Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

MULTI-EDUCATIONAL REVIEW GROUP EXPERTS, INC.

*BAGUIO CITY*ILOILO CITY *BACOLOD *DAVAO CITY *CABANATUAN CITY *LUCENA*NAGA*TUGUEGARAO*ILIGAN* PAMPANGA* GEN SANTOS CITY* MAKATI CITY*METRO CEBU*DASMARINAS CAVITE MANILA HEAD OFFICE www.merge-review.com

MULTI-EDUCATIONAL REVIEW GROUP EXPERTS, INC. *BAGUIO CITY*ILOILO CITY *BACOLOD *DAVAO CITY *CABANATUAN CITY *LUCENA*NAGA*TUGUEGARAO*ILIGAN* PAMPANGA* GEN

NURSING RESEARCH,

NURSING RESEARCH,

NURSING RESEARCH,

NURSING

RESEARCH,

LEADERSHIP AND

LEADERSHIP AND

LEADERSHIP AND

LEADERSHIP

AND

1

MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT

NURSING RESEARCH

  • - Came from the French word “cerchier” meaning to seek or to search

  • - A systematic and objective process of analyzing phenomena related to nursing

  • - systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession, including nursing practice, education, administration and informatics.

The researcher uses systematic, orderly and objective methods of seeking information. The scientific method uses empirical data – data gathering through the sense of organs. (CBQ JUNE 07)

Because nursing is a profession, should contribute to the generation of new knowledge.

Through nursing research we nurses could evaluate and document their contribution to their clients health and well being and to the health care delivery system.

What is the major reason for conducting nursing research?

  • a. improve nursing care of the clients

  • b. promote the growth of the nursing profession

  • c. document the cost effectiveness of nursing care

  • d. ensure accountability of nursing practice.

(CBQ.JUNE 2007, JUNE 08, JUNE 09,NOV. 09, LIFTED FROM Kozier Page 26)

Test taking strategy: principle of umbrella effect: options b, c, and d will fall to option A.

Test taking strategy: patient centered approach

STEPS IN NURSING RESEARCH PROCESS:

STEP I . PROBLEM

a situation in need of solution

FOUR CRITERIA (June 2007): FRIS

  • 1. Feasibility - analyzes how much time, money and materials you will need to complete the research problem

  • 2. Researchability – must be subjected into scientific investigation

  • 3. Interest – researcher must be interested and curious about the research problem because the researchers enthusiasm could be a factor for the completion of the research study.

  • 4. Significance - has a potential to contribute to nursing science because it seeks to enhance client care. JUNE 08.

STEP II . SOURCES OF RESEARCH PROBLEM (TILES) Theory – a supposition or system of ideas that are seem to be interrelated (June07) Interest Literature Experience Suggestions (from nursing experts)

(CBQ. DECEMBER 2007)

In formulating the research hypotheses, researcher Myrna should state the research question as:

  • A. What is the response of the staff nurses to the health values?

  • B. How is variable “health value” perceived in a population?

  • C. Is there a significant relationship between health values and health promotion activities of the

staff nurses?

  • D. How do health values affect health promotion activities of the staff nurses?

STEP II. PURPOSE

  • - researchers intends to do on the research subject.

  • - Usually it contains an active verb plus the preposition “to”

  • - Example: to enhance client care, to assess the post surgical patients’ knowledge in caring for his colostomy bag.

Study purposes includes:

  • 1. what the researcher will do

  • 2. who the subjects will be

  • 3. where the data will be collected

2

MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

STEP III. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • - To review means to view again on the literature works of others.

What is the purpose of conducting review of related literature?

To know what is already known and unknown on the topic

(CBQ. DEC 2006, JUNE 2007 & DEC.07 & JUNE 08 - LIFTED FROM KOZIER PAGE 29)

2

KINDS OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 
  • 1. RESEARCH – must be subjected into scientific investigation

  • 2. NON- RESEARCH/CONCEPTUAL – non research materials based on the opinion and experience of the researcher. It includes experiences, opinions, and theories of experts along the problem area. It also includes articles from books, journals and magazines.

CBQ: A thorough review of related literature covers the last 5 years.

 

lifted from Lydia Venson page 45 1 st paragraph.

SOURCES OF DATA (JUNE 2007)

 
  • 1. PRIMARY SOURCE – a description of research study written by the original researcher. Ex. Journal article sand data collected from interview and questionnaire

  • 2. SECONDARY SOURCE – a description of research study written by someone other than the researcher. Ex: histories and biographies

 

CBQ.-JUNE 2007

 
 

A primary source of nursing research study is:

 
  • a. An author that summarized or cited the works of the original researcher

  • b. A description of the research study written by the researcher who conducted the study

  • c. A description of the research study written by the researcher who did not conduct the study.

STEPS IN REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE (December 2007): ROW Read literature Organize literature Write/Written literature

 

CBQ.-DEC. 2007 LIFTED FROM NIESWIADOMY

Myrna needs to review relevant literature and studies. The following processes are undertaken in reviewing literature EXCEPT:

  • A. locating and identifying resources

  • B. clarifying a research topic

  • C. reading and recording notes

 
  • D. using the library

2

TYPES OF RESEARCH DEFINITION

  • 1. OPERATIONAL - these are terms that are defined according to the special way they are used in the study ; a type of definition defined by the “researcher” Ex: weight is something seen in kg/lbs

  • 2. THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL – defined by “dictionary” Ex: weight = body mass index/ gravity

 
  • 3. LEXICAL – definitions taken from authorities on the terms being defined. Ex: According to Aristotle, weight is…

DEVELOP A THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

  • A. THEORY - a supposition or system of ideas that are interrelated.

  • B. CONCEPT – concrete or abstract

  • C. CONSTRUCT – group of concepts that are directly or indirectly observable

  • D. PROPOSITION – assertion of relationship between variables

  • E. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK – propositional statement from one theory

  • F. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK – links concepts from several theories, previous research, own experience.

  • G. EMPIRICAL GENERALIZATION – statement based on observation of similar patterns of event. Ex: All people who are stressed will tend to have increase BP.

FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY

To organized the study and help develop a way to interpret study findings and explanation

3

MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

By developing a framework within ideas are organized and the researcher is able to show that

the proposed study is a logical extension of common knowledge.

CBQ-DEC. 2007 LIFTED FROM NIESWIADOMY

In both quantitative and qualitative research, the used of a frame of reference is required. Which of the

following items serves as the purpose of a framework?

A.

Incorporates theories into nursing’s body of knowledge

B.

Organizes the development of study and links the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge

C.

Provides logical structure of the research findings

Identifies concepts and relationships between concepts

IDENTIFYING THE STUDY ASSUMPTIONS

D.

  • - are beliefs that are held to be true but have not necessarily been proven.

  • - Ex. All human beings need love.

  • - Ex. All nurses like to give adequate nursing care but there are factors that prevent them from devoting their full time to the care of patients.

SCOPE, LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION

SCOPE – extend to which the study will be made

LIMITATION – A.K.A. extraneous variable, factors beyond the control of the researcher

DELIMITATION - limitation placed by the researcher

STEP IV . FORMULATE HYPOTHESIS

GOOD HYPOTHESIS: TDIP

Theoretically based ; testable

Directly related to the problem; declarative sentence

Includes the population and variables

Present tense format

A good hypothesis is easily understood, is specific and conceptually clear and can be tangibly measured.

VARIABLES – is any quality of a person institution or situation that varies or takes on different values.

(JUNE07 - JULY 2010)

  • 1. INDEPENDENT – presumed “CAUSE”

  • 2. DEPENDENT – presumed “EFFECT

  • 3. EXTRANEOUS/ CONFOUNDING/ UNCONTROLLED- variables that are beyond the control of the researcher. AKA as limitation of the study. Ex. Force majeur and fire

  • 4. DICHOTOMOUS – variables with two categories ex. Male and Female

  • 5. POLYCHOTOMOUS – variables with two or more variables ex. race

  • 6. DISCRETE – can take only a finite number of values – ex. BP,RR, PR

  • 7. CONTINOUS – can take a variety of range ex. Temperature

CBQ-DEC. 2007:

You are interested to study the effects of medication and relaxation on the pain experienced by

cancer patients. What type of variable is pain?

  • a. Dependent

  • b. Correlational

  • c. Independent

  • d. Descriptive

Test taking strategy: principle of elimination: remove b and d because they are type of research design

and choose between a and c.

TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS

-According to number of variables: JUNE 09

  • 1. SIMPLE – consists of 1 independent variable and 1 dependent variable

  • 2. COMPLEX - consists of 2 independent variable and 1 dependent variable or vice versa.

- According to relationship of variables:

  • 1. RESEARCH/ ALTERNATIVE/ OPERATIONAL/ SUBSTANTIVE/ SCIENTIFIC/ THEORETICAL – relationship is present

    • a. DIRECTIONAL – predicts the exact relationship between variables Ex. Older patient is more at risk of getting fall than younger ones.

    • b. NON- DIRECTIONAL- there is a relationship but it does not specify what it is. Ex: There is a relationship between the age of the patient in getting fall.

  • 2. NULL/STATISTICAL – no relationship Ex. There is no relationship between the age of the patient in getting fall.

  • HYPOTHESES

    TYPES OF

    INDEPENDENT

    DEPENDENT VARIABLE

    HYPOTHESES

    VARIABLE

    Rock music increases heart

    Simple

    Rock music

    Heart rate

    4

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    rate among elderly

           

    Birth weight is lower among

    Simple

    Level of alcohol use of

    Birth weight

    infants of alcoholic mothers

    mothers

    than among infants on non

    alcoholic mothers

     

    Primary nursing promotes

    Simple

    Method

    of

    Nursing

    Patients satisfaction

    patients satisfaction than the

    Care Delivery

    case method of assignment

     

    The level of job mobility is

    Simple

    Type

    of

    nurse

    Job mobility

    different for psychiatric nurse

    practitioner

    than for medical- surgical

     

    nurse practitioners.

     

    Problem-oriented recording

    Simple

    Type

    of

    recording

    Patient care

    leads

    to

    more

    effective

    process

    patient

    care

    than

    narrative

    recording.

    More post partum

         

    depression and feelings

    of

    • a. post partum depression

    inadequacy are reported by

    • b. feelings of inadequacy

    women who give birth by

    cesarean delivery than those

    Complex

    Method of delivery

    who deliver vaginally

     

    Daily weight loss is greater

         

    for adults who follow a

    reduced

    calorie

    diet

    and

    Complex

    • a. Type of diet

     

    Weight loss

    exercise daily than for those

    • b. Exercise

    who do not follow a reduced

     

    calorie

    diet

    and

    do

    not

    exercise daily.

     

    Heredity

    and

    environment

    Complex

    • a. Heredity

     

    Student’s performance

    influence

    the

    student’s

    • b. Environment

    performance

    in

     

    school

     

    activities.

    STEP V. RESEARCH DESIGN ( DEC 06 - JULY 2010)

    - blueprint of nursing research

    - over all plan in conducting nursing research(JUNE 2007)

    TWO MAJOR APPROACHES:

    • I. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

    associated with quantity

    can perform mathematics ex. Percentage and ratio (JUNE 2008)

    associated with logical positivism – hard science or scientific method (JUNE2007)

    ETIC PERSPECTIVE – more concern on data collected than the respondents

    EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

    • - Can truly test hypothesis

    • - Consist of 2 groups 3 elements

      • 1. Randomization

      • 2. Manipulation of variables

      • 3. Control/ experimental group

    EX.

    Lawrence plans to undertake a study of BGY. A and B to utilization of MCN services

    after organizing and training BHW in BGY. A

    1. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL:

    • a. MANIPULATION

    • b. EXPERIMENTAL/CONTROL GROUP

    • c. RANDOMIZATION

    TYPES:

    • A. PRETEST- POSTTEST CONTROL GROUP DESIGN( JUNE 09, NOV.09&JULY 2010)

      • 1. THE SUBJECTS ARE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO GROUPS

      • 2. PRE- TEST IS GIVEN TO BOTH GROUPS

      • 3. EXP. GROUP RECEIVES THE EXPERIMENTAL TXT AND COMPARISON GROUP RECEIVES THE

    ROUTINE ONE

    • 4. POST- TEST IS GIVEN TO BOTH GROUP

      • B. POSTTEST – ONLY CONTROL GROUP DESIGN9N0V. 09 &JULY 2010)

        • 1. SUBJECTS ARE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO GROUPS

    5

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    2.

    EXP. GROUP RECEIVES THE EXP TXT.

    • 3. CONTROL GROUP RECEIVES THE ROUTINE ONE/ NO TXT.

    • 4. POST- TEST IS GIVEN TO 2 GROUPS

    C. SOLOMON FOUR- GROUP DESIGN

    • 1. SUBJECTS ARE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THE 4 GROUPS

    • 1. 2 GROUPS, EXP GROUP 1 AND COMPARISON GROUP 1 ARE PRE- TESTED

    • 2. 2 OF THE GROUPS, EXP GROUP 1 AND 2 RECEIVES THE EXP TXT.

    • 3. CONTROL GROUP NO TXT.

    • 4. POST- TEST GIVEN TO ALL FOUR GROUPS

    2. QUASI- EXPERIMENTAL:

    “handpick your subject”

    The researcher implemented a medication regimen using a new type of combination drugs to

    a manic patient while another group of manic patient receives the routine drugs. The

    researcher however handpicked the experimental group for they are the clients with multiple

    episodes of bipolar disorder.

    TYPES:

    • A. NONEQUIVALENT CONTROL GROUP DESIGN – similar to pretest- post test control group design

    • B. TIME SERIES DESIGN – experimental txt is administered between series of observation

    3. PRE- EXPERIMENTAL:

    TYPES:

    • A. ONE SHOT CASE STUDY – a single group is exposed to an experimental txt and observed after the txt. (JULY 2010)

    • B. ONE GROUP PRETEST- POSTTEST DESIGN – comparison between a group before and after the exp. txt.

    THREATS TO VALIDITY( JUNE 08)

    • A. INTERNAL VALIDITY – concerns the degree to which changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable. Maturation – changes that occur within the subjects during an experimental study. Attrition - dropout

    Mortality- when the subject dropout rate is different between experimental and Comparison group

    Bias – when the study results are attributed to the experimental treatment but, In fact, the results

    occur because of subject differences before the treatment

    Instrumentation change – concerns the difference between the pretest and post test

    Measurements that is related to a change in the accuracy of the instrument

    Testing – refers to the influence of the pretest or knowledge of baseline data on

    Posttest scores

    History – occurs when some event besides the experimental treatment occurs during The course of

    a study and this event influences the dependent variable

    • B. EXTERNAL VALIDITY – concerns the degree to which study results can be generalized to other people and other settings. Hawthorne effect – occurs when study participants respond in a certain manner Because they are

    aware that they are being observed.

    Experimenter effect – occurs when the researcher characteristics or behaviors Influence subject

    behavior.

    Reactive effects of the pretest – measurement effect, occurs when subjects have Been sensitized

    to the treatment through taking the pretest.

    ON- EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

    -No manipulation of variables! JUNE 07

    A. Descriptive – the phenomenon of interest may have already been studied in the past, and there is

    enough information to ask questions about the relationship between variables.

    COCOMESU

    • 1. CORRELATIONAL – examine the strength of the relationship; do x and y vary together Positive relationship- one variable increases, and the other variable increases Negative relationship - one variable increases, and the other variable decreases

    Ex: The relationship of gender and salary.

    (gender cannot be manipulated)

    -Keyword : “relationship”

    • 2. COMPARATIVE – examine the difference between intact groups on some dependent variable of interest.

    Ex: A comparative study between male and female to their lifestyle

    6

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    • a. Retrospective studies / ex post facto – “after the fact”

    b. prospective studies - the independent variable is identified in the present and the

    dependent variable is measured in the future.

    • 3. METHODOLOGICAL – concerned with the development, testing and evaluation of research Instruments and methods.

    Ex. Wong and Baker pain scale used in pedia.

    • 4. SURVEY – public opinion; your favorite

    Ex. You conduct a study who is the favorite comedian of barangay 214,

    50

    %

    said

    Dolphy, 27% said Michael V. and 23% said Vic Sotto.

    TYPES OF SURVEY

    • a. NORMATIVE SURVEY – determine the normal or typical condition of situation and

    people.

    • b. SOCIAL SURVEY – aim s to study and diagnose a current social problem

    • c. COMMUNITY SURVEY – conducted in communities, peasant village, interrelated with

    social survey because both may be centered in major social problems such as poverty and

    dependency and health.

    • d. SCHOOL SURVEY – investigations conducted in schools.

    II. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    -

    Associated with quality

     

    -

    Associated with “naturalistic inquiry” – explores human feelings and experience

     

    ( June 2007) POLIT AND HUNGLER 1999 PAGE 13.

     

    -

    Beliefs, experience and values(JUNE 2008)

    -

    EMIC PERSPECTIVE - more concerned on the respondents than data collection

     

    -

    focuses on insights and understanding of individual perceptions on the phenomenon under

    study.

    -

    it is considered as “soft science”, concerned with the “subjective” meaning of experience to an

    individual.

    TYPES:

     
         

    PHENOME

    GROUNDED

    CASE STUDY

    HISTORICAL

    ETHNOGRAPHIC

    -NOLOGICAL

    THEORY

    In depth or

    Study of events

    Study of “culture”

    Study of human

    2 sociologists

    extensive study

    that occur in the

    Best method- interview

    feelings and

    namely Glasser

    of person

    “past”

    of key informants and

    experience

    and Strauss

    ,individual and

    participant as observer

    Involves data

    group

    Ex.

    Ex.

    collection,data

    Rouss is to

    Ex.

    Chococestar is

    analysis and then

    Ex.

    perform a study

    Maegan visited a tribe

    conducting a

    a theory is

    Kimy research

    about how nurses

    located somewhere in

    research study on

    derived

    on TB. Its

    perform surgical

    China, it is called the

    how Mark, an AIDS

    transmission,

    asepsis during

    Shin Jea tribe. She

    client lives his life.

    causative agent

    World War

    studied the way of life,

    and factors,

    II.

    tradition and the

    treatment sign

    societal structure of

    and symptoms

    these people.

    as well as

    medication and

    all other

    extensive

    information

    about

    tuberculosis.

     

    CBQ-JUNE07

     

    Which of the following studies is based on qualitative research?

    • A. A study measuring difference in blood pressure before, during and after the

    procedure.

    • B. A study examining oxygen levels after endotracheal suctioning

    C .A study examining clients reactions to stress after open heart surgery

    • D. A study measuring nutrition and weight loss/ gain in clients with cancer

    CBQ JUNE07 LIFTED FROM KOZIER REVIEW QUESTIONS PAGE 32

    OPTIONS A,B,&D ARE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH.

    When both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used simultaneously in the

    same study, this procedure is called:

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    A. triangulation

    7

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    B. saturation – repetition of salient points

    C.

    methodology – method/strategy

    • D bracketing – researcher should put aside their own feelings in order for the

    VI. SAMPLING (JUNE 07, NOV 09& JULY 2010)

    • - A process of getting a portion to represent the general population

    POPULATION

    Complete set of individual or object that possess some common characteristics that is of

    interest of the researcher.

    TARGET POPULATION

     

    Aggregate of cases about which the researcher would like to make generalization

     

    ACCESSIBLE POPULATION

     
     

    Actually available for the study; reasonably reach

     

    SAMPLE

     
     

    Is the segment of the population from whom the data will be actually be collected.

     

    ELEMENT

     
     

    Single entity

     

    CBQs:

       

    A process of selecting a portion to represent the general population is termed as:

    A.

    Design

    C. Problem

    B.

    Hypothesis

    D. Sample

    What does a sample group represent?

    A.

    Control group

    C. Universe

    B.

    Study subjects

    D. General Population

    What is the most important characteristics of a sample?

     

    A.

    Randomization

    C. Appropriate number

    B.

    Appropriate Location

    D. Representativeness

    Random sampling ensures that each subject has:

    A.

    been selected systematicall

    C. been selected based

    on set criteria

    B.

    characteristics that match other samples

    D. an equal chance of selection

    SAMPLING METHOD:

     

    I. PROBABILITY SAMPLING – everyone has the chance to be selected

     
     

    A.

    SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING – by chance; draw out of hat and bingo wheel

     

    B.

    STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING - according to strata or “level

     

    C.

    SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING – every nth of the population

    D.

    CLUSTER/ MULTI- STAGE – getting a sample according to geographic location

     

    II. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING – not everyone has the chance to be selected

     
     

    A.

    CONVENIENCE/ ACCIDENTAL/ INCIDENTAL – uses readily available on the street and hospital. The

    weakest type of sampling because of BIAS.

     

    B.

    PURPOSIVE/ JUDGMENTAL – there is a conscious selection of subjects; handpick your samples.

     

    C.

    SNOWBALL/ NETWORKING – getting a sample by referra

     

    D.

    QUOTAS – getting a sample according to their specific characteristics; CRITERIA

     

    TIME FRAME FOR STUDYING THE SAMPLE:

    • 1. Cross Sectional Study

    -examines sample in ONE POINT IN TIME

    • 2. Longitudinal Study

    -examines sample OVER A PERIOD OF TIME IN THE FUTURE

    *Special Type: COHORT STUDY (persons are studied who have been born during a particular

    time period)

    PILOT STUDY (NOV. 09)

    8

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    • - “dress rehearsal”

    • - A miniature trial version of the study conducted before the actual research to prevent any future disaster that might result from in correct data analysis, data collection, process and design.- JUNE 2007

    VII. COLLECTION OF DATA

    • - Involves collection of data

    FACTORS TO CONSIDER: SERV

    Simplicity - clear and simple to avoid the risk of errors

    Efficiency – capability of an instrument to measure items within a given period of time and budget

    Reliability – degree of consistenc

    Validity – ability to measure what is intended to be measured

    *COVER LETTER

    Letter that accompany the questionnaire disclosing the following information; the writer’s

    purpose, who is sanctioning the study, what will be done with the information, the reason why

    the respondents should answer and the deadline for returning the questionnaire.

    INSTRUMENTS:

    • 1. QUESTIONNAIRE – most common research instrument; pen and paper

    TYPES:

    • A. DEMOGRAPHIC – data or characteristics of the subject ex: age, gender, religion

    • B. OPEN- ENDED – essay; fill in the blank

    • C. CLOSE ENDED – two alternative questions ex. True or false question. 1.COLLECTIVE EXHAUSTIVE – all possible answer ex: highest educational attainment 2.MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE - no overlap between categories ex: monthly incom

    • D. CONTINGENCY QUESTION - relevant for some and not for other respondents. Ex: nationality

    • 2. INTERVIEW – second most common research instrument

    TYPES (DECEMBER 07)

    • A. STRUCTURED – specific question will only be asked and no additional question

    • B. SEMI- STRUCTURED – free to probe to major questions

    • C. UNSTRUCTURED – ordinary conversation

    • 3. OBSERVATION METHOD – most direct means if you are interested on the behavior of the respondents.

      • A. NONPARTICIPANT OBSERVER (OVERT) – openly identifies that she or he is conducting research and provides subjects with information about the types of data that will be collected.

      • B. NONPARTICIPANT OBSERVER (COVERT) - is one who does not, before the beginning of data collection, identify herself or himself to the subjects who are being observed.

      • C. PARTICIPANT OBSERVER (OVERT) - involved with participants openly and with the full awareness of those people who will be observed

      • D. PARTICIPANT OBSERVER (COVERT) – observer interacts with the participants and observes their behavior without their knowledge.

  • 4. BIOPHYSIOLOGIC DATA

    • A. IN VIVO – physical set up of the hospital

    • B. INVITTO – lab results such as CBC and biopsy

  • CBQ – JULY 2010

    The Effect of Crossing the Legs to Blood Pressure. What instrument you will use to measure

    dependent variable?

    • 5. -biophysiological/ PHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES

    DELPHI TECHNIQUE – consulting to experts

    • 6. RECORDS/PRE- EXISTING DATA – data that has not been collected before ex. Patient’s chart.

    VIII. ORGANIZATION OF DATA

    Involves tabulation and organization of data

    • 1. NOMINAL

    Data can be organized into categories

    Marital status, gender

    • 2. INTERVAL

    Have an equal numerical distance

    Temperature

    9

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    3.

    RATIO

    Highest form of measure

    BP,RR,PR

    • 4. ORDINAL

    Data can be arranged by rank

    Educational attainment

    IX. ANALYSIS OF DATA NOV 08 – JULY 2010

    DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS – describe and synthesize data obtained from

    empirical observation

    and

    measurement.

    • A. MEASURE TO CONDENSE DATA

    FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION – simply counting the scores

    GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION – graph, data are readily apparent

    PERCENTAGE – fraction of (JUNE 08).

    • B. MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY( 3 M)

    MODE (Mo) – frequently appeared

    MEDIAN(Mdn) – absolute center

    MEAN – average response

    • C. MEASURE OF VARIABILITY

    RANGE – H- L

    PERCENTILE – is a datum point below which lies a certain percentage of the values

    in a

    frequencu distribution

    STANDARD DEVIATION

    VARIANCE – Square of standard deviation

    • D. MEASURE OF RELATIONSHIP - measures the correlation between variables

    CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (r) – pairing of one variable to another variable.

    SCATTER PLOTS/SCATTER DIAGRAM/SCATTERGRAM – graphic representation between

    variables

    CONTINGENCY TABLES – cross- tabulation, displaying the relationship between sets of nominal

    data

    Ex. Relationship between gender and exercise behavior

    Gender

    Exercise

    Do

    not

    exercise

    Total

    regularly

    regularly

    Male

    35

    15

    50

    Female

    10

    40

    50

    Total

    45

    55

    100

    *TYPES OF CORRELATION PROCEDURE

    • 1. PEARSON PRODUCT – MOMENT CORRELATION (PEARSON r)

    most common correlation procedure used in nursing research when both sets of data are at

    interval or ratio.

    Ex. Correlation between blood pressure measurements taken on the upperarm and the fore arm of 246

    pt in an emergency dept. of a 1,071- bed teaching hospital.

    • 2. SPEARMAN rho

    correlation used in ordinal data

    Ex. Correlation between pain and anxiety.

    INFERENTIAL STATISTICS use to make conclusion on data

    CBQ-DEC.2007

    A research study found out that 60% of patients complains were due to delayed responses of nurses in

    the emergency department. Which of the following measurement of data was used in this study?

    • A. Measures of variability

    • B. Frequency distribution

    • C. Measures of central tendency

    • D. Inferential statistics

    10

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    STATISTICAL TEST (JUNE 09 – JULY 2010)

    A.T test /STUDENT t test – compares the difference of means of two groups of values

    • B. ANOVA – compares the difference of means of more than two groups of values

    • C. CHI SQUARE – compare nominal type of data; expected vs observed

    • X. COMMUNICATION

    • - final step in research process

    XI. UTILIZATION OF FINDINGS

    - final step in research process for the researcher.

    NURSING RESEARCH ETHICS

     

    1.

    NUREMBERG CODE – birth of your informed consent

    2.

    HELSINKI DECLARATION – research should not be done in violation of human rights.

    3.

    BELMONT REPORT – articulated with 3 principles: beneficence, justice and respect for human dignity.

    BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE RESEARCH SUBJECT

    5

    R’S

    1.

    RIGHT TO INFORMED CONSENT

    2.

    RIGHT NOT TO BE HARMED

    3.

    RIGHT TO CONFIDENTIALITY AND ANONYMITY

    4.

    RIGHT TO FULL DISCLOSURE

    5.

    RIGHT TO REFUSE OR WITHDRAW FROM THE PARTICIPATION

     

    NURSING LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

    NURSING LEADERSHIP

    • - An interpersonal process to effect change on the behavior of others.

    • - Process by which a nurse influence one or more person to achieve specific goals in the provision of

     

    nursing care in one or more patients.

    THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (JUNE 08)

     

    1.

    GREAT MAN THEORY

    assumes that some are born to be lead whereas others are born to be led.

    They are born with the capacity to persuade, influence and motivate others.

    2.

    CHARISMATIC THEORY – intangible characteristics; leader uses his charm/ charisma to lead the

     

    group

     

    3.

    TRAIT THEORY

    Leader has innate abilities that should be develop for him/her to become a successful leader.

    Intelligent, initiative, creative and communication skills

    4.

    SITUATIONAL THEORY – emphasizes on the maturity level of the leader/ member

    5.

    CONTINGENCY THEORY

    • - Leader can be effective if he/she can immediately resolve an emergency or crisis situation.

    • - 3 aspects: leader member relation, task structure, and position power.

      • 6. PATH –GOAL THEORY – if you are the leader you should clear and pave the way.

      • 7. EXPECTANCY THEORY- people acts as they do because they know that their behavior will produce satisfactory results.

      • 8. TRANSACTIONAL – giving reward for any good behavior

      • 9. TRANSFORMATIONAL – leader promises change by stimulating people to change *Hallmark: empowerment

    LEADERSHIP STYLES (JUNE 08)

    • 1. AUTOCRATIC/ DICTATORIAL/ DIRECTIVE

      • - leader is the center of the group

      • - useful during emergency situation

      • - foster dependence

  • 2. DEMOCRATIC/ PARTICIPATIVE/ CONSULTATIVE

    • - everyone is included in decision- making

    • - concensus building

    • - foster independence

  • 3. LAISSEZ- FAIRE/ ULTRALIBERAL/ PERMISSIVE/ FREE REIGN

    • - let alone style

    • - workers are left without supervision and direction

    • - fosters chaos

    • - not useful in health care delivery system where maintenance of standards is required

    • 2 TYPES OF LEADERS

    11

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    1.

    FORMAL LEADERS

    Appointed by organization and given office or legitimate authority to act

    • 2. INFORMAL LEADERS

    Don’t have official power to direct activities of others

    Seniority

    POWER IN THE ORGANIZATION

    • 1. REWARD POWER

    The ability to reward others for complying

    • 2. COERCIVE POWER

    Fear of punishment if one fails to conform

    • 3. LEGITIMATE POWER

    The power vested upon a leader in relation with his position

    • 4. REFERENT POWER

    Traits admired by people

    • 5. EXPERT POWER

    Skillful, having knowledge and training

    • 6. SELF

    Emanates age, gender

    • 7. CONNECTION

    It’s not what you know its whom you know

    LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE

    TYPES:

    • 1. UNPLANNED CHANGE – usually haphazard and the results can be unpredictable

    Ex: change as a result of a war or a natural disaster.

    • 2. PLANNED CHANGE – intended, purposive attempt by individual, group and organization

    • 3. COVERT CHANGE – is hidden or occurs without the individual’s awareness

    Ex. A person can become increasingly deaf without being aware

    • 4. OVERT – change about which a person is aware

    Ex. Development of abdominal pain

    STAGES:

    • 1. UNFREEZING STAGE – motivation to establish some sort of change occurs

    • 2. MOVING – actual change is planned in detail and then started

    • 3. REFREEZING – changes are integrated and stabilized, integrated the idea into their own value system.

    STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE CHANGE (December 07 FROM Marriner Tommey)

    • 1. EMPIRICAL- RATIONAL CHANGE

    Explain the reason why you need to change

    • 2. NORMATIVE- REEDUCATIVE STRATEGIES

    Train or teach people how to do a change

    • 3. POWER- COERCIVE STRATEGIES

    Threat or fear from the authority will lead a change

    NURSING MANAGEMENT

    -is a process by which a cooperative group directs action toward common goal.

    -series of systematic, sequential or steps directed toward the achievement of organizational goal

    ROLES OF MANAGER ( Mintsberg)

    • 1. INTERPERSONAL – connecting one person to another, as a leader who hires, trains, encourages, fires remunerates.

    • 2. INFORMATIONAL – disseminates about existing rules and regulation as the representative or spokesperson of the organization.

    • 3. DECISION ROLE – a trouble shooter who handles unexpected situations such as resignation of subordinates, firing and losses clients and negotiator when conflict arises.

    FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS OF MANAGER (Katz) - December 07& June 08 : CIT

    CONCEPTUAL SKILLS

    12

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    Ability to see

    individual matters as

    they relate to

    the total picture

    and to develop

    creative ways.

    INTERPERSONAL SKILLS / HUMAN RELATION SKILLS

    Dealing with people and how to get along with them

    TECHNICAL SKILLS

    Proficiency in performing an activity in the correct manner with the right technique

    MANAGEMENT THEORIES (JUNE 08)

    • A. CLASSICAL THEORIES

      • 1. HENRI FAYOL

    Father of Management Process School

    4 tasks (PODC)

    • 2. MAX WEBER

    Father of Organizational theory

    Line authority

    • B. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

      • 1. FREDERICK TAYLOR

    Father of scientific management

    Principles

    Choose the best method

    Choose the best people

    Educate your people

    Develop a friendly relationship

    • 2. FRANK AND LILIAN GILBERTH

    Job simplification

    • 3. HENRY GANTT

    Concerned with the problem of efficiency

    Gantt Chart – a forerunner of the (PERT) Program Evaluation and Review Technique.

    • C. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES

      • 1. ABRAHAM MASLOW – hierarchy of needs

      • 2. WILLIAM OUCHI

    THEORY Z – involved workers are the key to increase productivity

    • 3. DOUGLAS MC GREGOR

    THEORY X AND Y

    • 4. ROBERT BLAKE AND JANE MOUTON

    Two critical dimensions of leadership

    • 1. concern for production

    • 2. concern for people

    5 Basic Management Styles

    • 1. Task manager (9,1) – high concern for production and low concern to people,stresses operating

    efficiency thru control and view people as tools for production.

    • 2. Impoverished manager (1,1) – low concern to both people and production, found in managers who

    feel they have been repeatedly denied of promotion

    • 3. Team manager (9,9)- optimal managerial skill; high concern to both people and production; problems are confronted directly and mutual trust, respect and interdependence are fostered.

    • 4. Organization manager (5,5) – there is a balance concern to people and production. With this, leader

    and its member realizes they need more effort to increase their production

    • 5. Country club manager (1,9) – low concern to production and low concern to people; thoughtful and friendly managers.

    MANAGEMENT PROCESS: PODC

    PLANNING

    ORGANIZING

    DIRECTING

    CONTROLLING

    Vision, Mission,

    Organizational chart,

    Delegation,

    Performance

    13

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    Philosophy

    Organizational

    Supervision,

    Appraisal, Nursing

    Goals, Objectives,

    structure, Staffing,

    Communication,

    Audit, Quality

    Budgeting AND TIME

    Scheduling, Job

    Coordination,

    Assurance, Quality

    MANAGEMENT

    Descriptions, and

    Conflict and

    Circle, Peer Review

    Patient Care

    Decision- making

    Structure, Process

    Classification, TYPES

    and Outcome

    OF PT’S

    Standards and

    ASSIGNMENT

    Discipline

    I. PLANNING

    - determining objectives and identifying methods that lead to the achievement of those objectives. Making future

    projection to achieve desired results.

    What activity we expect to do

    Why it will be done

    Where it will be done

    When we expect to do it

    How it will be done

    Who is going to do it

    KINDS OF PLANNING

    1.

    LONG RANGE/STRATEGIC PLANNING

     

    -

    extended 3-5 years

    -

    determine the direction of the organization, allocates resources and determine time frame. This is

     

    done by the top managers.

     

    -

    SWOT (STRENGTH, WEAKNESS,OPPURTUNITIES AND THREAT)

    2.

    INTERMEDIATE PLANNING

    -

    6 months to 2 years

    -

    done by the middle mngt.

    3.OPERATIONAL PLANNING/ SHORT RANGE PLANNING

     

    -

    short planning that deals with day to day maintenance activities

    -

    done by the first level

    PLANNING TOOLS

    1.

    VISION – outlines the organization’s future role and function

     

    Example: The medical Center envisions itself to become a center for excellence providing holistic

    approach to health care services as a center of wellness.

    2.

    MISSION - reason for existence

    Example: Its mission is to promote and maintain health, prevent or cure illness, allay pain and

    suffering.

    3.

    PHILOSOPHY – beliefs that influence nursing practice

    Example: Clients have the right to the best possible health are regardless of their race, creed,sex

    social status and political belief.

    4.

    GOALS – end to be accomplished

    Example: develop and implement staff development programs to meet the need for increased

     

    knowledge and skills

    5.

    OBJECTIVES – something aimed at or strived for; things done to achieve goal

    Example: to develop and implement at least 12 staff development program by the end of the fiscal

     

    year.

     

    BUDGETING

     

    A tool used by a nurse manager when allocating future resources

    TYPES

     

    1.

    REVENUE BUDGET – summarizes the income; cash going “in”

    2.

    OPERATING BUDGET – cash “out” ; day to day operation that includes wages, salaries, supplies,

    electric bill and waste and water disposal.CBQ. JUNE 0

    3.

    CASH BUDGET – pety cash, cash on hand, balance between cash in and cash out for money available

     

    for immediate use in order to know if an organization can afford bills that must be paid.

    4.

    CAPITAL BUDGET – associated with operating some major asset ex. Building,automobile computers

    and purchasing ambulance.JUNE 08

    5.

    PERSONNEL BUDGET – determine recruitment, hiring and firing of personnel

    TIME MANAGEMENT – how time is used

    PRINCIPLES:

    • 1. effective communication

    • 2. ability to plan effectively

    • 3. delegation *efficiency – doing the task right *effectivity – doing the right task correctly

    II. ORGANIZING

    14

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    the process of establishing formal authority

    ORGANIZATION

    The structure or people that allows an agency to enact it’s philosophy and achieve its goal

    ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

    Drawing that shows how the part of organization are linked

    CONCEPTS OF ORGANIZING (SARAP)

    STATUS - rank given to a person

    ACCOUNTABILITY - taking full responsibility for the quality of work and behavior while engaged in the

    practice of the profession CBQ JUNE 07

    RESPONSIBILITY – is the obligation to perform the assigned tasks CBQ DECEMBER 07

    AUTHORITY - the right to act or make decisions without the approval of higher administrators

    2 TYPES

     
     
    • A. LINE AUTHORITY

     

    Is the authority that entitles a supervisor to direct an individual work

     
    • B. STAFF AUTHORITY

     

    Is the authority in position created to support, assist, recommend and generally reduces the

     

    supervisors informational responsibilities

    POWER – ability to influence others

    PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION

    1. UNITY OF COMMAND – there can only be one superior to avoid confusion and overlapping
    1.
    UNITY OF COMMAND – there can only be one superior to avoid confusion and overlapping of duties
    DEC 06 – JULY 2010
    2.
    SCALAR PRINCIPLE/ CHAIN OF COMMAND/ HIERARCHY – flow from higher to lower authority
    3.
    DEPARTMENTALIZATION - grouping of workers with similar assignment
    4.
    SPAN OF CONTROL – number of people that can be directly supervised (4-6).
    5.
    DECENTRALIZATION – proper delegation of authority
    STAFFING
    Is a tool to determine the appropriate ratio of health care personnel to perform their respective
    organizational tasks for the benefit of the client.
    SCHEDULING
    Time table showing the planned work days and shifts for nursing personnel.
    TYPES:
    1.
    CENTRALIZED – done by the chief nurse
    2.
    DECENTRALIZED – done by supervising or head nurse
    3.
    CYCLICAL- covers a designated number of weeks and repeated there on
    PATIENTS CARE CLASSIFICATION
    Method of grouping patient according to the amount and complexity of nursing requirement.
    LEVEL I
    MINIMAL
    For discharge/ convalescing patient
    LEVEL II
    MODERATE CARE/INTERMEDIATE Needs some assistance of activities
    of daily living
    LEVEL III
    TOTAL, COMPLETE/INTENSIVE Completely dependent; v/s every 30
    mins.; patients who need close
    attention throughout the shift.
    LEVEL IV
    CRITICAL/HIGHLY SPECIALIZED
    Continous monitoring; v/s every 15-
    30 mins.; hourly urinary output
    METHODS OF NURSING CARE DELIVERY
    1.
    CASE METHOD - same as PDN; 1 RN: 1 patient ; TOTAL PATIENT CARE
    2.
    PRIMARY NURSING – nursing care directed by a nurse in a 24 hour basis
    CBQ-Dec07
    What is the purpose of a secondary nursing in primary nursing?
    They are responsible for the care of the patient if the primary nursing is off
    duty.
    3.
    FUNCTIONAL NURSING - task oriented and very useful in emergency situation
    4.
    TEAM NURSING - one nurse will lead a group of nurses
    *What is the heart /hallmark of team nursing? - TEAM CONFERENCE
    5.
    MODULAR NURSING – a special type of nursing care delivery method, where Team and Primary

    Nursing are combined. Used when there is not enough RN to practice primary nursing method (instead

    of primary nurse only, there will be a primary team)

    III. DIRECTING

    -Issuance of orders, assignments and instructions that enables the nursing personnel to understand what are

    expected from them.

    15

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    • A. DELEGATION –transferring a tasks to a competent individual. CBQ DEC 06 - JULY2010 WHAT CANNOT BE DELEGATED

      • 1. overall responsibility, authority, accountability and completion of all activities in the unit

      • 2. authority to sign one’s name

      • 3. jobs that are too technical

      • 4. sterile procedure

      • 5. initial and terminal assessment

      • 6. unstable patient

    PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION

    • 1. right person

    • 2. right task

    • 3. right amount of time

    • 4. delegate in advance

    • 5. delegate gradually

    • 6. consult first before delegating

    • 7. avoid gaps and overlaps

    • B. DECISION MAKING/PROBLEM SOLVING

      • 1. Problem identification

      • 2. Analyzing of the problem

      • 3. Development of alternative solution

      • 4. Selection of solution

      • 5. Implementation and follow- up

  • C. COMMUNICATION - Transmission of information, opinion between individual.

  • TYPES:

    • 1. VERBAL - spoken words

    • 2. NON- VERBAL - facial expressions, gestures, body language and touch- Dec.07

    ELEMENTS

    • 1. SENDER – a person or group who wishes to convey a message to another

    • 2. RECEIVER – the listener,observer

    • 3. FEEDBACK – response; message that the receiver returns to the sender

    D. CONFLICT – clash between 2 opposing parties

    TYPES:

    • 1. INTRAPERSONAL – conflict within self

    • 2. INTERPERSONAL - conflict between 2 or more persons

    • 3. INTRAGROUP - conflict within a group

    • 4. INTERGROUP – conflict between 2 groups

    CONFLICT RESOLUTION DEC. 07

    • 1. AVOIDANCE

    Avoid confrontation

    • 2. ACCOMODATION

    Self- sacrifice

    • 3. COMPETETION

    Win at all cost

    • 4. COMPROMISE

    Split the difference

    • 5. COLLABORATION

    Both workout

    E. COORDINATION DEC 06 – JULY 2010

    COORDINATION WITH SOCIAL SERVICE

    indigent patients needing material or financial assistance, medicines blood or prosthesis, abandoned

    babies, victims of rape, child abuse and patients needing referral to other community agencies for

    continuity of care.

    COORDINATION WITH RADIOLOGY SERVICE

    for any visualization

    COORDINATION WITH THE DIETARY SERVICES

    preparation of the patients diet and distributing them to the right patient

    COORDINATION WITH THE NUTRITIONIST

    if patients needing special instructions of diet

    COORDINATION WITH BIOMEDICAL TECHNICIAN/ENGINEER

    for maintenance and repair of hospital facilities

    16

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    COORDINATION WITH THE MRS (MEDICAL RECORD SECTION)

    for patient’s record/chart

    IV. CONTROLLING

    TYPES OF EVALUATION:

    • A. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

    TOOLS

    Employee’s performance is evaluated against standard. CBQ JUNE 08

    • 1. Check – list

    • 2. Ranking

    • 3. Rating Scales

    • 4. Essay

    • 5. Anectodal Recording – describes nurses experience with a group in validating technical skills.

    • B. QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Evaluation of services to make sure that it meets the standard.

    TYPES OF STANDARD – JULY 2010

    • 1. STRUCTURE – how well the equipment and setting

    • 2. PROCESS - how well is the nursing care is given

    • 3. OUTCOME - desired result

    • C. NURSING AUDIT – review of patients chart DEC 07 &JUNE 2008 TYPES:

      • 1. CONCURRENT - patient is still in the hospital

      • 2. TERMINAL/ RETROSPECTIVE - pt was already discharged

    *CONTINOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT/TOTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT – is a process of continuously

    improving a system by gathering data or performance and using multi- disciplinary team to analyze system,

    collect measurement and propose changes. CBQ JULY 2010

    *BENCHMARKING - comparing your services to other institution. (JULY 2010)

    FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT (DEC07 & JUNE08)

    Fixed cost – cost incurred that is unrelated to volume of output

    Variable cost – cost that vary in proportion to volume

    Direct cost – cost that is directly related to patient care

    Variable cost – cost that is not directly related to patient care

    Incremental budgeting

    Zero-based budgeting

    COST CONTAINMENT

    -keeping cost within acceptable limits (due to inflation and other parameters)

    -INVOLVES:

    • 1. Cost Awareness: focuses the employees on costs.

    • 2. Cost Monitoring: focuses on how much cost is spent and will be spent.

    • 3. Cost Management: focuses on what can be done by whom to contain costs.

    • 4. Cost Incentives: motivate cost containment as it reward desired behavior.

    • 5. Cost Avoidance: means not buying supplies, technology, or services

    • 6. Cost Reduction: means spending less for goods and services.

    • 7. Cost Control: effective use of available resources; similar to COST EFFECTIVENESS.

    If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. James 1:5

    PREPARED BY:

    DONNIEDEX P. PARROCHA, RN

    17

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336

    MAR ANGELO DF TAMAYO, RN

    GOD BLESS!

    AIM TO TOP MERGE BABIES!

    18

    MERGE-Manila: 28 A.M Bldg. Quezon Ave., Quezon City

    Tel:(02)742-0022/741-1336