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1

G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Serviceability limit states of
composite beams
Eurocode 4
Eurocodes
Background and Applications
Dissemination of information for training
18-20 February 2008, Brussels
Institute for Steel and Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal
Germany
Univ. - Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Hanswille
2
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Contents
Part 1: Introduction
Part 2: Global analysis for serviceability limit states
Part 3: Crack width control
Part 4: Deformations
Part 5: Limitation of stresses
Part 6: Vibrations
3
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Serviceability limit states
Serviceability limit states
Limitation of stresses
Limitation of deflections
crack width control
vibrations
web breathing
4
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Serviceability limit states
{ } + + + =
i , k i , 0 1 , k k j , k d
Q Q P G E E
characteristic combination:
frequent combination:
{ } + + + =
i , k i , 2 1 , k 1 , 1 k j , k d
Q Q P G E E
quasi-permanent combination:
{ } + + =
i , k i , 2 k j , k d
Q P G E E
serviceability limit states
E
d
C
d
:
- deformation
- crack width
- excessive compressive stresses in concrete
C
d
= - excessive slip in the interface between steel
and concrete
- excessive creep deformation
- web breathing
- vibrations
5
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Part 2:
Global analysis for serviceability limit states
6
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Global analysis - General
Calculation of internal forces, deformations and stresses at
serviceability limit state shall take into account the following
effects:
shear lag;
creep and shrinkage of concrete;
cracking of concrete and tension stiffening of concrete;
sequence of construction;
increased flexibility resulting from significant incomplete
interaction due to slip of shear connection;
inelastic behaviour of steel and reinforcement, if any;
torsional and distorsional warping, if any.
7
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Shear lag- effective width
m
a
x
m
a
x
b
b
e
The flexibility of steel or
concrete flanges affected by
shear in their plane (shear
lag) shall be used either by
rigorous analysis, or by using
an effective width b
e
2 , 0
b
b
i
ei

max
b
ei
b
i
5 b
ei
y
b
i
y

max
b
ei
(y)
(y)
2 , 0
b
b
i
ei
<

R
[ ]
4
i
R max R
max
i
ei
R
b
y
1 ) y (
2 , 0
b
b
25 , 1

+ =

=
4
i
max
b
y
1 ) y (

=
shear lag
real stress distribution
stresses taking into
account the effective
width
8
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
midspan regions and
internal supports:
b
eff
= b
0
+ b
e,1
+b
e,2
b
e,i
= L
e
/8
L
e
equivalent length
end supports: b
eff
= b
0
+
1
b
e,1
+
2
b
e,2

i
= (0,55+0,025 L
e
/b
i
) 1,0
Effective width of concrete flanges
L
e
=0,85 L
1
for b
eff,1
L
e
=0,70 L
2
for b
eff,1
L
e
=2L
3
for b
eff,2
L
1
L
2
L
3
b
eff,0
b
eff,1
b
eff,1
b
eff,2
b
eff,2
L
1
/4 L
1
/2 L
1
/4 L
2
/2 L
2
/4 L
2
/4
L
e
=0,25 (L
1
+ L
2
) for b
eff,2
b
o
b
e,1
b
e,2
b
o
b
1
b
2
9
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Initial sectional
forces
redistribution of the sectional
forces due to creep
-N
c,o
M
c,o
M
st,o
N
st,o
N
c,r
-M
c,r
M
st,r
-N
st,r
z
i,st
-z
i,c
M
L
a
st
Effects of creep of concrete
primary effects
The effects of shrinkage and creep of concrete and non-uniform changes of
temperature result in internal forces in cross sections, and curvatures and
longitudinal strains in members; the effects that occur in statically determinate
structures, and in statically indeterminate structures when compatibility of the
deformations is not considered, shall be classified as primary effects.
10
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete
Types of loading and action effects:
In the following the different types of loading and action effects are distinguished by a
subscript L :
L=P for permanent action effects not changing with time
L=PT time-dependent action effects developing affine to the creep coefficient
L=S action effects caused by shrinkage of concrete
L=D action effects due to prestressing by imposed deformations (e.g. jacking of
supports)
M
PT
(t)
M
PT
(t=)
(t

,t
o
) (t
i
,t
o
)
(t,t
o
)
time dependent action
effects M
L
=M
PT
:
action effects caused by
prestressing due to imposed
deformation M
L
=M
D
:

+
M
L
=M
D
M
D
M
PT
(t
i
)
11
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Modular ratios taking into account
effects of creep
[ ]
cm
a
o o L o L
E
E
n ) t , t ( 1 n n = + =
Modular ratios:
centroidal axis of the concrete section
centroidal axis of the transformed
composite section
centroidal axis of the steel section
(structural steel and reinforcement)
-z
ic,L
z
ist,L
z
i,L
z
c
z
is,L
a
st
z
st
action creep multiplier
short term loading =0
permanent action not changing in time
P
=1,10
shrinkage
S
=0,55
prestressing by controlled imposed deformations
D
=1,50
time-dependent action effects
PT
=0,55
12
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
) t ( E
E
n
o cm
st
o
=
Modular ratio taking into
account creep effect:
centroidal axis of the
concrete section
L , i
2
st L , c st L , c st L , i
A / a A A J J J + + =
L , c St L , i
A A A + =
L , i st st L , ic
A / a A z =
L c L , c L c L , c
n / J J n / A A = =
-z
ic,L
z
ist,L
z
i,L
z
c
-z
is,L
a
st
z
st
Transformed cross-section properties of
the concrete section:
Transformed cross-section area of the
composite section:
Second moment of area of the
composite section:
Distance between the centroidal axes of
the concrete and the composite section:
) ) t , t ( 1 ( n n
0 L 0 L
+ =
Elastic cross-section properties of the
composite section taking into account creep
effects
centroidal axis of the
composite section
centroidal axis of the
steel section
13
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Effects of cracking of concrete and tension
stiffening of concrete between cracks

s(x)

c(x)
N
s
N
s
c
ct
E
f
s
2 s
2 , s
E

=
r , s

sr,1

sr,2

sm,y

sy
N
s
N
sy
N
sm
N
s,cr
B C

s,2

s
(x)

c
(x)

v
x

c
(x)
stage A: uncracked section
stage B: initial crack formation
stage C: stabilised crack formation
fully
cracked
section
A

c
(x)

s
(x)
mean strain
sm
=
s,2
-
s,r
r , s

sm
r , s s
=
s s
eff , ct
s
E
f

=
c s s
A / A =
4 , 0 =
14
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
-

sm
M
M
s
0
M
a
N
a

a
a
z
s
N
s
equilibrium:
a N M M
s a
=
s a
N N =

s,m

s,2

s
=
s,r

s
compatibility:
a
a sm
+ =
a a a a
2
s
a a
s
sm
J E
a M
A E
a N
A E
N
= + +
s s
eff , ct
s s
s
sr 2 s sm
E
f
A E
N

= =
mean strain in the concrete slab:
mean strain in the concrete
slab:
z
a
Influence of tension stiffening of concrete on
stresses in reinforcement
15
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
N
s,2
-M
s,2
N
ts
-M
a,2
-N
a,2 -N
ts
N
ts
a
a
N
s,2
-M
Ed
M
Ed
N
s
N
s
z
st,a
-z
st,s
N
s
M
ts
st
s , st s
Ed ts 2 s s
N
J
z A
M N N N + = + =
st s
s eff , ct
ts
A f
N

=
ts
st
a , st a
Ed ts 2 a a
N
J
z A
M N N N = =
a N
J
J
M a N M M
ts
st
a
Ed ts 2 a a
+ = + =
Sectional forces:
st
s
Ed s
J
J
M M =
a a
st st
st
J A
J A
=
N
s
-M
s
-M
a
-N
a
fully cracked section
tension stiffening
+ =
z
2
=z
st
N
ts
Redistribution of sectional forces due to tension
stiffening
2 st
J J =
16
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Stresses taking into account tension stiffening of
concrete
N
s,2
-M
s,2
N
ts
-M
a,2
-N
a,2
-N
ts
N
ts
a z
st,a
-z
st,s
st s
s ctm
ts
A f
N

=
a a
st st
st
J A
J A
=
N
s
-M
s
-M
a
-N
a
fully cracked tension stiffening
+ =
z
st
-M
Ed
st s
ctm
s , st
st
Ed
s
st s
ctm
2 , s s
f
z
J
M
f

+ =

+ =
a
a
ts
a
ts
st
st
Ed
a
a
a
ts
a
ts
2 , a a
z
J
a N
A
N
z
J
M
z
J
a N
A
N

=
reinforcement: structural steel:
z
a
a
17
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Influence of tension stiffening on flexural stiffness
E
st
J
1
uncracked section
E
st
J
2
fully cracked section
E
st
J
2,ts
effective flexural
stiffness taking into
account tension
stiffening of concrete
E
st
J
1
E
st
J
2
E
st
J
2,ts
M

sm
-M
N
s
-M
s
-M
a
-N
a

a
a
z
st
a st
s
a st
a
ts , 2 st
J E
a N M
J E
M
I E
M
= = =
EJ
M
R
M
Rn
E
st
J
1
E
st
J
2,ts
E
st
J
2
M
a ) N N (
1
J E
J E
, s s
a a
ts , 2 st

=
M
Curvature:
Effective flexural
stiffness:
18
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Determination of internal forces by un-
cracked analysis for the characteristic
combination.
Determination of the cracked regions
with the extreme fibre concrete tensile
stress
c,max
= 2,0 f
ct,m
.
Reduction of flexural stiffness to E
a
J
2
in
the cracked regions.
New structural analysis for the new
distribution of flexural stiffness.
L
1
L
2
L
1,cr
L
2,cr
E
a
J
2
E
a
J
1
E
a
J
1
M
un-cracked analysis
cracked analysis
M Redistribution of
bending moments due to
cracking of concrete
E
a
J
1
un-cracked flexural stiffness
E
a
J
2
cracked flexural stiffness
Effects of cracking of concrete - General
method according to EN 1994-1-1
19
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
L
1
L
2
M
II
E
a
J
1
0,15 L
1
0,15 L
2
E
a
J
2
6 , 0 L / L
max min

Effects of cracking of concrete
simplified method
For continuous composite beams with
the concrete flanges above the steel
section and not pre-stressed, including
beams in frames that resist horizontal
forces by bracing, a simplified method
may be used. Where all the ratios of
the length of adjacent continuous
spans (shorter/longer) between
supports are at least 0,6, the effect of
cracking may be taken into account by
using the flexural stiffness E
a
J
2
over
15% of the span on each side of each
internal support, and as the un-
cracked values E
a
J
1
elsewhere.
20
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Part 3:
Limitation of crack width
21
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Control of cracking
General considerations
If crack width control is required, a minimum amount of bonded
reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension due to
restraint and or direct loading is expected. The amount may be estimated
from equilibrium between the tensile force in concrete just before cracking
and the tensile force in the reinforcement at yielding or at a lower stress if
necessary to limit the crack width. According to Eurocode 4-1-1 the
minimum reinforcement should be placed, where under the characteristic
combination of actions, stresses in concrete are tensile.
minimum reinforcement
control of cracking due to direct loading
Where at least the minimum reinforcement is provided, the limitation of
crack width for direct loading may generally be achieved by limiting bar
spacing or bar diameters. Maximum bar spacing and maximum bar
diameter depend on the stress
s
in the reinforcement and the design
crack width.
22
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Recommended values for w
max
reinforced members, prestressed
members with unbonded tendons
and members prestressed by
controlled imposed deformations
prestressed members with
bonded tendons
quasi - permanent
load combination
frequent load combination
XO, XC1 0,4 mm (1) 0,2 mm
XC2, XC3,XC4 0,2 mm (2)
XD1,XD2,XS1,
XS2,XS3
decompression
0,3 mm
Exposure
class
(1) For XO and XC1 exposure classes, crack width has no influence on
durability and this limit is set to guarantee acceptable appearance. In
absence of appearance conditions this limit may be relaxed.
(2) For these exposure classes, in addition, decompression should be
checked under the quasi-permanent combination of loads.
23
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Exposure classes according to EN 1992-1-1
(risk of corrosion of reinforcement)
Class Description of environment Examples
no risk of corrosion or attack
XO
for concrete without reinforcement, for
concrete with reinforcement : very dry
concrete inside buildings with very low air humidity
Corrosion induced by carbonation
XC1
dry or permanently wet
concrete inside buildings with low air humidity
XC2
wet, rarely dry
concrete surfaces subjected to long term water contact, foundations
XC3
moderate humidity
external concrete sheltered from rain
XC4
cyclic wet and dry
concrete surfaces subject to water contact not within class XC2
Corrosion induced by chlorides
XD1
moderate humidity
concrete surfaces exposed to airborne chlorides
XD2
wet, rarely dry
swimming pools, members exposed to industrial waters containing
chlorides
XD3
cyclic wet and dry
car park slabs, pavements, parts of bridges exposed to spray containing
XS2
permanently submerged
parts of marine structures
Corrosion induced by chlorides from sea water
XS1
exposed to airborne salt
structures near to or on the coast
XS3
tidal, splash and spray zones
parts of marine structures
24
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Cracking of concrete (initial crack formation)

c
L
es
L
es
N
s
N
s
w
c
s
s
A
A
=
A
s
cross-section area of reinforcement

s
reinforcement ratio
f
ctm
mean value of tensile strength of concrete
c
s
o
E
E
n =
c 1 , c s 1 , s s s
A A A + =
Compatibility at the end of the introduction
length:
Equilibrium in longitudinal direction:
c
1 , c
s
1 , s
1 , c 1 , s
E E

=

=
o s
o s
s 1 , s
n 1
n
o s
s
1 , s s s
n 1 +

= =
Change of stresses in reinforcement
due to cracking:
L
es
L
es

s,1

c,1

c,1

s,1

s,2
L
es

( )
o s c ctm r , s
n 1 A f N + =
25
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Cracking of concrete introduction length

c
L
es
L
es
N
s
N
s
w
c
s
s
A
A
=
U
s
-perimeter of the bar
A
s
-cross-section area

s
-reinforcement ratio

sm
-mean bond strength
c
s
o
E
E
n =
4
d
d L
A U L
2
s
s sm s es
s s sm s es

=
=
o s
s
1 , s s s
n 1 +

= =
Change of stresses in reinforcement
due to cracking:
Equilibrium in longitudinal direction
L
es
L
es

s,1

c,1

c,1

s,1

s,2
L
es

sm

s o sm
s s
es
n 1
1
4
d
L
+

=
introduction length L
Es
crack width
) ( L 2 w
cm sm es
=
26
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Determination of the mean strains of
reinforcement and concrete in the stage of initial
crack formation
ctm
L
o
s
es
m , s
f 8 , 1 dx ) x (
L
1
Es
=

Mean bond strength:
s
sm s
s s m , s


= =

=
x
0
s
s
s
dx ) x (
U
4
) x (

=
es
L
0
s
es
sm
dx ) x (
L
1

c
(x)
L
es L
es
N
s
N
s
w
L
es
L
es

s

s,1

c,1

cr

s,cr
Mean strains in reinforcement and concrete:
cr m , c
=
Mean stress in the reinforcement:

s,m

c,m

s
x

s,m

s
(x)

s
(x)
cr , s 2 , s m , s
=
27
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Determination of initial crack width


s
(x)

c
(x)
L
es L
es
N
s
w
L
es
L
es

s

s,1

c,1

cr

s,cr

s,m

c,m

s
x

s,m
N
s crack width
) ( L 2 w
cm sm es
=
s o sm
s s
es
n 1
1
4
d
L
+

=
2 , s cm m , s
) 1 ( =

s,2
s o s sm
s
2
s
n 1
1
E 2
d ) 1 (
w
+

=
with = 0,6 for short term loading und
= 0,4 for long term loading
ctm sm
f 8 , 1
28
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Maximum bar diameters acc. to EC4
maximum bar diameter for
s
[N/mm
2
]
w
k
= 0,4 w
k
= 0,3 w
k
= 0,2
160 40 32 25
200 32 25 16
240 20 16 12
280 16 12 8
320 12 10 6
360 10 8 5
400 8 6 4
450 6 5 -

s
d
s m , ct
s
2
s
s o s sm
s
2
s
E f 6
d
n 1
1
E 2
d ) 1 (
w

+

=
Crack width w:
Maximum bar diameter for a
required crack width w:
) 1 (
) n 1 ( E 2
w d
2
s
s o s sm
s

+
=
2
s
s o , ctm k *
s
2
s
s o s o , ctm
k
*
s
E f w
6 d
) 1 (
) n 1 ( E f 6 , 3
w d


+
=
With
sm
= 1,8 f
ct,mo
and the reference
value for the mean tensile strength of
concrete f
ctm,o
= 2,9 N/mm
2
follows:
= 0,4 for long term loading and
repeated loading
29
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Crack width for stabilised crack formation

s(x)

c(x)
N
s
w
s
r,max
= 2 L
es
c
ct
E
f
s
2 s
2 , s
E

s(x)
-
c(x)
s
r,min
= L
es
) ( s w
cm sm max , r
=
Crack width for high bond bars
c
ctm
cm
s s
ctm
2 , s
s s
ctm c
2 , s m , s
s 2 , s m , s
E
f
E
f
A E
f A
=

= =
=
Mean strain of reinforcement and
concrete:
= 0,6 for short termloading
= 0,4 for long termloading and
repeated loading
) n 1 (
E
f
E
s o
s s
ctm
s
s
cm sm
+

=
30
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Crack width for stabilised crack formation

s(x)

c(x)
N
s
w
s
r,max
= 2 L
es
c
ct
E
f
s
s
2 , s
E

s(x)
-
c(x)
s
r,min
= L
es
sm s
s ctm
sm s
c ctm
es
4
d f
U
A f
L

=

=
The maximum crack spacing s
r,max
in the
stage of stabilised crack formation is twice
the introduction length L
es
.
) ( s w
cm sm max , r
=


= ) n 1 (
E
f
E 2
d f
w
s o
s s
ctm
s
s
s sm
s ctm
maximum crack width for s
r
= s
r,max
= 0,6 for short termloading
= 0,4 for long termloading and
repeated loading
31
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Crack width and crack spacing according
Eurocode 2
) ( s w
cm sm max , r
=
Crack width
s
s
2 1 max , r
d
425 , 0 k k c 4 , 3 s

+ =
d
s
-diameter of the bar
c- concrete cover
In Eurocode 2 for the maximum crack spacing a semi-
empirical equation based on test results is given
k
1
coefficient taking into account bond properties of
the reinforcement with k
1
=o,8 for high bond bars
k
2
coefficient which takes into account the distribution
of strains (1,0 for pur tension and 0,5 for bending)
s
s
s o
s s
ctm
s
s
cm sm
E
6 , 0 ) n 1 (
E
f
E

+

=
Crack spacing
= 0,6 for short term loading
= 0,4 for long term loading and repeated loading
32
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Determination of the cracking moment M
cr
and
the normal force of the concrete slab in the
stage of initial cracking
cracking moment M
cr
:
[ ]
[ ]
) z 2 /( h 1 ( z
J n
f M
2 / h z
J n
f M
o c o , ic
io o
, c eff , ct cr
c o
io o
, c eff , ct cr
+
=
+
=

( )
+

+
+
+
+
=
+
+
=
, s c
o c
o s , c eff , ct c
cr
, s c
io
is s o co
cr cr
N
) z 2 /( h 1
n 1 ) f ( A
N
N
J
z A z A
M N
primary effects due to shrinkage
cracking moment M
cr
h
c
z
io
z
o
z
i,st
N
c+s
M
c,
M
cr
N
c,

c
a
st
ctm 1 eff , ct , c c
f k f
M
c+s

c
= = +

sectional normal force of the concrete
slab:
( )

+
+
+

+
+
+ =

+
) n 1 ( f A
) z 2 /( h 1
n 1 A
N
) z 2 /( h 1
1
) n 1 ( f A N
0 s eff , ct c
o c
o s , c c
, s c
o c
0 s eff , ct c cr
k
c
k
c,
0,3
33
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Simplified solution for the cracking moment
and the normal force in the concrete slab
simplified solution for the normal
force in the concrete slab:
primary effects due to shrinkage
cracking moment M
cr
h
c
z
o
z
i,st
N
c+s
M
cr
M
c+s
M
c+s,
N
c+s,

c
c s ctm c cr
k k k f A N
0 , 1 3 , 0
z 2
h
1
1
k
o
c
c
+
+
=
shrinkage
k = 0,8 coefficient taking into account the effect of
non-uniform self-equilibrating stresses
k
s
= 0,9 coefficient taking into account the slip
effects of shear connection
cracking moment
34
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
k = 0,8 Influence of non linear residual stresses due to shrinkage and temperature effects
k
s
= 0,9 flexibility of shear connection
k
c
Influence of distribution of tensile stresses in concrete immediately prior to
cracking
maximum bar diameter
d
s
modified bar diameter for other concrete strength classes

s
stress in reinforcement acc. to Table 1
f
ct,eff
effective concrete tensile strength
c s
s
eff , ct c
s
k k k
f A
A

0 , 1 3 , 0
z h 1
1
k
o c
c
+
+
=
M
cr
M
c
N
c
N
c,
M
c,
cracking
moment
N
a,
M
a,
shrinkage
h
c
z
o
o , ct
eff , ct
s s
f
f
d d

=

s
d
f
cto
= 2,9 N/mm
2
z
i,o
Determination of minimum reinforcement
35
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
stresses in reinforcement
taking into account tension
stiffening for the bending
moment M
Ed
of the quasi
permanent combination:
c
s
s
A
A
=
st s
eff , ct
s , st
2
Ed
s
ts 2 , s s
f
z
J
M

+ =
+ =
a a
2 2
st
J A
J A
=
4 , 0 =
Control of cracking due to direct loading
Verification by limiting bar spacing or bar diameter
N
s,2
-M
s,2
N
ts
-M
a,2
-N
a,2
-N
ts
N
ts
a z
st,a
-z
st,s
N
s
-M
s
-M
a
-N
a
fully cracked tension stiffening
+ =
z
st
-M
Ed
z
a
a
The bar diameter or the bar spacing has to be limited
The calculation of stresses is
based on the mean strain in the
concrete slab. The factor
results from the mean value of
crack spacing. With s
rm
2/3
s
r,max
results 2/3 0,6 = 0,4
A
c
A
s
A
a
36
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Maximum bar diameters and maximum bar
spacing for high bond bars acc. to EC4
maximum bar diameter for
s
[N/mm
2
]
w
k
= 0,4 w
k
= 0,3 w
k
= 0,2
160 40 32 25
200 32 25 16
240 20 16 12
280 16 12 8
320 12 10 6
360 10 8 5
400 8 6 4
450 6 5 -
- 50 100 360
- 100 150 320
50 150 200 280
100 200 250 240
150 250 300 200
200 300 300 160
w
k
= 0,2 w
k
= 0,3 w
k
= 0,4
maximum bar spacing in [mm]
for

s
[N/mm
2
]

s
d
Table 1: Maximum bar diameter Table 2: Maximum bar spacing
37
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Direct calculation of crack width w for
composite sections based on EN 1992-2
z
st
-z
st,s
A
s

s,
M
Ed
st s
eff , ct
s , st
st
Ed
s
f
z
J
M

+ =
a a
st st
st
J A
J A
=
c
s
s
A
A
=
4 , 0 =
) ( s w
cm sm max , r
=
N
s
-M
s
-M
a
-N
a
s
s
s o
s s
ctm
s
s
cm sm
E
6 , 0 ) n 1 (
E
f
E

+

=
s
s
max , r
d
34 , 0 c 4 , 3 s

+ =
crack width for high bond bars:
c - concrete cover of reinforcement
38
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Stresses in reinforcement in case of bonded
tendons initial crack formation
A
s
, d
s
A
p
, d
p
L
es
L
ep

sm

pm

s
=
s1
+
s
Equilibrium at the crack:
) n 1 ( A f N A A
tot o c eff , ct p p s s
+ = = +
Equilibrium in longitudinal direction:
s , e sm s s s
L d A =
ep pm p p p
L d A =
Compatibility at the crack:
ep
p
1 p p
es
s
1 s s
p s
L
E
L
E

=

=
v
s
sm
pm
1
p
1
s
1
p
p
1
s
s
d
d
A A
N
A A
N

=
+

=
+
=
N

s,1

p1

p
=
po
+
p1
+
p
Stresses:
With E
s
E
p
and
s1
=
p1
=0results:
39
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Stresses in reinforcement for final crack
formation
Maximum crack spacing:
p
1 p 2 p 2 , p
s
1 s 2 s 2 s
p s
E
) (
E
) (

=

= =
[ ]
) A A ( 2
A f d
s
d n d n
2
s
A f
p
2
s sm
c eff , ct s
max , r
p p pm s s sm
max , r
c ct
+
=
+ =
Compatibility at the crack:
pm
p
p max , r
1 p 2 p sm
s
s
max , r
1 s 2 s
A
U
2
s
A
U
2
s
= =
Equilibrium in longitudinal direction:
Equilibrium at the crack:
p 2 p s 2 s o
A A P N + =

s
A
s
, d
s
A
p
, d
p

s2

p2

p2

p1

s1
s
r,max

c

c
=f
ct,eff
x
mean crack spacing: s
r,m
2/3 s
r,max
40
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Determination of stresses in composite
sections with bonded tendons

+
=

+ =

+
+ =
eff
2
1
tot
eff , ct
*
s
p
2
1 s
c
2
1
p s
c
eff , ct
*
s p
tot eff
eff , ct
*
s
p s
c
p
2
1 s
c
eff , ct
*
s s
1
f 4 , 0
A A
A
A A
A
f 4 , 0
1 1
f 4 , 0
A A
A
A A
A
f 4 , 0
c
p
2
1 s
eff
c
p s
tot
A
A A
A
A A
+
=
+
=
Stresses
*
s
in reinforcement
at the crack location
neglecting different bond
behaviour of reinforcement
and tendons:
st tot
ctm
s , st
st
Ed
*
s
f
z
J
M

+ =
a a
st st
st
J A
J A
= 4 , 0 =
z
st
-z
st,s
A
s
A
p

s,

p
M
Ed
Stresses in reinforcement taking into account the
different bond behaviour:
41
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Part 4:
Deformations
42
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Deflections
Deflections due to loading applied to the
composite member should be calculated
using elastic analysis taking into account
effects from
- cracking of concrete,
- creep and shrinkage,
- sequence of construction,
- influence of local yielding of
structural steel at internal supports,
- influence of incomplete interaction.
L
1
L
2
M
E
a
J
1
0,15 L
1 0,15 L
2
E
a
J
2
Sequence of construction
Effects of cracking of concrete
F
F
steel member
composite member
g
c
43
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Deformations and pre-cambering

1
self weight of the structure

2
loads from finish and service work

3
creep and shrinkage

4
variable loads and temperature effects

max

w
combination limitation
general quasi -
permanent
risk of damage of adjacent
parts of the structure (e.g.
finish or service work)
quasi
permanent
(better frequent)
250 / L
max

500 / L
w

1
deflection of the steel girder

c
deflection of the composite
girder
Pre-cambering of the steel
girder:

p
=
1
+
2
+
3
+
2

4

max
maximum deflection

w
effective deflection for finish
and service work
44
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Effects of local yielding on deflections
For the calculation of deflection of un-propped beams, account may
be taken of the influence of local yielding of structural steel over a
support.
For beams with critical sections in Classes 1 and 2 the effect may be
taken into account by multiplying the bending moment at the support
with an additional reduction factor f
2
and corresponding increases are
made to the bending moments in adjacent spans.
f
2
= 0,5 if f
y
is reached before the concrete slab has
hardened;
f
2
= 0,7 if f
y
is reached after concrete has hardened.
This applies for the determination of the maximum deflection but not
for pre-camber.
45
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
More accurate method for the determination of
the effects of local yielding on deflections
E
a
J
1
M
E
a
J
2
L
1
L
2
l
cr
l
cr
E
a
J
eff
z
2
M
el,Rk

a
=f
yk
f
yk
-
-
+
M
pl,Rk
(EJ )
eff
E
a
J
2
M
el,Rk
M
pl,Rk
M
Ed
E
a
J
eff
46
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Effects of incomplete interaction on deformations
P
s
s
P
P
c
D
s
u
P
Rd
The effects of incomplete interaction may be ignored
provided that:
The design of the shear connection is in accordance
with clause 6.6 of Eurocode 4,
either not less shear connectors are used than half
the number for full shear connection, or the forces
resulting from an elastic behaviour and which act on
the shear connectors in the serviceability limit state
do not exceed P
Rd
and
in case of a ribbed slab with ribs transverse to the
beam, the height of the ribs does not exceed 80 mm.
47
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Differential equations in case of incomplete
interaction
N
c
N
a
M
a
M
c
V
a
N
c
+dN
c
N
a
+dN
a
M
a
+ dM
a
M
c
+ dM
c
V
a
+dV
a
dx
a
z
a
(w)
z
c
x
E
c
, A
c
, J
c
E
a
, A
a
, J
a
v
L
v
L
a w u u s
c a v

+ =
V
c
V
c
+dV
c
a
a
a
c
Slip:
c c c
u , u =

a a a
u , u =

q ) a w u u ( a c w ) J E J E (
0 ) a w u u ( c u A E
0 ) a w u u ( c u A E
c a s a a c c
c a s c a a
c a s c c c
=

+


+
=

+

=

+ +

c c c c
u A E N

=
a a a a
u A E N

=
w J E M
c c c

=
w J E M
a a a

=
0 w J E V
c c c


=
w J E V
a a a

=
48
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany


+ =
)
2
cosh(
1 )
2
cosh(
1
5
384 1
5
48
1
J E
L q
384
5
w
4 2
o , i a
4
q
1
J J
J
1
o , c a
o , i

+
=
L c A
A A E
s
o , i
a o , c a
=

+
=
1
2
F
L


+ =
) sinh(
)
2
( sinh
48 12
1
I E 48
L F
w
2
3 2
o , i a
3
L
Deflection in case of incomplete interaction for
single span beams
A
io
, J
io
composite section
concrete section
steel section
A
a
, J
a
A
co
=A
c
/n
o
, J
co
= J
c
/n
o
n
o
=E
a
/E
c
w
49
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Mean values of stiffness of headed studs
P
s
s
P
P
c
D
s
u
P
Rd
e
L
n
t
=2
Rd
u
D
P
s
C =
spring constant per stud:
spring constant of the shear
connection:
L
t D
s
e
n C
c =
type of shear connection
headed stud 19mm
in solid slabs
2500
headed stud 22mm
in solid slabs
3000
headed studs 25mm
in solid slab
3500
headed stud 19mm
with Holorib-sheeting and
one stud per rib
1250
headed stud 22mm
with Holorib-sheeting and
one stud per rib
1500
] cm / kN [ C
D
c
s
50
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Simplified solution for the calculation of
deflections in case of incomplete interaction
( ) = sin q q
L
L
x
=
z
a
z
c
E
c
, A
c
, J
c
E
a
, A
a
, J
a
a
N
a
M
a
M
c
N
c
2
a eff , c
a eff , c
a o , c eff , io
a
A A
A A
J J J
+
+ + =
The influence of the flexibility of the shear connection is
taken into account by a reduced value for the modular
ratio.
eff , io a
4
4
2
c cm o a a
a a c cm o
a a c cm
4
4
o
J E
1 L
q
a
A E A E
A E A E
J E J E
1 L
q w

=
+

+ +

=
) 1 ( n n
s o eff , o
+ =
s
2
c cm
2
s
c L
A E
=
eff , o
c
eff , c
n
A
A =
effective modular ratio for the
concrete slab

c
51
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Comparison of the exact method with the
simplified method
w/w
c
L [m]
1,1
1,0
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0
w/w
c
L [m]
1,1
1,0
1,15
1,2
1,25
5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0
c
D
= 2000 KN/cm
q
L
w
b
eff
450 mm
E
cm
=3350 KN/cm
51
99
exact solution
simplified solution with n
o,eff
1,05
=0,8
=0,4
=0,8
=0,4
c
D
= 1000 KN/cm
w
o
- deflection in case of
neglecting effects from slip
of shear connection
degree of shear connection
52
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
1875
1875
1875 1875 3750
7500
F
F
F/2 F/2
load case 2
load case 1

[mm]
F [kN]
20 40 60
50
100
150
200
0
Deflection at
midspan
1500
4
4
5
2
7
0
1
7
5
50
IPE 270
load case 2
load case 1
Deflection in case of incomplete interaction-
comparison with test results
53
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
7
8
0
50 125
Load case 1
F= 60 kN
Load case 2
F=145 kN
second moment
of area
cm
4
Deflection at midspan in mm
Test - 11,0 (100%) 20,0 (100 %)
Theoretical value, neglecting flexibility
of shear connection
J
io
= 32.387,0 7,8 (71%) 12,9 (65%)
Theoretical value, taking into account
flexibility of shear connection
J
io,eff
= 21.486,0 11,7 (106%) 19,4 (97%)
F
F
s
s[mm]
10 20 30 40
40
80
120
160
push-out test
Deflection in case of incomplete interaction-
Comparison with test results
54
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Part 5:
Limitation of stresses
55
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Limitation of Stresses

c
M
Ed

a
+
-
M
Ed

s
+
-
+
-
combination stress limit recommended
values k
i
structural steel characteristic
Ed
k
a
f
yk

Ed
k
s
f
sk

Ed
k
c
f
ck
P
Ed
k
s
P
Rd
k
a
=1,00
reinforcement characteristic k
s
=0,80
concrete characteristic k
c
= 0,60
headed studs characteristic k
s
=0,75
Stress limitation is not required for beams if
in the ultimate limit state,
- no verification of fatigue is required and
- no prestressing by tendons and /or
- no prestressing by controlled imposed
deformations is provided.
56
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
composite section
steel section
g
c
M
Ed
(x)
V
Ed
M
Ed
V
Ed
(x)
+
-
+
b
c
b
eff
y
z
z
io
x
N
c
v
L,Ed,max
L
v
=b
eff
Concentrated longitudinal shear force at
sudden change of cross-section
eff io c a
io eff , c Ed
max , Ed , L
b J E / E
z A M 2
v =
A
c,eff
longitudinal shear forces
+
-
Local effects of concentrated longitudinal
shear forces
57
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
z
y
b
c
=10 m
300
500x20
14x2000
800x60

P
C
D
= 3000 kN/cm
per stud
L = 40 m
g
c,d
cross-section
FE-Model
system
shear connectors
Local effects of concentrated longitudinal
shear forces
58
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Ultimate limit state - longitudinal shear forces
FE-Model:
FE-Model
L = 40 m
x
s
P
c
D
s
P
c
D
EN 1994-2
x [cm]
ULS
59
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
-4000
-3500
-3000
-2500
-2000
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
Serviceability limit state - longitudinal
shear forces
EN 1994-2
FE-Model:
FE-Model
L = 40 m
v
L,Ed
[kN/m]
x [cm]
x
s
P
c
D
s
P
c
D
SLS
60
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Part 6:
Vibrations
61
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Vibration- General
EN 1994-1-1: The dynamic properties of floor beams should satisfy
the criteria in EN 1990,A.1.4.4
EN 1990, A1.4.4: To achieve satisfactory vibration behaviour of
buildings and their structural members under
serviceability conditions, the following aspects,
among others, should be considered:
the comfort of the user
the functioning of the structure or its structural
members
Other aspects should be considered for each project
and agreed with the client
62
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Vibration - General
EN 1990-A1.4.4:
For serviceability limit state of a structure or a structural member not to
be exceeded when subjected to vibrations, the natural frequency of
vibrations of the structure or structural member should be kept
above appropriate values which depend upon the function of the
building and the source of the vibration, and agreed with the client
and/or the relevant authority.
Possible sources of vibration that should be considered include walking,
synchronised movements of people, machinery, ground borne vibrations
from traffic and wind actions. These, and other sources, should be
specified for each project and agreed with the client.
Note in EN 1990-A.1.4.4: Further information is given in ISO 10137.
63
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
x
k
l
s
S
p
a
n

l
e
n
g
t
h
x
l
s
time t
F(x,t)
F(x,t)
t
s
x
k
t
k
Vibration Example vertical vibration due
to walking persons
pacing
rate
f
s
[Hz]
forward
speed
v
s
= f
s
l
s
[m/s]
stride
length
l
s
[m]
slow walk 1,7 1,1 0,6
normal walk 2,0 1,5 0,75
fast walk 2,3 2,2 1,00
slow running
(jog)
2,5 3,3 1,30
fast running
(sprint)
> 3,2 5,5 1,75
The pacing rate f
s
dominates the dynamic
effects and the resulting dynamic loads. The
speed of pedestrian propagation v
s
is a
function of the pacing rate f
s
and the stride
length l
s
.
64
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Vibration vertical vibrations due to
walking of one person
time t
F
i
(t)
left foot
right foot
F(t)
both feet
1. step 2. step 3. step
t
s
=1/f
s
( )

+ =

=
3
1 n
n s n o
t f n 2 sin 1 G ) t ( F
G
o
weight of the person (800 N)

n
coefficient for the load component of n-th harmonic
n number of the n-th harmonic
f
s
pacing rate

n
phase angle oh the n-th harmonic
During walking, one of the feet is always in
contact with the ground. The load-time function
can be described by a Fourier series taking into
account the 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic.

1
=0,4-0,5
1
=0

2
=0,1-0,25
2
=/2

3
=0,1-0,15
3
=/2
Fourier-
coefficients and
phase angles:
65
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Vibration vertical vibrations due to walking
of persons
( )
s E
v / L f
gen
n
a max
e 1
M
F
k a

=
M
gen
F(t)
c

w(t)
maximum acceleration a, vertical deflection w and
maximum velocity v
acceleration
E
max
2
E
max
f 2
a
v
) f 2 (
a
w

=
f
E
natural frequency
F
n
load component of n-th harmonic
logarithmic damping decrement
v
s
forward speed of the person
k
a
factor taking into account the different
positions x
k
during walking along the beam
M
gen
generated mass of the system
(single span beam: M
gen
=0,5 m L)
m
L
F
n
(t)
x
k
w(x
k
,t)
L/2
k
a
F
n
(t)
w(t)
( )
t f
E
gen
n
a
E
e 1 ) t f 2 ( sin
M
F
k ) t ( w

=

s
v
L
t =
66
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Logarithmic damping decrement
For the determination of the maximum
acceleration the damping coefficient or
the logarithmic damping decrement
must be determined. Values for composite
beams are given in the literature. The
logarithmic damping decrement is a
function of the used materials, the
damping of joints and bearings or support
conditions and the natural frequency.
For typical composite floor beams in
buildings with natural frequencies
between 3 and 6 Hz the following values
for the logarithmic damping decrement
can be assumed:
=0,10 floor beams without not load-
bearing inner walls
=0,15 floor beams with not load-
bearing inner walls
1
2
3
4
5
6
Damping
ratio [%]
3 6
9 12
f
E
[Hz]
= 2
results of measurements in buildings
with finishes
without finishes
67
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Vibration vertical vibrations due to walking of
persons
People in office buildings sitting or standing many
hours are very sensitive to building vibrations.
Therefore the effects of the second and third
harmonic of dynamic load-time function should be
considered, especially for structure with small
mass and damping. In case of walking the pacing
rate is in the rage of 1.7 to 2.4 Hz. The verification
can be performed by frequency tuning or by
limiting the maximum acceleration.
In case of frequency tuning for composite
structures in office buildings the natural frequency
normally should exceed 7,5 Hz if the first, second
and third harmonic of the dynamic load-time
function can cause significant acceleration.
Otherwise the maximum acceleration or
velocity should be determined and limited to
acceptable values in accordance with
ISO 10137
F(t)/G
o
( )

=
+ =
3
1 n
n s n o
t f n 2 sin F G ) t ( F
0,4
0,2
2,0 4,0 6,0 8,0
0,1
f
s
=1,5-2,5 Hz
2f
s
=3,0-5,0 Hz
3f
s
=4,5-7,5 Hz
68
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Limitation of acceleration-recommended
values acc. to ISO 10137
1 5 10 50 100
0,01
0,05
0,1
0,005
acceleration [m/s
2
]
frequency [Hz]
basic curve a
o
Multiplying factors K
a
for the basic curve
Residential (flats, hospitals) K
a
=1,0
Quiet office K
a
=2-4
General office (e. g. schools) K
a
=4
a o
K a a
natural frequency of
typical composite
beams
69
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Thank you very
much for your kind
attention
70
G. Hanswille
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Institute for Steel and
Composite Structures
University of Wuppertal-Germany
Thank you very
much for your kind
attention