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Express Note :

- Straight line
- gradient
- Equation of a straight line y = mx + c,
- plotting coordinate
1. Lines of best fit
a. All plotted points should lie as close
as possible to the line
b. The line should pass through as many
points as possible
c The number of points above and
below the line should be about the
same and at about the same distance
from the line.

3. Apply linear law to non-linear equation
a. Reduce non linear relations to a
linear form , Y = mX + c
b. Determine values of constants of
non linear relations given
i. lines of best fit
ii. data
c. Obtains information from
i. lines of best fit
ii. equations of linear of best fit
2. Equation of line of best fit


Paper 1

1. Reduce the non-linear equation y = ax
b
, to the linear form, where a and b are
constants.
2.
Express the non-linear equation
x
k
x h y + = , in the form of Y = mX + C
3.
Given that variables x and y are related by
x
b
ax y + =
3
with a and b are constants.
Explain how to draw a straight line to determine the values of a and b
4.

The graph shows a graph of
yx against
x
1
. Express y in terms of x.





5. Given that log
10
v = pu
2
+ q.
Find the values of p and q







6.
Given that y =
2
2
px q +
.
Find the values of p and q.







(5,0) 0
yx
(0,8)
1
x
u
2

(2,
3)
(5,
7)
0
log
10
v


x
2
y
1

(3, 2)
(9, 5)
0
7.
Given that
3 2
y
ax bx 0
3
+ + = .
Find the values of a and b.





8.
Figure shows parts of the graph obtained
by plotting y against \x .
Express y as a function of x







9. Figure below shows a straight line graph
of log
10
y against log
10
x. Given that
log
10
x = 6, find the value of y






PAPER 2
1 The table 1 below shows the values of two variables, x and y. It is known that
x and y are related by the equation
2
py qx 4x + = where p and q are
constants.
x 1 2 4 5 6 7
y 3.5 10 32 47.5 66 87.5
Table 1
(a) Plot
y
x
against x , using a scale of 2 cm to 1 unit on the x-axis, and 2 cm to 2
units on the
y
x
axis. Hence, draw the line of best fit.
(b) From your graph, find the values of p and q.
2 The table 2 below shows the values of two variables, x and y obtained from an
experiment. The variables are related by the equation ay = bx + 5 x , where a and b
are constants.

x 1 2 3 5 7
y 8 12.49 16.39 23.42 29.87
Table 2
(a) Explain how a straight line may be drawn to represent the given equation.
(b) Plot the graph from equation (a) and estimate the values of a and b.
(c) Find the value of y when x = 25.
3 Table 3 shows the values of two variables, v and u, obtained from an experiment. It
x

2
x
y
(8, 2)
(2, 8)
O
\ x
(4,0)
0
(-5,8)
y
(2,4)
(-2,2)
0
10
log y
10
log x
is known that v and u are related by the equation,
v
u pk = , where p and k are
constants.
v 2 4 6 8 10 12
u 3.16 5.50 9.12 16.22 28.84 46.77
Table 3
(a) Plot
10
log u against v by using a scale of 2 cm to 2 units on the v-axis and 2
cm to 0.2 unit on the
10
log u -axis. Hence, draw the line of best fit.
(b) From the graph, find the values of
(i) p
(ii) k
(c) Find the values of u when v = 7.5

4
Table 4 shows the values of two variables, x and y, obtained from an experiment.
Variables, x and y, are related by the equation
2
p
y 2kx x
k
= + , where p and k are
constants.
x 2 3 4 5 6 7
y 8 13.2 20 27.5 36.6 45.5
Table 4
(a) Plot
y
x
against x by using a scale of 2 cm to 1 unit on both axes. Hence,
draw the line of best fit.
(b) Use your graph in (a) to find the value of
(i) p
(ii) k
(iii) y when x = 1.2 (SPM 2007/paper 2/section B/no : 7)

5
Table 5 shows the values of two variables, x and y, obtained from an experiment.
Variables x and y are related by the equation
x 1
y pk
+
= , where p and k are
constants.
x 1 2 3 4 5 6
y 4.0 5.7 8.7 13.2 20.0 28.8
Table 5
(a) Plot y log against ) 1 ( + x by using a scale of 2 cm to 1 unit on the ( ) 1 + x -
axis and 2 cm to 0.2 unit on the log y axis. Hence, draw the line of best fit.
(b) Use the graph from (a) to find value of
(i) p
(ii) k (SPM 2006/paper 2/section B/no : 7)
PAPER 1
1. a x b y lg lg lg + =

6 p = 1, q = 1
5
3
4
,
3
1
= = p q
2.



7
3
10
,
3
1
= = b a
3.


m = a, c = b
@


m = b , c = a
8
9
32 8 +
=
x
y
4.
x x
y
8 1
5
8
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
=

9
6
10 = y