning of this test and taking into account the typical layer thickness associated with each type of mixture studied, it was decided to test only the mixtures for wearing courses, with typical laying thicknesses of 5 cm, that is type U5 mixtures, at

each binder and RA content. For these mixtures, at each different RA content, the rut depth as a function of the number N of load applications is given in Fig. 8. As previously seen from the Marshall testing results, but now even more noticeably from the mechanicistic point of view, the rut test results show that the use of recycled material greatly increases the rutting resistance as a consequence of the hardening of the total binder in the mixture. Furthermore, it is possible to observe that mixtures with recycled materials, even though with high binder content, have good rutting resistance, with rut depths lower that those obtained for the corresponding control mixtures (type F0 mixtures, without RA), as shown by the average values for rut depth in air, RDair , given in Table 11, where the results obtained for each mixture are given in terms of both the absolute value measured and the percentage calculated with respect to the value for the control mixture, without RA. In any case, consistently with what was expected, the increase in binder content worsened the rutting resistance. Further conrmation of what was said above can be obtained by calculating the related parameters of the rutting curve, that is the wheel-tracking slope in air, WTSair , directly associated with the cumulating of permanent deformation for the different mixtures, given in Table 12.

Fig. 8. Cumulative rut depth as a function of the number N of load applications, for each RA content.

C. Celauro et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54 (2010) 337347 Table 11 Rut depth results, RDair . Richness modulus (b%) RDair (mm) U5FO K1 = 3.25 (b = 5.03%) K2 = 3.50 (b = 5.55%) 3.63 5.26 U5F40 2.12 2.54 U5F50 1.6 2.19 Ratio (%) F40/F0 58.32 48.24 F50/F0 44.02 41.69

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Table 12 Wheel-tracking slope in air, WTSair for the mixtures studied. Richness modulus (b%) K1 = 3.25 (b = 5.03%) K2 = 3.50 (b = 5.55%) U5 FO 0.169 0.226 U5 F40 0.047 0.068 U5 F5O 0.047 0.055 Fig. 10. ColeCole diagram mixture U5F40K2.

Again, it is possible to notice a worsening of this performance with an increase in the binder richness modulus, K: this matches the increase in the wheel-tracking slope WTSair when moving from the modulus K1 to the higher value K2 . It can be concluded that, for the same richness modulus, the use of recycled material drastically reduces the cumulating of ruts at high temperatures, since the slope WTSair decreases with an increase in the RA percentage in the mixture. Based on these results, it is possible to consider a doubled service life of the surface layer with respect to this specic pavement damage (which is particularly severe in countries with hot climates). 3.6. Complex modulus test and results For the sole surface mixture selected on the basis of the previous laboratory results for industrial production (U5K2, with different RA content), complex modulus tests and fatigue tests were also performed. Complex modulus tests were carried out using a Three-point Bending Test Device, obtained by imposing in the centre-line a sinusoidal strain, of constant amplitude (strain controlled method). The deformation amplitude level was set about equal to = 35 /m. Modulus tests were performed at ve different temperature levels (T = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 C); for each temperature, measurements were taken at a range of frequencies (f = 30100 Hz). Figs. 911 show the results obtained in terms of ColeCole diagrams (i.e. elastic vs. viscous component of the complex modulus), in addition, Fig. 12 depicts the master curves of the complex modulus |E*| for the different mixtures at the reference temperature TR = 10 C. These curves were obtained by applying the time-temperature superposition principle (with translation factor T calculated according to Arrhenius formula) and having set an activation apparent energy value common to all mixtures, H = 50 kcal/mol. Examining the results of the complex modulus tests, one can clearly see the inuence of the introduction of recycled materials into the mixtures.
Fig. 11. ColeCole diagram mixture U5F50K2.

As can be observed by examining the complex modulus curves and, in particular, by comparing them at the same aggregate gradation, the mixtures with 50% of recycled materials (F50) offer, for each temperature and loading frequency, higher performance (stiffness) than those with lower RA content. Mixtures with 40% of RA (F40) have moduli just below those provided by the type F50 mixtures but always higher than those of the control mixtures (F0), this effect being more evident at higher testing temperatures. As an example, Table 13 provides a summary of the stiffness moduli calculated for the different mixtures at 20 C and 35 Hz, as well as the values for the E modulus (purely elastic mod-

Fig. 9. ColeCole diagram mixture U5F0K2.

Fig. 12. Master curves of complex modulus mixture type U5 K2, at different RA contents.

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Table 13 Complex modulus at different RA content for the type U5K2 mixtures. Mixtures U5 FO K2 U5 F4O K2 U5 F5O K2 Modulus |E| at 20 C, 35 Hz (MPa) 11,600 13,000 13,300 Estimated E modulus (MPa) 32,000 36,000 37,500

ulus, which the mixture has for extremely low temperatures or extremely high loading frequencies), estimated for each mixture from the ColeCole diagrams previously seen. Testing results prove the improvement in stiffness gained by mixtures with higher RA content, when compared with the control mixture without RA, and therefore a better capacity of spreading the load application or, which is the same thing, a better structural performance of the proposed mixtures, when used in a exible pavement. 3.7. Fatigue test and results Fatigue resistance was determined by subjecting the specimens, prismatic in shape and with a constant section, to repeated exural loading with procedures analogous to those of the complex modulus test. Tests were carried out at a temperature set equal to T = 15 C, for a xed loading frequency equal to f = 30 Hz. The failure criterion adopted is the traditional one which considers a 50% reduction in the initial stiffness modulus. The testing temperature selected is the one that best represents the most signicant thermal regime for the onset of fatigue damage in exible pavements in countries with warm climates, such as Italy. The test results made it possible to obtain the Whler curves shown in Fig. 13. Table 14 summarizes the regression coefcients (, and R2 ) obtained for the different mixtures, as estimated for the fatigue straight line, i.e. = N . From the regressions previously given, it was possible to estimate the admissible strain level corresponding to one million loading applications, (N = 106 ). By comparison of the fatigue straight lines, for the high bitumen contents considered, it can be noticed that the introduction of

recycled material did not jeopardize the mechanical performances of the mixtures studied. Mixtures with higher percentage of recycled material (F50) have better fatigue performance of those with lower RA content (F40) the latter, in turn, being better than those attained by the control mixture F0, without RA. In particular, also taking into account the testing conditions adopted, the mixtures with higher RA content can be dened as high-performance since they offer: high fatigue performance (high level of admissible strain at N = 106 cycles, together with low values for the slope of the fatigue line; good values for stiffness, as determined during the complex modulus tests. 4. Conclusions The need for good quality, cost-effectiveness and environmental sustainability of road construction led to the denition of a methodology for studying bituminous mixtures with high content of recycled asphalt, to be used for both construction and maintenance of road and airport pavements, together with the consequent improvements in asphalt production plants. Different steps were involved in the design phase of the recycled mixtures, and specically: governing of the recovery and handling of recycled asphalt, in order to assure the required homogeneity of its characteristics, mainly with regard to the identication of the source and the characterization of the component materials related to the selected future use; selecting an appropriate virgin bitumen (able to rejuvenate the old binder contained in the RA); characterizing each component of the mixtures produced in a laboratory, consistently with the selected use; optimizing the mixtures to be produced so that, thanks to the knowledge on mix design of traditional bituminous mixtures, a good compromise between in-service performances and required quality for a good laying process and durability (such as resistance to oxidation and sun radiance or resistance to water-induced damage) can be achieved. The mechanical characterization tests carried out in this study (Marshall test, indirect tensile test, test for resistance to waterinduced damage, Cantabro loss test and also, for the optimized wearing courses, complex modulus and fatigue tests) showed that even with very high percentages of recycled materials (up to 50%) it is possible to comply with the requirements of the most common Italian Specications and Standards for bituminous mixtures to be dened as high-performance, i.e. those that are designed for surface layers of roads with very high levels of heavy trafc, in regions with warm climates. References

Fig. 13. Fatigue straights for mixture type U5K2, at different RA content.

Table 14 Estimated regression coefcients and admissible strain at N = 106 loading applications. Mixture U5F0 K1 U5 F40 K1 U5 F50 K1 1520 1075 1103 0.19 0.16 0.16 R2 0.945 0.846 0.881 (N = 106 ) 15 C, 35 Hz 99 117 121

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