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Very straight, steep and narrow channel Water cuts down into rock, making a V Fast moving water May have waterfalls and rapids

As the stream flows it picks up kinetic energy in the form of more speed. When slope decreases, the stream loses kinetic energy and slows down suddenly

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_s cience/terc/content/visualizations/es1305 /es1305page01.cfm

Slope and Stream Velocity


Erosion Rate (mm yr -1 )

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Mean Slope (degrees)

As slope increases, we increased the waters speed. Faster moving water means greater erosion

As stream velocity increases, we can move larger particles.

Practice, practice, practice

Classify the following size particles.

a. b. c. d. e. f.

.07 cm = sand .005 cm = silt 20.5cm= cobbles 4.2cm= pebbles .0002cm= clay 39.5cm = boulders

Practice, practice, practice

Determine what particles would be carried by a stream moving at the following velocities

a. 50cm/second b. 100 cm/second c. 200 cm/second d. 250 cm/second e. 300cm/second * Colloid (small clay) particles usually never settle

Sediment Transport in a Stream

Gravel, rocks, and boulders roll along stream bed Sand can bounce along the stream bed. Silt and clay can be suspended in a stream Many more particles are dissolved in the water.

Erosion - outside of meander

Remember your monopoly houses?

1. Lower portions of rivers often start to meander or form a s-shape river pattern.

Youthful stream

Mature stream

2. Erosion is greater on the outside of the bend, deposition more on the inside.

Youthful stream

Mature stream

3. The river can eventually cut through the meander, leaving a straighter section and an ox-bow lake.

Youthful stream

Mature stream

River bends and loops forming Meanders.

Not as steep Water velocity slows down Both erosion & deposition occur

Hills are eroded away.

River is established & cuts into banks creating a floodplain

Mature Streams are characterized by

Wide valleys and wide floodplains Deltas River has many loops and bends Low slope, water flows slower

As, the amount of water in a stream increases (stream discharge) the flow velocity increases.

Erosion rate

When the river Formation reaches its mouth, the land becomes flatter.

of a delta
Flow velocity decreases, and particles settle suddenly.

Settling speed of a particle

Density: Denser particles settle faster. Shape: Rounder settles faster than flatter Size: Larger particles settle faster

Buoyancy Friction


Settling of a Particle
Particle settling is also affected by: Turbidity (choppiness) Water Density Water depth