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According to Gil Nonato C. Santos, temperature is hotness or coldness of a material. It

is also the property of a material that determines where heat should flow. Heat flows
from a point of higher temperature to a point with a lower temperature. It is the intensity
or the level of the heat energy of a body. It indicates the average activity of the molecules
in motion within the body. Temperature can also determine the direction or path of the
flow of internal energy when two objects are said to be in contact, the internal energy
goes from the one at higher temperature to one at lower temperature without considering
the internal energy of each. That is why upon boiling soup into a bowl, the soup cools
down while the bowl becomes warmer than its initial temperature. Temperature is a
measure of the average kinetic energy of a system. Temperature is a quantitative measure
of cold and hot. The words hot and cold are usually relative terms. Temperature of an
object is a number that uniquely determines whether it is hotter or colder than another
object. It is useful to examine the structure of matter on an atomic seale before defining
temperature.
-guevarra
According to Ocampo, Jorge P., heat is the measure of total kinetic energy of a system. It
is the internal energy in transit from one body of matter to another by virtue of
temperature difference between them. The amount of matter is just mass. The movement
of molecules also depends on the type of material used. The specific heat is that property
of a material that explains why liquids remain hotter longer than others. Temperature is a
measure of the average kinetic energy of a system. It is measured in calories or joules.
-guevarra
According to Hewitt, heat is the energy transferred from one energy to another
because of a temperature difference between the things. It is important to point out that
matter does not contain heat. Matter contains molecular kinetic energy and possibly
potential energy, not heat. Heat is energy in transit from a body of higher temperature to
one of lower temperature. Once transferred, the energy ceases to be heat. Internal energy
is the grand total of all energies inside a substance. In addition to the translational kinetic
energy of jostling atoms in a substance, there is energy in other forms. There is rotational
kinetic energy of molecules and kinetic energy to internal movements of atoms within
molecules. Heat is the energy that flows from one object to another by virtue of a
difference in temperature measured in calories or joules.
-guevarra

According to Gil Nonato C. Santos, heat is the energy that flows as a result of a
difference in temperature. Heat is like any other form of energy, is measured in joules.
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a system. Temperature is the
quantitative measure of cold and hot. The words hot and cold are usually relatives wether
it is hotter or colder than another object. It is useful to examine the structure of matter on
an atomic scale before is to place it in contact with hotter object. The thermal energy of
the hotter object is decreases, and the thermal energy of the colder object is increased.
Energy flows from the hotter object to the cooler object.
According to Gerry C. Catchillor, heat is a form of energy that flows between two bodies
which are different in temperature. It is the distinguished from the motion of the intermal
energy of a body and is thought of as an energy in transit. The intermal energy of a body
and is thought of as an energy in transmit. The intermal energy of a system may be
altered everytime heat is being transmitted to or form a given system. The addition of
heat energy to a body increase the kinetic energy of the motion of its molecules or their
potential energy has now been converted. Temperature hotness or coldness of a material.
It is also the property of a material that fetermine where heat should flow. Heat flows
from a point of higher temperature to a point with a lower temperature. Heat is a intermal
energy transmit from one body of a matter to another by virtue of a temperature
difference between them. The greater the movement, the greater the kinetic energy. The
greater the heat.

According to Edwin Jones, heat energy can be transformed in three ways, conduction,
convection, and radiation, when one end of a metal rod is heated, the other end gets
warm. This is an example of conduction in which thermal energy is transferred without
any movement of the material thief. Conduction is a relatively slow process. A move
rapid process of heat transfer is accomplished through the mass motion. Avocado is a tree
native to mexico and central America, classified in the flowering plant family lauraceae.
The name “avocado” also refers to the fruit of the tree. The tree grows to 20 meters (65ft)
with alternately. The fruit is sometimes called an avocado pear or alligator pear, due to
the shape and rough skin. The avocado tree does not tolerate freezing temperature, and
can be gown only in subtropical or tropical climates.

According to navaza C. heat transfer energy from one part of a substance to another Or
from one body to another by virtue of a difference in temperature. Heat is energy in
transmit. It always flows from a substance at a higher temperature to the substance at a
lower temperature raising the temperature of the latter and lowering that the former
substance. Provided the volume of the bodies remains constant. Heat does not flow from
a lower to a high temperature unless another form of energy transfer, work is also present.
The sensation of warmth or coldness of a substance on contact it determined by the
properly known as temperature. Although it is easy to compare the relative temperature of
two substance by the sense of touch. Temperature depends on the average kinetic energy
of the molecules of a substance and according to kinetic theory energy may exist in
rotational and translational motions of the particles of a substance.
According to Ditan, Carolina, 1994, avocado pertains to the fruit (drupe) of trees.
It belongs to the genus Persea fam. Lauraceae. It is the alligator pear, which is native to
tropical America. It is roughly pear-shaped. It varies in greenish or purple color. The
fruit also provides a rich source of digestible fat (up to 30%) and proteins (2%). The seed
of the avocado fruit is hard in texture. The seed is shaped as to an oblongated one,
colored as brown. The skin is somehow freckled with spots and lines. These lines and
freckles enable the avocado to be grasped with a grip.

According to Thurber, heat produces many changes, both physical and chemical.
Changes in size and state are among the more common physical effects of heat. Changes
in state are especially noticeable. At almost anytime we can see evidence of water
evaporating, condensing, melting, or we can see evidence of water freezing. We have
learned to use many of physical effects of heat to our advantages. Most objects become
larger or smaller as temperature change. Whether large or small, effects of heating and
cooling are often of great importance. A certain amount of heat will affect temperature of
any substance. Change in temperature will not be the same for all substance.

Cordero-Navaza stated that heat may be derived from natural and artificial
sources. The most important are the following: sun, and the interior of Earth for natural
sources. Chemical action, mechanical energy, electrical energy, and nuclear energy are
for chemical sources. In the sun, much of the heat may be traced back to sun. A great
amount of heat also comes from buried hot rocks and lava that flow from craters and
crevices of erupting volcanoes. Heat has many effects. It affects materials in various
ways. When substance absorbs heat, temperature rises. Heat causes many changes in
bodily functions of living organisms. If temperature increases, the speed of moving
molecules also increases.

Hewitt said that the energy that transfers from one object to another because of
temperature difference between them is called heat. When heat flows from one object or
substance to another it is in contact with, objects or substance are said to be to thermal
contact. Heat is energy transferred from one substance to another by temperature
difference. The amount transferred heat can be determined by measuring temperature
change of a known mass of water that absorbs heat, when substance absorbs heat
resulting temperature change. Unit of heat is defined as heat necessary to produce some
standard. Heat is one of main topics in Thermodynamics. It is also a primary concern of
man. Heat is measured through a thermometer. The amount of heat transfer involved in
a system is measured indirectly by effects heat produces on a system.
CHAP 4

A. discussion of results

this experiment is all about avocado fruit as the main component of the ink. at first the
avocado fruit should be an alternative for ink. but then, the avocado fruit did not produce
a substance. the grouped tried the charcoal but it did not mixed to water because of it is a
fat. so, to be able to mix water and charcoal, they used the avocado extract as main
component for the ink.

B. presentation of data:

Mixture of New substance produced:

substances: (product)

1.) Mixture of There is no alternative product produced in the set-up because

avocado peel, water the 3 substances failed to mix with each other. The avocado peel
and charcoal. extract is not effective substance to combine to the other 2
substances.

2.) Mixture of The avocado fruit extract with charcoal and water did
avocado fruit, water combined. Avocado fruit extract is an effective substance to mix
and charcoal. with water and charcoal. Since charcoal is a fat, that it cannot mix
with water. Unless another substance is mixed to combine the two,
and that is the avocado fruit extract.

CHAP 5
BIBLIO

Nonato Gil. E-Physics. Rex bookstore. 2003. pp. 104-105

Blecha, Milo K. et.al. 1979. Exploring Matter and Energy. Laidlaw Brothers Publishers
Inc. pp. 132-133

Kilburn, Robert E. 1977. Exploring Physical Science. Allyn and Bacon Inc. pp. 193-194
Heimler, Charles H. 1987. Focus on Physical Science. Merill Publishing Company. pp.
424-425

Valdez Bienvido J. 1998. Physics. Phoenix Publishing House Inc. pp. 200-201

Crisostomo, Amante L. Simplified Physics. 2002. Rex Printing Company Inc. pp. 117-
118

Navaza, Delia C. 1999. Science. SIBS Publishing House, Inc. p. 207

Hewitt, Paul Peter. 1976. Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 107

Shipman, James T. and Jerry D. Wilson. 1990. An Introduction to Physical Science. DC.
Heath and Company. p. 490

Wilson, Martin P. 1998. Plant Life. McGraw Hill Company. pp. 5, 97

Shipman, James T. and Jerry D. Wilson. 1990. An Introduction to Physical Science. DC.
Heath and Company. p. 72

Mallinson, George G. et.al. 1975. Science Understanding Your Environment. Silver

Burdeit General Learning Corporation. Pp. 157, 159-160

Thurber, Walter A. et.al. 1977. Exploring Physical Science. Allyn and Bacon, Inc. pp.
208-210
Dull Charles et.al. 1964. Modern Physics. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., New York.
Pp. 233-237

Hirsch, Allan. 2006. Physics 11. Thomson Learning Asia Inc, pp. 148-149

Ditan, Carolina. 1994. Tell Me Why?. Octopus Publishing Group Ltd. pp. 84-85

Cordero-Navaza, Delia et.al. 1996. Physics. Phoenix Publishing House Inc. pp. 201-205

Hewitt, Paul G. 1997. Conceptual Physics. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. p. 311

Thurber, Walter A. et.al. 1997. Exploring Physical Science. Boston Allyn and Bacon Inc.
pp. 196, 213

UNKNOWN

Avocado is called as alligator peal, common name for a tree (see laurel). Native to
tropical the fruit is a greenish, thick-skinned drupe, similar in size and shape to a large
pear. When ripe, the flesh was the consistency of firm butter and a faint nutlike flavor.
Containing10 to 20 percent oil and is rich in protein

Avocado is a tropical fruit having a oval pear-shaped with leathery skin that is a form of
energy associated with motion of atoms or molecules and capable at being of transmitted
through solid and liquid by construction.
Fertilization is any of a large number of natural and synthetic materials, including manure
and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds, spread on or worked into soil, to
increase its capacity to support plant growth.

1) Heat a form of energy that the temperature to rise.

2) Avocado a pulpy green to purple nutty flavored edible fruit of a tropical American tree.
3) Fertilizer a material used for enriching land or soil.

1) Avocado is the fruit (a drupe) trees of the genus, per sea, fam. Lauraceae, the alligator
pear, native to tropical American. It is roughly pear-shaped, greenish or purple and
provides a rich source of digestible fats and proteins.
2) Fertilizer is a preparation containing the elements essential to plant growth (nitrogen
compounds, phosphorus, potassium etc.
3) Heat is the energy of a material associated with the random motions energy of its
constituent particles which is proportional to the product of its temperature and mass

!) Avocado a pulpy green purple nutty flavored edible fevit of a tropical American tree
2) Fertilizer A material , either manure or chemical mixture for enriching land
3) Organic on involving, producing or dealing in foods produced w/o use of lab-made
fertilizer, growth substance, antibiotics, or pesticides.

CHAPTER 4
B. Analysis
Based on our I.P. the avocado extract, I have found out that the avocado
did not became an ink. The avocado became a component ink. Just like the
charcoal, charcoal is one of the substance that can be combined in avocado
extract.

C. Interpretation
The charcoal is a kind of substance that can’t be just mix to water.
Because charcoal is a fat or a fatty substance. That’s why it is not combined with
water. Therefore instead of using water we use charcoal. Because charcoal is a
black substance that is made by burning wood slowly. For the charcoal to be

CHAPTER 5
Summary and Conclusion
Avocado extract being mixed in a charcoal for it to become an ink. First
we prepared or our group prepared the following set-up or materials to be used.
That includes one avocado, strainer, knife, blender, cooking pan, charcoal,
chopping board and a glass of water. For pounding the charcoal we prepared the
materials to be used hammer, charcoal, plastic gloves and plastic bags. In the
avocado first we slice it into pieces and place it in a blender to be blended. Then
for the charcoal we pounded it to be mixed in the blended avocado. After that we
stear the blended avocado in the strainer, then we added the pounded charcoal
into the water. Mixing the blended avocado in the charcoal in a cooking pan. To
be heated for about three minutes. After three minutes we put it in a container
and cooled.

CHAPTER 6
Recommendation
Our group recommended that even if it is not the season of avocado.
We can still use other fruit as an alternative for an ink. Because any fruit has a
component for an ink. Just like durian, mongo, and other fruits. Any fruits are
included, because their skin can be used as an ink.

Bibliography:
Heimler, Charles H., Physical Science, Merill Publishing Company, 1987