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~ Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes: MF30604

Supplementary Exam 20l2-2013
Time: Three Hours
Total Marks: 100
Attempt all questions.
Marks (for Part A): 50
1. State whether the following statements are true or false. Justify your answer in brief.
i. The quality of holes drilled by millisecond and ultra-short (-500fs) duration laser pulses are different.
ii. Electrical non-conducting material can't be cut by plasma arc cutting machine.
iii. The material removal mechanism in EBM and IDM is the same.
iv. In IBM the sputtering rate is maximum at normal incidence.
v. In Abrasive Jet Machining process MRR increases monotonically with the increase of abrasive mass
flow rate at a constant carrier gas pressure.
vi. USM is mainly used to machine metals such as copper, aluminum, and steel etc.
2. a. Describe briefly the electron beam drilling process in a metal sheet. What are the factors which affect
the focal spot size of an e-beam? [3+3=6)
2. b. A tungsten sheet of I mm thickness is cut through vaporization with a 5 kW electron beam. The spot
diameter of the e-beam on the metal surface is 1 OOJ..l.Ill. About 50% of the electron energy is utilized in
the cutting process and remaining is lost due to heat conduction. Estimate the maximum cutting speed.
Estimate the actual cut width also which might have been affected by thermal diffusion.
The relevant thermo-physical properties of tungsten are as the following:
Density p = 19300kg/m
, Temperature averaged specific heat Cp = 140J/kgC, Latent heat of fusion
Lr = 185kJ/kg, Latent heat of evaporation Lv= 4020kJ/kg, Melting temperature Tm = 341 0C,
Boiling Temperature Tv = 5900C, Thermal conductivity k= 164 W /mC
3. a. Show that the material removal rate of a ductile material in abrasive jet machining can be given by
MRR (Ductile)= 0.5 (Ma V
where Ma. V and H are the abrasive mass flow rate, velocity of abrasive particles and their hardness
respectively. [6]
3. b. A 50mm diameter glass substrate has a SJ..l.Ill thick aluminum coating on its surface. The strength of
aluminum coating is 300MPa. Coating is to be removed by abrasive jet of grit diameter 30J.1m and grif
density 5000kg/m
What should be the velocity of the AJ to remove the SJ.lffi thickness of coating in a
single impact of an abrasive grit? Estimate the AJ mass flow rate to clean up the entire coating in 10
seconds machining time. [ 6]
4. a. Describe briefly the laser cutting process of metal sheets. Name any two lasers which are commonly
used in this application. Derive an expression for the severance energy.
4. b The severance energy of steel in 0
assisted laser cutting is 6J/mm
What should be the laser power to
cut a 3 mm thick steel plate at 5m/min cutting speed?
Attempt all questions.
Marks (for Part B): 50
S(a)-Witlt suitabk diagr.mi explain the mechanism of material removal in EDM. lSJ
the properties of a good dielectric fluid for EDM? Name some common dielectric fluids. used
for EDM. [3+ 1}
5( c)- hi EDM how do MRR and surface finish vary with change in
(i ) Peak current setting?
(ii) Pulse off time?
6(a)-What are the Faraday"s laws of electrolysis?
6(b) Derive an equation to find out the volumetric material removal rate (MRR) for an alloy having n
number of elements with weight percentage of nth element present in the alloy being Xn
6( c }-An iron workpiece is machined in an ECM die-sinking macliine using a copper tool and aqueous NaCl
solution as The copper electrode has a uniform interaction area of 100 cm
A constant
working gap ofO.OS em is maintained. The ECM machine has a supply voltage of25V. Specific
resistance of the electrolyte is 5.0 ohm-em. For iron, atomic weight=56, valency=2, density=7.8 gjcm

Faraday's constant= 96500 Coulomb. A current efficiency of 100% may be assumed. Neglect
overvoltage at the electrodes. Calculate the (i) Material removal rate and (ii) Electrode feed rate.
7(a) What are the different types of masks used in chemical machining?
7(b) What are the selection criteria for an etchant in chemical machining (CHM)?
7(c) A small hole, having diameter lmm and depth 10 mm, has to be machined on a stainless steel plate.
What process would you suggest to drill this hole? What are the typical requirements of tool electrode
material, electrolyte and power supply for this process?
[Hint: You may think of using one of the micro hole driliing techniques based on electrochemical
8(a) Explain the condition under which a electrical discharge can occur in an electrolyte that is used in
electrochemical discharge machining. [3]
8(b) What is the type of power supply one should use for electrochemical discharge machining and why?
8( c) What are the advantages of electrochemical discharge machining over conv<!ntional EDM and -ECM?
9(a) A pulsed micro-ECM set up uses a O.IM HCI04 electrolyte. If a frontal gap ofthe electrode from the
workpiece is maintained at 2 micron, calculate the maximum pulse on-time that may be allowed so as
to avoid side cutting.
Given: the specific resistivity of electrolyte r = 30 ohm-em, The double layer capacitance, CoL = 10
micro Faradlcm2 for the metal electrode.
9(b) Give a schematic diagram to show the process sequence for photochemical machining technique.
*** End of Question Paper ***