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Wilkinson, UCT
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 1 May 13, 2013
EEE3086F
Signals and Systems II
2013
A J Wilkinson
andrew.wilkinson@uct.ac.za
http!!www.ee.uct.ac.za
"epartment of #lectrical #ngineering
Uni\$ersit% of Cape Town
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 2 May 13, 2013
+. ,oise in recei\$ers
-. .k% noise
(.,1 calculations).
2. 3re4uenc% 0and names used for communications
Contents
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 3 May 13, 2013
\$#eei%ed &o'e#(
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 4 May 13, 2013
S
o
N
o
=
P
o
1
2

S
N0
d
P
t
RF
Carrier
c
Signal
P
r
S
i
N
i
S
o
N
o
Input
signal
Output
signal
We need to be able to calculate the Signal-to-Noise Ratio S/N at the output.
Output noise PSD
Signal
power
Noise
power
Output signal power
Demodulator
odulator
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 5 May 13, 2013
In order to calculate the SNR at the output of a demodulator,
we must first know the SNR at its input.
(the propagation of signal and noise though the demodulator is
tackled for various modulation schemes later in the course)
he signal power at the input to the demodulator depends on
the power level P
r
he total noise power is comprised of two components !eing#
\$) the noise generated !" the receiver circuit.
%) noise received !" the antenna.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 6 May 13, 2013
Calculation of 1ecei\$ed 6ower
t
watts, how much power P
r
'ntennas serve !oth to radiate electromagnetic signals, and also to
' transmitting antenna is sometimes designed to concentrate radiated
power in a particular direction.
ransmitter
P
t
'ntenna 'ntenna
P
r
d (m)
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 7 May 13, 2013
P
t
*atts.
he signal travels as an electromagnetic wave at the speed of light (+,-
m.s).
't a distance d, the power P
t
is spread uniforml" over the surface area of a
/ower densit" at a distance d from the source is watts.m
%
.
P
t
4 ! d
2
d
P
t
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 8 May 13, 2013
Antenna 7ain
' ph"sical antenna concentrates power into a directed
!eam. his effect is modeled !" the antenna gain pattern
in spherical co0ord1s.
where

is the effective captive area of receiver antenna in (m
%
).

G # , \$
P
t
4d
2
G
t
[ W/ m
2
]
P
r
=
P
t
4d
2
G
t
A
eff
A
eff
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 9 May 13, 2013
Antenna 7ain
'n isotropic antenna has a gain 2 3 \$ in all directions.
' directional antenna will have 2 4 \$ in some desired direction.
he gain 2 is the factor !" which the power densit" (in a particular
direction) is increased, compared to an isotropic radiator. he gain is
sometimes e5pressed in d6 relative to isotropic gain.
i.e. \$7 log (2.\$) d6
i
. (the su!script 8i9 is sometimes included to
remind us that the gain is defined as relative to an istropic radiator)
' directional aperture0t"pe antenna has a !eamwidth and gain
determined !" the dimensions of the aperture. (e.g. :S; dish antenna)

## ;erticall" orientated wire antennas like the .% dipole antenna (23\$.<)

and the .= monopole antenna (23+.%) radiate uniforml" in the
hori>ontal plain.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 10 May 13, 2013
Aperture Antennas ha\$e "irectional 8eams
Parabolic
Dish %ntenna
D
?or directional !eam antennas, the !eamwidth depends on the diameter D of the
radiating aperture, relative to the wavelength of the radiation. 'n appro5imate formula
for predicting the !eamwidth in radians is#
(this formula is useful for .: @ 7.A,
or !eamwidths less than a!out +7 degB
a more accurate formula is sin(#).:
Note that sin(#)# for small angles)
.

## e.g. %t &' ()*+ 37.7+ m.

' para!olic dish antenna with
:3\$m aperture, has !eamwidth
# .: 3 7.7+ rad. 3 \$.- deg.
(,-
)orn %ntenna
D
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 11 May 13, 2013
7ain of a ,arrow Conical 8eam
he gain of an aperture antenna is related to the !eam dimension, which
is related to the ph"sical si>e (area of the aperture).
?or a conical !eam, the gain (assuming no losses in the antenna) is the
ratio of the /ootprint area to the surface area of a sphere#
G
t

4 d
2
! (d #/ 2)
2
=
16
#
2
d

## % &.' deg beam ,'.'&01 rad- has a gain

6or a narrow conical beam o/
G
t
=
4 d
2
A
fp
A
fp
! ( d # / 2)
2
A
fp
A
fp
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 12 May 13, 2013
7ain of a ,arrow 1ectangular 8eam
G
t
=
4 d
2
A
fp

4 d
2
(d # )(d \$)
=
4
#\$
6or an ideal 7rectangular beam8
with a rectangular /ootprint
#
\$
# is 9ertical beamwidth in radians
\$ is hori*ontal beamwidth in radians
%
/p
is /ootprint area at distance d
,as pro:ected onto the sur/ace o/ a sphere o/ radius d-
A
fp
A
fp
(d#)(d \$)
d
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 13 May 13, 2013
7ain of a rectangular radiating aperture
'ntenna gain can !e related to the area %
t
aperture.
G
t

4
#\$

4
( ./ D
2
)( . / D
1
)
=
4 D
1
D
2
.
2
=
4 A
t
.
2
G
t

4 A
t
.
2
wa9elength
D
1
?ront view
A
t
#
\$
D
1
D
2
D
2
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 14 May 13, 2013
In practice, the effective aperture area is slightl" less than the
ph"sical aperture area.
"picall"
A
eff
0. 6A
physical
A
eff
=
G.
2
4
=>ample; 6or a &' ()* dish antenna o/ diameter &m
calculate;
&- ph"sical area;
4- e//ecti9e area;
?- gain;

@- the appro>imate beamwidth;
A=! 0. 5
2
=0. 79 m
2
A
eff
0. 790. 6=0 . 48 m
2
.=c/ f =0.03m
G=
40.48
0.03
2
7000
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 15 May 13, 2013
Common Wire Antennas !* "ipole

## .% :ipole antenna has a peak gain

he su!script 8i9 in 8d6
i
9 is sometimes used to refer to the fact that the gain
is 8relative to an isotropic radiator9.
6" s"mmetr", gain is uniform in the hori>ontal plane (for vertical orientation
of the wire antenna)
.%
Dipole
antenna
G=1.64 =2.14 dB or dB
i

Aross section
9iew (,-
?-D 9iew o/
(,#,-.
%t &'' )*+ /45&.1m
(,-
Re/erence; http;//en.wiBipedia.org/wiBi/DipoleCantenna

EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 16 May 13, 2013
!- 9onopole Antenna
.=
onopole
antenna
(round plane
Freq.
/4
\$77 kC> DA7 m
\$ EC> DA m
\$7 EC> D.A m
\$77 EC> DA cm
\$ 2C> D.A cm
\$7 2C> D.A mm
onopole
length
(,-
G=3. 28 5. 14 dBi
a> (ain is twice Dipole

## Aross section 9iew (,-

EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 17 May 13, 2013
Coil Antennas
In the Eedium *ave !and (A77 kC> 04 \$<77 kC>), a resonant monopole
wire antenna is too large for porta!le receivers. ' Fuarter wavelength at
A77 kC> is
.= 3 (+,-.A,A).= 3 <77.= 3 \$A7 metres.
Eedium *ave radios usuall" use a more compact coil antenna
comprising a!out \$77 turns wound on a ferrite core.
he coil is sensitive to the magnetic field component in the
electromagnetic wave, and must !e orientated correctl" such that the
6
Changing magnetic
flu5 dG.dt induces
a voltage across terminals of coil antenna.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 18 May 13, 2013
Antennas as 1ecei\$ers
'n antenna can function as either a transmitter or a receiver.
'll antennas have an effective capture area (for a wave
arriving at a particular angle).
?or aperture antennas, the effective capture is less than the
ph"sical area, t"picall"
?rom antenna theor", the gain and effective aperture are
related !"
A
eff
0. 6A
physical
A
eff
=
G.
2
4
=9en wire antennas can ha9e
an e//ecti9e capture area.
=.g. at &'' )*+ 5?m. %
dipole with a gain (5&.2 has an
e//ecti9e area o/ &.4m
4
.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 19 May 13, 2013
Calculating recei\$ed power
ransmitter
P
t
'ntenna
'ntenna
P
r
A
eff
=
G
r
.
2
4
P
r
=
P
t
4d
2
G
t
A
eff
where
P
r
=
P
t
4d
2
G
t

G
r
.
2
4
=
P
t
G
t
G
r
4d / .
2
(
t
(
r
d
Recei9ed power;
Substituting
gi9es;
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 20 May 13, 2013
#:ample Calculating recei\$ed power
' ; station radiates a \$7 *att ; signal centred on A77 EC> using a
the signal using a directional Hagi antenna with a gain of %7. Calculate
A
eff
=
G
r
.
2
4
=
20 0. 6
2
4
=0. 57 m
2
.=
c
f
=
310
8
50010
6
=0. 6 m
P
r
=
P
t
4d
2
G
t
A
eff
=
10
410000
2
3. 280. 57=1510
9
W
Wa9elength
=//ecti9e
capture area
Recei9ed
power
,ND this calculation ignores attenuation due to rain//og and signal reduction
which ma" result /rom destructi9e inter/erence /rom multipath re/lections-
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 21 May 13, 2013
and
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 22 May 13, 2013
Antenna pointing down towards earth
' receiving antenna mounted on a satellite points down to earth.
he antenna 8sees9 the warm earth, which radiates thermal noise.
Recei9ing
%ntenna
P
N
=e k T
Earth
T
Earth
300 K
, 5 40 celsius-
P
N
,ma"be e5'.E is realistic /or soil-
Warm
=arth
beam
e is the emissivit" factor of the surface (7@3 e @3\$)
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 23 May 13, 2013
6ower .pectral "ensit% of the ,oise Captured 0% Antenna
he antenna aiming at a warm, radiating surface captures
he voltage signal o!served on the terminals of the antenna is
a stationar" 2aussian random process, that can !e
characteri>ed !" a power spectral densit" function.
he ph"sical power captured is characteri>ed !"
S ()=
e()k T
2
F is a ph"sical temperature o/ the radiating sur/ace in Bel9in.
e is the emissivit" factor of the surface (7@3 e @3\$)
) constant s 6olt>mannI ( \$7 +- . \$
%+
= B
NOF= # F
Bel9in
=%D++F
celsius
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 24 May 13, 2013
's long as the footprint falls entirel" on the warm !od" (a+b !elow), the
power received !" the antenna is independent of distance to the o!Ject.
his ma" seem odd, !ecause power densit" from a point source
decreases inversel" proportional to (distance)
%
B however in this case, the
antenna Ksees1 more surface area if it is moved further awa".
he two effects cancel, and the end result is the received power is
independent of distance (as long as the !eam footprint does not e5ceed
the si>e of the !od" as in c !elow).
a b c
P
N
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 25 May 13, 2013
R? and microwave !ands.
Lutput voltage proportional to input power
where eBFD is the power received !" antenna from the warm o!Ject of temperature F
Melvin with emissivit" factor 7NeN\$ (a propert" of the material),
BF
e
D is the receiver circuit1s eFuivalent noise re/erred to the input.
v
o
O/?
:iode /ower
:etector
6/?
'mp
P
in
'ntenna

7Ne N\$
P
in
=ekTBkT
e
B
Note; there is also a contribution /rom noise that is re/lected b" the sur/ace ,not modeled here-
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 26 May 13, 2013
Cow does it work&
he input signal is translated down in freFuenc", amplified,
filtered and then fed into a power detector.
("ou will need to stud" the concept of heterod"ning covered
later notes to understand this)
6
I ?
3\$2C>
+A2C>
D54D
I 6
3 %2C>
S,-5BF/4 6/?

heterod"ne
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 27 May 13, 2013
wo side!ands on either side of the oscillator are mi5ed down
to the !andpass filter.
he power detector converts the !andlimited white noise
signal at the output of the 6/? to a voltage proportional to the
total noise power.

## Eapping the gala5" (astronomers).

EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 28 May 13, 2013
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 29 May 13, 2013
,oise in recei\$ers
(R,O,C) and semiconductors (transistors, diodes).
Resistors and semiconductors generate noise.
Eodels have !een developed to characteri>e !oth individual
components (e.g. resistor noise and transistor noise), as well
as entire modules.
he standard approach to characteri>ing a module, is to model
the noise that it creates as an eFuivalent additive noise source
referred to its input. In realit", this noise is generated within
the module, and can !e o!served at its output.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 30 May 13, 2013
Amplifier ,oise
%
%
t
9
o
,t-
S
R IN
P
P
OGF
H
R
:riving
Source
Resistive
9
o
,t-
Nois" waveform o!served at the output created !" the amplifier
(!andlimited !" the !andwidth of the amplifier)
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 31 May 13, 2013
Amplifier noise model
*e can draw the following linear s"stem model
Lutput Noise /ower

) ()
S
i
()
S
o
()=(
%
() S
i
()
N
o
=
\$
%

S
o
()d=% S
o
(
7
) D=% S
i
(
7
)(
%
D
(
%
( )=
I
7
( )
%
/ R
I
i
( )
%
/ R
=) ( )
%
=Jui9alent noise bandwidth
/ower gain
6andwidth D
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 32 May 13, 2013
#4ui\$alent ,oise Temperature T
e
he power spectral densit" referred to the input is usuall" specified in
terms of a parameter known as the 8eFuivalent noise temperature9 (
e
)
of the amplifier (or module). Note#
e
is not a ph"sical temperature.

e
is a function of freFuenc", !ut can !e appro5imated as a constant
over a narrow !andwidth centred on freFuenc"
he noise power spectral densit" can !e o!tained from it.
*ithin a !andwidth 6, the eFuivalent noise at the input to the amplifier
is#
he noise power from the output is
N
o
=
\$
%

S
o
( )d=% S
o
(
7
) D=% S
i
(
7
)(
%
D=%
n
=BF
e
D
n
(
%
=Jui9alent noise bandwidth
(
%
(
7
)=) (
7
)
%

S
i
()=
B F
e
()
%
N
i
=
\$
%

S
i
( )d=% S
i
(
7
) D=B F
e
D
n

7
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 33 May 13, 2013
#4ui\$alent ,oise Temperature T
e
Eodule
N
i
=B F
e
D
n
N
o
=B F
s
D
n
(
%
+B F
e
D
n
(
%
N
s
=B F
s
D
n
/ower 2ain (
%
6andwidth D
N
Noise generated !" module
(referred to its input)
N
o
=B (F
s
+F
e
) D
n
(
%
Noise from the source
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 34 May 13, 2013
4"4 S!y noise
\$noise #eei%ed ,y an antenna(
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 35 May 13, 2013
.k% ,oise
' ph"sical antenna receives noise from the environment.
here are several sources#

reflected !" the surface of the earth towards the antenna.

## atmosphere (i.e. water vapor) radiates

he noise can !e descri!ed !" its power spectral densit" function, which
can !e used for noise power calculations.
he sk" noise densit" is descri!ed !" its 8eFuivalent noise temperature9
F
sB"
. *ithin a narrow !andwidth 6, F
sB"
is appro5imatel" a constant, and
the noise power received !" an antenna is eFual to BF
sB"
D.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 36 May 13, 2013
.k% ,oise
P
N
=
1
2

0
2 B / 2

0
2 B / 2
S
n
d
1
2

0
2 B / 2

0
2 B / 2
S
n
d
P
N

1
2
2 B
kT
sky
2
2=kT
sky
B
/S: of
noise
0P
7
P
7
P
6 (C>)
S
n
()=
kT
sky
( )
2
S
n

with bandwidth o/ D C>+
centred on
'
Fhe PSD is related to the sB" noise temperature b";
Noise power
captured b"
antenna;
T
sky
is the 9alue
at the centre
o/ the band.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 37 May 13, 2013
.k% noise
he sk" noise contri!utions from various sources have !een
measured and are availa!le as plots as a function of freFuenc".
he designer of a radio link can look up the sk" noise
temperature at a particular freFuenc" from the graph.
Contri!utions from uncorrelated sources are added.
In some cases, the level of noise is a function of the time of
da" (da".night), and also the pointing direction of the antenna.
Qsuall", one would work with the worst case values, when
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 38 May 13, 2013
.k% ,oise Temperatures \$s fre4uenc%
(Reference# ?. 2. Stremler
Introduction to Communications
S"stems, %
nd
,d.)
(from lightning storms)
(from stars)
(in the atmosphere)
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 39 May 13, 2013
#ffect of Atmosphere on .k% ,oise
' hori>ontall" pointing antenna (see 8A deg elevation9 curve on graph)
looks through more atmosphere than a verticall" pointing antenna (see
8R7 deg elevation9), as is illustrated !elow.
hus the sk" noise is higher for the A deg case.
1 deg ele9ation ,almost hori*ontal-
%tmosphere containing water
9apour+ o>"gen etc.
K' deg ele9ation ,9ertical-
=arth
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 40 May 13, 2013
.k% ,oise
' receiver operates on a centre freFuenc"
7
, and is !andlimited to D C>.

L!tain F
s B "
from graph at 5
7

'dd contri!utions from uncorrelated sources.
In some instances, the noise temperature at a particular freFuenc" ma"
var" !etween a minimum and ma5imum value (e.g. 2alactic noise). In this
case it makes sense to assume the worst case, and use the ma5imum value.
!andwidth D at
centre freF P
7

P
N
=kT
sky
B
SB" noise power recei9er within band is;
where B 3 \$.+-S\$7,0%+ 6olt>mann1s constant
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 41 May 13, 2013
#:ample Using .k% noise graph
't \$ 2C>, for an antenna aimed almost hori>ontall" (close to
A deg elevation),
't \$77 EC> (e.g. ?E radio), galactic noise dominates#
't \$7 EC>, atmospheric noise dominates#
T
sky
=T
galactic
T
water vapor / O
2
9020=110 K
T
sky
=T
galactic
20 000 K
T
sky
=T
atm
T
galactic
910
7
210
6
910
7
K
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 42 May 13, 2013
4"- Line of sight #adio ommuniations lin!"
\$S+R alulations(
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 43 May 13, 2013
S
x
N
x
=
P
x
1
2

S
Nx
d
Modulator
P
t
RF
Carrier
c
Signal
P
r
S
x
N
x
S
o
N
o Input
signal
Output
signal
)ow do we calculate the Signal-to-Noise Ratio S/N at point L+ at
the input to the demodulatorM
noise PSD
Signal
power
Noise
power
signal power
Demodulator
L
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 44 May 13, 2013
1efer ;uantities to <nput
Fo worB out SNR at the input to the demodulator+
it is usuall" easier to re/er all Juantities to the input o/ the
recei9er. i.e. terminals o/ the recei9ing antenna.
%dditionall"+ we assume that the recei9er chain has an
appro>imatel" NrectangularO passband o/ bandwidth D hert*.
Fhe recei9er power gain is (
rec
.
I/ the passband is not per/ectl" rectangular+ then it is assumed
that the eJui9alent noise bandwidth D
n
is Bnown /or the
purposes o/ noise calculations.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 45 May 13, 2013
1efer ;uantities to <nput
S
x
N
x
=
P
r
G
rec
N
inp
G
rec

P
r
2 S
N0

c
B
=
P
r
kT
sky
BkT
e
B
Noise PSD
at recei9er
input
Dandwidth
,or eJui9alent
noise bandwidth-
Ouput
signal
power
Output
noise
power
Fo worB out SNR at the input to the demodulator+
it is usuall" easier to re/er all Juantities to the input
o/ the recei9er. i.e. to the terminals o/ the recei9ing antenna.
Recei9er gain (
r e c
,ampli/ier chain-
Recei9er power
Recei9er
noise
re/erred
to input.
SB" noise
recei9ed b"
antenna.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 46 May 13, 2013
"pical engineering design Fuestions that arise#

## *hat is the SNR for a given P

t
+(
t
+(
r
+ d and freFuenc"&

## *hat is the ma5imum range possi!le to achieve a specified SNR&

2iven d, P
t
and the reFuired SNR, how much antenna gain is reFuired
for (
t
and (
r
&

,tc.
he a!ove Fuestions can !e answered using the formulas
for a particular parameter of interest.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 47 May 13, 2013
' geostationar" satellite is one that rotates at the same rate as the earth
in the eFuatorial plane, and hence appears stationar" in the sk".
Tuestion#
Calculate the amount of transmitter power that must !e radiated !" the
satellite to achieve a SNR of \$=d6 at a receiver on the earth.
(as a ratio, SNR3\$7
( \$= . \$7 )
3%A.\$),
for the case of a satellite downlink with the following parameters#
/
'
3 % 2C> (U37.\$A m)
D 3 \$ EC>, (receiver !andwidth)
(
t
3 < d6 (3 = as Ratio), (
r
3=7 d6 (3 \$7777 as ratio)
F
r e c
3 %%7 M (receiver noise temperature)
d 3 +DDA7 km (calculated from the geometr".)
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 48 May 13, 2013
7eostationar% satellite geometr%
h3+<777 km
(
t
(
r
d 3+DDA7 km
R
,
V<=77km
N
Satellite
=%RF)
Period
4@ hours
(eo-stationar" satellite is positioned ?2''' Bm abo9e the eJuator and rotates
with same period as the earth being 4@ hours. Satellite appears stationar" in the sB"
to an obser9er on earth P use/ul /or DSFI and other applications.
1?
Q
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 49 May 13, 2013
.olution
P
r
=
P
t
G
t
G
r
4 d / .
2
N=kT
sky
BkT
rec
B=1. 3810
23
15220 10
6
=3. 210
15
W
SNR=
P
r
N
where
P
t
=
SNRN 4d/ .
2
G
t
G
r
=
25. 13. 210
15
1. 010
19
410000
=20 W
Solving for P
t
we get#
SNR referred
Noise;
,estimate sB"
noise temp &1R S
2R ,atm at 1?deg-
TER ,galactic-
at 4 ()*
/rom graph-
SNR=
P
t
G
t
G
r
N 4 d / .
2
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 50 May 13, 2013
(Reference# ?. 2. Stremler
Introduction to Communications
S"stems, %
nd
,d.)
(from lightning storms)
(from stars)
(in the atmosphere)
T
sky
=T
galactic
T
water vapor / O
2
F
galactic
- R
F
water 9apor / O
%
< R
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 51 May 13, 2013
4"6 F#e.ueny /ands
Fhe /ollowing two tables list the band designations commonl"
used in communications and radar. Fhe names chosen are
a bit sill"U
=ngineers and users o/ the R6 V icrowa9e spectrum use this
terminolog" /or describing /reJuenc" bands.
=.g. a radar engineer would re/er to a radar operating at &' ()*
Ferrestrial FI antennas operate in 7the I)6 and G)6 bands8.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 52 May 13, 2013
?reFuenc" :esignations
,O? ,5tremel" low freFuenc" +70+77 C>
;? ;oice freFuenc" +770+777 C>
;O? ;er" low freFuenc" +0+7 kC>
O? Oow freFuenc" +70+77 kC>
E? Eedium freFuenc" +770+777 kC>
C? Cigh freFuenc" +0+7 EC>
;C? ;er" high freFuenc" +70+77 EC>
QC? Qltra high freFuenc" +770+777 EC>
SC? Super high freFuenc" +0+7 2C>
,C? ,5tremel" high freFuenc" +70+77 2C>
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 53 May 13, 2013
1A"A1 3re4uenc% 8ands
Band Frequency
C? +0+7 EC>
;C? +70+77 EC>
QC? +770+777 EC>
O \$0% 2C>
S %0= 2C>
C =0- 2C>
W -0\$% 2C>
M
\$
\$%0\$- 2C>
M \$-0%D 2C>
M
%
%D0=7 2C>
; =70DA 2C>
* DA0\$\$7 2C>
millimeter \$\$70+77 2C>
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 54 May 13, 2013
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 55 May 13, 2013
In a vacuum, radio waves travel in straight lines.
In the atmosphere radio waves can !e !ent !" changes in the refractive inde5.
he refractive inde5 decreases graduall" with altitude, causing !ending of radio waves
towards the earth, ena!ling hori>ontall" launched waves to travel !e"ond the visual
hori>on.
In addition, la"ers of charged particles or Kions1 (created !" ionising radiation from the
sun) e5ist and collectivel" are called the 8ionosphere9 (!etween a!out A7 km and =%7
km). :ifferent la"ers e5ist at different heights, and are given special names# :, ,, ?\$
and ?% (see illustration).
*aves radiated !" antennas can !e classed into two categories#
\$. 2round (surface) waves that travel !elow the ionosphere and are affected !" currents
induced in the earth. (waves over water travel much further than over land)
%. Sk" waves are launched up at an angle greater than to the hori>on. In the a!sence of
atmospheric refraction, these would !e lost into space
(as is the case for ;C? (4+7EC>) and higher freFuencies).
's illustrated in the sketch, sk" waves can !e refracted down again to ena!le
communication over ver" long distances (thousands of km around the glo!e). Eultiple
hops can occur with the earth and ionosphere forming a 8waveguide9.
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
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1efraction in the <onosphere
Radio waves can travel \$71s or thousands of km around the earth as a
result of refraction effects.
6elow is shown an illustration of refraction of a ra". Several hops are
possi!le.
=
64 ,night-
=arth
Re/raction
Ha"ers o/ charged particles
SB" wa9e
04-EE Bm
?4' Bm
&@@-&K' Bm
&'1-&4' Bm
4
nd
hop
Hine o/ sight
6& ,da"time-
D ,da"time-
EEE3086F Signals and Systems II
402 Page 57 May 13, 2013
9ultipath #ffect on .ignal
he total signal received is the sum of that from the direct line of sight,
plus reflections from the ground and other o!Jects (walls, trees etc.)
called Kmultipath reflections1.
hese can add destructivel" and reduce signal strength or distort the
waveform.
Oarge fluctuations can !e o!served (4\$7#\$), which should !e considered