Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

What are the names of each stage of learning in Fitts and Posner's model?

How do the names reflect corresponding stage? FITTS/POSNER 3 STAGES OF LEARNING AND SPORT SPEED TESTS Fitts and Posner (1967) suggested that the learning process is se uential and that we mo!e through specific phases as we learn" #here are three stages to learning a new s$ill%

Cognitive phase & 'dentification and de!elopment of the component parts of the s$ill & in!ol!es formation of a mental picture of the s$ill Associative phase & (in$ing the component parts into a smooth action & in!ol!es practicing the s$ill and using feed)ac$ to perfect the s$ill

Autonomous phase & *e!eloping the learned s$ill so that it )ecomes automatic & in!ol!es little or no conscious thought or attention whilst performing the s$ill & not all performers reach this stage

#he leaning of ph+sical s$ills re uires the rele!ant mo!ements to )e assem)led, component )+ component, using feed)ac$ to shape and polish them into a smooth action" -ehearsal of the s$ill must )e done regularl+ and correctl+" st Stage o! Lea"ning # Cognitive phase #he first stage called the cogniti!e stage of learning is when the )eginner focuses on cogniti!el+ oriented pro)lems (.agill /60)" #his is when the )eginners tr+ to answer uestions such as% What is the o)1ecti!e of the 23 +ard sprint? Where should m+ hand )e on the line coming out of a three&point stance? How and where do ' place m+ feet? How is the weight distri)uted? #here are man+ uestions that an athlete has when the+ first tr+ to learn a three point stance for the 23 +ard dash" 4nd surprisingl+ the older the athlete, the harder it is to teach the proper mechanics of the start" #his is )ecause the+ ha!e )een doing it their wa+ most of their life" -emem)er it is easier to teach new ha)its than to tr+ to fi5 )ad ha)its" Fitts and Posner e5plain the learner must engage in cogniti!e acti!it+ as he or she listens to instructions and recei!e feed)ac$ from the instructor (.agill /60)" 6f course during the first stage the learner or athlete is going to ma$e man+ errors and the errors the+ ma$e ha!e a tendenc+ to )e large" #he learners

or athletes in this stage are conscious incompetent" #his is when the athlete reali7es that the+ not as s$illed as perhaps the+ thought the+ were or thought the+ could )e" 6ne of the wa+s to help the athlete through this first stage and show their mista$es is through !ideo anal+sis" From e5perience, once the learner or athlete can watch their errors the+ tend to correct them at a faster rate" #here are some characteristics of learners as the+ progress through the 8ogniti!e stage of learning proposed )+ Fitts and Posner" Firstl+, their performance hea!il+ )ased on cogniti!e or !er)al process ,lots of self&tal$ guiding through s$ill and gains are large, )ut inconsistent )ecause the+ are tr+ing to determine how to accomplish s$ill using different strategies" 9esides that, the+ can determine what wor$s and what doesn't, )ut need to tr+ out man+ strategies to do this" $n% Stage o! Lea"ning # Associative phase #he second stage of learning in the Fitts and Posner model is called the associati!e stage of learning" #he transition into this stage occurs after an unspecified amount of practice and performance impro!ement (.agill /60)" #he learner or athlete reaches this stage when the+ ha!e de!eloped the $nowledge of what, how and when to do the different tas$s in a sprint to achie!e the goal of the s$ill" 6f course the athlete ma$es fewer mista$es in this stage and is more consistent with the different stages of the 23 +ard dash" #he athlete now understands how to start, how to load the arm and legs in a three&point stance, how to )reathe, when to )reathe, arm placement, etc" 'n the associati!e stage, the athlete is going through conscious competence" #he learner or athlete $nows how to do something: )ut, in spite of this, demonstrating the s$ill or $nowledge re uires a great deal of consciousness or concentration" #his great deal of consciousness and concentration usuall+ ma$es the athlete tense or distur)s )reathing which could inhi)it the athletes; sprint performance" #he characteristics of learners as the+ progress through the 4ssociati!e stage of learning proposed )+ Fitts and Posner is the+ learn to associate en!ironmental cues with mo!ements re uired to achie!e goal, can determine most effecti!e strategies and their performance impro!ements are more gradual due to more su)tle ad1ustments" 4part from that, their

mo!ements also are more consistent" Howe!er, the+ are not s$illed enough to ma$e corrections to mo!ement once errors ha!e )een made" 3"% Stage o! Lea"ning # Autonomous phase #he third and final stage is called the autonomous stage of learning" 'n this stage the s$ill has )ecome almost automatic or ha)itual (.agill /60)" (earners or athletes; in this stage do not thin$ a)out all the steps re uired to run a fast time, the athlete 1ust performs and runs" 'n this stage as a coach we li$e to call it unconscious competence" #he learner or athlete has had so much practice with a s$ill that it )ecomes <second nature= and can )e performed easil+ with onl+ little thin$ing" *uring this stage the learner or athlete can go up to the line $nowing all the answers he or she was as$ing, thin$ing, and )eing coached on during the cogniti!e and associati!e stage" #he characteristics of learners as the+ progress through the 4utonomous stage of learning proposed )+ Fitts and Posner are at this stage reached after months of practice" *uring this stage, the+ can perform other acti!ities while performing s$ill )ecause less attention spent on tas$ " 9esides that, the+ can start adding other aspects to s$ill li$e adding emotion, d+namics to music and while performing s$ill, can detect and correct own errors"

Conc&usion 'n closing, Fitts and Posner;s #hree >tage .odel of learning can )e used in an+ athletic drill or mo!ement" 6f course, there are other different theories of learning )ut with the Fitts and Posner model it is simple and it wor$s" 4s a coach +ou can use this model with all of +our athletes learning a new s$ill or mo!ement" -emem)er coaching means teaching, of course it is eas+ to go out and train a )unch of athletes 1ust running them into the ground and man+ coaches still do that )ecause the+ thin$ the harder the )etter" #o )e a great coach remem)er sometimes less is more" #his means that sometimes less wor$ and more coaching towards the athletes; can )e more )eneficial" Finall+, in motor learning and motor control the whole )asis is )eing a)le to program +our )od+ to learn and do different things" #he earlier +ou start programming the

correct wa+ to do specific mo!ements, li$e run, 1ump, throw, lift, etc" the )etter student or athlete +ou will )e" #he important aspect is learning the proper techni ue sooner )ecause the longer an athlete waits there is a greater chance of the athlete pic$ing up )ad ha)its" #hat is wh+ it is so important to find a ualified, educated coach or teacher who can show and teach and e5plain wh+ the proper techni ues of training"

Re!e"ences Magill RA. Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and Applications. 8th ed. New Your, NY: McGraw-Hill !""# http%??www"top!elocit+"net?@&stages&of&learning?Asthash"htBP2CC7"dpuf