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SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti

Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature


komparativistuli literaturis qarTuli asociacia
Georgian Comparative Literature Association

iv. javaxiSvilis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
zogadi da SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis
instituti
Institute of General and Comparative Literary Studies
of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
sjani
yovelwliuri samecniero Jurnali
literaturis Teoriasa da SedarebiT literaturaSi
Sjani
Annual Scientifc Journal of Literary Theory and
Comparative Literature
9
redaqtori
irma ratiani
saredaqcio kolegia
Tamar barbaqaZe
levan bregaZe
Teimuraz doiaSvili
maka elbaqiZe
gaga lomiZe
Tamar lomiZe
revaz siraZe
bela wifuria
malxaz xarbedia
saredaqcio kolegiis
sapatio wevrebi
rudolf kroitneri (germania)
manfred Smelingi (germania)
sadao cukui (iaponia)
pasuxismgebeli mdivani
solomon tabucaZe
sjani 9, 2008
redaqciis misamarTi:
0108, Tbilisi,
merab kostavas q. #5
telefoni: 99-63-84
faqsi: 99-53-00
www.litinstituti.ge
E-mail: litinst@litinstituti.ge
Editor
Irma Ratiani
Editorial Board
Tamar Barbakadze
Levan Bregadze
Teimuraz Doiashvili
Maka Elbakidze
Gaga Lomidze
Tamar Lomidze
Revaz Siradze
Bela Tsipuria
Malkhaz Kharbedia
Honorary Members
of Editorial Board
Rudolf Kreutner (Germany)
Manfred Schmeling (Germany)
Sadao Tsukui (J apan)
Responsible Editor
Solomon Tabutsadze
Sjani 9, 2008
Address:
0108, Tbilisi
M. Kostava str. 5
Tel.: 99-63-84
Fax: 99-53-00
www.litinstituti.ge
E-mail: litinst@litinstituti.ge
ISSN 1512-2514
pozicia
irma ratiani
qarTvelologiuri kvle-
vebi _ TviTmizani Tu saWi-
roeba?
literaturis Teoriis
problemebi
ivane amirxanaSvili
saswaulis kompozicia
Tamar CixlaZe
`subieqturi Txroba da
citirebuli metyveleba~:
istoria, Teoria da praq-
tika
(XX saukunis dasavleTev-
ropuli romanis mixedviT)
rusudan canava
metafora da metamorfoza
solomon tabucaZe
avtori da gmiri istoriu-
li poetikis WrilSi
poetikuri praqtikebi
Temur kobaxiZe
sulisa da xorcis diqo-
tomia: tomas eliotis
`hipopotami~ da `ukvdav-
ebis CurCuli~
literaturaTmcodneobis
qrestomaTia
mixail baxtini
karnavalizebuli litera-
tura
Position
Irma Ratiani
Kartvelology (Georgian Stud-
ies) Self-aim or Necessity?
Problems of Literary
Theory
Ivane Amirkhanashvili
Composition of a Miracle
Tamar Chikhladze
Subjective Narrative and Cit-
ed Speech: History, Theory
and Practice
(according to XX century
West-European novel)
Rusudan Tsanava
Metaphor and Metamorphosis
Solomon Tabutsadze
Author and Character within
the Scope of Historical Poetics
Poetical Practices
Temur Kobakhidze
Dichotomy of Body and
Soul:T.S.Eliots The Hippo-
potamus and Whispers of
Immortality
Chrestomathy of
Literary Theory
Mikhail Bakhtin
Carnivalized Literature
Sinaarsi Content
7
11
19
41
60
69
85
leqsmcodneoba
Teimuraz doiaSvili
sikeTis yvavilebi
akaki xinTibiZe
Warbi riTmis gagebisaTvis
Tamar barbaqaZe
galaktionis monoriTmi
(`ieri~, `ferad-feradi~)
giorgi lobJaniZe
arabuli leqsis ganaxlebi-
saTvis brZolis II etapi
(momxreebi da mowinaaRmde-
geni)
filologiuri Ziebani
laura grigolaSvili
kvlav Zveli qarTuli mw-
erlobis periodebisa da
mijnebisaTvis
kritikuli diskursi
nona kupreiSvili
70-80-iani wlebis kritika:
`rekonstruqciidan~ nova-
ciamde
Targmanis Teoria
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
mTargmnelis problema Zvel
saqarTveloSi da sakiTxis
kvlevis ZiriTadi meTod-
ologiuri aspeqtebi
Theory of Poetry
Teimuraz Doiashvili
Blossoms of Kindness
Akaki Khintibidze
Towards Understanding Ex-
cessiveness of Rhyme
Tamar Barbakadze
Galaktions Mono-Rhythme
Giorgi Lobzhanidze
The II Stage of the Battle for
the Renewal of Arabic Verse:
Supporters and Opponents
Philological Works
Laura Grigolashvili
Towards Periods and Bound-
aries of Old Georgian Litera-
ture
Critical Discourse
Nona Kupreishvili
Criticism of 70-80s: from Re-
construction to Innovation
Theory of Translation
Nana Mrevlishvili, Eka Chikvaidze
The Challenge of Translation
in Ancient Georgia and Main
Methodological Aspects of the
Study of the Issue
Sinaarsi
102
105
109
117
127
137
149
folkloristika _
Tanamedrove kvlevebi
dalila bedianiZe
amiranis miTis kompozici-
uri Taviseburebani
dominik irtenkaufi
`SedarebiTi miTologia.
germania-saqarTvelos So-
ris sazRvris monacvleoba
amirani interesTa cen-
trSi~
kulturis paradigmebi
kaxa kacitaZe
epikuri gmiris sikvdili
da omis aRqmis zogierTi
sakiTxi arqaul kultura-
Si
debiuti
maka germisaSvili
qarTuli komediis sawyi-
sebi
memoria
emzar kvitaiSvili
mudam siamovnebiT vigoneb
Rimilis da leqsis kaci
nodar alania
`Cangi gikurTxos zenama...~
Folkloristic the Modern
Researches
Dalila Bedianidze
Compositional Peculiarities of
Amiranis Myth
Dominik Irtenkauf
Vergleichende Mythologie-
forschung: Grenzverkehr zwis-
chen Deutschland und Geor-
gien - Amirani im Zentrum
des Interesses
Paradigms of Culture
Kakha Katsitadze
The Death of the Epic Hero
and Some Aspects of the War
Perception in Archaic Culture
Debut
Maka Germisashvili
Bases of Georgian Comedy
Memoria
Emzar Kvitaishvili
I always Recollect it with
Pleasure
A Man of Smile and Poetry
Nodar Alania
Let the God Bless Your Lyre...
Sinaarsi
168
174
185
215
228
234
gamoxmaureba, recenzia
venera kavTiaSvili
literaturis Teoria _
XX saukunis ZiriTadi meT-
odologiuri koncefciebi
da mimdinareobebi
nana gonjilaSvili
revaz siraZe _ `kultura
da saxismetyveleba~
axali wignebi
moamzada gaga lomiZem
SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli-
literaturis institutis
samecniero publikaciebis
stili
Reviews, Comments
Venera Kavtiashvili
Literary Theory Basic Con-
cepts and Methodological
Tendencies of XX Century
Nana Gonjilashvili
Revaz Siradze Culture and
Imagology
New Books
Prepared by Gaga Lomidze
Style of Academic Publications
In Shota Rustaveli Institute of
Georgian Literature
Sinaarsi
241
250
274
280
7
pozicia
irma ratiani
qarTvelologiuri kvlevebi _ TviTmizani Tu saWiroeba?
dRes sayovelTaod aRiarebulia samecniero-kvleviTi centrebis roli
saxelmwifos ganviTarebis saqmeSi. es roli gacilebiT mniSvnelovania
mcirericxovani da originaluri kulturis qveynebisaTvis, romlebic iR-
vwian TviTdamkvidrebisTvis. miCneulia, rom aseTi TviTdamkvidrebis erT-
erT seriozul berkets warmoadgens ganaTlebatevadi da mecnierebatevadi
ekonomikuri da kulturuli sivrcis Seqmna da ganviTareba.
Sesabamisad, samecniero-kvleviTi sistemis srulyofa, misi xarisxis
amaRleba msoflio standartebis doneze SeiZleba qveynis erT-erT Ziri-
Tad miznad iqnas moazrebuli. am miznis realizaciaSi qarTvelologiur
mecnierebebs, rogorc erovnuli identobis upirveles maCvenebels, gadam-
wyveti roli eniWeba.
qarTvelologiuri mecnierebebi, romelTa kvlevebis praqtikaSi danergva
ar asocirdeba maRalSemosavlian ekonomikur SedegebTan (gansxvavebiT sabuneb-
ismetyvelo, ekonomikuri Tu teqnologiuri mecnierebebisgan), nacvlad amisa,
gansazRvravs da inarCunebs eris identobas, mis sulierebas, enas, literatu-
ras, kulturasa da istorias. qarTvelologiuri kvlevebi aris is sayrde-
ni, romelzedac dgas qarTuli Rirebulebebi, Sesabamisad, qarTvelologiis
saxelmwifo enis, erovnuli literaturisa da istoriis movla-patronoba
saxelmwifoebriv strategiad unda iqces im mniSvnelovani faqtoris gaTval-
iswinebiT, rom erovnuli kvlevebi msoflios masStabiT ganixileba kulturu-
li dialogis umTavres berketad, xolo kulturuli dialogi warmoadgens
komunikaciis sayrden formas Tanamedrove msoflioSi.
ra adgili uWiravs saqarTvelos Tanamedrove msoflio kulturul ru-
kaze? rogoria misi roli msoflio civilizaciis istoriaSi? ra kulturu-
li kodis matarebelia qarTveli? ras niSnavs `patara eris~ kulturuli
gamocdileba `didi erebis~ kulturuli gamocdilebis fonze? ramdenad in-
arCunebs `nacionaluri literatura~ TviTmyofadobas mimdinare global-
izaciis procesSi? ras niSnavs `literatura sazRvrebs gareSe~ da rogor
muSaobs es formula Tanamedrove SedarebiTi kvlevebis konteqstSi?
am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema qarTvelologiuri anu erovnuli samecnie-
ro kvlevebis prerogativaa, sadac erT-erTi centraluri adgili litera-
turaTmcodneobiT kvlevebs uWiravs. qarTuli literaturaTmcodneobiTi
irma ratiani
8
kvlevebi, erTi mxriv, qarTuli identobis sazomi da maCvenebelia, xolo,
meore mxriv _ msoflio kulturul procesebTan qarTuli kulturuli
procesebis faseuli integraciis winapiroba. Tanamedrove kvlevebis misia
aris ara marto kvleva qarTuli literaturisa, miTologiisa Tu litera-
turaTmcodneobiTi procesebisa, aramed am kvlevebis danergva praqtikaSi
erovnuli da saerTaSoriso masStabiT, rac, Tavis mxriv, xels Seuwyobs
qarTuli literaturaTmcodneobiTi kvlevebis CarTvas msoflo litera-
turul dialogSi (imave sapasuxismgeblo misiiT, Tav-TavianTi kompetenciis
sferoSi, aRWurvilni arian sxva qarTvelologiuri kvleviTi centrebi).
magram CarTva ar gulisxmobs martivad Serevasa da, miT umetes, ganlevas.
dResdReobiT, moicva ra farTo politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri
da kulturuli sferoebi, Tanamedrove politikuri da akademiuri debate-
bis erT-erT yvelaze popularul terminad globalizacia iqca, xolo
`kultura sazRvrebs gareSe~ _ misTvis niSandobliv konceptualur lo-
god. literatura kulturis ganuyofeli nawilia, Sesabamisad, dgeba ar-
sebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone kiTxva: ras niSnavs termini `sazRvrebs gareSe~
da ramdenad qmediTia igi nacionaluri literaturebisa da erovnuli kv-
levebis, Cvens SemTxvevaSi, qarTuli literaturisa da qarTvelologiuri
klevebis TvalsazrisiT?
mogvwons Cven es Tu ara, literaturas aqvs erovneba, vinaidan, rogorc
samarTlianad SeniSnavda ilia WavWavaZe `literatura eris sarkea. yoveli
nacionaluri literatura myarad dgas sakuTar tradiciebze, romelTa
Sorisac upirvelesi misi nacionaluri mexsierebaa, gamoxatuli arqetipuli
modelebis saxiT. saRi azrisadmi~ erT-erT yvelaze negatiurad ganwyobil
mweralsac ki, vladimer nabokovs, swored erovnuli da literaturuli
mexsiereba miaCnda identobis upirveles sazomad. magram, sakiTxis analizi
mxolod am erTi mimarTulebiT ar amoiwureba: meores mxriv, literaturis
erovnuloba, rogorc identobis msazRvreli, ar SeiZleba iqces izolirebis
da, miT ufro, TviTizolirebis motivaciad da gamarTlebad. am ukanasknel
mosazrebas, vfiqrobT, zurgs umagrebs evropuli da msoflio literatu-
ruli procesebis ganviTarebis xangrZlivi istoria, romelic uxvad gvTava-
zobs nacionalur literaturaTa faseuli konceptualuri da stilisturi
integraciis magaliTebs: Sua saukuneebis, renesansis, romantizmisa Tu mod-
ernizmis (da sxva) epoqaTa esTetikurma sistemebma SeZles nacionalur lit-
eraturaTa mobilizeba saerTo konceptebis garSemo, mxolod _ sakuTari
identobis SenarCunebis pirobiT. aRniSnul epoqebSi, miT ufro, renesansis,
romantizmis, realizmisa da modernizmis wiaRSi literaturam Tavi daaRwia
kulturul da dro-sivrcul preskrifciulobas da masStaburad ganivrco
farTo istoriuli da kulturuli konteqstis mimarTulebiT. Tamamad Sei-
qarTvelologiuri kvlevebi _ TviTmizani Tu saWiroeba?
9
Zleba paralelis gavleba Tanamedrove literaturul procesTan: ar axalia,
Zvelia, mxolod _ saxecvlili da modernizebuli: SedarebiTi literatura.
SedarebiTi literatura me-20 saukunis evropul da amerikul literatu-
raTmcodneobiT sivrceSi SemuSavebuli multiinterpretaciuli da inter-
disciplinaruli meTodebis nacionaluri literaturebis doneze swrafi
ganvrcobis logikuri Sedegia. swored mis wiaRSi aRmocenda cneba: `litera-
tura sazRvrebs gareSe~. magram komparativistuli kvlevebi ar gulisxmobs
literaturuli sazRvrebis ugunurad gaxsnas, arc calkeuli nacionaluri
literaturebis SepirispirebiT analizs, aramed im universaluri meTodis
realizebas, romelic zogad perspeqtivaSi gaiazrebs konkretul litera-
turul nawarmoebs, anu cdeba nacionaluri maxasiaTeblebis sazRvrebs da
adgens gansxvavebuli nacionaluri kulturebisa da literaturebis in-
tegraciis xarisxs maTi kulturuli identobis SenarCunebis pirobiT. es
principi arsebiT mniSvnelobas iZens Tanamedrove globalizaciis Seuqcevad
procesSi.
qarTuli literaturaTmcodneobiTi da qarTvelologiuri kvlevebis
upirvelesi amocana swored am urTulesi procesis marTva da gaZRolaa.
am misiis kvalificiurad SesrulebaSi qarTvelologiur centrebs, garda
sakuTari resursebis optimalurad gadanawilebisa da organizebisa, es-
aWiroebaT qmediTi mxardaWera da daxmareba saxelmwifos mxridan, vinaid-
an qarTvelologia arc TviTmizania da arc axireba, aramed _ saWiroeba.
sasurvelia, mkveTrad ganisazRvros qarTvelologiuri centrebis misiis
ganxorcielebis perspeqtivebi da SesaZleblobebi, anu ganisazRvros qarT-
velologiuri kvlevebis Semdgomi ganviTarebis strategiuli gezi. swori
strategiiT gaTvaliswinebuli miznebisa da amocanebis ganxorcielebis
SemTxvevaSi qarTvelologiuri kvleviTi centrebi Camoyalibdeba samecni-
ero kvlevebis Tanamedrove standartebis Sesabamis organizaciebad da sa-
Sualebas miscems qarTvelologiur skolas integrirdes msoflio humani-
tarul procesebSi.
Irma Ratiani
Kartvelology (Georgian Studies) Self-aim or Necessity?
Summary
Kartvelology or Georgian Studies is a valuable measure of National identity. Even it is
not associated with a high economical income (like some natural, economical or technology
sciences) or commercial effectiveness, it is very important for a small country like Georgia
irma ratiani
10
to preserve its national identity, language, literature, history and culture. Katrvelology is
a strong background of Georgian National values. Therefore, it has to be the strategy of
Georgias State to take care of Georgian Studies, studies of National Language, literature
and history. Undoubtedly, National researches, all over the world, guarantee the cultural
dialogue as a main form of communication.
What place is defned for Georgia on the map of contemporary cultural world? What
part it plays in the history of world civilization? What is the cultural code of Georgian?
What does the cultural experience of a Small nation means in the context of a Big na-
tions experience? How National literature does survive within the on-going process
of Globalization? What does the formula Literature without boarders means and how it
works in the context of comparative literature?
To answer those questions is one of the main aims of Kartvelology.
Though the goal of Georgian Studies is not only to preserve its national identity, but,
also, to put Georgian science together with contemporary world researches and to integrate
it in the world scientifc dialogue. But integration does not means to disappeared. Foe ex-
ample: when we are talking about the literature, we should admit that literature (we do like
it or we do not) has Nationality, because literature is always associated with tradition and
memory and text, itself, is always about reconstruction. But nationality of literature does
not mean or could not possibly mean the isolation or self-isolation. One of the basic meth-
odologies of contemporary literary studies comparative literature is gently regulating the
process. Comparative studies imply the realization of that universal method which inter-
prets the concrete literary text in wide general perspective, i.e. goes beyond the boundaries
of national characteristics and establishes the rate of integration of different national cul-
tures and literatures on the condition to preserve their cultural identity. The same process
is available in other felds of Katrvelology and the basic function of Georgian Studies is to
regulate this valuable process on a high scientifc level. Though ,Kartvelology is not a self-
aim, but necessity, which must be replaced under the Governmental care.
11
literaturis Teoriis problemebi
ivane amirxanaSvili
saswaulis kompozicia
`moqceva qarTlisas~ WeliSur redaqciaSi gvxvdeba erTi rigiTi ag-
iografiuli pasaJi, romelic marTlac sruliad Cveulebrivi, arafriT
gamorCeuli adgili iqneboda, sagangebo paTetikiT gamarTul teqstSi CvenT-
vis saintereso azris konturebi rom ar SeimCneodes, rac, winaswarve unda
iTqvas, ar warmoadgens raime gansazRvrul koncefcias, Tumca neba-unebli-
eT iZleva miniSnebas raRac mowesrigebuli Tvalsazrisis arsebobaze. ker-
Zod, saubaria frazaze, romelsac abiaTar mRvdeli warmoTqvams astiron
mTavarTan saubarSi: `misgan (wmida ninosgan i.a.) vixilen sakvirvelebani
kurnebaTani da niSni sazarelni da saswaulni saSinelni~ (`moqceva qar-
Tlisa~, Tavi `b~). martivi definiciis xerxs Tu moviSveliebT, aq moce-
muli predikatebis `gansazRvris areebi~ ase dalagdeba:
kurneba sakvirveli;
niSani sazareli;
saswauli saSineli.
didi dakvirveba ar sWirdeba imis danaxvas, rom aq daxasiaTebulia iseTi
metafizikuri subieqtebi, romlebic Cveulebrivobis miRma samyarodan, ada-
mianuri yofierebis gare sferoebidan, zesinamdvilidan movlenil faqtebad
unda miviCnioT da vinaidan es marTlac asea, maSin isic unda vaRiaroT,
rom Cven mier aRebul samive logikur wyvils aerTianebs erTi ram, rasac
ubralod saswauls uwodeben. saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi saswaulis
sinonimadaa miCneuli niSanic, kurnebac da TviT sakvirvelebac, Tumca bib-
liuri tradiciis mixedviT, TiToeuli es cneba damoukidebeli Sinaarsis
mqone erTeuladac moiazreba. magaliTad, moses xuTwigneulSi saswauli
gagebulia rogorc niSani; axal aRTqmaSi _ ZiriTadad rogorc kurneba;
agiografiaSi yvelaze xSirad sakvirvelebis mniSvnelobiTaa gamoyenebuli,
saerTod ki saswauli agiografiul TxzulebaSi niSanic aris, kurnebac da
sakvirvelebac.
abiaTaris `sistemac~ TiTqmis asea dalagebuli, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar
miviRebT pirvel wyvils, romelSic erT-erT subieqts (`sakvirveleba~)
predikatis funqcia aqvs dakisrebuli.
TavisTavad sainteresoa imis garkveva, Tu ratom aris saswauli saSineli,
an niSani sazareli, magram amjerad sakiTxis sxva mxare gvainteresebs,
ivane amirxanaSvili
12
kerZod, ra aris saswauli da ra rols asrulebs is agiografiuli nawar-
moebis teqstis agebaSi.
aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom naratiuli TvalsazrisiT saswauli
Txzulebis sruliad Tavisebur, damoukidebeli mniSvnelobis mqone er-
Teuls warmoadgens da amitom msjeloba misi teqstTan mimarTebis Sesaxeb
ar aris dazRveuli TviTmiznuri manipulirebis sacTurisagan. garTuleb-
is Tavidan asacileblad saWiroa windawinve ganisazRvros, Tu ras vgu-
lisxmobT zogadad teqstis cnebaSi wmida werils, saRvTismetyvelo
koniunqturaTa sistemas Tu ubralod sityvierebis faqts. zedmetia imaze
laparaki, rom samive momenti erT mTlianobas warmoadgens da TiToeu-
lis axsna-gaazreba swored saerTo analizis meSveobiT unda xdebodes,
magram, amave dros, arsebobs sakmao safuZveli imisaTvis, rom cnebaTa
gamijvnis principi miviCnioT amosaval wertilad, romelic saSualebas
mogvcems calkeulSi davinaxoT mTeli da mTelSi calkeuli. jer erTi,
meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT es aris erTaderTi gza da meorec, swored
es mimarTuleba gvaZlevs SesaZleblobas, gamovricxoT iZulebiTi manipu-
laciebi da SesaZlo ideologiuri aberaciebi. aqedan gamomdinare, sawyis
formulad unda miviRoT teqsti rogorc sityvieri Semoqmedebis Sedegi,
rogorc yvelaze obieqturi mocemuloba, rac subieqtis, anu avtoris Rv-
Taebrivi inspiraciis gziT iSva. sityva aris pirveladi esTetikuri kon-
struqcia, romelzedac igeba yovelgvari ideologiuri zednaSeni, amitom
am zednaSenis Sinaarsobriv xasiaTs teqsti gansazRvravs. teqstis raobasa
da mis xarisxzea damokidebuli ara marto avtoris Canafiqris, aramed
yvelanairi koniunqturis, paradigmis Tu sxva savaldebulo kliSeebis ax-
sna, gageba, saerTod recefciis wesi.
rogorc zemoT iTqva, saswauli teqstSi avtonomiuri figuris saxiT
aris CarTuli, magram es ar niSnavs, rom igi savsebiT Tavisufalia saerTo
kompoziciuri kavSirebisagan. bolos da bolos, igi teqstis nawilia, teqs-
ti awesrigebs mis Sinaarss.
Zveli aRTqmis mixedviT, saswauli aris uflis nebis gamoxatuleba,
niSani, uwyeba. sakuTar ZalebSi daeWvebul moses ufali uboZebs kverTxs,
romelic gvelad gadaiqceva. es saswauli niSania. am niSanma unda daarw-
munos faraoni, rom mose RvTis warmogzavnilia. saswaulebrivma kverTxma,
rogorc niSnis momcemma, sisxlad unda aqcios nilosis wyali (gamosvla,
7,20), egviptes unda mohfinos gombeSoebi (iqve, 8,5), gaamravlos mumli
(8,16). buzankaliT aavsos qveyana (8,21), moiyvanos setyva (9,24), yanebs Sea-
sisos kalia (10,12), Suaze gaapos mewamuli zRva, kldidan wyaro gadmoa-
dinos (17,6) da a. S. yvela es movlena aris niSani, rom ufali aq aris,
rom uflis neba moqmedebs. ufali pirdapir ambobs: `da saswaulebi igi da
saswaulis kompozicia
13
niSebi Cemi, romel vyav magaT zeda, gulisxma-hyoT da uwyodeT, rameTu me
var ufali RmerTi~ (gamosvla, 10,3).
saswauli aris ufalsa da adamianebs Soris dadebuli aRTqmis erT-erTi
elementi.
sinais mTaze ufali aRuTqvams moses, rom xalxis Tvalwin moaxdens iseT
saswaulebs, rogoric arcerT qveyanaSi ar momxdara. risTvis aris saWiro
saswaulebi? _ imisaTvis, rom adamianebma dainaxon, Tu ra saSinelia, anu
raoden mosafrxilebelia saqme, romelsac ufali ukeTebs moses (gamosvla,
34,10).
rodesac sadResaswaulo karavs uflis Rrubeli dafaravs, es niSnavs,
rom savane uflis didebam aavso da am dros iq mosec ki ver Seva (gamosvla,
40,34-45). e. i. niSani saSinelia.
Zveli aRTqmis saswaulebis teqnika zogjer jadoqrobis elementebs ime-
orebs. magaliTad, magiuri formebi mJRavndeba iseT saswaulebSi, rogore-
bicaa aaronis kverTxis gadaqceva gvelad (gamosvla, 7,10), iso naves mier
locviT caze mzis SeCereba (iso nave, 10,12-13), elisesgan puris gamravleba
(meoTxe mefeTa 4,43), samsonis Tmis ambavi, ricxvebis magiis roli ieriqo-
nis dacemaSi da sxv. magram es aris mxolod formaluri msgavseba, Sinaar-
sobrivad ki aRniSnuli saswaulebi sxva aris imdenad, ramdenadac yvela
saswauli RvTis nebiT xdeba. saerTod, biblia mkacrad krZalavs nebismier
magias Tu jadoqrobas da ar scnobs kavSirs uflis nebasa da magias Soris
(gamosvla 22,17; 2 sjuli, 18,10).
bibliis mkvlevaris iehezkel kaufmanis azriT, Zveli aRTqmis wignebSi
gamovlenili magiuri teqnikis Tavisebureba is aris, rom mas gamoclili
aqvs miTologiuri bazisi, magiur ileTebs asrulebs RvTis kaci da ara
TviT RmerTi. es aris arsebiTi ganmasxvavebeli niSani, romelic cxadyofs,
rom bibliuri saswauli warmarTul analogebTan SedarebiT sul sxva fa-
seulobebzea orientirebuli. Zveli aRTqma magias ganmartavs rogorc mis-
tikur codnas im bunebrivi Zalebis Sesaxeb, romelsac jadoqari amoxsnis.
rogorc i. kaufmani wers, es faqtiurad kerpTayvanismeblobaa, radgan masSi
RmerTi ar aris, magram sul sxv suraTs vxedavT RvTis kacis qmedebaSi: sas-
wauls warmoSobs ara misi moqmedeba an Selocva, aramed uflis xeli.
`marTalia, bibliurma tradiciam aiTvisa egvipturi saswaulis kol-
oriti, magram warmarTuli masala sruliad axali, arawarmarTuli sim-
bolizmiT daitvirTa~ - dasZens i. kaufmani (kaufmani 1997: 64).
amasTan erTad, saswauli ar unda gavigoT pirdapir, misi materialuri
gamovlinebiT. saswauli aris sulieri movlena.
vladimir soloviovi lev tolstoisadmi miweril werilSi, romelSic
macxovris mkvdreTiT aRdgomis saswaulis WeSmaritebas asabuTebs, wers:
ivane amirxanaSvili
14
`Tuki saswaulis qveS vigulisxmebT saganTa saerTo mdinarebis sawinaaRm-
dego da amitom SeuZlebel faqts, maSin mkvdreTiT aRdgoma sruliad
saspirispiroa saswaulisa es aris upirobod aucilebeli faqti sagan-
Ta saerTo mdinarebaSi; xolo Tuki saswaulis qveS vigulisxmebT pirve-
lad momxdar, manamde ararsebul faqts, maSin `SesvenebulTagan pirvelis~
mkvdreTiT aRdgoma, raRa Tqma unda, iseTive saswaulia, sruliad iseTive,
rogoric pirveli organuli ujredis gaCena araorganul samyaroSi, anda
cxovelis gamoCena pirvelyofil mcenareTa, xolo pirveli adamianisa
orangutanebs Soris. es saswaulebi ar eeWveba sabunebismetyvelo isto-
rias, aseve ueWvelia mkvdreTiT aRdgomis saswauli kacobriobis istori-
isaTvis~ (soloviovi 2001: 15).
materialuri da sulieri sawyisebis Sepirispireba am SemTxvevaSi er-
TaderTi gamosavalia, rom damtkicdes saswaulis aramaterialuri buneba,
rac SesaZloa Zneli gasagebi iyos skeptikurad ganwyobili gonebisaTvis,
Tumca gasagebia maTTvis, vinc saswaulis materialur faqtologiaSi Sina-
gan logikur kavSirs xedavs.
saswauls aranairi kavSiri ara aqvs fantastikasTan am sityvis im gage-
biT, rogoradac is dRes esmiT. saerTod, es ori cneba mkveTrad gansxvavdeba
erTmaneTisagan. agiografiis konteqstSi fantastikis xseneba dabneulobis
mets arafers moitans.
movlenis araCveulebrioba Tu arabunebrioba fizikuri TvalsazrisiT
fantastikaa, metafizikuri TvalsazrisiT ki saswauli.
erTi sityviT, ar SeiZleba saswauli materialur movlenad CaiTvalos,
is aris sulieri movlena, anu, soloviovisave sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `Sina-
gani sulieri srulyofilebis aucilebeli bunebrivi Sedegi~.
Teizmis tradiciuli msoflmxedveloba saswauls ganixilavs bibliuri
rwmenis saerTo paradoqsis, anu pirovnuli absolutis konteqstSi, sadac
RvTaebrivi usasruloba xorcieldeba konkretul, sasrul, calkeul sx-
eulSi da es paradoqsi, Tavisi materialuri formis miuxedavad, simbolur
Sinaarss atarebs.
rogorc sergei averincevi wers, mTavari is ki ar aris, rom wiTeli zRvis
talRebi Suaze gaipo israelis ZeTa winaSe (gamosvla, 14,21), aramed is,
rom TviT `ufalTa ufalma~, `saukuno mefem~ adamianTa jgufis saqme Tavis
saqmed aqcia; ara is, rom ieso qalwuli dedisagan iSva da avadmyofebs kur-
navda, aramed is, rom mis sasrul da xrwnad sxeulSi `damkvidrebul ars
yovelive savseba RmrTeebisa xorcielad~ (kolaselTa mimarT, 2,9) (aver-
incevi 2000: 204).
aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT, saswaulis azrs, mis Sinaarss gansazRvravs ori
winapiroba, romelTa gareSe saswauli sruli uazroba iqneboda. pirveli,
saswaulis kompozicia
15
s. averincevis azriT, es aris cnobieri an qvecnobieri rwmena imisa, rom
konkretuli `me zogadTan mimarTebaSi ar iyos ubralod rogorc nawili
mTelTan mimarTebaSi; da meore unda vaRiarebdeT saswaulis simbolur
azrs.
`amgvarad, _ wers s. averincevi, _ marTalia, saxarebiseul kurnebaTa
mizani an Sedegi pirvel yovlisa gankurnebulTa janmrTelobad gaiazreba,
magram Tavisi azriT aranairad ar daiyvaneba janmrTelobamde: TviT Jesti
gankurnebis saswaulisa naCvenebia ara marto rogorc erTeulTa mimarT
gamoCenili mowyaleba, aramed rogorc yvelas winaSe movlenili niSani~
(averincevi 2000: 204).
danarCeni, rac saswaulis azris gagebas Seexeba, Teologiis sferos war-
moadgens da am Temaze, cxadia, mravalnairi da urTierTgamomricxavi in-
terpretaciebi arsebobs, magram amjerad Cveni mizania, vaCvenoT, Tu raSi
mdgomareobs saswaulis mxatvruli funqcia, ra daniSnuleba akisria mas
Txzulebis saerTo struqturaSi da ras warmoadgens igi mtkicebulebas
Tu ambavs?
umravles SemTxvevaSi saswauli gamoiyeneba rogorc mtkicebuleba wmi-
danis saRvTo misiis dasafiqsireblad; saswauls moixmoben magaliTad da
nimuSad imisa, Tu raoden did Zalas aniWebs adamians suliwmidis madli.
roca SuSanikis CareviT ganikurneba `ganborebuli~ dedakaci, es aris
imis mauwyebeli faqti da mtkicebuleba, rom wamebuli ukve aRivso wmi-
danobis madliT, xolo giorgi aTonelis Sexvedra cecxlisfer da TeTrad
mosil WabukebTan ki aris ambavi, romelic gviCvenebs wmidanobis gzaze Sem-
dgari moRvawis arCevanis siswores. ymawvilobisas mdinare qciaSi banaobis
dros giorgis gamoecxadeba cecxlisferi yrma, romelic mas saTamaSod
iwvevs, am dros gamoCndeba `spetakiT mosili~ yrma, romelic mokidebs
xels giorgis da etyvis, CemTan iyavi, radgan ukeTesi moyvasi varo. Tx-
zulebis avtori giorgi mcire iqve ganmartavs, rom pirveli yrma aris eS-
maki, romelsac giorgis daRrCoba surs, meore ki angelozi, romelic mas
dabadebidanve miuCina RmerTma sicocxlis mcvelad. epizodi nawarmoebSi
CarTulia rogorc mTavari personaJis mier pirvel pirSi monaTxrobi amba-
vi, romelic ise erwymis avtoris msjelobis xazs, rom diskursi ar irRve-
va, epizodi Sinaarsidan gamomdinareobs da Sinaarssve mihyveba msjelobis
logikur finalamde, sadac unda damtkicdes, rom marTalni iyvnen giorgis
mSoblebi, roca Svili dabadebisTanave RmerTs aRuTqves da sworia moR-
vaweobis is gza, romelsac giorgi adgas.
`ganborebuli dedakacis~ epizodi iakob xucess mohyavs rogorc gany-
enebuli faqti, magaliTi, anu mtkicebuleba; qciis epizodi ki aris siuJe-
turi monakveTi, anu ambavi.
ivane amirxanaSvili
16
qarTul agiografiaSi mtkicebulebidan ambavze evoluciuri gadasv-
lis tendencia ar SeiniSneba, Tumca aSkaraa, rom iq, sadac saswauli ambis
funqciiTaa gamoyenebuli, avtors meti saSualeba eZleva beletristuli
wiaRsvlebisTvis. magaliTisaTvis SegviZlia davasaxeloT ioane sabanisZis
Txzulebis mesame Tavis bolo nawili, romelic saswaulis agiografiul
misteriad unda miviCnioT.
saswaulis esTetikazea agebuli `serapion zarzmelis cxovrebis~ siuJe-
tis ganviTareba. Txrobis ZiriTadi qarga gamoikveTeba Txzulebis meoTxe
TavSi, roca miqel parexels Ramis locvis dros `gankvirveba raime~ daece-
ma da RvTis angelozi etyvis, Seni mowafeebi serapioni da ioane axlave sam-
cxes waravline, raTa RvTis mier miniSnebul adgilas monasteri aRaSenono.
faqtiurad mTeli Txzuleba aris svla im sakvirveli niSnisaken, sadac
saRmrTo brZanebiT unda aSendes zarzma. miqelis gamocxadebaSi, rogorc
Txzulebis kompoziciur preludiaSi, miniSnebulia yvela is adgili, anu
orientiri, romelmac saswaulamde (niSamde) unda miiyvanos berebi. ase,
rom Txzulebis cnobili toponimebi _ beras jvari, ZinZe, cxroWa, saZmo,
goderZi, drosi, saTaxve, SeSisTavi, babgeni, bobxa da TviT zarzma warmoad-
genen ara marto niSebs, aramed siuJetis struqturul erTeulebs, rom-
lebic aqtiurad arian CarTuli Txrobis dinamikaSi da rom araferi iTqvas
am originaluri faqturis mxatvrul funqciaze, pirdapiri, bukvaluri re-
cefciis TvalsazrisiTac cxaddeba avtoris Canafiqri: berebis msvleloba
aRTqmuli adgilisaken warmoadginos rogorc gza saswaulisaken. am gzis
bolo da mTavari niSi zarzma etimologiuri SinaarsiTac saswauls ukav-
Sirdeba, radgan zari da SiSi, razedac aRmocendeba saxelwodeba zarzma,
saswaulis, ase vTqvaT, atributebia. basil zarzmeli amas TviTonve ganmar-
tavs Txzulebis mecxre Tavis bolos, sadac wers: `rameTu ewoda zarzma
erTa maTgan, romelni zarTa da SiSTa miuTxrobeliTa Sepyrobil iyvnes~.
berebi asruleben `niSTa da saswaulTa mier ganbrwyinvebuli~ miqel par-
exelis miTiTebas, romelic faqtiurad RvTis nebaa, anu rogorc basil
zarzmeli wers, `brZaneba ars saRmrTo~ da arc is aris SemTxveviTi, rom
giorgi CorCanelisa da berebis Sexvedra sakvirvelebis niSniT aris aRbe-
Wdili.
sakvirveleba, sakvirveli niSani, rogorc wesi, cxaddeba maSin, roca
movlenaTa ganviTareba zRvrul wertils aRwevs da situacia TavisTavad
moiTxovs ara formalur, aramed arsebiT ganmuxtvas sruliad axal, gan-
sxvavebul gradaciaSi gadasvliT, rac usaTuod da erTmniSvnelovnad unda
moaswavebdes vertikalur moZraobas qvemodan zemoT, miwidan zecisken,
sikvdilidan sicocxlisaken, rogorc es xdeba, magaliTad, `ioanesa da efT-
vimes cxovrebis~ mecamete TavSi, sadac mZafri seniT Sepyrobil, sikvdils
saswaulis kompozicia
17
miaxlebul yrma efTvTimes RvTismSobeli gamoecxadeba, xels SeaSvelebs,
suliwmidis madliT aRavsebs da ganamzadebs aRsrulebad didTa saqmeTa,
romelic uSualod ukavSirdeba qarTuli kulturis aRmavlobas da, sxvaTa
Soris, analizs Tu bolomde gavyvebiT, imis Tqmac mogviwevs, rom aq saqme
gvaqvs agiografiuli TxzulebisaTvis naklebad damaxasiaTebel movlenas-
Tan, roca gamocxadeba xorcieldeba ara marto zogadi saRvTismetyvelo
mimarTulebiT, aramed erovnul-kulturologiuri niSniTac. `aRdeg, nu
geSinin da qarTulad xsnilad ubnobdi~ - RvTismSoblis piriT naTqvam am
sityvebSi giorgi mTawmideli xedavs aTonis literaturuli skolis is-
toriul misias qarTuli kulturis winaSe. saberZneTSi gazrdili yrma,
romelmac qarTuli TiTqmis ar icis, RvTis nebiT ubrundeba mSobliuri
enis wiaRs da iwyebs umagaliTo mTargmnelobiT moRvaweobas, ris wyalo-
biTac saqarTvelo mniSvnelovnad uaxlovdeba dasavleTis inteleqtua-
lur areals. saswaulis erT niSanSi ormagi Sinaarsi devs gamocxadebis
saswaulma efTvimes daubruna janmrTeli gvami da erovnuli suli, rac
mTlianobaSi sakmarisi unda yofiliyo imisaTvis, rom gacxadebuliyo mo-
cemul niSanSi dafaruli azri.
avtori sagangebod arCevs saswauls imisaTvis, raTa paraleli gaavlos
wminda werilTan da Seqmnas STabeWdileba, rom wmindani iesos saswauls
imeorebs (daTaSvili 1998: e-4).
Tumca, rogorc grigol noseli SeniSnavs, agiografoss zomierebis gamo-
Cena marTebs nawarmoebSi saswaulTa CarTvisas, raTa ar gaafuWos gemovnebi-
ani mkiTxvelis STabeWdileba da, amave dros, eWvi ar gauCinos mciredmor-
wmunes.
am mosazrebas exmianeba berdiaevis Tvalsazrisic. saswauli gveZleva rw-
menis gamo da ara imisaTvis, rom rwmena warmoSvas. saswauliT gaCenili
rwmena Zaladoba, iZuleba iqneboda (berdiaevi 1989: 57).
amrigad, saswauli agiografiul TxzulebaSi, kompoziciuri Tvalsaz-
risiT, atarebs gansazRvrul funqcias, romelic xasiaTdeba gamokveTili
niSnebiT. kerZod, igi gamoiyeneba mtkicebulebad wmidanis saRvTo misiis
fiqsaciisaTvis. Txrobis saerTo struqturaSi is CarTulia rogorc magal-
iTi, an rogorc mtkicebuleba. aqedan gamomdinare, unda gairCes saswaulis
faqtologiuri da esTetikuri funqciebi. saswaulis agiografiuli gageba
bibliur sazriss eyrdnoba, gansxvaveba Tavs iCens mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,
roca avtori beletristul wiaRsvlebs mimarTavs, Tumca ZiriTadi arsi
saswaulis bibliuri koncefciisa ucvleli rCeba.
ivane amirxanaSvili
18
damowmebani:
averincevi 2000: . . . : , 2000.
berdiaevi 1989:. . . .: , 1989.
daTaSvili 1998: daTaSvili l. saswaulni da Cvvenebani `wmida makrines cxovrebis~
magaliTze. `axali qarTuli gazeTi~, 19. VIII. Tb.: 1998.
kaufmani 1997: . . . -
. . 1. .: 1997.
soloviovi 2001: soloviovi v. werili l. n. tolstois. 28 ivlisi 2 agvisto, 1894.
peterburgi. Targmna nana axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- burgi. Targmna nana axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- urgi. Targmna nana axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- . Targmna nana axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- Targmna nana axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- nana axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- nana axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- axobaZem. gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- . gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- gaz. `literaturuli saqarT- . `literaturuli saqarT- `literaturuli saqarT-
velo~, 13-19 aprili, Tb.: 2001.
Ivane Amirkhanashvili
Composition of a Miracle
Summary
What is a miracle and what is its role while constructing the Hagiographic text?
From narrative viewpoint, a miracle represents a distinctive unit, possessing independ-
ent meaning and therefore, discussing its relation towards the text is not secured from self
interpretations. To avoid misunderstanding, it is necessary to defne what we mean in the
concept of text in general a sacred letter, a system of theological conjuncture or simply a
fact of verbality.
As an initial formula, text should be regard as a result of verbal creativity. At the same
time, it should be noted that a miracle is not completely isolated from a text. In hagiograph-
ic texts miracle acquires defnite function, which is characterized by distinguished signs.
It is used as a proof for fxing Saints divine mission. In the general structure of narration
it is included as an example or as a statement. Therefore, we should distinguish between
factologic and aesthetic functions of a miracle.
Source for hagiographic understanding of a miracle is biblical; the difference arises
only when the author uses belletristic means, though the essence of biblical conception of
miracle remains unchanged.
19
Tamar CixlaZe
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~:
istoria, Teoria da praqtika
(XX saukunis dasavleTevropuli romanis mixedviT)
XX saukunis evropis rTuli epoqa srulad aisaxa literaturaSi, romlis
gamomsaxvelobis yvelaze gavrcelebul formad iqca romani. literturuli
procesebis axsna, ZiriTadad, fsiqologias daekisra. modernisti mwerali
Seecada, siRrmiseuli `me~-s warmoCeniT Tavisi wignebisaTvis gansxvavebuli
STagoneba mieca. `obieqturi~ Txroba `subieqturi~ midgomiT Seicvala.
Tanamedrove romanis sawyisebis Zieba albaT servantesidan iwyeba, ro-
desac misma personaJma _ erTma gamxdarma da uqonelma keTilma kacma _
don kixotma _ Tavgadasavlebis saZieblad wasvla gadawyvita. rainduli
romanebis kiTxviT gabruebuls dro Secvlili dauxvda, amitom misi amba-
vic sasacilod iqca. adamianis ocnebas aRar SeeZlo samyaros Secvla, ma-
gram is amas daJinebiT iTxovda. individisa da sazogadoebis aseTi gaxleCa
badebs Tanamedrove romans. ema bovari _ floberis romanis personaJi _
ocnebobda ra daqorwinebuliyo iseT adamianze, romelic valss acekvebda
sasaxleSi, don kixots Zalian hgavs. servantesi da floberi TavianT qmni-
lebebs romanul saxes aZleven. Cndeba termini `romanuli~, romelic iTva-
liswinebs, erTi mxriv imas, rom Cven mxedvelobaSi miviRoT SeSlili meoc-
nebis an fuqsavati gogonas warmosaxva da, meore mxriv, mTxroblis azri.
XX saukunis dasawyisSi xanmokle krizisis Semdeg, dasavleTevropuli
romani literaturuli gamomsaxvelobis yvelaze ufro gavrcelebul for-
mad gadaiqca. amjerad man asaxa adamianTa pasuxismgebloba, zraxvebi Tu
mwuxareba, rasac odesRac epopea, qronika, moraluri traqtati da nawi-
lobriv, poezia emsaxureboda. dasavleTevropeli kaci yvelafers ipovnis
Tanamedrove romanSi, rac ki mis sve-beds Seexeba. romanma SeZlo erTdrou-
lad SemoeTavazebina `ambis~ fsiqologiuri, socialuri, ontologiuri,
esTetikuri da simboluri rezonansebis uzarmazari registri.
XX saukunis Suaxanebis literaturas daudga `eWvis era~, romelic
jer kidev stendalma iwinaswarmetyvela, Tumca gamudmebiT icvleboda. ga-
zrdili tragizmis fonze mweralTa axali Taoba gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobia-
re gaxda samyaros absurdulobis mimarT. maSin gadaisinja literaturis
daniSnulebis sakiTxi.
rogorc cnobilia, froidisa da iungis moZRvreba imdroindeli lit-
Tamar CixlaZe
20
eraturis saSen masalad iqca.
daaxloebiT imave periodSi, rodesac prustis pirveli romani qveyndeba
(1912w.), literaturaSi Cndeba axali termini _ `subieqturi Txroba~. igi
miesadageba iseT romanebs, romlebic meti TaviseburebiT Tu Txrobis Tav-
isuflebiT gamoirCevian. iq adgils ikavebs fantazia, miTi, jadosnoba. amg-
vari Txroba SeiZleba gaurkvevelic iyos da musikaluri tonalobis Sem-
cvelic, ris misaRwevadac mwerals iSviaTi metaforebis gamoyeneba uxdeba.
aseTi stilis romanad SeiZleba CaiTvalos magaliTad, a. furnies `didi
molni~, T. manis `jadosnuri mTa~ an o. l. haqslis `geniosi da qalRmer-
Ti~.
XVII saukunis bolodan moyolebuli, dasavlur romans yvelaze metad
izidavs adamianis sulis wiaRis xilva, misi yvelaze Rrma da idumali in-
timurobis ufskrulebi. maTSi siamovnebiT eSveba am jadosnobas aracnobi-
erad damorCilebuli mkiTxveli. rusodan moriakamde an natali sarotamde,
dostoevskis gavliT, es cduneba akviatebad iqceva, `da kargi mweralic
isaa, vinc Cveni cxovrebis im nawilis Secnobasa da gamoTqmaSi dagvexmareba,
romelic erTi SexedviT gaugebari da ganze myofi gveCveneba~. (diuameli
1925: 34)
maSasadame, Tanamedrove epoqaSi mkiTxvels ufro meti swadia, miiRos
romanidan, vidre aqamde Rebulobda, anu surs cnobierebis im sivrceSi SeR-
weva, romelic TiToeuli adamianis sulis siRrmeSi mdebareobs. is cdi-
lobs gaigos gemo SigniT mdebare emociebis, mogonebebis, fiqrebis, naRve-
lis da martoobis erTobliobisa, rasac Jan-pol sartri `gulzidvis~ gan-
sazRvrebas aZlevs. mas miaCnia, rom is cxovreba, riTac adamiani arsebobs,
sabolood gaRaribda, rom sxvis anu romanis gmiris cnobierebaSi SeRweviT
nugeSs hpovebs.
XX s. romans eqsperimentebis Catareba swadia. kafka, prusti, muzili,
joisi kiTxvis qveS ayeneben romanis gansazRvrebas da daniSnulebas. romani
aRaraa `moTxrobili~, vinaidan `TxrobaSi~ yvelaferi winaswar aris axs-
nili da ganWvretili, mTxrobelma winaswar icis dasasruli. romani gaur-
bis tragikuls da romantikuls. adamiani aRar warmoadgens misi Seswavlis
sagans. mwerals romanSi Seaqvs uwesrigoba, idumaleba, naRveli, paTetika,
rac Sinagani samyaros siRrmidan momdinareobs. dostoevski, nervali da
kidev bevri sxva winaswar grZnobdnen am axali tipis romanis dabadebas.
icvleba mwerlis damokidebuleba momxdari ambisa da moqmedi pirebis mi-
marT.
`imis magivrad, rom zemodan da Soridan gaanaTos mkiTxvelis cnobiereba
da gaafarTovos, iTamaSos Tavis mxriv, jadoqris an reJisoris roli, masTan
aigivebs Tavs da masTan erTad xetialobs arsebobis nacrisfer peizaJebSi~
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
21
_ wers kritikosi r. alberesi mwerlis Sesaxeb. (alberesi 1990: 133)
erTaderTi ram, rac SeiZleba specifikuri iyos Tanamedrove romanSi,
aris ena. romanis dargSi, rogorc bevr sxvaSi, ukve yvelaferi iTqva. miuxe-
davad imisa, rom gaunaTlebel publikas SeuZlia bevri siaxle aRmoaCinos,
ganswavluli adamiani advilad SeigrZnobs im kavSirebs, romlebic ama Tu
im ambavs aqvs warsulis did nimuSebTan. dasavluri romani mivida im werti-
lamde, saidanac daiwyo dumili _ ambis moyolis SewyvetiT gamowveuli si-
Cume. damTavrda iseTi romanis xana, romelic raRacas gvixsnida. mwerali
amoefara mTxrobels, romelic TviTonve aris da arc aris.
romanisti iwyebs qaragmebiT, miniSnebebiT laparaks, swavlobs mkiTx-
velTan TanamSromlobas. TiTqmis 3000-wliani arsebobis manZilze litera-
turam yvelaferi amowura. romanmac droTa ganmavlobaSi sakuTari wesiT
da logikiT aRmoaCina arsebobis sxvadasxva aspeqti da aseTi daskvna gam-
oitana: samyaro kompleqsuri da orazrovania, rac metad miiwevs win, miT
naklebad uaxlovdeba simarTles. sinamdvile mxolod SefardebiTi, nawi-
lobrivi da winaaRmdegobrivia.
XX saukunis dasavlel mwerlebTan yvelaze mniSvnelovani qvecnobieris
determinizmia. am sakiTxs xom araerTi Semoqmedi utrialebs, maT Soris a.
Jidi. Tavdapirvelad es ukanaskneli `sotie~-is Jans mimarTavs, rac misTvis
Tavisufal Txrobas ganasaxierebs, romelsac determinizmis SezRudvebi-
sgan gaTavisufleba SeuZlia. misi `vatikanis jurRmulebi~ am axali esTe-
tikis magivrobas swevs, rac gansakuTrebulad umotivo qmedebis TeoriaSi
gamoixateba. `yalbi fulis mWrelebi~ afarToebs personaJTa wres im miz-
niT, rom ganasaxieros zneobrivi poziciebi da cxovrebis arCevani; romani
daskvnis gakeTebaze uars ambobs da mkiTxvels tovebs daumTavrebeli Txro-
bis Sua gzaze.
XX saukunis II naxevris romansac erTob rTuli peizaJi aqvs daxatuli.
is aqrobs yovlisamsaxvel Txrobas, magram ar ZaluZs, daiviwyos, rom re-
alobas Txzavs. amitomac gafarToebul realizmSi eqcevian iseTi mwerlebi,
romlebic TavianT romanebSi iyeneben cnobierebis nakads, Sinagani molol-
ogis teqnikas, asociaciebs, kinematografiuli montaJis xerxebs, bibliur
motivebs da Txrobis sxvadasxva eqsperimentul saSualebebs. realizms mia-
kuTvnes naturalisturi faqturisa da metafizikuri da transcendenta-
luri mimarTebis Tu eqspresionistuli elementebis Semcveli romanebi.
XX s. mTeli literatura, mainc antimimeturad rCeba, vinaidan aRar mi-
marTavs mimsgavsebis meTods. is aRar baZavs, ar amsgavsebs Tavis fiqcias xi-
lul, grZnobiT aRsaqmel sinamdviles. es literatura cdilobs, gamosaxos
da mxatvrul saxeebad aqcios yofierebis sinamdvilis arsi. masSi aRwerili
sagani aRar hgavs empiriulad arsebul sagans. man deformacia ganicada da
Tamar CixlaZe
22
groteskiT, igaviTa Tu sxvadasxva `SifriT~ gamoisaxa. aq mTavari principi
is ki araa, moxda Tu ara ambavi sinamdvileSi, aramed is, rom SesaZloa,
asec momxdariyo. es pirobiTi samyaroa. mTxrobeli darwmunebuli ar aris
imaSi, rasac gadmoscems. amgvar `varaudisa~ da `eWvis~ poetikas aSkarad
vxvdebiT, magaliTad, maqs friSTan.
dasavlur romanSi myarad moikida fexi parodiam.. parodiuli nawar-
moebi Tu manamde iwvevda sicils, Tanamedrove epoqaSi tragediad iqca. pa-
rodiulobam aCvena Zveli sulieri, ideuri Rirebulebebis gaufasureba da
rwmenis gaqroba. mweralic xatavs Zvelis gaufasurebis suraTs. amitomaa
dRes Seqmnili istoriuli romanebic parodiuli.
isic unda vTqvaT, rom Tanamedrove literaturis tendenciebs Soris
umniSvnelovanesi movlenaa miTosis teqnikis gamoyeneba. miTosi literatu-
rul fenomenad iqca.
XX s. romans, asaxavs ra samyaros mTxroblis cnobierebis mixedviT da
ara realurad, mTeli yuradReba personaJis sulier samyaroze gadaaqvs,
amitom araerT wigns `centriskenuli~ an `Caketili~ romani uwodes. masSi
wamyvani elementi gmiris individualurobaa da ara moqmedeba sivrceSi. su-
lieri procesebisTvis romanis formis misacemad saWiroa Caketili sivr-
cis Seqmna, realurobidan mowyveta. ase miiRweva hermetizacia, rac XX
s. mwerlebma: T. manma, fr. kafkam da sxvebma SesaniSnavad moaxerxes. `her-
metuli romani~, romelic miznad isaxavs pirovnebis transmutacias, misi
sulieri ganwmendisa da amaRlebis Cvenebas, cxadad iCens sinamdvilidan
gaqcevis, empiriulobis daZlevis midrekilebas. swored es Tavisebureba ga-
nasxvavebs aseTi tipis romans `cnobierebis nakadis~ romanisagan, romelic
sruliad empiriulia.
cneba _ `centriskenuli~ dostoevskidan modis. is Seecada, eCvenebi-
na, Tu raoden marTali iyo mis mier gadmocemuli ambebi da rogor ukav-
Sirdebodnen isini mis namdvil, sulier gancdebs. XIX s. mwerlebi iseT
gamonaTqvamebs, romlebSic maTi gulwrfeloba da piradi gancdebi vlin-
deboda, `unebur aRsarebebs~ uwodebdnen. e. gonkurma aRniSna, rom XIX s.
bolos moxda fsiqologiuri romanis ganaxleba.
mogvianebiT romanma specifikuri realoba aRwera da aRar ganviTarda.
Tumca, zogierTi kritikosi, maT Soris baxtini, miiCnevs, rom romanuli
Janri uSreti ganaxlebis unaris mqonea. (baxtini 1973: 24).
ukeTesia, daveTanxmoT baxtins, vinc fiqrobs, rom romani ar Sewyvets
ganviTarebas, miT ufro maSin, rodesac masTan erTad kritikac ase intensi-
urad viTardeba. Cndeba axali terminebi, romlebic romanTan mimarTebaSi
aqtiurad gamoiyeneba da mkiTxvels exmareba, ukeT gaerkves axleburi ro-
manis labirinTebSi. erT-erTi aseTi termini gaxlavT `subieqturi Txro-
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
23
ba~, romlis Seswavlac didi xani araa, rac daiwyes.
saerTod, es termini aRniSnavs romanistis Zalisxmevas, warmoaCinos
Tavisi gamonagonis elementebi erTi an ramdenime personaJis Tvalsazrisis
mixedviT.
personaJis aRwera romanis ganuyofeli nawilia. magaliTad, stendalis
an Tekereis gmirebis umravlesoba avtoris subieqturi aRweris niSnebs
atarebs. subieqturobaze damokidebuli aRweriloba personaJisa, damt-
kicebulia, rom ukeTesad axasiaTebs TviT aRmwers, vidre mas, visac aRw-
eren.
sayuradReboa, rogor xdeba ambis moyola `subieqtur romanSi~. amas
gansazRvravs mTxroblis garkveuli pozicia am ambis mimarT. romanistma,
rogorc moriaki uwodebs, `RmerTis niSnis matarebelma~, vinc es person-
aJebi Seqmna, miiTvisa yovlismcodnis privilegia: Tavisi RvTiuri niWiT, man
zondireba gaukeTa Tirkmlebs da gulebs da imaze ukeT gaicno Tavisi qm-
nilebebi, vidre TviT isini icnobdnen sakuTar Tavso, ambobs moriaki. SemTx-
vevas, rodesac mTxrobeli ufro mets ambobs personaJebze, vidre TviT
SeuZliaT, rom Tqvan, literaturis Teoretikosebi ganixilaven Txrobis
pirvel saxed. meore SemTxvevad miiCneven iseT Txrobas, rodesac mTxro-
beli Tavs Zalas atans, mxolod is Tqvas, rac icis personaJma da aCvenos
is, rasac es personaJi grZnobs. am movlenas frangi kritikosi Jan puioni
uwodebs `xedviT~ (vision) Txrobas, romelic dakavSirebulia subieqturi
Tvalsazrisis SezRudvis dacvasTan da `keTilsindisierad~ dakvirvebasTan,
rogorc ambobs TviT mkvlevari. (koni 1981: 86)
mesame SemTxveva is aris, rom Txroba `obieqturia~, anu mTxrobeli
kmayofildeba personaJis qcevebis garedan daregistrirebiT. subieqturi
realizmis teqnikas gansazRvravs swored `xedva romelime personaJiT~ (vi-
sion avec), ramac daipyro Tanamedrove romani. a. Jidi, malro, folkneri
iyeneben mxolod faqtebis gamoxatvas personaJis Sexedulebidan gamomdin-
are. `subieqturi realizis~ principi, rogorc es sartrma aRniSna, gamor-
icxavs sxva xmas, garda personaJisa. miuTiTebs, rom personaJis xasiaTi
TandaTan ixateba, roca is asrulebs moqmedebebs an warmoTqvams sityvebs.
subieqturi Txroba eyrdnoba mkiTxvelis mier romanSi adamianis Tvalsaz-
risis povnas da masTan SeTavsebas, mkiTxvelis personaJad gadaqcevasac ki.
bolo cda imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mkiTxveli miiwvios romanSi monawileo-
bis misaRebad. frangi Teoretikosi Jan huioni naSromSi `dro da romani~
`romelime personaJis xedvas~ (vision avec), romlis meSveobiTac, mkiTxvel-
ic calke gamoyofs personaJis Tvalsazriss, ganasxvavebs `zurgidan xed-
visagan~ (vision par derrire), romelic varaudobs romanistis aSkara Carevas.
magaliTad `vision avec~-is nimuSad stendalis `sentimentaluri aRzrdaa~
Tamar CixlaZe
24
miCneuli, xolo `vision par derrire~ ilustrirebulia balzakis sxvadasxva
romanSi, sadac mravladaa Tavmoyrili romanistis sxvadasxva Tvalsazrisi.
balzaki, icnobs ra Tavisi personaJis Sinagan samyaros, Tavisuflad gad-
adis erTi Tvalsazrisidan meoreze, rasac Tavis Tvalsazriss umatebs, anu
rogorc mTxroblis, filosofosisa da istorikosis Tvalsazriss. aseTi
yovlismcodneoba balzakis romanebs ayenebs tradiciuli romanis rigebSi
maSin, roca flobers modernuloba Semoaqvs. igi emorCileba imas, rasac
sartrma `subieqturi realizmi~ uwoda. (puioni 1996: 45)
maS, rogor xdeba romanistis mier subieqturi realobis asaxva? sazoga-
dod, mTxroblis Carevis xarisxs im ambavSi, rasac is gadmogvcems, gansaz-
Rvravs distancia. saWiroa, ganisazRvros is, Tu ramdenad `axloa~ mTxro-
beli gadmocemul faqtebTan an piriqiT, `distancias ikavebs~, gvTavazobs na-
kleb faqtebs, vidre TviT misTvisaa cnobili. magaliTad, suraTs sxvadasxva
manZilidan sxvadasxva sizustiT vxedavT. aseve, ambavic ar gamoCndeba erTi da
imave moculobiT im distanciis mixedviT, rasac mTxrobeli irCevs. Tu is `ax-
loa~ masTan, SemogvTavazebs zust da detalur Txrobas, mogvcems ra didi si-
zustis STabeWdilebas, anu obieqturobas da piriqiT, mTxrobeli `Sordeba~
ra faqtebis realobas, SemogvTavazebs bundovan Txrobas _ ese igi arazustsa
da subieqturs. pirvel SemTxvevaSi Txroba yuradRebas gaamaxvilebs ambavze,
meoreSi ki _ mTxrobelze. `siaxlovisa~ da `siSoris~ winaaRmdegobas mivya-
varT `obieqturobasa~ da `subieqturobas~ Soris arsebul Seusabamobamde. e.
jeimzis azriT, saqme exeba `Cvenebas~ da `Tqmas~. (Juvi 1997: 29)
cnobilia, rom monaTxrobi Seicavs sam Sres: movlenebs, sityvebs anu me-
tyvelebas da fiqrebs. gansxvaveba romanebs Soris am Sreebis gamoxatvis dis-
tanciaSi iqneba. Tu mTxrobeli irCevs `siaxloves~, is `gviCvenebs~, vidre
`gviyveba~. is uars ambobs mokle mimoxilvaze detaluri scenebis sasarge-
blod. mkiTxvels SeuZlia `uyuros~ movlenas. samagierod, `Sors~ myofi
mTxrobeli lakonurobas da faqtebis komentarebs gvTavazobs. floberi
emas sikvdilis scenas `axlo myofi~ aRwers, xolo patara bertas beds
ramdenime StrixiT iZleva avtori, vinaidan `Sors~ aris.
rac Seexeba metyvelebas, aq mTxrobeli ganagebs teqnikaTa mTel serias.
kritikos J. Jenetis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, SeiZleba moxdes distanciis
kibeze asvlis klasifikacia maqsimumidan minimumamde. TxrobiTi metyvele-
ba, sadac erTveba personaJis saubaric, mas igive doneze ayenebs, rogorc
sxva movlenebs. distanciis SemTxvevaSi Txroba Sors rCeba sinamdvileSi
warmoTqmuli sityvebisagan. aq Txroba kmayofildeba bundovanebiT.
am sakiTxis ganvrcobamde, ganvsazRvroT ra aris metyveleba da ra Tav-
iseburebebi axasiaTebs fsiqologiuri xasiaTis diqcias.
metyvelebis manera aris procesi, romelic qmnis winaswar gansazRvrul
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
25
da mwyobri mniSvnelobis teqsts. Tvalsazrisi wesebis erTobliobaa,
romelic miznad isaxavs, orientacia gaukeTos da Seferiloba misces me-
tyvelebas. is Txrobisa da aRweris elementebs swavlobs. Tvalsazrisi
miCneulia, rogorc metyvelebis Semadgeneli sintaqsuri da semantikuri
nawilebis ganmsazRvreli. rac Seexeba teqstiT gamoxatuli emociurobis
Seswavlas, is literaturuli analizis nawilia. Tu ramdenad mniSvnelo-
vania metyvelebisTvis emociuroba da misi gadmocema, amas fsiqologiuri
analizi da gamoxatvis lingvistika gviCvenebs. grZnobismieri mdgomareoba
mainc sityvebis saSualebiT unda gadmoices. es lingvistika moiTxovs spe-
cializebul leqsikas da morfologias, romelic miukuTvneba e.w. `gamomx-
atvel modalizacias~. aq gamoiyofa grZnobebis gadmomcem modalizaciaTa
klasi, romelic subieqtis `sulis mdgomareobas~ gamoxatavs. esenia: zm-
nebi, sazogado saxelebi, zedsarTavebi da zmnizedebi. zogadad, grZnobis-
mieri modalizacia emyareba gamoxatuli sagnebisa Tu situaciis dadebiT an
uaryofiT Sefasebas. mgrZnobiaroba-emociuroba rTuli fenomenia da Sei-
Zleba ramdenime TvalsazrisiT ganixilos, ufro metad, aRweriTi da teqs-
tis analizis gziT. Tu masTan fsiqologiuri analiziT midgoma SeiZleba,
is unda daeyrdnos semio-lingvistikur analizs. `sulis mdgomareoba~ war-
modgenilia Sesabamisi leqsikiT, magaliTad, vnebis gamomxatveli sityve-
biT: siyvaruli, survili; magram aseve zogadi nomenklaturis terminebiT:
grZnoba, emocia, ltolva... da Tu am saxelebs maT zmnur, zedsarTavur Tu
zmnizedur derivaciebs davumatebT, mainc ver movixelTebT mgrZnobelobis
sidides da siZlieres. metyvelebis globalur struqturebs SeuZliaT gan-
sazRvon leqsikuri da frazeologiuri lokaluri struqturebi. mgrZno-
belobis sidide metyvelebis dones Seesabameba. mgrZnobelobas gamoxatavs
xatovani kodebi _ somaturi gamonaTqvamebi, romlebic aRniSnaven, magali-
Tad, personaJis gawiTlebas. somaturi gamonaTqvami miemarTeba pirvel rig-
Si im personaJis saxes, romelic wiTldeba. e.i. sityvebis nacvlad Cndeba
somaturi aqti. sityvebis gareSec, is emsaxureba azris gadmocemas. aqedan
gamomdinare, mgrZnobelobis sidide mxolod metyvelebas ar exeba, aramed
mTel teqts.
Sinagani Tvalsazrisis gadmosacemad avtors sWirdeba specialuri
gamoTqmebi, rac aRwers Sinagan mdgomareobas. magaliTad: `man gaifiqra~,
`man igrZno~, `moeCvena~, `gaixsena~ da a.S. SesaZloa, gamoiyenebodes gareSe
damkvirveblis TvalsazrisisaTvis iseTi sagangebo sityvebi, rogoricaa:
`etyoba~, `Cans~, `TiTqos~ da a.S. isini maSin ixmareba, rodesac mTxrobeli
aRwers imas, rac sinamdvileSi man ar SeiZleba icodes. es gmiris gancdebi
da fiqrebia gareSe meTvalyuris Tvalsazrisidan.
unda aRiniSnos, rom damajereblad da sabolood jer ar gadawyveti-
Tamar CixlaZe
26
la TxrobiTi literaturis kuTvnili sityvis (lexis) irgvliv arsebuli
problemebi. romanistebi mTavari gmirebis Sinagan metyvelebaze akeTeben
aqcents. erTi sityviT, Txrobis (frangulad recit ; inglisurad telling)
da metyvelebis (frang. discours ; ing speech) dapirispireba grZeldeba.
erTaderTi periodi, rodesac maT Soris Tanxmoba da wonasworoba SeiniS-
neboda, XIX s. klasikuri xana iyo balzakisa da tolstois obieqturi
TxrobiT gamorCeuli. `Tanamedrove epoqam gaaZliera imis SesaZlebloba,
rom adamianis metyvelebamdeli, Znelad misawvdomi cnobiereba mwerlisaT-
vis gamxdariyo naTeli da zusti~. _ aRniSnavs J. Jeneti. (Jeneti 1973b: 24)
`Figures III~-Si Jenetma dabneulobis gasafantavad kidev erTxel daa-
zusta cnebebi: `recit~ da `narration~, rac qarTulad Txrobas niSnavs. is
ambobs, rom termini `recit~ aris metyveleba anu TviT moTxrobili teqsti
_ Txrobis Semcveloba, xolo `narration~ _ Txrobis aqti.
rogorc vTqviT, XX s. evropul mwerlobaSi sametyvelo stili I adg-
ils ikavebs, mkvidrdeba axleburi naratiuli stili _ jer grZeli Sina-
gani monologebi, Semdeg maTi Canacvleba distanciidan TxrobiT.
monologis an Tundac Sinagani monologis teqnika arc XIX s. litera-
turisTvis iyo ucxo. Sinagan monologebs fsiqologiuri xasiaTis yvela
romanSi vxvdebiT. isini ufro tradiciuli monologebia, vinaidan person-
aJis metyvelebaSi aSkarad Cans yovlismcodne avtori-mTxrobeli. rac Se-
exeba XX s. modernistul literaturaSi damkvidrebul Sinagan monologs,
aq personaJis fiqrebis formireba xdeba TviT am personaJis mier da adgili
aqvs misi cnobierebis _ azrebisa da suraTebis fsiqologiur gamoxatvas.
Sinagani metyvelebis ganviTarebis sazRvrebi da formebi Tanmimdevru-
lad icvleboda imisda mixedviT, Tu rogor viTardeboda mecnieruli Tu
eTikuri warmodgena adamianis fsiqikaze da TviTanalizis SesaZlo xarisx-
ebze. am tipis metyveleba niSnavs dauqvemdebarebel irib Tu pirdapir naTq-
vamSi personaJis fiqrebis aRweras maTi warmoSobis droidanve mTxroblis
yovelgvari Carevis gareSe. is cvlis e. w. fsiqologiur analizs. es aris
personaJis cnobierebis _ azrebisa da suraTebis fsiqologiuri gamox-
atva, cda martomyofi adamianis fsiqikuri moZraobis xelaxla Seqmnisa.
Tanamedrove mxatvrul literaturaSi yuradRebas iqcevs iribi me-
tyvelebis axali forma, romelsac frangulad Le style indirect libre-s
uwodeben, rusulad - . zemoT Cven is pirobiTad
`dauqvemdebarebel irib stilad~ movixsenieT, radgan is irib naTqvamSi au-
qmebs yovelgvar daqvemdebarebas. am tipis metyvelebaSi ori `xma~ Tavsdeba
avtorisa da personaJisa. is icavs droTa SeTanxmebas da gancxadebiTi
formiT gamoirCeva. igi zogjer avtonomias aRwevs.
fr. moriaki xSirad iyenebs `dauqvemdebarebel irib stils~, rac per-
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
27
sonaJis fiqrs warmoadgens. roca romanisti ereva pirdapiri naTqvamis
pasaJebSi, raTa qcevebze miuTiTos, is Tavs ar izRudavs, bihevioristuli
*

xasiaTis komentaris gakeTebiT. moriakis stilis progresi mdgomareobs
personaJis saqmeSi ukanonod Carevisgan Tavis Sekavebasa da romanistis
logikuri metyvelebis Sinagan metyvelebad gadaqcevaSi.
gadataniTi anu iribi metyveleba, Seicavs ra personaJis naTqvams iribi
formiT, axloa warmoTqmuli sityvebis sizustesTan: personaJis mier war-
moTqmuli sityvebi TxrobiTi kilos mier ifiltreba.
vfiqrobT, am mxriv, CvenTvis sayuradReboa moriakis romani `tereza
dekeiru~, romlis introspeqtul TxrobaSi terezas Tvalsazrisi domini-
rebs. Txroba mxolod mis mogonebebs mihyveba, raSic CarTulia mTavari per-
sonaJis fiqri Tu warmosaxva. marto myofi tereza Tavis TavSia Caketili
da sakuTar Tavs uRrmavdeba. amdenad, mis cnobierebis nakads didi adgili
eTmoba TxrobaSi. fiqrebi gadmocemulia xan iribi naTqvamiT (`terezas
eCveneba, rom~) da xan dauqvemdebarebeli iribi stiliT (`ras etyoda is
mas~). romanis moqmedebis warsulsa da awmyos terezas meSveobiT vigebT.
mis Tvalsazriss mwerali aZlierebs erTi mxriv imiT, rom ukan ixevs Tavisi
gmiris aRwerisas, Tan zogjer Tavis mosazrebasac urTavs (`terezas axs-
ovs, rom~), xolo meore mxriv, Txrobis `kerebs~ amravlebs. xdeba isec,
rom moriaki uyuradRebod tovebs Tavis gmirs da sxva personaJze gadadis,
vinc Tavis fiqrebs gadmoscems. mwerali zogjer Tamamad urTavs iq sakuTar
msjelobas maqsimebis saxiT.
movitanTT avtorisa da personaJis Tvalsazrisebis urTierTSerwymis
magaliTi, sadac I piris III piriT Canacvleba bevrs arafers cvlis da av-
toris mier gamoyenebuli `dauqvemdebarebeli iribi naTqvami~ isev Sinagani
metyvelebis erTgvari gagrZelebaa:
`tereza kvlav fiqrTa xlarTebs mihyveba: rogor STavagono bernars,
rom me is vaJi arasodes myvarebia? [...] rogorc yvela adamians, visTvisac
siyvaruli ucxoa, hgonia, rom Cem mier Cadenili danaSauli vnebiT iyo na-
karnaxevi. bernarma unda gaigos, rom imJamad tereza misadmi ar ganicdida
siZulvils. es kia, rom xSirad autanlad eCveneboda, magram fiqradac ar
hqonia dardis gaqarveba sxva mamakacTan~. (moriaki 1983: 47)
Cveni msjelobis Tema citirebuli metyveleba, sakuTar TavTan saubris
erT-erTi saxe, rac ase xSirad gamoiyeneba XX s. romanis personaJebis
mier, aris sityvis dialoguri ganzomilebidan gadaxveva, romelic gamom-
dinareobs literaturaSi subieqtis bed-iRblis Seswavlidan. is wamoWris
araerT teqnikur da Teoriul problemas, romlis nawilobriv gadaWras
qvemoT SevecdebiT.
* bihevioristuli adamianis yofaqcevis obieqturi kvlevismieri.
Tamar CixlaZe
28
fiqrebis gadmocemis sakiTxis irgvliv sakmaod mwvaved kamaToben Teore-
tikosebi. maT Sromebs Soris gamoirCeva frangi d. konis `Sinagani gamWvir-
valeba~, sadac aRniSnulia, rom fsiqikuri cxovrebis gamoxatva Txrobis
mxriv specialur midgomas saWiroebs. J. Jeneti miiCnevs, rom TxrobisaT-
vis mxolod movlenebia cnobili, metyveleba movlenebis gansakuTrebuli
saxeobaa da SeuZlia pirdapir citirebuli iyos sityvier TxrobaSi. misi
azriT fiqrTa Txroba ar ganirCeva sityvieri Txrobisagan. `fiqri Cumi
sityvaa, rogor aRdgeba fiqrebi sityvebis gareSe?~ aRniSnavs kritikosi.
(Jeneti 1973: 97)
aRniSnul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, d. koni Tavis gamokvlevebSi ganmar-
tavs, rom e.w. fsiqoTxroba (psychorcit) warmodgenilia personaJis Sina-
gani samyaros mcodne avtorisagan. SemTxvevas, rodesac is distancias ani-
Webs upiratesobas, konis azriT, SeiZleba ewodos `SesamCnevi disonansi~.
am dros mTxrobeli naTlad emijneba subieqturi SefasebiT personaJs,
romlis Sinagan samyaroSic aRwevs; xolo SemTxvevas, rodesac mTxrobeli
irCevs `siaxloves~, ewodeba `SesamCnevi konsonansi~. aq mTxrobeli nei-
tralur poziciazea.
SevadaroT erTmaneTs ori winadadeba:
1. `sabralo kacma ifiqra, rom daRupuli iyo~.
2. `man ifiqra, rom daRupuli iyo~.
pirvel magaliTSi avtori subieqturad aRwers movlenas da personaJsac
uaryofiTad afasebs (sabralo kaci), meoreSi ki, icavs ra neitralitets,
araviTar msjelobas ar iZleva masze.
`naratiuli monologi~ (frang. monologue narrative)
*
gadadis dauqvem-
debarebel irib stilze imisda mixedviT, mTxrobeli `siSores~ irCevs Tu
`siaxloves~.
`citirebuli monologi~ (frang. monologue rapport) aRniSnavs person-
aJis Sinagan saubars ucvlelad, romelic SeiZleba gadmoices ironiulad
an neitralurad. magaliTad:
1. `sabralo kacma ifiqra: `daRupuli var~ (ironiuli)
2. `man ifiqra: `daRupuli var~ (neitraluri).
koni aseTi tipis monologs akavSirebs `avtonomiur monologTan~
(frang. monologue autonome) anu `Sinagan monologTan~ (frang. Monolo-
gue intrieur). aq yovelTvis saqme exeba personaJis fiqrebis pirdapir citi-
rebas, magram ar Cans mTxrobeli, romelsac isini mkiTxvelamde miaqvs. isev
ganvixiloT magaliTi:
`is uceb gaCerda. me daRupuli var~.
konteqstidan gamomdinare, meore fraza SeiZleba daemTxvas personaJis
* termini ekuTvnis J. Jenets. (Genette Gerard. Figures III. Seuil. 1973).
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
29
fiqrebs. aqac es aris manera, romliTac personaJi saxeldeba zemoT mota-
nil magaliTSi da romelic nebas gvaZlevs, gamovavlinoT SesaZlo ironia
an neitraliteti mTxroblisa.
qvemoT warmovadgenT fsiqikuri cxovrebis asaxvis xerxebs konis mixed-
viT. (koni 1981: 232).
fsiqo-Txroba
(Sinagani cxovrebis asaxva
yovlis-mcodne avtorisagan)
distancia (SesamCnevi disonansi)
siaxlove (SesamCnevi konsonansi)
naratiuli monologi
distancia (ironiuli tonaloba)
siaxlove (araironiuli tonaloba)
Sinagani monologi
(personaJis fiqrebis zusti
citireba)
distancia (monologis ironiulad gadmocema)
siaxlove (ironiis gareSe gadmocema)
aRniSnul msjelobaze dayrdnobiT da sxva kvlevebis damowmebiT, Cven
yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT citirebuli monologisa (monologue rapport) da
Sinagani monologis (Monologue intrieur) msgavseba-gansxavebaze, SevecdebiT,
gavarkvioT, ramdenad axlo dganan isini erTmaneTTan da movixmoT Sesabam-
isi magaliTebi.
rogorc zemoT davinaxeT, subieqturi Txroba mTlianad aris damokide-
buli personaJis Tvalsazrisze, mis fiqrsa da metyvelebaze.
rogor SeiZleba warmogvidginos mTxrobelma personaJi, romelic
mTlianad ikavebs subieqturi romanis Txrobis areals?
sazogadod, vfiqrobT, rom romanis personaJi oTxi saxiT SeiZleba iqnes
warmodgenili: 1. Tavisive Tavis mier, 2. sxva personaJis mier, 3. mTxroblis
mier, 4. Tavisive Tavis, sxva personaJebisa da mTxroblis mier erTad. maT-
gan subieqturi Txroba eyrdnoba pirvels, personaJis warmodgenas Tavi-
sive Tavis mier. imisaTvis, rom personaJma sakuTari Tavi warmogvidginos,
is mas kargad unda icnobdes. SeiZleba mkiTxveli mowme gaxdes imisa, Tu
rogor iwyebs personaJi Tavisi Tavis Secnobas. TviTanalizis gakeTeba er-
Tob Znelia, vinaidan is subieqturobis viwro sazRvrebSia datyvevebuli.
mas ar ZaluZs, ganze gadges Tavisive Tavidan da gansajos igi. `romel Tvals
SeuZlia sakuTari Tavi dainaxos?~ _ kiTxulobs stendali `anri briu-
larSi~. adamians ar ZaluZs Tavis Tavs miapyros is civi mzera, rogorc amas
sxvaze gaakeTebda, da Tu es SeeZleboda, misi erTaderTi mzera damaxinjde-
boda, TvalTagan dahkargavda figuris erTianobas da win wamoswevda imgvar
Strixebs, romelic SesaZloa, ar yofiliyo dominanturi. mwerali saku-
Tari Sinagani samyaros Cvenebas met-naklebad yovelTvis mimarTavda. amas is
Tamar CixlaZe
30
saucxood axerxebda iseTi Janris meSveobiT, rogoricaa aRsareba. aRsare-
bis Janris didostatebad arian miCneulni avgustine, abeliari, ruso. amg-
var romanSi avtori saqveynod aSiSvlebs sakuTar Tavs, dafarul, intimur
moZraobebs. misi mizania, gaerkves sakuTar TavSi, dainaxos Tavisi nakli,
Tqvas aRsareba da amiT eswrafvos srulyofilebas, idealur pirovnebad
qcevas. es procesi aris `garegani~ adamianidan `Sinagani~ adamianisken Semo-
bruneba. `me~ cvalebadia, Wirveuli an sulac, Seucnobeli. rogorc h. hese
ambobda. adamianma is unda ipovnos, Seimecnos da amaRldes `mdabal me~-dan
`zenaar me~-mde.
mxolod aRsareba an avtobiografia ver axdens mTeli sinamdvilis mod-
elirebas ise, rogorc romani. romans ganzogadebis Zala aqvs da calkeuli
adamianis beds zogadad, adamianis bedad aqcevs. aRsareba subieqturi re-
alobaa da aqvs dasasruli, romans ki SeuZlia darCes dausrulebeli da
momavlis mimarT gaxsnili.
subieqturi Txrobis erT-erTi forma SesaZloa, iyos piradi dRiuri.
igi iseT principzea agebuli, rom yoveldRiurad asaxavs Sinagan cxovre-
bas misi msvlelobis dros. dRiuris forma aniWebs erT saerTo mniSvnels
iseT romanebs, rogoricaa sartris `gulzidva~, moriakis `aspitTa bude~
an bernanosis `soflis mRvdlis dRiuri~. amgvari forma mniSvnelovnad
amcirebs ra gansxvavebas damwerlobasa da realur cxovrebas Soris, cdi-
lobs gamoxatos yoveldRiurobaSi CaZiruli cnobierebis ganviTareba.
epistolarul romanSi es gansxvaveba kidev ufro mcirea, vinaidan per-
sonaJi wers maSin, rodesac moqmedebis procesSi imyofeba. piradi dRi-
urisgan gansxvavebiT, werils surs, miaRwios adresatamde. werilis avtor-
ma SeiZleba zustad ver an ar gadmosces `Tavisi Sinagani yofa~ yvelafris
gamJRavnebis SiSiT an adresatze zrunvis gamo. adresati ki an pasuxobs an
Cumdeba.
dRiuri xSirad bevr rames sesxulobs memuarebisagan ise, rogorc me-
muarebi SeiZleba gaxdes piradi dRiuri. XX s. romanistebi xSirad amdi-
dreben sakuTar nawerebs dRiurebiTa Tu epistolaruli nimuSebiT. nawar-
moebSi piradi werilebis CarTva mis personaJebs met idumalebas da saku-
Tari Tavis ukeT `gaxsnis~ saSualebas aZlevs.
fsiqologiuri xasiaTis metyveleba aqcents akeTebs lingvistur
modalobebze, romlebic `gulebis codnas~ exeba. es metyveleba pirvel
rigSi romanis formazea damokidebuli.
Cven mier CamoTvlili Janrebi swored rom subieqturi Txrobis princips
eyrdnoba, sadac did adgils ikavebs Sinagani metyveleba. ukve iTqva, rom
is ramdenime saxisaa. dauqvemdebarebeli iribi stili, romelic floberma
da jein ustenma SeimuSaves, citirebul monologs ar Seicavs. is moTxro-
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
31
bili, sxvisi piriT gadmocemuli monologia. aris agreTve narativizebuli
monologi (frang. - monologue narrativis; ingl. _ narrated monologue) anu
iseTi metyveleba, romelic ekuTvnis personaJs, magram mas mTxrobeli gad-
mogvcems III pirSi da warsul droSi.
frangi Teoretikosi, pol rikoeri, romelmac aRniSnuli meTodebi gam-
oikvlia, Tavis statiaSi `fiqrebisa da grZnobebis pirdapiri Txroba~,
gamoyo ori aseTi SemTxveva: avtoTxroba (autorcit), rasac eyrdnoba aR-
sareba Tu memuarebi da fsiqoTxroba (psychorcit). misi TqmiT,, romanuli
fiqcia, garda grZnobebisa da fiqrebis pirdapiri gadmocemisa, eyrdnoba
or teqnikas:
1) citirebul monologs (frangulad monologue rapport, inglisurad
_ quoted monologue), rac niSnavs sxvisi fiqciuri Sinagani metyvelebis
citirebas mTxoblis mier an Tavis TavTan raime azris damowmebas (frang. _
se citer) TviT personaJis mierve ise, rogorc TviTcitirebul monologSi.
2) TviTcitirebul monologs (frang. monologue autorapport, ing. self-
quoted monologue), sadac mTxrobeli mxolod azustebs citirebul sityvebs
fiqrebis warmoqmnis procesSi.
qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi termini _ monologue rapport cnobi-
lia `gancdili metyvelebis~ saxeliT.
*
citirebuli da TviTcitirebuli monologebis erTmaneTisgan garCevva
rTulia, vinaidan isini SeniRbulni arian. magaliTad, narativizebuli mo-
nologi rom citirebul monologad gadavaqcioT, unda aRvadginoT per-
sonaJebi Sesaferis droSi. sxva siZnele imaSi mdgomareobs, rac joisis
mkiTxvelma kargad icis. es iseTi teqstebia, sadac aRar arsebobs sazRvari
mTxroblisa da personaJis metyvelebas Soris. narativizebuli monolo-
gis es saukeTeso kobminacia axorcielebs sxvisi sityvebisa da fiqrebis
yvelaze srulyofil integracias TxrobiT qsovilSi: mTxroblis sityva
Tavis Tavze iRebs personaJis sityvas ise, rom Tavis xmas mas aZlevs da
mTxrobeli personaJis tons emorCileba.
saerTod, Sinagani monologis ormagi xasiaTi xSirad gamoiyeneba in-
glisur literaturaSi: aaSkaravebs mentaluri cxovrebis miudgomel da
gamoukvlevel doneebs sxvadasxva saSualebebiT da aCvenebs, rogor SeigrZ-
nobs samyaros adamianis cnobiereba. amis moTxovnileba TviT drom moitana
da literaturaSi gaCnda cneba `cnobierebis nakadisa~, romlis Semadge-
neli nawili swored Sinagani monologia meTodi Sinagani gacnobierebu-
lobis Cvenebisa.
1931w. gamoqveynebul eseSi frangma mweralma e. diuJardenma Sinagani mo-
nologis pirveli ganmarteba mogvca. es is mweralia, romlis romanSic j.
* ix. d. fanjikiZe, Targmanis Teoria da praqtika. Tb.: 1988. gv. 68.
Tamar CixlaZe
32
joisma Sinagani monologis Canasaxebi naxa da Semdeg es xerxi Tavis `uli-
seSi~ gamoiyena gacilebiT srulyofili literaturuli teqnikis saxiT..
ai, es ganmartebac:
`Sinagani monologi poetikis disciplinaSi aris msmenelis gareSe arse-
buli metyveleba, romliTac personaJi warmouTqmelad gamoxatavs aracno-
bierTan yvelaze axlo myof intimur fiqrs yovelgvari logikuri wyobis
gareSe, anu warmoqmnisTanave, sintaqsur minimumamde dayvanili pirdapiri
frazebis saSualebiT, TiTqos gonebaSi am wuTas mosuli fiqris STabeWdi-
lebas iZleodes~ (diuJardeni 1977: 88)
diuJardeni miuTiTebs, rom mTavari siaxle, rac Sinaganma monologma
moitana, iyo fiqrTa uwyveti dinebis mexsierebaSi aRdgena imave wesrigiT,
rogorc personaJis gonebaSi warmoiSobodnen. avtoris azriT, Sinagani mo-
nologisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sityvaTa SerCevis, Tanmimdevrobis ararse-
boba, racionaluri, logikuri niSnebis gaqroba.
vityviT, rom mogvianebiT diuJardenis ganmarteba dromoWmuli da mwi-
ri aRmoCndeba im Sinagani monologebisaTvis, romlebmac XX s. I naxevris
cnobierebis nakadis literatura mTlianad moicva, gansakuTrebiT ki II
naxevris romanSi ganviTarebuli monologebisaTvis.
ramdenadac literatura adamianis samyaros, fsiqikas asaxavs, misi Sec-
noba martivi ar aris. mxatvruli sityva grZnobebTan aris Sesisxlxor-
cebuli da adamianze zemoqmedebis unari aqvs. mwerlis geniis wyalobiT
sakmaod banaluri ambavi zogadkacobriul masStabebs aRwevs da sacnauri
xdeba yvelasaTvis, vxedavT imas, rasac Cveulebrivi TvaliT ver davinaxa-
vdiT _ gmirTa sulebis uRrmes Sreebs, sulier Tavgadasavlebs. mxatvruli
sityvis meSveobiT adamianis sulis ukeT warmosaCenad cnobierebis nakadis
xerxi iqna gamoyenebuli, romelic warsuli grZnobebis gaRvivebas emsaxure-
ba. cnobierebis nakadi gmiriseul Txrobas gulisxmobs, magram yovelTvis
ara. es gansakuTrebiT maSin aris SeuZlebeli, Tu am TxrobaSi rame grZnoba
ki ar Cans, aramed mogoneba, romelic mwerlis mier gacnobierebuli da
gaazrebulia. Tu personaJi Tavis warsul gancdaze gviambobs, es iqneba mxo-
lod misi axlandeli Sexeduleba maSindeli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. Tumca,
am gziTac mkiTxveli mSvenivrad gebulobs personaJis saidumlos, romli-
Tac misi sulia moculi, ecnoba mis Tavgadasavals. cnobierebis nakadi am
yovelives cota sxvagvarad aRwers.
aRniSnuli literaturuli mimdinareobis farTo mimoxilvas aq saWi-
rod ar miviCnevT, vinaidan masze ukve sakmaod dawerila. vityviT mxolod,
rom cnobierebis nakadis Sinagani monologi asociaciuri Txrobis elemen-
tebiTaa datvirTuli, sadac, erT SemTxvevaSi asociacia eyrdnoba gmiris an
mTxroblis cnobierebis dinebaSi arsebul, Tundac erTi SexedviT erTma-
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
33
neTTan daukavSirebel `niSansvetebs~, romlebic am dinebas axali asocia-
ciebisaken mimarTaven da, meore _ asociacia mTlianad mwerlis mxatvrul
koncefciaSi Sedis da miedineba gmiris fizikuri arsebobis gamomxatveli
faqtebisa Tu mis sulier cxovrebasTan uSualo kavSirSi myofi movlene-
bisagan damoukideblad. aseTi asociaciis niSansvetebi gmiris Sinagan mo-
nologSi Tavsdeba da, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, im mxatvruli komentarebis
organuli nawilia, romlebsac mwerali urTavs personaJTa nafiqralsa da
gancdils, raTa gafantuli asociaciebi ZiriTad saTqmels daukavSiros.
joisis `ulise~ stilisa da literaturuli qaragmebis mravalferovne-
bis amsaxvelia. masTan, ise, rogorc folknerTan, waSlilia zRvari `sxvis~
sityvas, avtoriseul remarkasa da personaJis Sinagan monologs Soris. arc
joisi da arc folkneri brWyalebs ar xmarobs. joisTan dialogi da mono-
logi `daSlilia~, erTmaneTis gverdiT Tavsdeba garegnulad daukavSirebeli
asociaciebi da warmodgenebi. Tumca, zogjer Sinagani monologis SinaarsSi
mcire logikurobisa da realur planTan kavSiris povnac SeiZleba.
Sinagan monologze saubari CvenTvis sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadac
mas zogi ram saerTo aqvs citirebul metyvelebasTan. movitanoT magali-
Tebi personaJTa tradiciuli da aratradiciuli monologebidan da erT-
maneTs SevadaroT:
`ulises~ personaJi, stiveni gakveTilze algebris amocanis amoxsnaSi
exmareba erT-erT moswavles. stivenis cnobierebaSi mimdinare movlenebi,
Sinagani monologi da avtoris sityvebi erTmaneTisgan araviTari niSnebiT
ar gamoiyofa:
`_ axla gaigeT? SegiZliaT meore TviTon amoxsnaT?
_ diax, ser.
grZeli, uSno xazebiT sarjentma amocanis piroba gadawera [...] mkrTali
kani sircxvilisagan odnav Seefarkla. Amor matris: subieqturi da obieq-
turi naTesaobiTi brunva wyal-wyala sisxliTa da aWrili rZiT gamokveba
da aravisTvis daunaxvebia misi saxvevebi.
mec aseTi viyavi. es daSvebuli mxrebi, es mouqneloba, Cemi bavSvoba
waxrila Cems gverdiT. metismetad Sorsaa, [...] Cemi Sorsaa, misi ki Cveni
TvalebiviT saidumloebiT moculi. saidumloebani, dadumebulni, gaqva-
vebulni, Cveni saidumloebani: tiranebi, romelTac swadiaT, rom vinmem
daamxos isini.
amocana amoixsna~. (joisi 1983: 38)
rogorc vxedavT, stivenis Sinagan metyvelebaSi logikurad Camoyalibe-
bul fiqrebs warmosaxviTi suraTebi sWarbobs.
axla movixmoT erTi epizodi Tanamedrove frangi mwerali qalis ko-
letis romanidan `mawanwala~. misi mTavari moqmedi piris renes cnobie-
Tamar CixlaZe
34
reba cekvisas Semdeg fiqrebs daupyria:
`me maT vxedav, Cemda uneburad vxedav... cekvis dros, trialisas, vxedav
da vcnob. win! win! am saRamos goneba naTeli maqvs... vcekvav... araferi ma-
viwydeba, Tavs veuflebi. midi! midi! arsebobs ki es xalxi? ara, ara. rea-
loba mxolod cekvaa, Suqi, Tavisufleba, musika... realuri mxolod misi
fiqris ritmebis gadmocemaa, misi gansaxiereba lamaz JestebSi... am wuTs
mxolod maTi moxibvla msurs! cota Zala kidev: TmebiTa da samkaulebiT
datvirTuli maTi Tavebi morCilad da nela ixrebian da momyvebian... ai,
iRimebian, es moxibluli sulelebi~... (koleti 1910: 53-54)
aq personaJis fiqrebis dinebas romanisti xels ar uSlis, arc erT ko-
mentars ar urTavs, vinaidan TiToeuli sityva naTlad xsnis gmiris sulier
ganwyobilebas da warmodgenas gvaZlevs, imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra xdeba, rogorc
`SigniT~, ise `gareT~.
saxezea aratradiciuli da tradiciuli monologebi, romelTa Soris
gansxvavebacaa da msgavsebac. pirvel rigSi sayuradReboa is, Tu ras aCvenebs
avtori, aracnobiers Tu cnobiers, Semdeg misi pozicia. Cvens SemTxve-
vebSi avtorTa poziciebi neitraluria. rac Seexeba dros, saqme gvaqvs su-
bieqturi awmyo drois asaxvasTan, magram pirvel magaliTSi Txrobis drois
nacvlad mxolod Sinagani droa, xolo sivrce ganusazRvreli. meoreSi
droc da sivrcec sruliad konkretulia. punqtuaciuri niSnebis arseboba
aq logikuri Txrobis atributebs warmoadgens. tradiciul Sinagan mono-
logs axasiaTebs elifsebis, zmna `yofnis~ araerTi formis anu e.w. prezen-
tativis `es aris~, anaforis, kiTxviTi winadadebis xSirad xmareba da
aratradiciulis msgavsad, dialogisa da monologis urTierTSerwyma. aR-
saniSnavia, rom Txrobis teqnikaze dramaturgiuli koncefciis gavrceleba
aratradiciuli monologisTvis damaxasiaTebeli ar aris.
kidev ganvixiloT citirebuli metyvelebis magaliTi deniz dezi Jikeris
romanidan `sofi~, raTa davrwmundeT zemoT motanili msjelobis siswo-
reSi:
`me yvelaze mSvenieri var[...]Sen Tavs cudad grZnob[...]eleni me miyu-
rebs[...]Tu avixedav, is iqiT gaixedavs da gawiTldeba. momwons, roca wiTl-
deba[...]Jizeli ambobs, rom elens namdvili maqmanebiani sacvlebi acvia,
arc mkerdsakravi, arc korseti. [...]saidan gaigo es yvelaferi Jizelma?~
(denizi 2006: 22)
maSasadame, citirebul monologsa da avtonomiur anu Sinagan monologs
Soris gansxvavebas konteqsti gansazRvravs, sadac mTxrobeli personaJis
Sinagani metyvelebis citirebas sxvadasxvagvarad axdens. folknerTan, ma-
galiTad, vxvdebiT rogorc avtonomiur, ise avtobiografiul monologebs
(marteni 1999: 2). kventini aRsasrulis dRis movlenebs am ukanaskneli ti-
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
35
pis metyvelebis saSualebiT gadmogvcems. aq qronologiuri Tanmimdevroba
daculia, magram aseT monologSi SesaZloa, uxeSad SeiWras warsuli dro.
folkneri mraval teqnikur saSualebas iyenebs, raTa teqstSi Seitanos rit-
mis cvalebadoba. Sinagan monologs daqvemdebarebuli aqvs sxvadasxva ti-
pis monologi da amdenad iqmneba cnobierebis gadajaWvuli dineba. teqstSi
orazrovnebas da orWofobas iwvevs avtoris mier gakeTebuli gadasvlebi
sxvisken fokalizaciaze, yovlismcodne avtoris aRwerilobebidan perso-
naJis Sinagan metyvelebaze.
yvela es sakiTxebi literaturaTmcodneobaSi sakmaod kargadaa Seswa-
vlili, magram interesi kvlavac didia.
motanili magaliTebidan Cans, rom citirebuli metyveleba, romel-
sac, raRa Tqma unda, monologis saxe aqvs, warmoadgens stendaliseuli an
dostoevskiseuli monologebis gaRrmavebul, daxvewil da gaumjobesebul
formebs, sintaqsurad mowesrigebul, Tanmimdevruli winadadebebisa da si-
tyvebis wyobas, gansazRvrul drosa da sivrceSi moTavsebul moqmedebaTa
erTobliobas da logikurad axsnad da SemadgenlobiT rTul fiqrTa di-
nebebs. am yovelives iSviaTad SevxvdebiT folkneris, vulfis, mogvianebiT
ki, TiTqmis aRar - biutoris, beketis, koenis SemoqmedebaSi. monologebi
maTTan warsuls aqcevs wamis, erTi momentis Tanaziarad, yvela es mono-
logi gamoxatavs awmyoSi Caketilobas. s. beketis romanSi `moloi~, ori
personaJi monologebiT saubrobs. isini darwmunebulni ar arian imaSi,
rac adre moxda. maTTvis arc momavalia garkveuli. sityvis Tqma mkiTxvels
ekisreba, raTa es personaJebi erTmaneTisgan gaarCios. aq personaJi uecrad
ararad iqceva. teqstic imdenad mcirdeba ise, rom `meti aRaraferi~ xde-
ba. Tanamedrove romanebi amsxvrevs Cvens Cveulebebs, interesi gamoviCinoT
teqstis mimarT, magram igive romanebi gviCvenebs, dialogisa da monologis
opoziciaSi realurad rogor qreba maTi sazRvrebi, raTa gamoxatos drois
gansakuTrebuli koncefcia.
v. vulfis romani `talRebi~ mTeli Tanmimdevrobaa Sinagani monologe-
bis seriisa, romelSic ibadeba sxvadasxva personaJi sxvadasxva poeturi
aRwerilobiT. aq iseve axloa mkiTxveli subieqtur realobasa da persona-
Jis cnobierebasTan, rogorc obieqtur realobaSi _ faqtTan. am teqnikis
uxerxuloba is aris, rom spobs personaJis Sinagani drois qronologiur
Tanmimdevrobas.
vulfi xSirad mimarTavs ra Sinagani molologis teqnikas, uxeSad ar
eqceva mkiTxvels Tavisi triukebiT. is icavs Txrobis ostatobas da Tavs
uflebas aZlevs, isargeblos ormagi privilegiiT: SeaRwios gmiris cnobie-
rebaSi da gamoavlinos igi erTmaneTis miyolebiT. magram mas Semdeg, rac
romanisti ayalibebs Sinagan molologs, is riskavs mivides garkveul zR-
Tamar CixlaZe
36
vramde. igi moxerxebulad alamazebs monologebs TavSekavebuli miTiTebe-
biT, romlebic mkiTxvels xelaxla arsebobis saSualebas aZlevs aRniSnul
situaciaSi.
Sinagani molologi gvxvdeba T. manis `jadosnur mTaSic~, magram mokr-
Zalebulad maSin, roca `uliseSi~ moqmedebis nacvlad mxolod Sinagani
metyvelebaa, aq xazgasmulia drois subieqturi aspeqti, rac damokidebu-
lia gancdebze.
a. kamius `dacema~ mTlianad monologuri romania, sityvis erTgvari
Tavgadasavali. misi gadasxvafereba an Sewyveta mxolod sxva personaJs SeeZ-
leboda. amave avtoris pirveli romani `ucxoc~ rogorc monologi, ise
iwyeba. sityvebi `dRes~, `xval~, `guSin~ gviqmnian STabeWdilebas, TiTqos
mTxrobeli-personaJis dRevandelobaSi, awmyoSi vimyofebiT, romelic mis
fiqrebs mihyveba iseTi TanmimdevrobiT, rogori TanmimdevrobiTac isini mis
TavSi ibadeba. magram romanis pirvel nawilSive zogjer icvleba martivi
monologis forma.
unda iTqvas, rom 50-iani wlebis dasavlur romanSi Sinagani monologi
gansakuTrebul saxes iRebs, sadac fraza Zlivs aris moxazuli. mwerlebi
cdiloben, gaauqmon winadadebis wyobis wesebi da misi yvela niSani mospon
punqtuaciasTan erTad. movitanoT erTi fraza, ufro sworad, frazis em-
brioni beketis romanidan `es rogor?~:
`cxovrebas / cxovrebas / sxva / naTelSi / romelic SeiZleboda mqonoda
/ erTi wamiT / isev ver daviwyeb~. (beketi 1968: 10)
es aris gansakuTrebuli tipis teqstis segmentebi, romlebic nakleb in-
tegrirebadia ermaneTTan da ar ZaluZT erTmaneTis daxmarebiT arseboba.
es iseTi sityva-frazis nimuSia, romelsac olofrazas (holophrase) uwo-
deben. misi specifikuroba, frazis Canasaxi TvalSi sacemi maSin iqneba, Tu
mas cezurebiT da dasrulebuli melodiurobiT warmovTqvamT. aRniSnuli
fraza daaxloebiT aseTi unda yofiliyo:
`namdvil cxovrebas, romelmac uarmyo, naTelSi cxovrebas, romelic
SeiZleboda mqonoda, Tundac erTi wamiT isev ver daviwyeb~.
olofraza eyrdnoba Jests, mimikas, winalingvistur formas, romlebic
aseve cnobierebis gamovlinebebia.
franguli `axali romani~ mkiTxvels pirdapir ayenebs moqmedebis cen-
trSi gamogonili ambebisa, romlebic aRmoCndeba qaoturi realobisa da
sakuTari Tavis gaSifvris pasuxismgeblobis winaSe. misi mTavari siaxle
ki mainc enasa da weris reformaSi iqneba, xolo siZvele _ samyarosa da
adamianis warmodgenis subieqturobaSi. aqac romanisti uars ityvis Tavis
uflebebze personaJis sasargeblod. aq warmoCndeba iseTi Txroba, rome-
lic Camoyalibebis procesSi iqneba. miSel biutoris prozis saxiT Cven
`subieqturi Txroba da citirebuli metyveleba~: istoria, Teoria da praqtika
37
gvaqvs Txrobis absoluturad Tanamedrove forma, romlis Caketili cno-
bierebis gaxsna mxolod II pirs SeuZlia. mis romanSi `modifikaciebi~ mxo-
lod meore piria gamoyenebuli. xom ar aris es Taviseburi gamoxatuleba
Sinagani monologisa, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom `axali romani~ mkiTxvelis
aqtiur monawileobas moiTxovs da mas mwerlis oreulad aqcevs? unda vi-
varaudoT, rom es asea.
Cven SevecadeT, kidev erTxel gveCvenebina citirebuli da cnobierebis
nakadis Sinagani monologebis ganviTarebis Taviseburebani Tanamedrove da-
savlur romanSi, maTi msgavseba-gansxvaveba da yuradReba gagvemaxvilebina
terminze `citirebuli~, vinaidan migvaCnia, rom amgvari metyvelebiT per-
sonaJis fiqrebis, gancdebisa da emociebis, swored rom citireba xdeba
mTxrobelis an TviT personaJis mier, raTa sxvasac mieces saSualeba, Tavis
warmosaxvaSi gaacocxlos misi subieqturi cxovrebis amsaxveli ambebi. ki-
dev erTxel ganvmarteT literaturis TeoriaSi damkvidrebuli terminebis
mniSvneloba, romlebic dabneulobas kvlav iwvevs. maSasadame, fsiqo-Txro-
ba psycho-rcit es aris aRweriloba yovlismcodne avtoris mier, xolo
citirebuli monologi monologue rapport warmoadgens pirvel an mesame
pirSi mTxroblis mier citirebul mentalur anu warmouTqmel pirdapir
naTqvams. monologue rapport konma daakavSira monologue autonome Tan (av-
tonomiuri ewodeba imitom, rom is aRar ukavSirdeba TxrobiT konteqsts.
aq avtori anu Sinagani saubris gadmomcemi gauCinarebulia), igive Sinagan
monologTan, rasac Jenetmac ase uwoda: monologue interieur, xolo monolo-
gue rapport-s discours rapport (morisi 1996: 182-201). erT-erTi Tavisebu-
reba, rac citirebul monologebSi SeimCneva, aris maTi agebis xelovneba.
is SeiZleba romanis nebismier adgilas Caisvas: dialogebSi, avtoriseul
TxrobaSi abzacis gareSe. maTi garCeva Zneli ar aris, vinaidan brWyalebSia
moTavsebuli an kursiviTaa dawerili.
dabolos, SevniSnavT, rom aRniSnuli meTodis srulyofilad Seswavlis
mravali mcdeloba da, zogadad, mis mimarT gamowveuli interesi missave
moTxovnilebaze metyvelebs. sagulisxmoa, rom es teqnika momavalSic daex-
mareba mwerlebs adamianis Sinagani bunebis ukeT Secnobasa da warmoCenaSi,
aseve, romanis axali problemebis gadawyvetaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, arc
literaturis Teoriasa da kritikaSi Sewydeba kvleva-Zieba mis irgvliv da
gaCndeba rogorc axali terminologia, ise axali Tvalsazrisebi.
damowmebani:
alberesi: 1990: Alberes R.M. Histoire du Roman moderne. Alin Miuchel. Paris. 1962.
amoni 1989: Hamon P. Le personnel du roman. 1989.
Tamar CixlaZe
38
analizi 2002: Lanalyse littraire, notion et refres. Bordas. Nathan. 2002.
bailoni 1996: Baylon Ch. Sociolinguistique.Socit, langue et discours. Nathan. 1996.
barti 1977: Barthes R., Kayser W., Wayn C. Booth. Potique du rcit. Paris: Seuil. 1977.
baxtini 1973: Bakhtine M. Epope et roman. Ltude du roman Questions de Mthodologie.
1973.
beketi 1968: Beckett. S. Comment cest. ed. Minuit. 1968.
berTelo 2001: Berthelot F. Parole et dialogue dans le roman. Nathan Universit. 2001.
denizi 2006: Denyse dsy Gicure. Sophie. Rcit suivi dune rfexion thorique.veb gver-
di ganTavsebulia 2006 w. mis: http://manuscitdepot.com/livres-gratuits/pdt-
livres/n.denyse-desy-giguere.2pdf.
diuameli 1925: Duhamel G. Essais sur le roman. Lesage. 1925.
diuJardeni 1977: Dujardin E. Les Lauries sont coups, suivi du Monologue intrieur. Rome:
Bulzoni, 1977.
diqsioneri 1997: Dictionnaire des genres et notions littraire. Albin Michel, Encyclopaedia Uni-
versalis. Paris. 1997.
enciklopedia 2001: . .: 2001.
kerbarti 1990: Kerbart-Orecchioni Catherine. LEnonciation de la subjectivit dans le langage.
Armand Colin. 1990.
klodi 1991: Claudes P., Reuter Yves, Personnage et histoire littraire. Toulouse. PUM.
1991.
koleti 1910: Colette. La Vagabonde. Ed. Albin Michel. 1910.
koni 1981: Conh D. La Transparance intrieur. Paris: Seuil. 1981.
maJisteri 2002: Majister. Le Monologue interieur. veb. gverdi ganTavsebulia 2002 w. mis:
http//www.site-majister.com//trarec5.htm
marteni 1999: Martin H. Le monologue interieur dans The Sound and the Fury de William
Fauner. vebgverdiganTavsebulia 1999 w. mis:http://www.erudit.org/revue/
vi1989/v14/n3/200080/ar.pdt..
mengeno 1997: Maingueneau D. Pragmatique pour le discours littraire. Dumod. 1997.
moriaki 1983: moriaki fr. tereza dekeiru.. Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1986.
morisi 1996: Maurice D. Monologue rapport. veb gverdi ganTavsebulia 1996 w. mis :
http://books.google.com/books?id=Md6ah7LKUsC&/pg=PA181&/pg=monol
oguerapporte&source=web&ots=x96
otie 1995: Authier J. Ces mots qui ne vont pas de soi. Boucles rfexives et non-coinciden-
ces du dire. Paris. Larousse. 2 tomes.1995.
prozorovi 1999: . . . . 1999
puioni 1996: Poullot J. Temps et roman. Gallimard. 1996.
Jeneti 1973: Genette G. Figures III.. Seuil. 1973.
Jeneti 1983: Genette G. Nouveau discours du rcit. Seuil 1983.
Jeneti 2004: Genette G. Fiction et diction. Seuil 2004.
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39
Juvi 1992: Jouve V. LEffet-personnage dans le roman. PUF. 1992.
Juvi 1997: Jouve V. La potique du roman. SEDES. 1997.
ransieri 1998: Rancire J. La Parole muette. Essai sur les contradictions de la littrature. Ha-
chette. 1998.
rei 1997: Rey P.L. Le Roman. Hachette. 1997.
roberi 2000: Le Robert des grands crivains de la langue franaise. Dictionnaires Le Robert.
2000.
frankoeri 1976: Francoeur L. Pour une typologie du monologue intrieur. Neohelicon. Vol. IV.
(3-4). 1976.
Cerneci 1999: . . . .: 1999
joisi 1983: joisi j. ulise.. Tb.: `merani~, 1983.
Tamar Chikhladze
`Subjective Narrative and Cited Speech~: History, Theory and Practice
(according to XX century West-European novel)
Summary
The work deals with the issues of literary theory, such as the character of contemporary
West-European novel narrative and types of personages speech. Emphases are made on
fnding exact Georgian equivalents for newly established terminology. The above men-
tioned problem is discussed within the scope of history of literature, as well as theory and
practice.
In XX century, a novel expressing more sincerity of feelings and emotions, reached
unimaginable scales of its possibilities. In addition to refection of thoughts, revealing and
painting deep layers of humans spiritual world by previously unknown means was wit-
nessed in art. Subjective approach replaced objective narrative.
The author of the article discusses peculiarities of subjective narrative and forms of
personages speech, attitude of a novelist towards past events and a speaker, shows the at-
mosphere of those works, where facts are no longer revealed and the protagonist has to tell
about his life with the help of his thoughts and memories. Against this background, charac-
ters language, inner speech that can be of several types, attracts our attention. Monologue
rapporte (French), to which the author refers to as cited monologue, is singled out among
them. Author defnes it as a manner of narration in frst person, taking place in associative-
subjective present tense, which is syntactically organized, but contains a number of char-
acteristic features of the stream of consciousness interior monologue. Examples from XX
century European novelists works serve as a proof for this discussion.
It is acknowledged that narrated story includes three layers: events, words or speech
and thoughts. The author regards it vital to defne to what extent is the narrator distant or
Tamar CixlaZe
40
near to the expressed facts. In other words, distance determines the degree of narrators
intervention in the story that he tells. Difference between novels is in the expression of
distance of events, speech and thoughts. The opposition between nearness and distant-
ness leads us towards the existing irrelevance between objective and subjective, to
what we have showing or saying. As for the techniques of subjective realism, it is
determined by vision by one of the characters (vision avec French), which has con-
quered contemporary novel.
Speech and peculiarities of psychological diction are defned in the given article. View-
point is also discussed in the work, as it is regarded as a defning element of syntactical
and semantic parts of speech. The author considers that the study of emotions expressed
with the help of a text is a part of literary analysis. Emotionality and its expression are
essential for speech, which is showed by psychological analysis and linguistics of expres-
sion, though feelings are displayed more with the help of words. This linguistics requires
specialized vocabulary and morphology, which belongs to the so called expressive mo-
dalization. A class of feeling expressing modalization is singled out, expressing subjects
condition of spirit, these are: verbs, general nouns, adjectives and adverbs. In general,
feeling expressing modalization is based on positive and negative evaluation of expressed
things and situations. Sensitivity-emotionality is a complex phenomenon, and can be dis-
cussed from several viewpoints, mostly by means of description and text analysis. If it can
be approached from psychological analysis, then it should be based on semio-linguistic
analysis. Condition of Spirit is represented not only by relevant vocabulary, but also by
general terminology: feeling, emotion or aspiration.
The author of the article widely discusses the history for establishment of means for
refecting psychic life and their theoretical value. Based on the researches of scientists, the
author emphasizes similarities and differences between cited monologue (monologue rap-
porte) and interior monologue.
The author introduces Georgian equivalents for foreign terminology: noticeable dis-
sonance, noticeable consonance, narrative monologue, cited monologue and auto-
nomic or interior monologue.
During the research he mainly uses the conclusions of French, English and Russian
literary critics.
41
rusudan canava
metafora da metamorfoza
metafora, mecnierTa didi nawilis azriT, ZiriTadi tropia; sxva tropebs
swored metaforasTan mimarTebiT ganixilaven. r. iakobsoni, k. levi-stro-
si amtkiceben, rom metafora da metonimia erTimeoris mimarT simetriul
opozicias, Sesabamisad, or struqurul RerZs qmnis _ paradigmatulsa
da substituciurs. rac Seexeba sxva tropebsa da metyvelebis figurebs,
isini am ori mTavari RerZis garSemo lagdebian (ZiriTadad, metaforis).
sxva mosazrebiT, metonimia `Sedis~ metaforaSi (m-jgufi). met-naklebad
garkveulia mimarTebebi metaforasa da Sedarebas, metaforasa da sim-
bolos, sinekdoqes, ironias, alegorias, gamocanas, hiperbolas, kataxr-
ezas Soris.
amJamad Cven gvainteresebs metaforisa da metamorfozis mimarTebis
sakiTxi. saqme isaa, rom literaturis TeoriaSi gansazRvrulia poeturi
stilistikis zemoT CamoTvlili terminebis funqciebi da adgili. meta-
morfozis SemTxvevaSi saqme sxvagvaradaa imitom, rom metamorfoza arc
tropia, arc metyvelebis figura; amitom, upirveles yovlisa, swored is
unda dadgindes, Tu ra statusiT SevadarebT mas metaforas.
miTologiaSi matamorfoza (met a-movrf wsi~) niSnavs cocxali arsebe-
bis an nivTebis gardasaxvas sxva arsebebad an nivTebad. metamorfozebis
arqauli formebi asaxaven adreuli miToepikuri poeturi azris yvelaze
arsebiT Strixebs, kerZod, warmodgenas, rom erTi SeiZleba gamovlindes
dauTvleli, Semoufarglavi, mravlobiTi saxiT. metamorfoza gadalaxavs
sazRvrebs sxvadasxva sknelebs Soris. yvelaze arqauli metamorfozebi to-
temistur warmodgenebs ukavSirdeba. mas arsebiTi funqcia ekisreba kosmog-
oniur miTosSi. msoflios uZvelesi kulturebis matarebeli xalxebisTvis
kargadaa cnobili miTi, rogor Seiqmna samyaro mokluli da danawevrebuli
adamianis (RvTaebis, goliaTis, an romelime arsebis) sxeulis nawilebi-
sgan. erT-erTi popularuli motivia RvTaebebis droebiTi metamorfozebi.
TvalsaCinoa etiologiuri miTebisa da metamorfozebis organuli kavSiri,
aseve usulo sagnebis gasulierebisa da gardasaxvis motivi.
metamorfoza formiT metemfsiqozis religiur doqtrinasac emsgavseba.
metamorfozebi gansakuTrebiT popularuli iyo literaturaSi, mxatv-
robasa da skulpturaSi.
poetikis mixedviT metamorfoza arc tropia, arc metyvelebis figura,
magram mniSvnelovani funqcia ekisreba mxatvrul teqstebSi. ismis kiTxva:
ra datvirTva aqvs metamorfozas poetikis konteqstSi? Cemi azriT, meta-
rusudan canava
42
morfoza warmarTuli religiuri azrovnebisa da miTopoeturi azrovnebis
SemaerTebeli rgolia. metamorfoza aris saazrovno meqanizmi, Tu gnebavT,
universaluri formula, romelic SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc qvecno-
bierisa da samyaros wvdomis fenomeni. metamorfozaSi kodirebulia urT-
ierToba aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns Soris. igi (metamorfoza) xels uwyobs
`xatis~, `simbolos~, `figuris~ warmoSobas.
ver vityviT, rom metaforisa da metamorfozis mimarTebis sakiTxi mec-
nierebaSi cxare diskusiis sagnad iqca. gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi ase Sei-
Zleba davajgufoT:
1. metafora da metamorfoza sruliad gansxvavebuli fenomenebia da maTi
msgavseba mxolod zedapirulia (v. vinogradovi, n. aruTiunova). metafora-
Si ar aris araviTari elferi sagnis gardasaxvisa. piriqiT, `orplaniano-
ba~, sityvieri mimsgavseba erTi `sagnisa~ meoresTan (misgan mkveTrad gansx-
vavebulTan) metaforis ganuyofeli nawilia. aqedan gamomdinare, saWiroa
(metamorfoza r.c.) gaemijnos metaforasa da Sedarebas. v. vinogradovi
moixmobs fragments axmatovas leqsidan: `sul axlaxan Tavisufal mercx-
lad ifrine... am frenas me mxolod simRerad Semovafrindi, dilis sxivebiT
naferebi~ (Targmani sityvasityviTia. r.c.). vinogradovis azriT: `yvela am
SemTxvevaSi saxezea ara sufTa sityvieri metaforebi, aramed miTologi-
uri azrovnebis~ gamoZaxili. yvela es `gardasaxva~ gmiris (personaJis)
mier aRiqmeba, rogorc realoba. rogorc Cans, aq saxezea ara enobrivi
metamorfozebi, aramed samyaros aRqmis saSualeba~ (vinogradovi 1976: 411-
412). Cemi azriT, es msjeloba dasabuTebuli ar aris. v. vinogradovi Tavad
ambobs, rom mercxlad da simRerad gardasaxva miTologiuri azrovnebis
gamoZaxilia, kerZod, metamorfoza. Semdeg ki wers, rom es ar aris meta-
morfoza, aramed _ samyaros aRqmis saSualeba (e. i. metafora). jer erTi,
metamorfozac samyaros wvdomis saSualebaa. meorec, metamorfozaSic
sruliad sapirispiro sidideebis (kategoriebis, klasebis) moulodneli
identifikacia xdeba. metamorfozebis amsaxveli miTebi xsnian amgvari gar-
dasaxvebis pirvelmizezebs (etiologias), erTjerad an ramdenime msgavs
variants gvTavazoben, raTa gasagebi gaxdes poetur figurad qceuli meta-
morfozuli saxis Sinaarsi. cxadia, yvela metamorfoza ar gardaisaxeba
metaforad. rig SemTxvevebSi metamorfozebi inarCuneben TviTmyofadobas
da damoukidebel saxeebad gvevlinebian.
n. aruTiunova vinogradovis Tvalsazriss amatebs argumentebs, romelTa
mixedviT mkafiod unda gaimijnos metafora da metamorfoza: metamorfo-
za `aCvenebs~ gardasaxul samyaros; mag.: `rux ciyvad Sevxtebi muryanze,
damfrTxal mercxlad gavifren, gedad mogixmob... ratom momaCveneb Tavs
xan qarad, xan qvad, xan Citad? (a. axmatova. Targmani mxolod Sesabami-
metafora da metamorfoza
43
si formebis zustad gadmocemas isaxavs miznad. r.c.). igi dasZens: meta-
morfoza epizodia, scena, movlena, metafora ki msWvalavs mTel siuJets
(aruTiunova 1990: 29). es msjelobac ar aris damajerebeli. ras niSnavs _
metamorfoza asaxavs scenas da movlenas? nuTu aq moxmobili saxeebi ar
`msWvalaven siuJets?~
Semdegi argumenti: metaforas axasiaTebs semantikis sferoSi SeRweva,
rac ar axasiaTebs metamorfozas. avtori moixmobs v. potebnias Tvalsaz-
riss, rom metamorfoza miuTiTebs ra `substanciasTan kerZo damTxvevas~
ar ileqeba enaSi, rogorc gardaqmnisa da mniSvnelobebis warmoqmnis gansa-
kuTrebuli saSualeba. Tumca aqve aRniSnavs, rom metamorfozasac gaaCnia
semantikaSi `gasvlis~ saSualeba; es gasvla miuTiTebs kavSirze subieqtis
moqmedebasTan (mag.: CorTiT sirbili; israd frena; dawalikebiT svla; mdin-
ared dena). rogorc ki iqmneba aseTi Sewyvileba, xdeba saxelis adverbal-
izacia da vRebulobT axal azrs. msgavs SemTxvevaSi saubroben metaforaze
da ara metamorfozaze (aruTiunova 1990: 30). Cemi azriT, Tavad arutiunova
miuTiTebs rom metamorfozuli `masalidan~ SeiZleba metaforis miReba (am
sakiTxs qvemoT davubrundebiT).
2. metafora da metamorfoza, faqtobrivad, erTi da igivea (v. stivensi,
m. kuini).
stivensis azriT, poezia aris metamorfoza, poeti gonebis gamWriaxobiT
`aRmoaCens~ transformaciebis saSualebebs da sityvis ZaliT aCvenebs ga-
darCenis axal gzebs. metafora saSualebas gvaZlevs ganvamtkicoT da dav-
icvaT Cveni gamocdilebis faqizi cvalebadi Strixebi, misi naxevartonebi,
radganac sityvebi, romlebsac viyenebT maTi standartuli mniSvnelobiT,
samyaros ufro sworxazovnad asaxaven. sruli simarTle iqneba Tu vityviT,
rom metaforebi afarToeben Cvens enobriv SesaZleblobebs. poetebi, Segneb-
ulad Tu Seugneblad, miakvleven ra sicocxlisa Tu samyaros ama Tu im
Taviseburebas, eZeben rac SeiZleba gaazrebul cocxal da cincxal saSu-
alebebs TavianTi `ganbrZobis~ Sedegebis gadmosacemad. isini eZieben si-
tyvebs da SeanivTeben mas saxesTan, raTa am dros warmoqmnilma metaforebma
mxolod poetis intuicia ki ar gamoxaton, aramed sicocxle STaberon
axal SesaZlo azrebs.
v. stivensi metaforas xSirad aigivebs metamorfozasTan; zog konteqstSi
igi wers: metafora an metamorfoza. misi azriT: `SeiZleba iTqvas, poezia um-
eteswilad aRmocendeba rogorc metyvelebis figurebis gamoyenebis rezul-
tati, an (rac igivea) rogorc erTi warmosaxvis meoreze zemoqmedebis Sedegi
metaforis saSualebiT. metaforisa da metamorfozis gaigiveba aris am Tval-
sazrisis gamoxatvis Semoklebuli gza~ (stivensi 1951: 117-118). stivensze ufro
kategoriulia m. kuinis pozicia. misi azriT, metamorfoza aris elementi,
rusudan canava
44
romelic warmoadgens yovelgvari poeziis arss. rogorc meTodi, (metamor-
foza) Segnebulad gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove poeziaSi (kuini 1955: 27).
am mosazrebasTan axlosaa e.w. `miTologiuri skolis~ (i. da v. grimebis)
koncefcia, romelic ar aris gaziarebuli Tanamedrove mkvlevarebis mier.
stivensisa da kuinis Tvalsazrisis nakli isaa, rom arc erTi mecnieri
ar asabuTebs metaforisa da metamorfozis `igiveobas~; isini am faqts iRe-
ben, a priori WeSmaritebad.
3. axla Sevecdebi Camovayalibo varaudi, romelic iTvaliswinebs ramden-
ime mecniris konceptualur xedvas. saqme isaa, rom qvemoT warmodgenili
mosazrebebi pirdapir ar exeba metaforisa da metamorfozis urTierTmi-
marTebis sakiTxs, magram, Cemi azriT, am ori fenomenis arsebiTad msgavs sa-
fuZvlebsa da principebze miuTiTebs. mxedvelobaSi maqvs e. kasireris `sa-
bazo metaforebis~ koncefcia, romelic garkveulwilad exmianeba a. los-
evis `absoluturi miTis~
*
Teorias; k. levi-strosis kodebisa da matricis
Teoria, agreTve sxva Tvalsazrisebi. rogorc ukve aRvniSne, es mecnierebi
aSkarad ar laparakoben metamorfozis mimarTebaze metaforasTan, magram Tu
kargad davukvirdebiT, sabazo//absoluturi miTi, transformirebadi kodebi,
sityvier TamaSebze dafuZnebuli pirveli saazrovno modelebi swored meta-
morfozebia (etiologiuri, kosmogoniuri, kosmologiuri miTebi).
ernst kasirerma Tavisi koncefcia Camoayaliba samtomian monografiaSi
`simboluri formebis filosofia~ (kasireri 1925), romlis II tomia `mi-
Tologiuri azrovneba~. igi miTologias ganixilavs enasTan da kulturasTan
erTad. misi TvalTaxedviT, miTologia aris Caketili simboluri sistema,
romelSic simboloebi gaerTianebulia funqcionirebis xasiaTiT da gare-
samyaros modelirebis saSualebebiT. miTologiuri azrovnebis Tavisebure-
bas kasireri xedavs realurisa da idealuris, sagnisa da saxis, sxeulisa
da Tvisebis, `sawyisisa~ da `principis~ ganurCevlobad, ris safuZvelzec
msgavseba an momijnaveoba gardaisaxeba mizezobriv TanmimdevrulobaSi, miz-
ezobriv-SedegobiT process ki aqvs materialuri metamorfozis xasiaTi.
urTierTobebi ki ar sinTezirdeba, aramed igivdeba. nawili funqcionalu-
rad mTelis igiveobrivia. mTeli kosmosi mowyobilia erTi modeliT da gam-
oixateba opoziciiT _ `wminda~ da `profanuli~. cxovrebis erTianobis
miTosuri gancda gamovlindeba adamianTa calkeuli jgufebis erTianobaSi
(erTobaSi) cxovelTa calkeul jgufebTan (totemizmi).
* a. losevi saubrobs miTebis mTavar tipebze; igi erTmaneTs upirispirebs absolutur da SedarebiT
miTologiebs. absoluturi miTologia arsebobs, rogorc msoflios erTaderTi SesaZlo suraTi
da misi arc erTi principi ar eqvemdebareba klebas (damcrobas). absoluturi miTologia viTar-
deba sakuTari Tavidan da arafers scnobs sakuTari Tavis garda. absoluturi miTologia aris ab-
soluturi yofiereba, romelmac Tavi gamoavlina absolutur miTSi; yofiereba, romelmac miaRwia
miTis dones, amasTan arc am yofierebas, arc am miTs ar SeiZleba hqondes arc sazRvari, arc _ wi-
naaRmdegoba. absoluturi miTis dialeqtika, arsebiTad, aris sruliad Cveulebrivi dialeqtika.
metafora da metamorfoza
45
e.kasireris kvleva efuZneba: struqturalistur, semiologiur meTodebs.
miTosuri Semecneba mogvagonebs kods, romlisTvisac saWiroa gasaRebi.
kasireris (axla Cven yuradRebas ar vamaxvilebT kasireris mcdar debule-
bebze) azriT, ena da miTi saerTo Ziridan aRmocendnen. am saerTos Ziebas ki
metaforul azrovnebamde mivyavarT. amitom Tu gvinda gaviazroT, miTosuri da
enobrivi samyaroebis, erTi mxriv, erTianoba, meore mxriv, gansxvaveba, aucile-
belia CavwvdeT metaforis arssa da azrs. am mxriv gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba
eniWeba e.w. `bazisur (sabazo) metaforebs~.
*
swored sabazo metaforebs ukav-
Sirdeba enisa da miTosuri warmodgenebis aRmoceneba (warmoSoba). es procesi
kasirers ase warmoudgenia: yvelaze martivi enobrivi gamoxatuleba moiTxovs
garkveuli msoflmxedvelobrivi an emociuri Sinaarsis gardasaxvas bgerad,
anu misTvis mtrul Seusabamo Sinaarsad (emociis, azris gadatana bgerad aris
procesi _ metav+ f orev w). es emociebi pirvelyofil adamians garesamyarosTan
urTierTobisas uCndeba; SiSi, aRtaceba Tu sxva tipis emocia (anu warmosax-
vaSi aRZruli `xati~) badebs survils, sxvebsac gauziaron igi. am dros iqmneba
sametyvelo ena. aseve miTosuri saxe aRmocendeba transformaciis saSualebiT,
romlis wyalobiTac yoveldRiurobisgan miRebuli Cveulebrivi yofiTi, yovel-
dRiuri _ profanuli _ STabeWdilebebi amaRldeba `wmindas~ rangSi. aq xdeba
ara mxolod gadatana, aramed WeSmariti gardasaxva sxva gvarad.
ena da miTi imTaviTve imyofebian erTmaneTTan ganuyofel kavSirSi, mxolod
Semdeg gancalkevdebian, rogorc damoukidebeli elementebi. isini (ena da miTi)
warmoadgenen erTi da imave totis sxvadasxva ylortebs, romlebic warmoiSvnen
sulieri gadamuSavebis erTi da imave aqtidan. am gardasaxvis aqtis dasrulebi-
sas ixsneba Sinagani daZabuloba. adamiani misi survilisgan damoukideblad,
iZulebuli iyo elaparaka metaforulad; da ara imitom, rom ar SeeZlo Tavisi
poeturi fantaziis daokeba, aramed imitom, rom unda daeZaba igi (fantazia)
ukidures zomamde, raTa gamoexata Tavisi sulis mzardi moTxovnileba. anu sa-
bazo metafora monawileobs sityvebis warmoqmnis procesSi, saxeldebaSi. ami-
tom aris ena da metafora erTi Ziridan, Semdgom ki sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT
viTardebian. kasireri ar asaxelebs sabazo metaforis magaliTebs, imitom, rom
sabazo metafora SeiZleba yofiliyo nebismieri sityva, romelsac aqvs daZabu-
loba da `tevadoba~, mag.: `bRavana~ (kasireri 1925: 41).
**
* sabazo (bazisur )metaforebs gamoyofs e. makkormakic. MacCormac E., A Cognitive Theory of Meta-
phor, MIT Press, Cambridge _ London, 1985.
** kasireri imowmebs uzeneris mier moxmobil magaliTebs: litvur Teofaniur saxelebSi Tovlis RmerT- kasireri imowmebs uzeneris mier moxmobil magaliTebs: litvur Teofaniur saxelebSi Tovlis RmerT-
Tan erTad arsebobs naxiris RmerTi _ bRavana (vinc bRavis), futkrebis RmerTi _ bzuila, miwisZvris
RmerTi _ mryeveli. rogorc ki naxiris RmerTma miiRo bRavanas saxe, igi unda SeecnoT sruliad
sxvadasxva movlenebSi: misTvis moesminaT lomis bdRvinvaSi, qariSxlis RrialSi, okeanis xmaurSi.
am TvalsazrisiT miTi isev da isev cocxldeba da mdidrdeba enis wyalobiT, ena ki miTiT. am mudmivi
urTierTzemoqmedebiTa da urTierTgamsWvalviT dasturdeba sulieri sawyisis erToba, romlisganac
warmoiSvnen isini _ sxvadasxva gamoxatulebebiTa da safexurebiT. (kasireri, ibid. 41).
rusudan canava
46
metaforis ganviTarebas aqvs 2 mTavari stadia: 1. formirebis _ enaSi
saxeobisa da gvaris aRmniSvneli terminebis Seqmna (e. w. sabazo metafore-
bis etapi). 2. Semdgomi ganviTarebis _ ukve Seqmnili saxeebis SigniT (an
saxidan gvarze) niSan-TvisebaTa gadatana. kasireris azriT, aq Cans adamianis
azrovnebis sxvadasxva tendencia: Tu meore SemTxvevaSi xdeba warmodgenaTa
gafarToebis procesi (wyalSi Cagdebuli qvis garSemo wreebis gafarToebis
principiT), I SemTxvevaSi _ piriqiT farTo wre viwrovdeba (wyalSi Cagde-
buli qvis Sebrunebuli kadri) _ emociaTa da STabeWdilebaTa koncentri-
reba erT sityvaSi.
verasdros gavigebT miTologias, Tu kargad ar gaviazrebT imas, rasac vu-
wodebT anTropomorfizms, personifikacias an gasulierebas. SeuZlebeli
iqneboda garemomcveli samyaros aTviseba sabazo metaforis _ am universa-
luri miTologiis gareSe. es aris saganTa qaosSi adamianis mier Caberili
suli, yofasTan adamianis misadagebis saSualeba. am meore Sesaqmes dasabami
iyo sityva. da mainc, Semdgomi ganviTarebisas es egzom mWidro, da rogorc
Cans, aucilebeli kavSiri TandaTan sustdeba da wydeba. rameTu ena ar mie-
kuTvneba mxolod miTebis samefos, masSi (enaSi) dasabamidanve moqmedebs sxva
Zalac _ logosis Zala. enis ganviTarebis Semdgom etapebze sityva Tanda-
Tan xdeba mxolod cnebis niSani. am Zalis gamoyofisa da gamoTavisuflebis
paralelurad mimdinareobs sxva procesic. xelovneba, iseve, rogorc ena,
mWidrod ewvneba miTs. miTi, ena da xelovneba gamomdinareoben konkretuli
daunawevrebeli erTobidan (erTianobisgan), romelic SemdgomSi TandaTan
daiSala sulieri moRvaweobis sam sxvadasxva sferod.
enobriv da miTosur azrovnebaSi batonobs kanoni, romelsac SeiZleba vu-
wodoT specifikuri gansxvavebebis nivelirebisa da ganzavebis kanoni. yoveli
nawili mTelis ekvivalenturia, egzemplari ki saxis an gvaris. yovel nawils
SeuZlia ara mxolod mTelis reprezentacia (individs _ saxeobisa da gva-
risa), aramed nawili moiazreba, rogorc mTeli. nawilebi Tavis TavSi moicaven
`mTelis~ Zalas, mniSvnelobas, qmediTobas. aq upriania gavixsenoT enobrivi
da miTologiuri `metaforis~ mTavari principi, romelic asea formuli-
rebuli pars pro toto (nawili viTarca mTeli). rogorc cnobilia, am umTavres
princips eqvemdebareba mTeli magiuri azrovneba. is, vinc marTavs mTelis
raRac nawils, magiuri azrovnebis mixedviT, batonobs mTelze.
*
* kasirers mohyavs magaliTebi miTosidan da magiuri ritualebidan. mag.: imisaTvis, rom moipovo
sxva adamianze magiuri zemoqmedebis unari, sakmarisia moipovo im adamianis frCxili, Tma, nerwyvi...
igive funqcia aqvs adamianis Crdils an gamosaxulebas sarkeSi. am princips efuZneba mTeli `sim-
paTiuri magia~ (ix. j.freizeri). magram, amasTanave miTiTebulia, rom am warmodgenebis mixedviT,
mxedvelobaSi aqvT ara ubralod analogia, aramed realuri identuroba. magaliTad moxmobilia
wvimis gamoxmobisa da Sewyvetis ritualebi, rodesac wylis wveTi asocirebulia wvimasTan. wvima,
rogorc miTosuri Zala, an wvimis `demoni~ mopkurebuli wylis yvela wveTSia. iseve, rogorc qe-
ris yvela TavTavSi (da marcvalSi) aris RvTaeba.
metafora da metamorfoza
47
Zvel ritorikas metaforis ZiriTad saxed mohyavs gvaris Secvla saxeo-
biT, mTelisa _ nawiliT, an piriqiT. aq savsebiT TvalsaCinod Cans, ram-
denad uSualod momdinareobs metaforis es forma miTis sulieri arsidan.
amavdroulad cxadi xdeba, rom Tavad miTSi laparakia raRac sruliad
gansxvavebulze da gacilebiT didze, vidre ubralod `Secvlaa~ (Senacv-
leba) _ ritorikul-enobrivi figura. imas, rasac Cven, ufro gviandeli
refleqsiiT, ubralo gadatanad miviCnevT, misTvis (ZvelTaTvis r.c.) war-
moadgens realur da bunebriv identurobas.
*

miTologiuri metaforis es umTavresi Strixi saSualebas gvaZlevs
ufro zustad ganvsazRvroT da gavigoT azri da moqmedeba imisa, rasac
Cveulebriv uwodeben enis metaforul funqcias. jer kidev kvintiliane
miuTiTebda, rom es funqcia enis nawili ki ar aris, aramed misiT gamsWva-
lulia adamianTa mTeli metyveleba. Tu marTalia, rom saerTo gagebiT
metafora unda ganvixiloT ara rogorc metyvelebis garkveuli movlena,
aramed enis arsebobis erT-erTi konstituciuri piroba, maSin mis gasage-
bad xelaxla unda davubrundeT cnebaTa Seqmnis mTavar formas enaSi. sabo-
loo jamSi, isini warmoiSobian koncentraciis aqtisgan, grZnobaTa kom-
presiis gamocdilebisgan, romlebic qmnian aucilebel winapirobas yoveli
enobrivi cnebis formirebisTvis. yovel jer kidev bundovan STabeWdilebas,
romelic jer ar aris asaxuli enaSi, SeuZlia saxis (RmerTis, misi nomi-
naciis) Seqmnis stimulireba.
am analizidan Cans, rom kasireris mier sabazo metaforebis magaliTebad
moxmobili miTosuri masala, faqtobrivad, metamorfozebis nimuSebia.
CvenTvis sayuradRebo aspeqtebs wamoswevs a. losevi miTsa da poeziaze
msjelobisas. mkvlevari gamoyofs miTisa da poeziis msgavsebis 3 niSans: 1.
miTosuri da poeturi saxeebi _ orive gamomsaxvelobiTia. cneba `gamo-
msaxveloba~ Zalian mniSvnelovania; a. losevis ganmartebiT: gamosaxva aris
`Sinaganisa~ da `gareganis~ sinTezi _ Zala, romelic `Sinagans~ aiZulebs,
rom gamovlindes, `garegans~ ki eqaCeba (eweva) `Sinaganis~ siRrmeSi SesaRw-
evad. gamosaxva (gamoxatva) yovelTvis dinamikuri procesia; moZraoba xor-
cieldeba rogorc `Signidan~ `gareT~, ise garedan `SigniT~. xatovnad
rom vTqvaT, gamosaxva aris ori energiis Sexvedris arena (Sinaganisa da
* miTosur-magiuri azrovnebisaTvis ar arsebobs `ubralo~ gamosaxuleba (anu, ubralod, gamo- miTosur-magiuri azrovnebisaTvis ar arsebobs `ubralo~ gamosaxuleba (anu, ubralod, gamo- miTosur-magiuri azrovnebisaTvis ar arsebobs `ubralo~ gamosaxuleba (anu, ubralod, gamo-
saxuleba); yoveli saxe ganasaxierebs sagnis `arsebas~, anu demons, anu `suls~ mag. egviptelTa
warmodgeniT, saxeli, emblema, Tu RmerTis an demonis gamosaxuleba SeiZleba iqces Zalis mqone
damcvel amuletad imisTvis, vinc mas atarebs. es damcveli Zala moqmedebs manam, sanam arsebobs
is masala, romlisganac isini arian Seqmnilni. egviptelebs sjerodaT, rom mamakacis, qalis an
cxovelis figuras SeiZleba gadaeces im arsebis suli, romelsac igi warmoadgens misi yvela
TvisebiTa da atributiT. taZarSi dadgmuli RmerTis figura `Seicavda~ Sesabamisi RmerTis suls.
egviptelebs uxsovari droidan sjerodaT, rom nebismier qandakebasa da figuraSi Cabudebuli iyo
suli. igive warmodgenebi cocxlobs primitiuli xalxebSi.
rusudan canava
48
gareganis) da maTi Serwyma erT mTelSi, romelic erTdroulad erTicaa
da meorec. termini gamo-saxva (gamo-xatva) miuTiTebs aqtiur mimarTu-
lobaze, TviTgardasaxvaze. poeziis mTavari iaraRi _ sityva _ gamomsax-
velia, igi `perspeqtiulia~ da ara `brtyeli~. asevea miTic; igi `gamomx-
atvelia~, yovelTvis Cans, rom miTSi ori an meti Srea. maT amsgavsebs isic,
rom miTosuri da poeturi saxeebi SeiZleba iyvnen sqemebic, alegoriebic
da simboloebic. 2. miTosic da poeziac arsiT, erTnairi doziT arian ara
mxolod gamomsaxvelni, aramed inteligencia (intel-lego-dan `SegrZneba, aR-
qma, SemCneva; Secnoba; azrovneba; garkveva~) anu `gasulierebuli gamoxatva~.
yoveli poeturi forma yovelTvis aris raRac `sulCaberili~, `Signidan~
xiluli cxovreba. asea miTosic. igi an pirdapir mogviTxrobs cocxal
arsebebze, an aracocxalze mogviTxrobs ise, rom Cans misi Tavdapirveli
sulieri arseba. poeturia ara Tavad sagani, aramed misi gamoxatvis, gagebis
saSualeba. igive unda iTqvas miTosze. miTosuri saxe ar arsebobs, rogorc
nivTi, romelic TavisTavad aris mSvenieri. miTosuri saxe miTiuria misi
gaformebis anu gamosaxvis dozis Sesabamisad. miTic da poeziac `cocxlo-
ben~ gasulierebul samyaroSi da es gasuliereba sagnis gamovlenis saSu-
alebaa. 3. poeziaSic da miTSic saxe ar saWiroebs rame logikur sistemebs,
igi cxadi da xilulia. orivesTvis damaxasiaTebelia xiluli suraTovneba
_ Sinagani da garegnuli.
poeziisa da miTossis ganmasxvavebelia gamijvna (gankerZoeba, ganyeneba)
igi, erTi mxriv, poeziisa da miTosis saerTo niSania, meore mxriv, isini
swored aq Sordebian erTmaneTs principulad da sabolood.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom, losevis azriT, poezia SeuZlebelia miTosis
gareSe, maSin rodesac miTi poeziis gareSec arsebobs (losevi 1991: 41-68).
r. iakobsoni ganasxvavebs poetur funqcias da poezias. poeturi funqcia
emTxveva, yovel SemTxvevaSi, nawilobriv, imas, rasac ombredani (fsiqologi-
is poziciidan) uwodebs enis TamaSebriv funqcias. am TvalsazrisiT Zalian
mniSvnelovania i. haizingas Tvalsazrisi, romelic warmodgenila naSromSi
`kaci moTamaSe~ (`Homo Ludens).
sityvis gamomsaxvelobiT potenciaze r. barti wers: ena ar daiyvaneba
mis mier `Sobil~ Setyobinebaze. mas SeuZlia ukan moitovos es Setyobineba
da araiSviaTad Cvenamde moitanos mrisxane guguni raRac sxvisa, vidre is,
rac Tavad Setyobinebis SinaarsSia; raRac iseTi, rac TiTqos zed edeba
subieqtis Segnebul, racionalur xmas _ Zalmosili, daJinebuli xma Tavad
struqturisa; xma, romelic gvarovnuli kategoriiT alaparakda (barti
1989: 549).
k.levi-strosis saanalizo masalis (miTebis) didi nawili transforma-
ciebs efuZneba. mkvlevaris azriT, am transformaciebis safuZvelSi Zevs
metafora da metamorfoza
49
metaforizmi. metaforizmi Zalian afarToebs sazRvrebs sxvadasxva saxeeb-
is, motivebis da siuJeturi svlebis dasaaxloeblad. levi-stross miaCnia,
rom metafora eyrdnoba logikuri urTierTobebis intuicias sxvadasxva
sferos Soris. amasTan, Tavad miTologiuri logika Rrmad metaforulia,
ris demonstrirebasac k. levi-strosi axerxebs totemisturi masalis
klasifikaciis safuZvelze. aerTianebs ra uamrav miTs miTosur sistemebSi,
levi-strosi erT miTs ganixilavs, rogorc meoris `metaforas~. magaliTad:
miTi Taflis dResaswaulis warmoSobaze aris metafora Taflis warmoSo-
bis miTTan mimarTebiT. TaflTan dakavSirebuli metaforebi Zalian Zvelia.
vedebis himnebSi Tafli asocirebulia rZesTan. bibliis mixedviT, aRTqmu-
li miwa Taflisa da rZis siuxviT gamoirCeva. uflis sityvebi `Taflze tk-
bilia~. babilonSi Tafli RmerTisadmi gankuTvnil gansakuTrebul ZRvnad
iTvleboda. `iliadis~ mixedviT, Tixis WurWelSi Casxmuli Tafli micvale-
bulebisTvis iyo gankuTvnili. cnobilia gamoTqmebi: `TafliviT tkbili~,
`Taflis mdinareebi~, `Taflobis Tve~ da sxva. amerikel indielTa miTebSi
(levi-strosi swored am miTebs ikvlevda) Tafli warmoadgens `saWmlis~
metaforas, romelic Caenacvleba seqsualobas (tapiri, qalis bukvaluri
macdunebeli, Sepirispirebulia TaflTan _ metaforul macdunebelTan.
indielTa miTebis personaJi qalis bukvaluri TavSeukavebloba Taflisad-
mi Sedarebulia sxva personaJis dauokebel swrafvasTan akrZaluli kav-
Sirebisadmi) e. i. xdeba kodis Secvla. `miTologiurebSi~ metaforizaciis
Sedegad kodis Secvlis uamravi magaliTia moyvanili. magaliTad, miTebis
personaJi qali susai aris sammagi inversia gogonasi, romelsac Zalian
uyvars Tafli: igi iRebs pasuxismgeblobas pleadebis (Tanavarskvlavedis)
warmoSobaze; is aris mravalSviliani deda, aris moRalate coli. amgvarad,
metaforizacias Zalian xSirad moyveba kodis Secvla (levi-strosi 2000:15,
253).
k.levi-strosi yvela miTSi gamoyofs `armaturas~ anu TaviseburebaTa er-
Tobliobas, romelic saerToa (ucvlelia) or an ramdenime miTSi, gamoyofs
`kods~ anu funqciaTa sistemas, romelTa saSualebiTac aRiniSnebian es
Taviseburebebi da `Setyobinebas~, romelic, SeiZleba iTqvas, mocemuli mi-
Tis Sinaarsia. faqtobrivad, Setyobineba miTebSi, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT,
Seesabameba etiologiur Temas (kulturisa da bunebis sxvadasxva faseu-
lobaTa warmoSoba). magaliTad: `Jes~ tomSi miTi cecxlis warmoSobis Ses-
axeb bororos tomSi transformirdeba wvimisa da qariSxlis warmoSobad;
gareuli Rorebis warmoSobis miTi tupis tomSi gardaisaxeba samkaulebisa
da sxva Zvirfasi nivTebis warmoSobis miTad. etiologiuri Temis Secvla
aris Tavad Setyobinebis Secvla. aq `armaturebs~ Seadgens moyvrebis, anu
`mimcemebisa~ da `mimRebTa~, urTierToba (colebis miReba sxva nivTebze
rusudan canava
50
gacvliT da sxva). rodesac colebs `gascemen~ adamianebi, maT miiReben
mxecebi; rodesac mimRebebi arian adamianebi, gascemen _ sulebi. Zalian
xSirad miTidan miTze gadasvlisas armatura da kodi rCeba, icvleba Set-
yobineba. Setyobineba SeiZleba Seicvalos sruli inversiis donezec. Set-
yobineba gadaicema kodebiT, romelTac aqvT TavianTi gramatika da leqsika.
invariantulia maTi gramatika da ara leqsika da, ra Tqma unda, ara Set-
yobineba. k.levi-strosi mivida empiriul daskvnemde: ori naxevradtrans-
formacia Setyobinebis doneze Seesabameba erTs leqsikis doneze.
k.levi-strosma detalurad Seiswavla kodidan kodze gadasvla da maTi
urTulesi gadajaWvulobebi. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva im miTe-
bis analizi, romlebic exeba sikvdilsa da sicocxles. aq erTi da igive
Setyobineba gadaecema ramdenime kodiT, romlebic Seesabamebian grZnobis
5 organos.
saintereso gamodga samedicino praqtikis (indielTa yofis am umniSvnelo-
vanesi sferos) Sejereba miTebTan da ritualebTan, agreTve fsiqologebisa
da fsiqiatrebis dakvirvebebi (magaliTad, fsiqologi dezoi wers, rom
fsiqopaTologiuri aSlilobebis gadmocema SeiZleba mxolod simboloTa
eniT. amitom igi Tavis avadmyofebTan simboloebis gamoyenebiT saubrobs. es
simboloebi, Tavis mxriv, sityvieri metaforebi arian). miTi da mimdinare
movlenebi qmnian wyvils, romelSic xorcieldeba avadmyofisa da eqimis du-
alizmi. SizofreniiT daavadebisas moqmedebs eqimi, avadmyofi ki qmnis miTs.
Samanuri (mkurnalobis yvelaze Zveli praqtika) mkurnalobis praqtikaSi
miTs yveba eqimi, avadmyofi ki moqmedebs. mkurnalobis Tanamedrove da Sa-
manuri meTodebi erTsa da imave principebs efuZneba, romlis mizania avad-
myofobis struqturis Secvla. induqciis am procesSi monawileobs meta-
fora. aq ar SeiZleba ar mogvagondes artur rembos gamonaTqvami: `metafo-
ris saSualebiT samyaros Secvla SeiZleba~ (levi-strosi 1985: 179-180).
levi-strosis azriT, miTebis wyalobiT Cven vxvdebiT, rom metafora
eyrdnoba logikuri urTierTobebis intuiciur winaTgrZnobas romeliRac
erT sferosa da sxvebs Soris. metaforis saSualebiT xerxdeba pirvelis
`Seyvana~ sxvebSi miuxedavad refleqsirebadi azrisa, romelic jiutad
cdilobs maT daSoriSorebas. metafora ar aris enis samSvenisi, yoveli
metafora wmends enas da aamaRlebs mas Tavdapirvel bunebamde (erTi wuTiT
waSlis erT-erTs mravalricxovan sinekdoqeTagan). miTosuri azri imeorebs
raRac Zalian mniSvnelovan process, romelic xdeba enaSi (levi-strosi
1999: 322).
Cveni sakvlevi sakiTxis Semdgomi gaSlisTvis Zalian sainteresoa
metaforis ganxilva modelTan da analogiasTan mimarTebiT. zogi mecn-
ieri fiqrobs, rom modelebi gafarToebuli metaforebia, analogiebi ki
metafora da metamorfoza
51
modelebis meqanizmebi. m. blekis azriT, modelebi (gansxvavebiT calkeu-
li metaforuli winadadebebisgan) aerTianeben Sedarebebis ufro farTo
bades. erTi mTliani metaforuli qselis aRsaniSnad bleks Semoaqvs ter-
mini `arqetipi~. es arqetipi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT analogiad sxva SemTx-
vevebisaTvis (bleki 1960: 12-13). p. rikiori, blekisgan gansxvavebiT, arqe-
tipis sanacvlod iyenebs termins `metaforuli qseli~ (raTa ar moxdes
aRreva iungiseul arqetipTan) (rikiori 1977: 43). ganasxvaveben modelis 2
tips: I. erTi sagnis modelebi (mag.: TviTmfrinavis an avtomobilis sxva-
dasxva modeli), II. atomi, rogorc mzis sistemis modeli; an Tavis tvini,
rogorc kompiuteris modeli. is, rom atomi aris mzis sistemis modeli, an
tvini muSaobs, rogorc kompiuteri, arafriT gansxvavdeba metaforisgan.
analogiuri modeli `sasargebloa~ imitom, rom gvexmareba `ucnobs~ mi-
vudgeT `cnobilis~ saSualebiT da saSualebas gvaZlevs, gavakeToT naxtomi
azrovnebaSi. am azriT, modelebi aris metaforebi ufro farTo gagebiT da
maT safuZvlad udevT sabazo metaforebi (sRurudi 2003: 352).
sabazo metaforebis (kodebis, metaforuli qselis) kvalobaze SegviZlia
gamovyoT sabazo metamorfozebi, metamorfozuli kodebi.
`myar~ (mudmiv) metamorfozaSi gardasaxva xdeba erTxel da samudamod
mag.: adamianis sxeulis nawilebisgan samyaros da pirvelnivTebis Seqmna;
sxvadasxva frinvelebis, cxovelebisa da mcenareebis warmoSoba gardasaxve-
bis saSualebiT: oboba, yvavi, narcisi da a.S. amgvari myari metamorfozebi,
Tavis mxriv, warmoadgenen modelebs (kodebs) sxva metamorfozebisaTvis. am
tipis metamorfozebi etiologiuri xasiaTisaa da miTisqmnadobis uZveles
periods miekuTvneba. aseT TxrobebSi erTmaneTs ejaWveba pirvelyofili
warmodgenebi samyaros Sesaqmeze, yofiTi, filosofiuri da fsiqologiuri
aspeqtebi. es yvelaferi adamianis qveSecneulis doneze daileqa (Seiqmna
arqetipebi). metamorfozebis wored es universaluri modelebi dganan
metaforis gverdiT.
moZravi, aramyari metamorfozebi azris ganviTarebis sxva etaps esadageba.
magaliTad, RmerTebs SeuZliaT sxvadasxva ieris miReba. tiresiasi jer qal-
ad gardaisaxa, mere isev kacad. adamians SeuZlia mcire xniT saxe icvalos:
gardaisaxos cxovelad, frinvelad mcenared da a. S. mxatvruli litera-
tura orive formas iyenebs: adamiani Tavis TavSi `grZnobs~ romelime sxva
arsebas _ cxovels, frinvels, mwers, e. i. xdeba embrionis romeliRac fazis
gaaqtiureba (dabadebamde adamiani xom evoluciis yvela ZiriTad etaps gaiv-
lis); gaoreba. grZnobebis, gancdebis, Seqmnili situaciis Sesabamisad, adami-
ani Tavis Tavs usadagebs ara marto ama Tu im nivTs, arsebas, aramed ganyenebul
cnebas: fers, suns da a.S. am procesebis dasabami ki aris qveSecneulSi arse-
buli metamorfozis idea. es procesi SeiZleba SevadaroT almasisgan bril-
rusudan canava
52
iantis miRebas. yvela almasi ar gardaiqmneba briliantad, aramed mxolod
is, romelsac ostati mohkidebs xels da daawaxnagebs. metamorfoza almasia
poetis xelSi. Tu poets surs, misgan metaforas `gaakeTebs~.
metamorfoza aCvenebs azris moZraobis veqtors, process, mimarTule-
bas, amitom misi buneba predikatulia.
ase rom, metaforis `dabadebaSi~ arc Tu ukanasknel funqcias asrulebs
metamorfoza. metafora `ibadeba~ pirvelyofili miTo-religiuri warmod-
genebis warmoSobisas, igi msoflaRqmis saSualebaa. metamorfoza metafo-
ris `meqanizmia~.
literaturul metamorfozebs Soris gamorCeuli adgili uWiravs
ovidiusis `metamorfozebs~, romelSic, Cemi azriT, Cans avtoris damok-
idebuleba `gardaqmnebisadmi~ poetikis TvalsazrisiTac.
`metamorfozebSi~ (nazoni 1980: 1932) damuSavebulia 250-mde berZnuli
da italikur-etruskul-romauli miTi; yvela maTgani gardasaxvaze (meta-
morfozaze) mogviTxrobs. poemaSi Txroba Tanmimdevrulia da erT mTlian
sistemas warmoadgens: iwyeba qaosidan kosmosis warmoSobiT, rasac mohyveba
kosmogoniuri metamorfozebi; Semdgom aRwerilia olimpiuri panTeonis
formireba, ciklebi da uamravi CarTuli ambavi, romlebic metamorfozebis
yvela SesaZlo SemTxvevas moicavs. `metamorfozebi~ ovidiusis simwifis
periodis nawarmoebia. ismis kiTxva: risTvis dasWirda mwerals yvelasTvis
kargad nacnobi miTebis `galeqsva~? saqme isaa, rom ovidiusamdec arsebobda
miTebis uamravi krebuli da saxelmZRvanelo (prozaulic, da rogorc gad-
mogvcemen, poeturic). mecnierebaSi am faqts ase xsnian: ovidiuss surda me-
temfsiqozis piTagoraseuli koncefciis gamyareba miTologiuri masaliT.
marTlac, poemis XV wignSi, romelic piTagoras eZRvneba, ovidiusi vr-
clad msjelobs sulTa gadasaxlebis Teoriaze.
am Tvalsazriss savsebiT viziareb, magram, Cemi azriT, `metamorfozebSi~
Cadebulia gacilebiT meti, vidre metemfsiqozis koncefciis populariza-
cia. ufro sworad, ovidiusma moaxerxa metemfsiqozis filosofiur-re-
ligiuri koncefciis dakavSireba poetikasTan. saqme is aris, rom, misive
Txzulebebdan gamomdinare, kargad Cans, ramdens fiqrobda ovidiusi poet-
uri sityvis zemoqmedebis Zalaze. Tavad suliT xorcamde poets Tavisi bi-
ografiis araerT umZimes momentSi mxsnelad swored leqsi moevlina (gansa-
kuTrebiT niSandoblivia sasowarkveTa, romelic mas daeufla gadasaxlebis
misjisas. tomasken mimavali poeti, romelsac zRvaze saSineli qariSxalic
daatyda, sikvdils natrobda. mas surda aqafebul talRebSi gadaSvebu-
liyo, magram swored am dros igrZno, rogor daulagda gonebaSi Tavisi
tragikuli gancdebi saleqso striqonebad. poeziam, muzam gadamarCinao, _
wers ovidiusi).
metafora da metamorfoza
53
Cemi azriT, ovidiusma `metamorfozebSi~ mkiTxvels almasis sabado
`gauxsna~. genialurma poetma zustad miakvlia metaforuli xatebis erT-
erT umTavres `sacavs~ da STamomavlobas saqme gauiola imiT, rom `daalaga~
metamorfozuli etiologiebis variantebi da maTgan gamomavali daskvna-
figurebi, maT Cven SegviZlia vuwodoT `sabazo~ metamorfozebi (sabazo
metaforebis kvalobaze): niobe-kldea, araqne _ oboba, zevsi _ arwivi, xari,
wvima, elva da quxili; hera _ SroSani, dionise _ vazi, mtevani da sxva. am
saxeTa analogiiT iolad SeiZleba Seiqmnas axali variantebi. `metamorfo-
zebi~ sruliad garkveuli principiT da mizniT Seiqmna. `metamorfozebi~
aris udidesi `gaWra~ literaturaSi. ovidiusis mier SemoTavazebuli po-
eturi saxismetyvelebis ulevi wyaro.
`metamorfozebi~ mTavrdeba poetis anderZiT, romelic Zalian hgavs
horaciusis cnobil odas `melpomenesadmi~:
`davidgi Zegli brinjaoze maradiuli,
mefeTa saZvle piramidebs aRmatebuli
da mis damxobis arvin aris aw SemZlebeli
arc qariSxali, arca warRvna daundobeli,
arc uTvalavi welTa rigi da dro msrboleli.
(leqsis fragmenti Targmnilia Cem mier).

qvis (brinjaos) Zeglis, rogorc ukvdavebis metaforis (horaciusi,
ovidiusi, puSkini. galaktionma am `hangze gaawyo~ leqsi `maRal mTaze-
da avage sasaxle axal-axali~) `sabazo~ miTia niobes metamorfoza qvad.
aqedan erTi nabijia pigmalionis miTamde (Semdgom ki jadosnuri zRapris
modelamde gaqvavebuli adamianebis Sesaxeb). qvis gasulierebas (adamianis
gaqvavebas) ramdenime aspeqtiT SeiZleba mivudgeT; umTavresi ki aris is, rom
qvaSi, qandakebaSi moiazreba vitaluri substancia (ukvdaveba).
*

`sabazo~ metamorfozebad SeiZleba CavTvaloT RmerTebisa da adamiane-
* galaktion tabiZem leqsSi `buneba moqandakea~ es procesi ase aRwera:
`klde aWarisa, Tixa xandakis,
xelsawyo _ bevri _
yovel xelxebas am moqandakis
hqvia Sedevri!
xedav orfeoss, nimfas, dioniss
niWTa mlocvari _
Sors reliefi kavkasionis,
gasaocari!
TiTqo simSvide ciskrian tevrze
basri da mWevri
krTis grigalidan _ yovel Sedevrze
didi Sedevri!~
rusudan canava
54
bis gardasaxvebi sxvadasxva cxovelebad da frinvelebad (pirvelyofili
totemisturi rwmenis gamoxatuleba). ovidiusTan zevsi gardaisaxeba arwi-
vad, xarad, wvimad; hera _gugulad, Zroxad, yvavilad. anu, yvela RmerTs
`Tavisi~ cxoveli, frinveli, mcenare an bunebis esa Tu is movlena Seesabam-
eba. es, erTi mxriv, miuTiTebs, rom amgvari metamorfozebi ar aris nebis-
mieri da garkveul Zalian siRrmiseul qvecnobier erTobas efuZneba. meore
mxriv, berZen-romael mweralTa mier damkvidrebuli `modelebi~ Tavisebur
`sabazo~ metamorfozebad iqcnen Semdgomi epoqebis adamianebisTvis arwivi-
zevsi rig SemTxvevaSi simboloa, mag. heraldikaSi; rig SemTxvevaSi gamar-
jvebis metafora. gaaCnia, ras moisurvebs mwerali da rogor `daamuSavebs~
am poetur saxes. magram is, Tu ratom aris arwivi `saxe~, amis ganmartebas
gvaZlevs miTi zevsis arwivad metamorfozis Sesaxeb.
metamorfozisa da metaforis mimarTebis sakiTxi sainteresod aisaxa
antikur prozaSic. saberZneTSi filosofiuri proza ufro adre Camoyali-
bda, vidre mxatvruli. heraklites swavlebis mixedviT, gansxvavebulTagan
iSveba srulyofili harmonia. es Teza garkveuli logikuri aucileblo-
biT airekleba enazec. heraklites naSromis signatura antiTezaa, romelic
poeziaSi empedoklem, prozaSi gorgiasma ganaviTares. gamodis, rom rito-
rikis aRmoceneba filosofiuri saqmianobis `gverdiTi produqtebis~
formalizaciaa. iniciativa ekuTvnoda filosofias. filosofia gamovida
miTiT, kultiT, yofiT sanqcirebuli dResaswaulidan, raTa Seeqmna saku-
Tari arakalendaruli dResaswauli, imitom rom Tavad gamxdariyo dResas-
wauli (haidegeri 1961: 14-15). tradiciuli sistemis SigniT adamianTa yofa
daiyo kalendarul dResaswaulebad da Cveulebriv dReebad. sityvaTa Tama-
Si aris azris, ase vTqvaT, sadResaswaulo samosi da ritualuri cekva.
*

rogorc irkveva, winafilosofiuri da winaliteraturuli azris dabadeba
(sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, `sibrZnis~ literatura _ formiT saTamaSo, Si-
naarsiT _ didaqtikuri) saerTokacobriuli fenomenia, damaxasiaTebeli
ara mxolod elinuri samyarosTvis, aramed mTeli axlo aRmosavleTisTvis.
amgvarad, ukve winafilosofia warmoSobs faqiz, moZrav sityvas, romelic
mzadaa bgeraTa TamaSisa da metaforuli gardasaxvisaTvis (averincevi 1979:
65-66). gza winafilosofiuri enidan filosofiurisken namdvili revolu-
ciaa. revoluciaa imitom, rom es aris orerTiani _ dapirispirebuli, ma-
gram erTimeoris momcveli, urTierTganmapirobebeli procesi.
platonis dialogebSi sokrate gamoyvanilia, rogorc sityvaze, cnebe-
* Tanamedrove mecnierebaSi xorcieldeba saintereso mcdelobebi miTis `gamoTqmis~, `gamoxatvis~
rekonstruqciisa arqauli berZnuli teqstebidan. s. deligiorgisis dakvirvebiT, `Tqmis~ (`Txro-
bis~) arqauli tipi dakavSirebulia adamianis sametyvelo aparatis fiziologiasTan. sametyvelo
aparatis fiziologia saintereso kavSirs avlens somaturi gamoxatvis iseT formasTan, rogori-
caa ritualuri cekvebi. S. deligiorgis, Alternative Myth, AILC, 1976:8.
metafora da metamorfoza
55
bze azartuli `monadire~. igi isev da isev usvams kiTxvebs Tanamosaubreebs:
ras niSnavs sinamdvileSi mosaubris mier gamoyenebuli sityva; es WeSmari-
tad `romeliRac mamxilebeli RmerTia~, romelic `gamoavlens da amxels
daudevrebs metyvelebaSi~ (Sophista 216 b). sityvaTqmnadobis procesi Sei-
Zleba SevadaroT liTonis nakeTobis Seqmnas; liTonis wrTobis msgavsad,
sityva jer `xurdeba~ sametyvelo fantaziis TamaSiT, Semdgom mkveTrad
civdeba inteleqtualuri kritikis zemoqmedebiT. vitgenStainis SeniSvniT,
`mTeli filosofia enis kritikaa~ (vitgenStaini 1959: 44). enis kritika
moniSnavs sazRvars, igi gadaWris Wiplars, romelic aerTebs filoso-
fias winarefilosofiis sxeulTan. aq ikveTeba gansxvaveba filosofiasa da
poezias Soris, razec werda platoni (Resp. X, 607 b). aviRoT magaliTad
pindares poezia, romelic iTvleba `sibrZnis~ mwvervalad mTeli Tavisi
sityvieri morTulobis sazeimo uCveulobiT _ ufro swored, am sazeimo
uCveulobis wyalobiT _ igi (pindare) ritualurad asaxavda ra samyaros,
rogorc mocemulobas, amavdroulad, xotbis Sesxmisas (am aqtiT) ritu-
alurad amkvidrebda enas, rogorc mocemulobas. filosofiur refleqsias
ar SeeZlo distancireba ar moexdina amgvari poziciisgan. saboloo jamSi
aman migviyvana ZiriTadi filosofiuri terminebis sistemis Camoyalibe-
bamde. platoniseul `enis kritikas~ mivyavarT sityvebis WeSmariti da da-
sabamieri mniSvnelobis mikvlevasTan; yoveli sityvis fuZis Tavdapirveli
semantikuri intensivobis `gamococxlebasTan~.
*
sainteresoa mosazrebebi
waSlil metaforebze. platoni msjelobs `umZimes SurisZiebaze~, rogorc
`msubuq da frTian sityvaze~. aq SeiZleba gavixsenoT, rom metafora `fr-
Tiani sityvebi~ (e]pea pt eroevnt a) gvxvdeba jer kidev homerosTan `ili-
adaSi~ 46-jer, `odiseaSi~_ 58-jer.
yvela `pirveladi~ (pirvelad ganxorcielebuli) metamorfoza iyo mou-
lodneli, unikaluri da Sokismomgvreli; zustad iseTi efeqtis mqone,
rasac iwvevs `cincxali~ metafora. metaforisa da metamorfozis gzebi
pirvelad maSin gadaikveTa, rodesac adamianis gonebaSi daibada gardasax-
vis SesaZleblobis idea da Semdgom am azrma `gaaqtiurebuli~ sityva war-
moSva. gaaqtiurebul sityvaSi igulisxmeba ara sagnebis nominacia, aramed
predikatuli konstruqcia, rodesac sityva `mzad aris~ `moqmedebisaTvis~.
metaforisa da metamorfozis `Sexvedra~ Tu `amosvla~ erTi sawyisidan am
ori fenomenis Zalian Rrma konceptualur pirvelmizezebze (safuZvelze)
mianiSnebs. magram Semdgom movlenebi ise ganviTarda, rom metamorfoza
miTSi `CarCa~, misi ganviTareba metemfsiqozis formalistur aspeqts ver
* am sakiTxis analizi warmodgenilia naSromSi: Classen C.J. Sprachliche Deutung als Triebkraft pla-
tonischen und sokratischen Philosophierens. Mu>nchen 1959. klasenma pirvelma Caatara platonis te-
qstebis seriozuli analizi swored im TvalsazrisiT, Tu rogor muSaobda platoni im sityvebze,
romlebic ar iqcnen filosofiur terminebad.
rusudan canava
56
gascda, metaforam ki `frTa gaSala~ da samyaros aRqmis saSualebad iqca.
metaforebis im tips, romlebic statiaSi ganvixileT, pirobiTad Sei-
Zleba vuwodoT `miTosuri metaforebi~ (eseni, faqtobrivad, epiforebia,
romlebSic semantikuri Zvra ganxorcielda saxidan saxeze, gvaridan sax-
eze, saxidan gvarze gadatanis safuZvelze. am metaforebs axasiaTebs gansa-
kuTrebuli siaxlove gapirovnebasa da simbolosTan), magram es ise ar unda
gavigoT, rom aRniSnuli metaforebi mxolod antikuri epoqis mweralTa
TxzulebebSi gvxvdeba. axla warmovadgen galaktion tabiZis erTi leqsis
analizs, romelic, Cemi azriT, `miTosuri~ metaforis nimuSia:
`cxeniT xidze~
`cxeni miangrevs xideebs CliqiT,
magram uecrad scqvita yurebi,
misi Tvalebi aivssen _ iqiT
adamianur ubedurebiT...
mis Tvalwin gakrTa msubuqi mwkrivi:
eTamaSeba nakadebs Tevzi.
iyo mxedari _ Cveulebrivi _
kaci _ viT kaci, da ara zevsi~.
am leqsis erTaderTi personaJi cxenia: swored is `miangrevs xideebs
CliqiT~, man `sqvita~ yurebi da misi Tvalebi `aivsnen~ `adamianur ube-
durebiT~. analizs viwyebT fraziT: `mis Tvalwin gakrTa msubuqi mwkrivi~.
romel mwkrivzea laparaki? leqsis Semdgom sam taepSi naxsenebi _ `Tevzi~,
`mxedari~ da `zevsi~ gvafiqrebineben, rom poetis gonebaSi cnobili meta-
morfozuli saxeebi axal poetur metaforad gardaisaxa: kerZod, I plani:
cxeni zRvaTa mbrZaneblis _ poseidonis (//neptunis) cxovelia. poseidonis
zoomorfuli ikonografia iseve ukavSirdeba cxens, rogorc zevsisa _
xars. poseidons emorCileba zRvis yvela binadari da, ra Tqma unda, `na-
kadebTan moTamaSe Tevzi~ (Tevzis xseneba aZlierebs cxenis kavSirs wylis
stiqiasTan). II plani _ `Tvalwin gamkrTal mwkrivSi~ cxeni mxedaricaa. III
plani _ miuxedavad imisa, rom xari da cxeni uzenaesi RvTaebebis zoomor-
fuli hipostasebia, isini mainc naklebi `Rirsebis~ arian, vidre Tavad Rv- `Rirsebis~ arian, vidre Tavad Rv- Rirsebis~ arian, vidre Tavad Rv-
Taebebi. cnobili gamoTmaa: `rac zevss epatieba, xars ar epatieba~. aqedan:
`iyo mxedari _ Cveulebrivi _ / kaci _ viT kaci, da ara zevsi~. ase rom
sami miTosuri plastis SereviT, romelTagan ori (zevsi da poseidoni, Sesa-
bamisad, cxeni da xari) metamorfozaa, iqmneba poeturi figura.
metafora da metamorfoza
57
damowmebani:
averincevi 1979: . . -
. .: . .:
1979.
arutiunova 1990: . . . .: 1990.
barti 1989: . . , . .: 1989.
bleki 1960: Black M. Models and Metaphors. Cornell University Press 1960.
vinogradovi 1976: . . . .: 1976.
vitgenSteini 1959: . - . . . .: 1959.
kasireri 1925: Cassirer E. Philosophie des symbolischen Formen. Zweiter Teil, Berlin, 1925.
kuini 1955: Quinn M. Bernetta. The Metamorphic Tradition in Modern Poetry. Rutgers Univ.
Press, 1955.
levi-strosi 1985: - . . . . .: 1985.
levi-strosi 1999: - . . . . .: 1999.
levi-strosi 2000: - . . . . . . II, 2000.
losevi 1991: . . , , . .: 1991.
nazoni 1960: nazoni publius ovidius metamorfozebi. redaqcia, Sesavali werili da
komentarebi ak. uruSaZis. Tb.: 1980. P. Ovidii Nasonis. Carmina, ed. R. Ehwald,
V. Lery. T. 1-3, Lipsiae 1915-1932.
rikiori 1977: Ricoeur P. The Rule of Metaphor. University of Toronto Press, 1977.
stivensi 1951: Stevens W. The Necessary Angel. Knopf, 1951.
sRurudi 2003: Sgouroudh D. H metaf ora kai h sumbol h th~sth gl wssa. Aqhv na: 2003.
haidegeri 1961: Heidegger M. Neietzsch., Pfullingen, 1961.
Rusudan Tsanava
Metaphor and Metamorphosis
Summary
The study of metaphor, the central trope responsible for the artistic quality of a text,
started in the times of Aristotle. Since then, many scholarly opinions have been ventured
and several theories have been developed. One of the principle objectives of metaphor
studies is admitted to be its relationship with other tropes: simile and metonymy. Along
with this, scholars have been exploring interrelationships between metaphor and meta-
morphosis. The so-called transformations are prevalent in the artistic thought. They offer
a vivid picture of the authors (characters) spiritual state and very often determine chief
merits of artistic images found in a text. Virtual or imaginary transformations are associ-
ated with mythic metamorphoses. It should also be noted that unlike simile and metonymy,
rusudan canava
58
metamorphosis is not a trope. Another noteworthy fact is that the majority of scholars draw
a clear line between metaphor and metamorphosis. This viewpoint is supported by two ar-
guments: 1. Metaphor implies nothing that could suggest transformation. On the contrary,
bidimensionality, conceptual likening of two altogether different items is inherent with
metaphor. On the other hand, metamorphosis is the repercussion of mythological thought
when every type of transformation is perceived as a real fact. Hence, transformation is a
means of world perception. 2. Metaphor is distinguished for its tendency to penetrate the
feld of semantics, which is not characteristic of metamorphosis.
In my opinion, the erroneous conceptual basis of such reasoning lies in limiting meta-
morphosis solely to the domain of mythological thought. Close analysis of the nature and
kinds of metamorphosis revealed that the latter implies an unanticipated identifcation of
absolutely opposite values (categories, classes). And the myths refecting a metamorpho-
sis explain the prime cause (etiology) of unanticipated transformations. These universal
etiological myths offer a single or several similar versions throwing light on the semantics
of a metamorphosal image, turned into a poetic fgure. In fact, ancient creative thinking is
mostly based exactly on metamorphosal images. Metamorphosis, an output of the earli-
est, most archaic thinking, is to a greater extent a source of ancient metaphor. This thinking
incorporates every manifestation of primeval syncretism religion, thought, generalization
and creativity; integration and disintegration. Naturally, not all metamorphoses develop
into a metaphor; sometimes metamorphoses retain their original nature and appear as in-
dependent elements. These processes can be compared to the treatment of diamonds. Not
every piece of rough diamond will turn into a fne cultivated gem but only those cut by a
skillful master. Metamorphosis is a rough diamond in the hands of a master, who can cut it
into a metaphor if he wishes so.
The aim of the paper is to determine the function of metamorphosis in differentiating
between new and old (ancient) metaphors. Conceptual analysis of Ovids Metamorphoses
will help to fnd an answer to the posed question. The Metamorphoses is a most signifcant
break-through in the literary theory. The poet offered to the readers (as well as to the au-
thors) of every epoch and taste an inexhaustible source of poetic tropology the archetypes
of the so-called fxed metaphors etiological metamorphoses which, to put it meta-
phorically, never ceases to fow in the veins of old as well as new metaphors.
Every primary metamorphosis was unexpected, unique and astonishing, having the
same effect as a fresh metaphor. Metaphor and metamorphosis frst met when the idea
of the possible transformation was born in human mind, which afterwards generated acti-
vated word. Activated word refers not to the nomination of things but to the readiness
of a word for activity. The encounter of metaphor and metamorphosis, or their stem-
ming from the same origin, points to the deep conceptual cause of the two phenomena.
However, the following events took such a turn that metamorphosis remained confned to
myth, failing to expand beyond the formalistic aspect of metempsychosis, while metaphor
metafora da metamorfoza
59
enjoyed further development and became a means of world perception.
The types of metaphor considered in the article can be conventionally called mythic
metaphors (in fact, they are epiphors, in which semantic shift is due to its transfer from
species to species, from genus to species, from species to genus. These metaphors are
especially close to personifcation and symbol). However, it should not be understood as
if the above-mentioned metaphors were used only by ancient authors. The article presents
an analysis of a poem by Galaktion Tabidze, which, I reckon, is the example of a mythic
metaphor:
Astride On a Bridge
A horse rushes ahead crushing bridges with his hoofs,
But suddenly pricked up his ears,
His eyes flled up over there
With human misfortune
A light row passed swiftly before his eyes;
A fsh is playing with streams
He was a horseman an ordinary horseman
a man like a man, and not Zeus.`
The only character of the poem is the horse. It is him who rushes ahead crushing
bridges with his hoofs; he pricked up his ears and his eyes flled up with human misfor-
tune. The analysis starts with the following phrase: A light row passed swiftly before his
eyes. What row does the poet speak about? Fish, horseman and Zeus mentioned in the
following three lines prompt us to think that the well-known metamorphosal phrases trans-
formed in the poets mind into a new poetic metaphor: in particular, perspective I: Horse
is the animal of Poseidon, the lord of the sea. The zoomorphic iconography of Poseidon is
associated with horse in the same way as that of Zeus with bull (the mentioning of the fsh
intensifes the relationship between the horse and the water element). Perspective II as a
light row passes swiftly before his eyes, the steed is the horseman as well. Perspective III
Although bull and horse are the zoomorphic hypostases of the supreme deities, they are
of lower nobility than the deities. According to the well-known saying, what is forgivable
for Zeus, is not forgivable for the bull. Hence, He was a horseman an ordinary horse-
man a man like a man, and not Zeus. So, through the fusion of three mythic layers, two
of which (Zeus and Poseidon, and correspondingly, the horse and the bull) are metamor-
phoses, a poetic fgure is created.
60
solomon tabucaZe
avtori da gmiri istoriuli poetikis WrilSi
cnobili rusi filosofosis, filologis, literaturaTmcodnisa da
kulturis Teoretikosis mixail baxtinis (18951975) naSromebma gansa-
kuTrebuli rezonansi gasuli saukunis 70-iani wlebis bolos da 80-iani
wlebis dasawyisSi SeiZina da es moxda mas Semdeg, rac 1979 wels, avtoris
gardacvalebidan oTxi wlis Tavze gamovida wigni `sityvieri xelovnebis
esTetika~. 60ian wlebSi (1965 w.) daibeWda misi wigni `fransua rables
Semoqmedeba da Sua saukuneebisa da renesansis xalxuri kultura~, mogvi-
anebiT ki naSromi dostoevskis Semoqmedebisa da poetikis problemebze,
magram yvelaze meti gamoxmaureba _ yovel SemTxvevaSi qarTul litera-
turaTmcodneobiT sivrceSi _ `sityvieri xelovnebis esTetikas~ mohyva. am
wignSi centraluri adgili ukavia 20ian wlebSi dawyebul, dausrulebel
da saarqivo masalebSi SemorCenil naSroms `avtori da gmiri esTetikur
qmedebaSi~. swavlulis arqivsave Semounaxavs filosofiuri xasiaTis Tx-
zuleba imave problematikaze, romelic imdenad dazianebuli aRmoCnda,
rom mis mxolod fragmentebze Tu SeiZleba laparaki. mkvlevaris teqste-
bis amgvari istoria piradad CemTvis imdenadaa sagulisxmo, ramdenadac
igi `gaSlil~ da `gadaWimul~ sabWoeTSi marginalizebuli adamianis bedsa
da cxovrebiseul gzas ukavSirdeba. ver viviwyeb 70 ian wlebSi, uxarisxo
sagazeTo qaRaldze, saranskSi dabeWdil krebuls, romelSic mixail bax-
tinis fotocaa gamoqveynebuli; fotosuraTidan yvelaze `demokratiul
transportze~ _ velosipedze fexSemodgmuli filosofosi Semogvyurebs,
rac, sxva rom ara vicodeT ra am kacis biografiidan, me piradad bevris-
metyvel faqtad mesaxeba im gariyulobis gaTvaliswinebiT, raic, Tundac
am vizualur dokumentzea asaxuli: dRes ukve sayovelTaod aRiarebuli
literaturaTmcodne, sabWouri provinciis `glubinkaSi~, aTxrili, or-
moebiani da tborebiT `gamSvenebuli~ gzis piras dgas da, rogorc Cans,
moyvaruli fotografis mier Seyovnebuli wamis Semdeg, kvlav Tavis peda-
gogiur, uCinar moRvaweobas gaagrZelebs mordoviis universitetSi. esec
Cveuli movlena unda iyos da, rogorc Cans, ara mxolod sabWoeTSi... hu-
manitaruli ideebis bedi da bediswera, albaT, imTaviTve iyo dakavSirebuli
yaribobiTa da uqonlobiT gaspetakebuli sulis mimoxvrasTan. asea Tu ise,
`mixail baxtini~ dRes ukve qrestomaTiuli saxelia da misi zemoxsenebuli
naSromic _ `avtori da gmiri esTetikur qmedebaSi~ _ filosofiuri es-
Tetikis TviTmyofadi nimuSia. Tu ufro davazustebT, es aris esTetikisa
da zneobis filosofiis mijnaze, anu im sivrceSi myofi naSromi, romel-
avtori da gmiri istoriuli poetikis WrilSi
61
sac Tavad baxtini adamianis qmediTi `movlenis~, `saqcielis~ samyaros
uwodebs. naSromis safuZvelmdebi eTikuri kategoriaa `pasuxismgebloba~,
romlis konkretizaciac xdeba cnebaSi `ualiboba yofierebaSi~: adamians ara
aqvs `alibis~, anu gadaxris ufleba im zneobrivi pasuxismgeblobisagan, rom-
lis yofierebaSi realizaciac misi erTaderTi da ganumeorebeli `adgilia~,
ganumerebeli saqcielia, romlis eqstrapolirebac unda moxdes mTel mis
cxovrebaze; ese igi, adamianis cxovreba erTi mTliani saqcielia_ pasux-
ismgeblobiT gamsWvaluli saqcieli. mixail baxtinis erTi yvelaze adreuli
naSromTagani swore asea dasaTaurebuli _ `saqcielis filosofiisaTvis~.
mis dialogur koncefcias, kerZod, `me Cemi sxvai~
*
-s problemas swored
aq daedo safuZveli da SemdgomSi ufro detalurad damuSavda naSromSi
avtorsa da gmirze. avtorisa da gmiris urTierTmimarTeba aris subieqtis
mimarTeba subieqtTan. rodesac baxtinma esTetikur obieqtSi gamoacalkeva
`dialogis~ kategoria, igi am obieqts ganixilavda ara sagnobrivbunebriv
fenomenad, aramed sruliad axal yofiT -esTetikur warmonaqmnad, romel-
ic dafuZnebulia `me~-sa da `Cemi sxvai~-s subieqtebis, personologiur da
imanentursocialur anu avtorisa da gmiris urTierTmimarTebaze.
sagulisxmoa `me~ da `Cemi sxvais~ ganxilva istoriuli poetikis ga-
naserSi. poetikis istoriis pirvel stadias aleqsandr veselovski sink-
retizmis epoqas uwodebda. sinkretizmi, rogorc mxatvruli principi, sam-
yaros ganuwvalebel aRqmas da Sasabamisad ganuwvalebel esTetikur cno-
bierebasac gulisxmobs. arqauli adamiani sinkretulad aRiqvams grZnobis
organoTa monacemebs, sakuTar Tavsa da bunebas, `me~-sa da `...sxvai~-s, si-
tyvasa da misiT aRniSnul sagans, ritualur da yofiT qmedebas, xelovne-
bas da cxovrebas. erTi sityviT, rogorc aleqsandr veselovski aRniSnavs
Tavis qrestomaTiul naSromSi, sinkretizmi gamoxatavs arqaul cnobiere-
bas, romelic samyaros erT mTlianobad warmoidgens da romlisTvisac
sruliad ucxoa ganyenebuli, ganwilvadi da refleqsiuri azrovneba. mkvl-
evarma Tvali gaadevna am principis gamovlinebas poeturi enisa da stilis
sferoSi, mxatvruli saxis struqturaSi, literaturis gvarebisa da Jan-
rebis winare istoriaSi, avtorobis formirebaSi, motivsa da siuJetSi da
sxva. erTi sityviT, sinkretulobis principi literaturis centraluri
kategoriebis cxavSi gatarebis Semdeg, yvelaze sicocxlisunariani po-
etur saxeTa sferoSi aRmoCnda. amitom, SemdgomSi, rodesac sinkretizmze
visaubrebT, mxedvelobaSi gveqneba ara konkretuli epoqis gamomxatveli
mxatvruli faqti, aramed sazogadod xelovneba, romlis saxeobriv struq-
turasac sinkretizmis principi ganapirobebs. saqme is aris, rom esTetikur
obieqts sinkretuli statusi ara mxolod arqaikaSi aqvs, aramed igi, ama
* viyenebT --s gr. robaqiZiseul Targmanebs.
solomon tabucaZe
62
Tu im formiT, poetikis ganviTarebis sxva stadiebzec iCens Tavs. saguli-
syuroa, rom am problemaze, oRond mis sxva aspeqtze, saubrobs merab ma-
mardaSvili marsel prustis Semoqmedebis ganxilvisas: `cnobierebis rome-
liRaca doneze _ da am doneze gadamwyveti cxovrebuseuli movlenebi ukve
arseboben _ yvelaferi gveZleva erTgvaris sinkretulis saxiT~. litera-
turas cnobierebis swored am saxeobasTan mivyavarT da amitom sinkretizmi
misi istoriuli saSo ki ar aris, aramed erTgvari arqetupuli Tviseba,
romlis kvlav da kvlavwarmoeba xdeba. sinkretizmis fenomenis metaisto-
riul mniSvnelobasac es ganapirobebs.
es istoriuli eqskursi mxolod imitom dagvWirda, rom `subieqturi
sinkretizmis~ cnebamde mivsuliyaviT. Tavad termini poetikosma samson
broitmanma Semoitana gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi, magram am fenomenis
arsebobis faqtebi, ra Tqma unda, adrec aRiniSneboda.
Teoriulma poetikam karga xani gaarkvia, rom esTetikuri obieqti mov-
lenis bunebisaa (movlenobrivia), raic gulisxmobs, rom misi arqiteqtinika
ganpirobebulia esTetikuri movlenis subieqtebis _ avtoris, gmirisa da
mkiTxvel-msmenelis urTierTobiTa da urTierTmimarTebiT. swored am urT-
ierTobaTa struqturidan amoizrdeba Txzulebis arqiteqtonikaca da sxva
gamomxatveli kompoziciuri formebic.
arqauli folklori, Zveli literaturebi da tradiciuli xalxuri
Semoqmedeba, swored anonimuri principisa gamo, avtoris cnebas ar icnobs,
magram yovelTvis da yvelgan SeiniSneba raRaca iseTi movlena, rac Tana-
medrove `avtorisa~ da `gmiris~ cnebaTa ekvivalentad SeiZleba miviCnioT.
esaa, magaliTad, Txrobisas aramotivirebuli da uecari gadasvla mesame
piridan pirvelze da Semdeg kvlav Txrobis pirvandel poziciaze dabruneba.
ese igi pirdapiri Txrobis Canacvleba pirobiTad pirdapiri metyvelebiT
_ yovelgvari daTqmisa da gafrTxilebis gareSe. es faqti polineziuri
folkloris mkvlevarebma SeniSnes da, maTive varaudiT, uZveles saazrov-
no principze damyarebuli am movlenis sazrisi is aris, rom subieqturi
struqtura enobrivi formiT swored ase vlindeba. mokled, saqme gvaqvs
subieqturi sinkretizmis eqstralingvistur faqtorebTan. folklorul
cnobierebaSi `me~-sa da `...sxvai~-s, anu avtorisa da gmiris sferoebi ganu-
wvalebelia da maT Siris sazRvari imdenad `gaumagrebelia~, rom Txroba
Zaldautaneblad gadadis erTidan meoreSi.
subieqturi sinkretizmis gamomxatveli forma karga xania Cabarda is-
torias da subieqturi organizaciis odesRac dominanturi (gabatonebuli)
principi dRes mxolod reliqtad unda warmovidginoT, magram saqme is aris,
rom al. veselovski `qoroseuli sinkretizmis~ fenomenis Seswavlisas mis
gasaRebs swored subieqturi organizaciis formaSi eZiebda. saqme is aris,
avtori da gmiri istoriuli poetikis WrilSi
63
rom igi qoros upirovno avtorad ganixilavda, saidanac TandaTan gamoiyo-
foda da gamocalkevdeboda pirovnuli avtoris saxe da swored am procesSi
warmoiSoboda stiluri, Janruli da kompoziciuri formebi. qoro _ av-
torisa da gmiris urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxi mkvlevars ar dauyenebia.
qorosa da sxva arqauli formebis avtor-gmiris ipostass gansakuTreb-
uli yuradReba miaqcies olga freidenbergma da mixail baxtinma, Tumca
am problemisadmi maTac gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba hqondaT. Tu vesel-
ovskisTvis centraluri sakiTxi sinkretizmis pirovnuli da qoroseuli
sawyisTa urTierTmimarTeba iyo, olga freidenbergi sakvanZo problemad
subieqtis obieqtTan mimartebas ganixilavda, xolo mixail baxtini `me~-
sa da `...sxvai~-s urTierTmimarTebas gamoyofda. subieqt-obieqtis da sub-
ieqt-subieqtis gansxvavebul aspeqtTa amgvarma aqcentebma ganapiroba kvle-
vis SedegTa sxvaobac.
olga freidenbergi, veselovskisdakvalad, xazs usvamda pirvelyofili
adamianis bunebisgan da sociumisgan ganuwvaleblobas da am faqtis Sina-
gan da arsobriv korelatad (Tanafardad) is miaCnda, rom al. veselovski
ar acalkevebda subieqts obieqtisagan da ar axdenda masTan dakavSirebu-
li aqtiuri da pasiuri statusebis diferencirebas. antikuri kulturis
mkvlevaris azriT, cnobierebis amgvari struqturaa asaxuli sityvieri
Semoqmedebis erT-erT uZveles formaSi _ miTSi, sadac Tavad mTxrobeli
identuria Tavisi monaTxrobisa: subieqtobriv (aqtiur) aspeqtSi igi _
`avtoria~, anu zemoqmedi RmerTia, obieqtobrivSi (pasiurSi) ki _ `gmiri~,
anu RmerTi, romelic Tavad ganicdis zemoqmedebas, Tumca es ori aspeqti
miTSi ganuyofelia.
amrigad, qmedebis funqciaSi RmerTi aris is aqtiuri subieqti, romelic
SemdgomSi `avtorad~ iqceva. amis Taobaze sergei averincevi wers: Auctor
(`avtori`) _ nomen agentis-ia, anu aRniSnavs moqmedebis subueqts; auctoritas
(`avtoriteti~) _ ki am subieqtis romeliRac Tvisebis aRmniSvneli. TviT
qmedeba aRiniSneba zmniT augeo, erTi im zmnaTaganiT, romelic, goeTese-
burad Tu vityviT, laTinuri enis Taurzmnaa (Urvorte), romlis azrobrivi
sizrqec ver gadmoicema saleqsikono statiaSi. Augeo _ es aris RmerTebis,
viTarca kosmiuri iniciativis wyarosTavis maxasiaTebeli, niSandoblivi
qmedeba: `ganvamravleb~, `Tanavmoqmedeb~ an, ubralod, `sCavdivar~_ raRac
momyavs yofierebaSi (vayofiereb) anda arsebuls vmateb wonas, moculobas
an potencias (averincevi 1994: 105).
magram igive RmerTi pasiuri (obieqtobrivi) ipostasiT, ganmcdeli-
sa (TviTon rom ganicdis zemoqmedebas) da kvdomis funqciiT _ es ukve
`gmiria~. klav olga freidenbergis magaliTebs Tu moviSveliebT, berZnebT-
an `kvdomisa~ da `gmirad qcevis~ cnebebs sinonimuri gageba hqonda _ `kv-
solomon tabucaZe
64
doma~ niSnavda `gmirad qcevas~. gmiri imTavad adamiani ki ar iyo, aramed
momakvdavi RvTaeba, TviT kosmosi an `totemi Casvenebis mdgomareobaSi,
qve-sknelSi~. swored amitom gmiris pirvelsawyisuri da dasabamuri mniS-
vneloba, sruliad gansxvavebulia misi Tanamedrove gagebisagan.
meamboxur bunebasa da mamacur xasiaTs gmiri mogvianebiT SeiZens, rode- SeiZens, rode- iZens, rode-
sac igi qvesknelsa da jojoxeTSi sagmiro saqmeebs sCadis _ SeeWideba
sikvdils da, `Zlevai sakvirvelis~ kvalad, xelaxla iSvis da ibadeba
cxovrebaSi. saTqmelia isic, rom, rogorc `avtoris~ cnebaSi SeinarCuna
kulturulma mexsierebam `RmerTis~ xsovna, arc sityva `gmirSi~ gawyve-
tila kavSir -mimarTeba `sikvdilTan~. mexsierebis amgvarma faqtma avtoris
gmirTan da mis samyarosTan esTetikuri mimarTebis sakiTxze msjelobisas,
mixail baxtins safuZveli misca eTqva, rom es aris damokidebuleba sikv- eTqva, rom es aris damokidebuleba sikv- , rom es aris damokidebuleba sikv-
dilad midrekilisadmi.
miTSi subieqt-obieqtis ganuwvaleblobis aRwerisas, olga freidenber-
gis mixedviT, ar arsebobs gansxvaveba imaT Soris Tu vin mogviTxrobs, ra
moiTxroba da vis moeTxroba.
vinc yveba, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, ganuwvalebeli avtori _ gmiri _
RmerTia; magram saqme is aris, rom msmenelic RmerTia; Txroba, romelsac
locvis forma aqvs, mimarTulia RvTisadmi da imavdroulad msmenelisa
da mayureblisadmi, romelTa Tvalwinac mimdinareobs movlena. Tavis mxriv,
is, raic moiTxroba (siuJeti da Tavad moTxroba, romelic erTgvar `sxeu-
lad~, `tanad~ unda vigulvoT) aris sakurTxevelze mitanili msxverpli.
es saxe calsaxad mianiSnebs, rom moTxroba hgavs samsxverplo cxovels,
anu kvlav da kvlav RvTaebas Tavisi pasiuri mdgomareobis Jams (cnobilia,
rom miTologiur siRrmeebSi `qurumi da msxverpli _ erTi da igivea~, bevr
miTologiaSi RmerTs sakuTarive Tavi miaqvs msxverplad).
am arqaul subieqtur struqturas TviT berZnul literaturaSic ki ar
amiuwuravs Tavisi Tavi. yvelaze ukeT igi Semoinaxa dramam, aseve lirikamac
da TviT iseTma gviandelma Janrmac ki, rogoricaa romani. uZvelesi kome-
diis ganmsazRvreli Tavisebureba isicaa, rom moqmed pirad gamodis TviT
avtori, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs subieqtur-obieqtobriv, erTeul-
mravlobiT, qoroul formebs da inarCunebs RvTaebriv da imavdroulad
zoomorful bunebas. rasac dRes gmiri ewodeba, uZveles komediaSi iyo
niRabi, romelic `personaJul~ kategorias ki ar ganekuTvneba, aramed re-
alurs, cocxals da literaturamdels.
aRaras vambobT berZnuli lirikis arqaul struqturaze, sadac mRe-
rac, cekvac da Txrobac avtoriseulia; erTi sityviT, yvelafers avtori
`akeTebs~, magram avtori erTeuli ki ara, mravlobiTis formiT gvevlineba
da, miuxedavad amisa, igi Tavis Tavs pirveli piris mxoloobiTi formiT
avtori da gmiri istoriuli poetikis WrilSi
65
moixseniebs da is, rac moiTxroba, mas ki ar exeba, aramed RmerTs [`igi
laparakobs RvTis nacvlad da amiTve laparakobs Tavis Tavze~ (freiden-
bergi 1978: )].
avtoris aRweris subieqt-obieqtobrivi kriteriumebis freidenbergi-
seuli versia mniSvnelovani nabiji iyo problemis siRrmiseuli gaazrebis
gzaze. amgvari midgomisas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba SeiZina pirovnulisa da
`qoros~ urTierTobis ara `raodenobrivma~ urTierTmimarTebam, aramed
aqtiur-subieqtobrivi da pasiur-obieqtobrivi pozicia _ rolebis masJa-
mindeli (dasabamiuri) ganuwvaleblobisa da da samomavlo potenciuri gan-
viTarebis Taviseburebebma. mniSvnelovani aRmoCena iyo RvTaebrivi intenciis
amokiTxva avtoriseul da gmiriseul poziciaSi (am intenciis Tanamedrove
gamovlinebaa Cvens warmodgenaSi arsebuli avtor-Semoqmedis saxe).
da mainc subieqt-obieqtobriv kriteriumebs Tavisi sazRvrebi gaaCnia.
davsvaT sakiTxi amgvarad: aris Tu ara gmiri (RvTaebis pasiuri mdgo-
mareoba) obieqtobrivi, am sityvis gviandeli gagebiT? zemonaTqvamidan
gamomdinereobs, rom olga freidenbergs gmiri subieqtisa da subieqto-
brivis gamovlinebis Tavisebur formad warmoedgina. aseve esmoda prob-
lema mixail baxtinsac, romelic aqcents akeTebda subieqt-subieqtobriv
urTierTmimarTebaze esTetikuri obieqtis arqiteqtinikaSi. subieqtobrivi
struqturisadmi baxtiniseuli midgoma mWidrod ukavSirdeba mkvlevaris
zogad meTodologiur mizandasaxulobebs. am mimarTulebiT Ziebisas misi
erT-erTi amosavali wanamZRvari iyo adamianis arsebobis realur formad
`me Cemi sxvai~-s orerTianoba da ara `abstraqtuli me~. `sityvieri xe-
lovnebis esTetikaSi~ igi wers, rom rogorc dedis saSoSi xdeba adamianis
formireba _ aseve iRviZebs mis cnobierebaSi Sefaruli ucxo cnobiereba.
esTetikuri Semoqmedeba erTi cnobierebis farglebSi ar xdeba. esTetikur
movlenaSi ramdenime monawilea da orerTiani `me ...sxvai~ `avtori-gmiri~-
s formiT warmogvidgeba. xelovnebis ganviTarebis adreul etapze, rodesac
esTetikuri cnobiereba is-is iyo iRviZebda da yalibdeboda, warmoSobis
procesSi myofi avtori, zedmiwevniTi gagebiT, sxvaTa cnobierebaSi iyo Tav-
Sefarebuli. es iyo `sxvaTa qoro~, romlis mxardaWerisa da damowmebis
gareSe esTetikuri aqti SeuZlebelia.
qoros substrati kargad vlindeba uZveles literaturul gvarSi
_ lirikaSi: `lirika _ es aris sakuTar TavSi Sinagani `me~-s emociuri
TvaliT xedva da Sinagani `.. sxvai~-s emociuri xmis smena. me vusmen Cems
Tavs sxvaSi, sxvebTan erTad da sxvebisTvis... <...> me vpoulob Cem Tavs emo- <...> me vpoulob Cem Tavs emo-
ciurad mTrTolvare ucxo xmaSi, ganvasaxovneb/ganvfen Cems Tavs xotbis
aRmvlenel ucxo xmaSi, vpoulob masSi sakuTari Sinagani TrTolvisadmi
avtoritetul midgomas~ (baxtini 1979: 149).
solomon tabucaZe
66
cxadia, sakiTxis amgvari dasmisas mixail baxtini aqcents akeTebs ara
pirovnebis masisgan ganuwvaleblobaze an subieqtis obieqtisgan ganusxvave-
blobaze, aramed yuradRebas amaxvilebs cnobierebaSi (igulisxmeba esTeti-
kuri cnobiereba) subieqturi sinkretizmis fundamentur dafuZnebuloba-
ze, `...sxvai~-s `me~-saTvis principul aucileblobasa da saWiroebaze. es
aucileblobaa rom badebs da warmoSobs xelovnebas da amave aucileblobis
uSualo da TvalsaCino gamovlinebaa qoro. amave dros `avtoris avtorite-
ti aris qoros avtoriteti~ (baxtini 1979: 149), romelic, imavdroulad
`sxvaTa~ anu gmirTa qorodac gvevlineba.
aRsaniSnavia, rom avtor-gmiri baxtinTanac da freidenbergTanac Rmer-
Tia, romelic pirdapir da `obieqtobrivad~ ki ar vlindeba, aramed in-
tenciis imgvari gansakuTrebuli formiT, uromlisidac avtoroba rogorc
aseTi _ SeuZlebelia. baxtini mas uwodebs `cxovrebisgare aqtiur pozi-
cias~ da `pirovnuli yofnis esTetikuri gaformebisaTvis aucilebel pi-
robas~. mxatvari swored isaa, vinc cxovrebisgarea aqtiuri... igi cxovre-
bis Sinamos (Signidan) gamgebi da misi Tanaziari ki araa mxolos, aramed mas
igi `undis` iq, sadac cxovreba TavisTvis da TavisTavad arc aris, sadac igi
miqceulia Tavis gareT da saWiroebs garemyof aqtivobas.
es azri rom ufro naTeli gaxdes, polifoniuri romanis baxtiniseuli
Teoria unda gavixsenoT, sadac igi dialoguri sityvis cnebaze saurobs.
dialoguri midgoma SesaZlebelia erTeuli movlenisadmic, _ Tuki igi
aRiqmeba ara rogorc enis upirovno sityva, aramed rogorc ucxo sazriso-
brivi poziciis niSani da ucxo gamonaTqvamis warmomadgeneli, ese igi, Tuki
masSi gvesmis ucxo xma. amitom dialoguri urTierTobebi SeiZleba msWva-
lavdes mTlianad gamoTqmas (mag., romans) da TviT calkeul gamoTqmasac ki
_ Tuki masSi dialogurad ejaxeba ori xma. unda warmovidginoT dialogi,
sadac replikebi imgvaradaa gamotovebuli, rom saerTo sazrisi odnavadac
ar irRveva da es mianiSnebs, rom meore mosaubre eswreba dauswreblad, uCi-
narad; misi sityvebi ar ismis, magram misi naubris nakvalevs gansazRvravs
yvela arsebuli sityva pirveli mosaubrisa. Cven vgrZnobT, rom es saubaria
da Tanac daZabuli, radgan yoveli sityva mTeli Tavisi arsebiT exmianeba da
reagirebs uCinar Tanamosaubreze da yoveli maTgani miuTiTebs da mianiSnebs
Tavis gareT arsebulze, Tavisi sazRvrebis miRma (gareT) myof, warmouTqmel
ucxo sityvaze.
mixail baxtinis mier Camoyalibebuli Tvalsazrisi `sinkretuli~ av-
torobis stadiasTan dakavSirebiT, iTvaliswinebs am gansazRvruli formis
mTels evolucias. swored am niadagze SeiZleboda aRmocenebuliyo sub-
ieqturi mTlianobis/erTianobis gansakuTrebuli saxe, romelmac ar icis
diqotomia, `ugrZnobia~ dapirispirebulobaTa mimarT da Tavis TavSi
avtori da gmiri istoriuli poetikis WrilSi
67
moicavs garecxovrebasa da aqtivobas. baxtiniseuli avtorobis problemis
amgvarad dasma imitom aris produqtiuli, rom mis pirobas mkvlevari
pirovnuli sawyisis raodenobriv ganviTarebaSi ki ar xedavs, aramed Rire-
bulebrivi piziciis GgansakuTrebuli saxis SeZenaSi.
dRes ukve cnobilia, rom avtoroba jer kidev TviTRirebulebrivi
pirovnebis fenomenis Camoyalibebamdea warmoqmnili, magram `avtoroba _
sakuTrivi mniSvnelobiT~ dResac pirovnul avtorobad gvesmis da mis up-
irveles maxasiaTeblad `SemoqmedebiT iniciativis ganumereblobas~ da `in-
dividualur maneras~ miviCnevT. baxtinis Tvalsazrisi gvexmareba da xels
gviwyobs imis gagebaSi, Tu ratom arsebobda esTetikurad srulfasovani
avtori im kulturebSi, romlebSic pirovneba jer kidev ar iyo sociumi-
dan gamoyofili da ar hqonda TviTRirebulebrivi statusi; kulturebSi,
romlebSic gamomuSavda esTetikuri poziciis is saxe da sxeuli, romelsac
mkvlevari cxovrebis gare aqtivobas (garemyofelobas) uwodebs.
amrigad, istoriuli poetikis farglebSi damuSavda is problematika,
sadac garkveul iqna, rom avtorisa da gmiris subieqtobrivi sinkretzmi
arqaul cnobierebasa da xelovnebaSi dafuZnebulia `me~-sa da `Cemi sxvai~-s
specifikur ganuwvaleblobaze.
damowmebani:
averincevi 1994: .. . wignSi: : -
. .: 1994.
baxtini 1979: .. ..: 19
freidenbergi 1978: .. . .: 1978
freidenbergi 1997: .. . .: , 1997.
elmisamarTi: http://www.infoliolib.info/philol/freidenberg/2_0.html#1
Solomon Tabutsadze
Author and Character within the Scope of Historical Poetics
Summary
The article deals with Mikhail Bakhtins concept of author and character within the
scope of historical poetics. Authors and characters interrelation is subjects relation to-
wards subject. When Bakhtin singled out the category of dialogue in aesthetic object, he
regarded this phenomenon of object not as natural-subjective but as a brand new being-
aesthetic formation based on the relation of subjects ego and alter ego, personal and
immanent-social, or of author and hero.
solomon tabucaZe
68
It is truth universally acknowledged that authorship was formed prior to the establish-
ment of the phenomenon of self-valued identity, but authorship-with its own meaning is
still understood as personal authorship and we consider uniqueness of creative initiative
and individual manner as its primary signs. Afetr analyzing the concept of author-character
in the theories of Aleksandr Veselovsky, Olga Freidenberg and Mikhail Bakhtin, we can
conclude why there existed aesthetically valuable author in the culture, where the person
was not singled out yet and did not have self-valued status.
The perception of world by human is principally syncretic and appears while creating
image structure of art. Syncretism, as artistic principle, means perception of the world,
which includes aesthetic consciousness as well. Creativity does not happen within the
boundaries of one consciousness. There are a number of participants in aesthetic event and
it is revealed in the form of ego-alter ego author-character. At the early stage of the
development of art, when aesthetic consciousness was beginning to awaken and be formed,
the author, being in the process of formation, found shelter in others consciousness.
Mikhail Bakhtin, who made emphasis on the subject-subjective interrelation in archi-
tectonics of aesthetic object, regarded ego-alter ego and not abstract I as the form of
real existence. This principle formed basis for his general methodological researches and
we should regard scientifc actualization of principle of subjective syncretism as his es-
sential discovery.
69
poetikuri praqtikebi
Temur kobaxiZe
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopota-
mi~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
eliotis adreuli krebulis, `leqsebi 1920~-is ZiriTadi Taviseburebaa
farTod gaazrebuli ironiuli kontrasti, romelic masSi Semavali yvela
nawarmoebis mxatvrul qsovils msWvalavs. am krebulze dayrdnobiT, zogi
mkvlevari eliots poet-satirikosadac ki miiCnevs, rac Secdomaa `oTxi
kvertetis~ avtori satirikosi arasodes yofila. elioti am adreul
krebulSic ufro siRrmiseul msoflmxedvelobriv ganzoga-debaTa po-
etad, mWvretelobiTi (Tumc ironiuli) muzis msaxurad gvevlineba, vidre
satirikosis kalmiT aRWurvil, `mamxilebel~ Semoqmedad. marTalia, saxeTa
Zerwvisas is uxvad iyenebs grotesks, zogjer (da ara marto am krebulSi)
iseT motivebsac, rac TiTqos socialur satirad aRiqmeba, magram sabo-
lood, elioti yovelTvis eliotad rCeba yvela metnaklebad `konkre-
tul~ konfliqts is globalur, sayovelTao, maradiul problemaTa planSi
ganazogadebs. misi leqsis yovel sityvasa Tu intonacias iseTi siRrmiseu-
li da sagangebo mniSvneloba eniWeba, rom sabolood, uSualo-ironiuli
efeqtis nacvlad, wina planze rTuli azrobriv-emociuri qveteqstiT dat-
virTuli, mravalwaxnagovani mxatvruli struqtura wamoiweva, romlis aR-
qmac mxolod satirisa an ironiis niSniT SeuZlebelia. gamonakliss albaT
erTaderTi leqsi, `hippopotami~ (1917) Seadgens, romelic naklebadaa gad-
atvirTuli asociaciebiT da romlis mZafri ironia uSualod kaTolikur
eklesias exeba.
`hipopotamis~ ironia da sarkazmi momakvdinebelia, Tumca misi kiTxvisas
mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom arsebiTad, leqsi arc aTeisturia da arc antire-
ligiuri, is antiklerikaluria. unda iTqvas, rom analogiuri ganwyobilebi-
Taa aRsavse imave periodSi Seqmnili bevrad ufro rTuli, reminiscenciebiT
daxunZluli leqsi `b-n eliotis sakvirao wirvac~, sadac poeti ukve sul
sxva, Teologiur siRrmeebs swvdeba. magram Tu `sakvirao wirvaSi~ saxeTa
kontrastuloba rTulad aris niuansirebuli da asociaciur narTaulebSi
gabneulia, `hipopotamSi~ ironia TvalSi sacemi, xolo satira da groteski
Zalze mkafio da konkretulia. leqsSi uxvadaa iumoric _ `cota msubuqi,
saxumaro raRac davwereo~ (elioti: 1988, 213), aRniSnavs poeti dedisadmi mi-
Temur kobaxiZe
70
weril werilSi, Tumca unda vivaraudoT, rom imJamindeli postviqtorianuli
ingliseli mkiTxvelis mier `hipopotamis~ iumori mTlad ase `msubuqad~ ver
aRiqmeboda. aSkara komikurobasTan erTad, leqsi aRsavsea gesliani groteskiT,
rac viqtorianuli poeziis mSvid da maameblur tradiciebze gazrdili mkiTx-
velisaTvis uTuod moulodneli da ucxo iqneboda. miTumetes, rodesac es
groteski arc meti, arc naklebi, eklesias Seexeboda.
dRes `hipopotami~ aRiqmeba, rogorc maxvilgonivruli, mZafrad iro-
niuli leqsi, romlis antiklerikaluri Tematika odnav ucnauri, magram
modernistuli poetikis zogad konteqstSi savsebiT moazrebadi formiTaa
gadmocemuli. is namdvilad ar warmoadgens aTeistur pampflets, magram
aSkaraa, rom eklesias, qristes mistikur sxeuls (corpus Domini nostri) da
amqveynad sulieri sawisis gansaxierebas, eliots lamis karikaturuli
saxiT warmosaxavs. imave sakvirao wirvisagan gansxvavebiT, `hipopotamSi~
ironiisa da sarkazmis obieqtad Teologiuri doqtrinebi da maTi avtorebi
ki ar warmogvidgeba, aramed eklesiis socialuri saxe, sazogadoebaSi misi
roli da daniSnuleba. upirveles yovlisa, poetis ironia exeba eklesias,
rogorc socialur instituts. amgvari `socilogizmi~ eliotis poeziaSi
iSviaTia da `hipopotami~ am mxrivac erTgvar gamonaklisad aRiqmeba. aq Tavs
iCens kaTolikuri eklesiis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli axalgazrda eliotis
Sinagani protestic (WeSmariti eklesia, the True Church teqstSi mTavruli
asoebiT aris gamoyofili, rac kaTolikur tradicias Seesabameba da ara
anglikanurs, an protestantuls (sauTemi 1994: 107)).
leqsis mTlian konteqstSi usazRvrod ironiuliulad JRers epi-
grafi, romelic wm. egnate antioqielis epistoles fragments warmoad-
gens. es fragmenti dedanSic gamorCeulad RvTismsaxurebs exeba (is mrev-
lis erTgvari darigebaa imis Taobaze, Tu ra mowiwebiT unda moepyran isini
mRvdlebs), Tumca rogorc eliotis epigrafi, is sruliad sapirispiro
suliskveTebas gamoxatavs: `Sesabamisad, yvelam Tayvani eciT diakvnebs iseve,
rogorc Tayvans scemT ieso qristes, radgan episkoposi uflis saxea, xolo
mRvdlebi ki RvTis sakrebulo da mociqulTa dasi. amaT gareSe saxelwodba
`eklesia~ ar dairqmeva. me darwmunebuli var, rom Tqvenc ase fiqrobT~.
saqmec is aris, rom `hipopotamis~ gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebeTa mTeli
erToblioba swored imis gamoxatvisaken aris mimarTuli, rom misi avtori
sul sxvanairad `fiqrobs~. aseve ironiulia da konteqstualurad sruli-
ad saxeSecvlili mociqul pavles epistoles fragmentic (kolaselTa mi-
marT 4: 16), romelic leqss meore epigrafad aqvs wamZRvarebuli: `roca am
werils waikiTxaven TqvenTan, ise moiqeciT, rom lavdikielTa eklesiaSic
waikiTxon, [xolo romelic lavdikielTaTvisaa gagzavnili, Tqvenc wai-
kiTxeT.]~, rac imis miniSnebaa, rom Tumca leqsi kaTolikur samRvdeloebas
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopotami~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
71
exeba, asebiTad is anglikanur samRvdeloebasac gulisxmobs. lavdikielTa
eklesia ki swored is `nel-tfili~, anu moraluri saxis armqone eklesiaa,
romlis Sesaxebac qriste ambobs ioanes gamocxadebaSi: `vicni saqmeni Senni,
rameTu arca grili xar, arca tfili. jer-iyo, raTamca, anu grili iyav,
anu tfili. aramed esreT nel-tfili xar da arca grili, arca tfili. meg-
ulebis aRmogdeba Seni pirisagan Cemisa~ (3:15-16). anu arsebiTad, qriste
lavdikielTa eklesias swored zneobriv faseulobaTa degradaciaSi sdebs
brals da monaniebisaken mouwodebs.
Tematurad, leqsi sakmaod martivia: is warmoadgens hipopotamisa da
eklesiis gavrcobil Sedarebas, sadac pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- gavrcobil Sedarebas, sadac pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- gavrcobil Sedarebas, sadac pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- Sedarebas, sadac pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- Sedarebas, sadac pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- , sadac pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- sadac pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- pozitiuri datvirTva mTlianad hipo- datvirTva mTlianad hipo- datvirTva mTlianad hipo- mTlianad hipo- mTlianad hipo-
potamis saxezea gadatanili. uwyinari cxoveli zantad isvenebs wumpeSi, is,
rogorc yvela RvTisgan Seqmnili arseba, mxolod sisxli da xorcia, `dune
da xrwnadi~. eklesia ki, amasoflad zeciuri sasufevlis simbolo, sali
kldesaviT mtkicea, rameTu mas swored `kldeSi gaudgams fuZe~ (saxarebis
ironiuli reminiscenciaa: `da me geubnebi Sen, rom: Sen xar petre, da am
kldeze avaSeneb Cems eklesias~. maTe, 16:18).

zurgganieri hipopotami
talaxSi wevs da isvenebs zantad
TiTqos mkvrivia imisi tani,
ra aris sisxlis da xorcis garda.
sisxli da xorci dune da xrwnadi
mgrZnobiarea da Soks ver uZlebs;
uflis taZari awvdila camdis
radganac kldeSi gaudgams fuZe.
(aq da Semdgom medea zaaliSvilis Targmani)
eklesiis usazRvro SesaZleblobebisa da misi yovlismomcveli TviTk-
mayofilebis fonze hipopotami umweo da daucvelia; misTvis yoveldRiuri
sazrdos Sovnac problemaa, is mangosac ki ver swvdeba xeze. eklesias ki
Soreuli qveynebidan atmebiT da broweulebiT amarageben da is isea gam-
sunagebuli, rom ukve ZilSic Seeqceva sakvebs. gulubryvilo hipopotams
mxolod dawyvilebis Jams Tu aRmoxdeba ucnauri `modulaciebi~, Cven ki
yovel kviras vismenT, Tu rogor zeimobs eklesia RmerTTan uryev kavSirs:
At mating time the hippos voice
Betrays infexions hoarse and odd,
But every week we hear rejoice
The Church, at being one with God.
Temur kobaxiZe
72
The hippopotamuss day
Is passed in sleep; at night he hunts;
God works in a mysterious way --
The Church can sleep and feed at once
hipopotami sinaTles dRisas
ZilSi atarebs; sazrdoobs RamiT,
idumalia gangeba RvTisa
mis taZars ZilSic mada aqvs Wamis
ironia aq `solomonis qebaTa qebis~ faruli reminiscenciiTac gamoix-
ateba: hipopotams swored Sewyvilebis sezonSi aRmoxdeba xolme Tavisi
`modulaciebi~, eklesia ki (`qebaTa qebis~ tradiciuli interpretaciis
Tanaxmad, igive `qristes sasZlo~), sistematurad zeimobs RmerTTan Tavis
erTobasa da uryev kavSirs. leqsis finalSi hipopotami, kaTolike wmindanis
msgavsad, zecas amaRldeba da apoTeozs aRwevs, mas angelozebi osanas uga-
loben, xolo eklesia ki qvemoT rCeba, `momwamvlel burusSi gaxveuli~.
eliotis ramdenime sxva leqsis msgavsad, `hipopotamic~ Seiqmna, rogorc
teofil goties (1811-1875) xsovnisadmi erTgvari saxumaro `miZRvna~. axalgazr-
da eliots izidavda frangi poetis martivi leqsTwyoba (tradiciuli sazomiT
gamarTuli, gariTmuli strofebi) da man, ezra paundis rCeviT, Seqmna goties
erTgvari `mibaZvebi~, romlebic mogvianebiT krebulSi Sevida. am mibaZvaTagan
yvelaze TvalSisacemi swored `hipopotamia~, radgan is uSualod goties imave
saxelwodebis leqss (`LHippopotame~, 1833-38) ukavSirdeba, Tumca unda iTqvas,
rom erTi saxaliso detals garda, es msgavseba saTauriTa da leqsTwyobis imi-
taciiT amoiwureba. saxaliso detali ki is aris, rom goties msgavsad, romel-
ic Tavis leqsSi sakuTar Tavs hipopotams adarebs (Je suis comme lhippopotame),
eliotsac mohyavs faruli asociacia, romelic missa da hipopotamis ironiul
Sedarebas Seicavs. Tu neoromantikosi gotie epataJs iwvevda frang mkiTxvelSi
hipopotamTan Sedarebis uSualo delkarirebiT, eliots, imJamad loidis bankis
rigiT klerks, leqsSi luis kerolis (1832-1892) `giJimebaRis simReris~ aso-
ciacia Seaqvs, sadac swored bankis klerkia gaigivebuli hipopotamTan:

He thought he saw a Bankers Clerk
Descending from the bus:
He looked again, and found it was
A Hippopotamus.
`If this should stay to dine, he said
There wont be much for us!~
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopotami~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
73
es axalgazrda poetis erTgvari Rimiliani `mokiTxvaa~, romelsac is
wina saukunis poeziis metrs, `emalebisa da kameebis~ avtors, parnasel
teofil goties ugzavnis.
cxadia, avangardisa da postmodernis eqscentrikiT ganebivrebul
dRevandel inteleqtuals eliotis uCveulo Sedarebebi naklebad gaak-
virvebs, magram leqsis dakvirvebuli aRqmisas TviT yvelaze momTxovn
mkiTxvels nawarmoebis sruliad moulodneli gancdiT-inteleqtulari
siRrme warmoudgeba Tvalwin. erTi SexedviT sakmaod martivi `hipopota-
mi~ ramdenime bibliuri da literaturuli reminiscenciis garda, Zmebi
hubert da ian van eikebis mier Seqmnili gentis cnobili sakurTxevlis
(`mistikuri kravis Tayvaniscema~ (1427-1428)), metad mniSvnelovan fer-
werul asociaciasac Seicavs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sxva yvelaferTan er-
Tad, `hipopotami~ Crdilouri renesansis am yvelaze cnobili ferweru-
li nawarmoebis erTgvar parodiasac warmoadgens. cnobilia, rom gentis
sakurTxeveli ioanes saxarebisa da apokalifsisis (ioanes gamocxadebis)
Tavisufali ferweruli interpretaciaa, xolo ioanes gamocxadeba ki
(iseve, rogorc saxareba) Tavis mxriv, eliotis `hipopotamis~ erT-erT
asociaciur fons Seadgens..
jeimz mileris cnobiT (mileri 2007: 192-193), pirveli msoflio omis dawye-
bis win poetma moinaxula genti da belgiis sxva, didi mxatvruli tradicie-
biT cnobili qalaqebi. `flandria... unikaluria da misi ferweruli tiloebi
gansacvifrebeli, _ werda aRtacebuli poeti konrad eikens, maTgan mxolod
erTia genialuri, gentSi (xazi Cemia T.k.), magram mTeli ganZia brugeSi,
antvepenSi, briuselSi. memlingi, van eiki metsiu, broigeli, rubensi es yve-
laferi saswaulia~ (elioti 1988: 42). rogorc Cans, gentis sakurTxevels po-
etze didi STabeWdileba mouxdenia, radgan leqsSi uxvadaa gabneuli masTan
dakavSirebuli asociaciuri detalebi. hipopotami swroed kravis sisxliT
ganibaneba `TovliviT TeTrad~, mas `yvela wamebuli qalwuli eamboreba~, is
Cans wmindanTa garemocvaSic, sadac `oqros qnarze ukravs~. angelozTa gundi
mas `hosanas ugalobs~, xolo rodesac is `frTebs gamoibams~ da zecad am-
aRldeba, mama RmerTis `zeciurni mklavni~ swored mas moexvevian:

I saw the potamus take wing
Ascending from the damp savannas,
And quiring angels round him sing
The praise of God, in loud hosannas.
Blood of the Lamb shall wash him clean
And him shall heavenly arms enfold,
Temur kobaxiZe
74
Among the saints he shall be seen
Performing on a harp of gold.
He shall be washed as white as snow,
By all the martyrd virgins kist

yvela am poeturi saxisa Tu detalis vizualuri analogebi aRbeWdilia
gentis sakurTxevelze (Smidti 2001: 31). gansakuTrebiT saxieria wamebul
qalwulTa dasi, swored is wamebuli qalwulebi, eliotis leqsSi hipopot-
ams rom eamborebian. centraluri panelis xelmarcxniv gamosaxulia wmind-
anebad Seracxul religiur moRvaweTa (romis papebi, kardinalebi, episko-
posebi, diakvnebi) gundi, anu Tavad eklesia, romelic Seadgens eliotis
ironiis ZiriTad obieqts. mTavari panelis centrSi gamosaxulia kravi,
romelsac gulidan sisxli sdis xsnis simbolo da swored is sisxli,
romliTac eliotis hipopotami `ganibaneba~ (`gairecxes TavianTi samosi da
gaaspetakes isini kravis sisxliT~ (gamocxadeba, 7_14)). sakurTxevlis zeda
panelebi mgalobelsa da orRanze damkvrel angelozTa gunds warmosaxavs.
maTgan erT-erTi oqros qnarzec ukravs (eliotTan Performing on a harp
of gold). erTi sityviT, leqsSi asociaciurad motanilia mravali ferwer-
uli detali, romelic gentis sakurTxevlis sxvadasxva nawils Seesabame-
ba, xolod TviT kravi `Canacvlebulia~ hipopotamis groteskuli saxiT.
kompoziciurad, sakurTxevlis ferweruli detalebi iseve `gars akravs~
centrSi gamosaxul kravs, rogorc am detalTa amsaxveli asociaciuri po-
eturi saxeebi _ eliotis leqsSi warmosaxul hipopotams.
interteqstualuri efeqti aq is aris, rom sinTezi, romelic sabolood
mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi aRibeWdeba, araerTgvarovan struqturaTa aso-
ciaciur sinTezs warmoadgens esaa ferwerisa da poeziis, apologiisa
da parodiis, religiuri aRtkinebisa da ironiuli groteskis erTianoba,
romelic asociaciur saxeTa sivrceSi gamoixateba. ferweruli tilos
nasesxeb detalebs elioti Tavis teqstSi parodiul, groteskul saxee-
bad iyenebs. faqtiurad, sakurTxevlis ferwerul asociaciaSi poets `Se-
mohyavs~ literturuli saxe hipopotami, romelic, cxadia, mxolod
im SemTxvevaSi iqceva am `asociaciuri sakurTxevlis~ nawilad, Tu saqme
realur sakurTxevels ki ar exeba, aramed eliotis leqsSi mis verbalur
ekvivalentebs (parodiul krav _ hipopotams, wamebul qalwulebs, ekle-
sias, mgalobel angelozebs, qnarze damkvrelebs da a.S.). Sedegad, eliotis
poeziaSi Caxeduli mkiTxvelisaTvis gentis sakurTxevlis aRqmisas, `hipo-
potamis~ asociacia TiTqmis iseve `cocxalia~, rogorc ferweris mcodne
mkiTxvelisaTvis _ sakurTxevlis asociacia, rodesac is `hipopotams~
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopotami~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
75
kiTxulobs. cnobil niderlandel mkvlevars, r. ingelbiens pirad werilSi
aRniSnuli aqvs, rom gentSi, `kravis TayvaniscemiT~ tkbobisas, is eliotis
SesaZlebel aluziebze fiqrobda `.... da es gansacvifrebeli iyo... uceb
eliotis hipopotamma Semoabija taZarSi~.
Zneli saTqmelia, ramdenad `amdidrebs~ yovelive es TviT gentis sakurTx-
evlis aRqmas, magram faqtia, rom eliotis poeziaSi Caxedul mkiTvels,
Zmebi van eikebis Sedevris xilvisas uciloblad gauRvivdeba `hipopotamis~
Rrmad parodiuli, ironiuli ganwyobilebac, rac meoce saukunis modern-
izmisa da me-15 saukunis Crdilouri renesansis epoqaTa Soris uSvele-
beli kontrastis gamomxatvelia da cxadia, Sesabamis emociasac aRZravs.
rogorc TviT elioti aRniSnavs eseSi `ritikis daniSnuleba~, Tanadrouli
literatura zustad iseTsave gavlenas axdens warsulis SedevrTa aRqmaze,
rogorc warsulis mxatvruli qmnilebebi gansazRvraven literaturis Tan-
amedrove saxes (elioti 1861: 23).
mTeli am ferwerul-religiuri asociaciuri sirTulis miuxedavad, `hi-
popotamSi~ ironiul kontrasts metad uSualo xasiaTi aqvs; aq is nakle-
badaa garTulebuli da konkretuli publicisturi miznis Sesabamisad, Tu
SeiZleba ase iTqvas, nawarmoebis `zedapirzea~ gadmotanili. Seumzadebel
mkiTxvels yvela am asociaciaTa gauTvaliswinebladac SeuZlia aRiqvas leq-
sis mZafri ironiuli suliskveTeba. `hipopotamisagan~ gansxvavebiT, eliotis
sxva leqsebSi ironia da kontrasti ufro farulia; xSirad es Tvisebebi
rTul literaturul da miTologiur reminiscenciaTa gadaxlarTviT mi-
iRweva da avtoriseuli poziciac am leqsebSi ufro gaSualebulia, `Zne-
lad misagnebia~. aseTi azrobriv-emociuri sirTulis Sesabamisad, gancdiTi
efeqtic ufro Rrma xasiaTs iZens, Tumca aRsaqmeladac ufro Zneli xdeba da
mkiTxvelisagan safuZvlian momzadebasa da sibejiTes iTxovs.
magaliTad, `ukvdavebis CurCuli~ (1918), romelic daaxloebiT `hip-
ipotamTan~ erTdrulad Seiqmna, erTi SexedviT, aseve TvalSi sacemi iro-
niuli kontrastebisagan Sedgeba. meore mxriv (da rogorc es xSirad
xdeba xolme eliotis poeziaSi), leqsis moCvenebiTi simartive SesaZloa
gadaulaxav sirTuled warmoudges Seumzadebel mkiTxvels, romelic mis se-
riozul aRqma-gaazrebas ganizraxavs. suraTi aqac, rogorc `hipopotamSi~,
erTi SexedviT, sakmaod martivia. leqsSi aRwerilia ironiuli kontrasti
SemoqmedebiTi Ziebis amaRlebul mniSvnelobasa da zneobrivad nivelirebul
yofas Soris. me-17 saukunis ingliseli avtorebis uiliam uebsterisa
da jon donis sulieri miswrafebani, maTi survili, amaRldnen empiriul
sinamdvileze da zegrZnobad, transcendentur yofierebas eziaron, mZafr
ironiul kontrastSia Tanamedrove meZavis, vinme griSkinas portretsa da
misi yofis aRwerasTan:
Temur kobaxiZe
76
Webster was much possessed by death
And saw the skull beneath the skin;
And breastless creatures under ground
Leaned backward with a lipless grin.
Donne, I suppose, was such another
Who found no substitute for sense;
To seize and clutch and penetrate;
Expert beyond experience,
uebsters ipyrobda sikvdilze fiqri
da kanqveS igi qalas xedavda,
xolo miwis qveS umkerdo ConCxebs
da utuCebo RreWas cxedarTa.

vfiqrob, rom donic sxva iyo qveynad
sxva Zala ver scno gonebis meti
Ziebis, povnis, yovlis wvdomisTvis;
cdis miRma sferos iyo eqsperti.
leqsis saTauri uordsuorTis cnobili odis (Intimations of Immortality~)
parodiul miniSnebas Seicavs, rac Tavidanve xazs usvams nawarmoebis sit-
uaciisa da problematikis mkveTrad antiromantikul, ironiul-parodiul
xasiaTs. `ukvdavebis CurCuli~ isea agebuli, rom ZiriTadi kontrasti Taname-
drove meZavsa da warsulis did SemoqmedTa Soris kontrastul saxeTa mTeli
ierarqiis TavSia moqceuli. elioti Tavis nawarmoebs or nawilad hyofs da
pirveli nawilis xatovanebas meoris saxeebTan mZafr ironiul dapirispire-
baSi warmosaxavs. erTi mxriv, `miwis qveS umkerdo ConCxebi~, `utuCebo RreWa
cxedarTa~, `TvalTa ukaklo upeebi~ da a. S., xolo meore mxriv

Grishkin is nice: her Russian eye
Is underlined for emphasis;
Uncorseted, her friendly bust
Gives promise of pneumatic bliss.

kargi ram aris griSkina: rusul
Tvalebs feradi xaziT gamohyofs
da ukorseto, Tbili biustiT
moaqvs pnevmatur tkbobis samoTxe.
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopotami~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
77
sabolood, saxeTa amgvari kontrastuloba nawarmoebis azrobrivi siste-
misaTvis ganmsazRvrel, eTikur planSi gaazrebul dualistur winaaRmde-
gobas gulisxmobs doni `cdis miRma mdebare sferoTa eqspertia~, xolo
griSkina TviT am `cdismier~ samyaros ganasaxierebs. donis `wmindanTa
nawilebSi~ da `saRvTo sonetebSi~ siyvaruli zemateruialur yofierebas
erwymis, griSkina ki mdabal instinqtTa mozvavebiT iaguarsa da maimuns
aWarbebs. am or situaciaTa Sedareba Zalze axlos dgas idealur da mate-
rialur sawyisTa dapirispirebasTan, sagnobrivi realobisa da sulis yofi-
erebis dualistur antagonizmTan. aSkaraa, rom tradiciul, religiur-
dogmatur sqemas elioti nawarmoebis kompoziciur RerZad iyenebs, daax-
loebiT im mxatvrul funqcias aniWebs mas, romelic momdevno nawarmoe-
bebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki `unayofo miwaSi~ ukve miToss daekisreba. is, rom
elioti mxolod `iyenebs~ am sqemas da ara `swams~ misi, Tundac iqidan Cans,
rom ironias is orive mxares erTnairad unawilebs. `ukvdavbis CurCulis~
saintereso Tavisebureba isaa, rom donis sasiyvarulo lirikis nimuSTa
msgavsad, aqac poetis subieqtur pozicias, leqsis problematikasTan mis
uSualo mimrTebas kontrastuli xatovanebis ironuli Rimili `efareba~.
is, rom `uebsters ipyrobda sikvdilze fiqri / da kanqveS igi qa-
las xedavda, / xolo miwisqveS umkerdo ConCxebs / da utuCebo Rre-
Was cxedarTa~, literaturaTmcodneobaSi miCneulia uebsteris drama-
turgiis erT-erT yvelaze Rrma da lakonur daxasiaTebad. miuxedavad
imisa, rom es azri poeturi strofis saxiT aris gadmocemuli, is Tavs
uyris uebsteris dramaturgiis umTavres Tvisebebs: pirquS fiqrs amao-
ebaze, sikvdilze da mis saboloo, naklebadesTetikur, Tumca realursa
da saocrad `materialistur~ arsze. `Possessed by death~ (sikvdilze
fiqriT Sepryobili) eliotis asociaciur poetikaSi ueWvelad aRiqme- ueWvelad aRiqme- aRiqme-
ba, rogorc `obsessed by death~-`sikvdilis akviatebuli azris mqones~
evfemizmi (templini 1997: 140). anu is, rom uebsteri `sivdilze fiqriT
iyo Sepyrobili~ faruli ironiis ZaliT imasac niSnavs, rom misTvis
`sikvdili akviatebuli azri iyo~. magram skvdili, kvdoma, kvdomis pro-
cesi, TviT sityva `to die~, Tavis mxriv, meCvidmete saukunis salitera-
turo enaze iseve, rogoc imJamindeli maRali sazogadoebis Jargonze,
seqsisa da sakuTriv, orgazmis metafora iyo da misi evfemizmi (mohaksi
1984: 387-412). mas uxvad iyenebdnen poeziaSi, iyenebda jon donic Tavis
maxvilgonivrul paradoqsebSi `to die~ misTvisac xSirad ormxrivi
konotaciis Semcveli kalamburia (ix. leqsi `kanonizacia~: We can die
by it, if not live by love). cxadia, am simbolur-azrobriv konteqstSi
imis mtkiceba, rom `uebsters ipyrobda sikvdilze fiqri~, rom is iyo
`possessed (obsessed?) by death~, usasrulo ironiiT aris aRsavse, radgan
Temur kobaxiZe
78
qveteqsti aq isaa, rom mas swored seqsi hqonda idee fixe-ad qceuli
da ara sikvdili. TviT donsac, romelmac `qveynad sxva Zala ver scno
gonebis meti~ imis garda, rom `[xeli] CasWidos, waavlos da SeaRwios~
(to seize and clutch and penetrate) elioti orazrovnad axasiaTebs, radga-
nac `CaWidva~, `xelis wavleba~ da gansakuTrebiT, `SeRweva~ (penetrate)
aSkarad orazrovania da ormxriv konotacias Seicavs, sqesobrivi aqtis
gamomxatvel metaforikas warmoadgens. yovel SemTxvevaSi, SemecnebiT,
inteleqtualur an SemoqmedebiT process es poeturi fraza naklebad
mogvagonebs, an mogvagonebs mxolod Tavis seqsualur konotaciasTan
erTad.
poetikuri TvalsazrisiT, leqsi isec SeiZleba wavikiTxoT, rogorc
eliotis mier `grZnobad-inteleqtualuri aRqmis mTlianobis~ (unifed
sensibility) rRvevis kritika. aq is `metafizikosi~ poetebisa da upirve-
lesad, TviT donisaTvis damaxasiaTebel grZnobisa da emociis sinTezs
upirispirebs Tanamedrove poezias, sadac es sinTezi darRveulia. `rodesac
poetis cnobiereba mzad aris samuSaos Sesasruleblad, _ werda elioti
eseSei `metafizikosi poetebi~, _ is ganuwyvetliv aerTianebs erTmaneTTan
SeuTavebel STabeWdilebebs. Cveulebrivi adamianis STabeWdilebebi qao-
turia, mouwesrigebelia, fragmentulia. mas an Seuyvardeba vinme, an is
spinozas kiTxulobs da am STabeWdilebebs araferi aqvT saerTo arc erT-
maneTTan da arc sabeWdi manqanis xmaurTan, an samzareulodan gamosul saW-
mlis sunTan. poetis cnobierebaSi ki es STabeWdilebebi yovelTvis axal
mTlianobas hqmnian (elioti 1951: 287). mogvianebiT, Teoriul nawerebSi (A
Note on Two Odes of Cowley, 1938) is ukve gansazRvravs am Tvisebas, rogorc
metafizikur maxvilgonierebas (wit) da `ukvdavebis CurCulis~ ZiriTa-
di, faruli suliskveTebac am `maxvigonivruli~ esTetikuri mTlianobis
daSlas-Tan dakavSirebuli erTob ironiuli sinanulia.
`metafizikur~ maxvilgonierebas, elioti gansazRvravs, rogorc `az-
ris uSalo, grZnobad gancdas, anu azris emociad qcevas~ (elioti 1951:
286). donTan da uebsterTan dakavSirebli xatovanebis ZiriTadi, poeti-
kuri aspeqtic swored `azris uSualo, grZnobad gancdas~ gulisxmobs:
poeti rTuli, gavrcobili metaforis (e.w. `conceit~) saSualebiT axdens
imis demonstracias, Tu rogor SeiZleba azrisa da gancdis sinTezireba.
sikvdilis `analitikuri~, pirwmindad inteleqtualuri gageba donTan da
uebsterTan imavdroulad aSkara seqsualuri konotacis Seicavs, rac ukve
gancdaTa sferos ganekuTvneba: gr.smiti aRniSnavs, rom `leqsi dawerilia
seqsze, rogorc sikvdilis gacnobierebis saSualebaze saSualebaze, rom-
lis gamoyenebac mxolod mefe iakobis avxorc eopqaSi Tu iqneboda Sesa-
Zlebeli~ (smiti 1966: 41). amgvarad, `ukvdavebis CurCuli~ ara mxolod
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopotami~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
79
praqtikuli magaliTia me-17 saukunis poetTa `gaerTianebuli mgrZnobelo-
bisa~ aramed is erTgvari `receptis~ elementebsac Seicavs imis Taobaze, Tu
rogor unda iqnas miRweuli es metad faseuli Tviseba, romelic, rogorc
elioti sTvlida, barokos epoqis aqeT, inglisuri poeziisaTvis dakar-
gula. `saqme is aris, rom sadRac meCvidmete saukuneSi moxda am grZnobad-
inteleqtualuri aRqmis mTlianobis rRveva, rasac mere ukve veRarasodes
ver davaRwieT Tavi~ (elioti 1951: 288).
sagulisxmoa, rom igive sinTezs Seicavs griSkinTan dakavSirebuli meta-
forikac. griSkinis prototipi iyo serJ diagilevis sabaleto dasis wevri,
rusi balerina serafima astafieva (1876-1934), romlic sacxovreblad lon-
donSi darCa da romelic eliots ezra paundma gaacno im imediT, rom am
Sexvedridan leqsi `gamocxveboda~ (TviT paundi orjer sagangebod axsenebs
mas Tavis 77-e da 79-e `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- e da 79-e `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- da 79-e `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- da 79-e `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- 79-e `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- -e `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- `pizanur kantoebSi~). paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re- paundi ar Semcdara da Tumca re-
aluri astafieva TiTqmis arafriT ar hgavda griSkins, am Sexvedram, rogorc
Cans, biZgi misca `ukvdavebis CurCulis~ Seqmnas. eliotis griSkini mTlianad
seqszea `momarTuli~ xelovnebasTan, miTumetes baletTan, an raime saxis
sulierebasTan mas araferi akavSirebs da faqtobrivad, misi sagangebod vul-
garuli warmosaxva leqsSi sxva araferia, Tu ara meZavis portreti. magram
saqme aqac Rrma orazrovbnebaSia, romelsac elioti sityvebis sxva, sim-
bolur, farul, an etimologiur mniSvnelobaTa xazgasmiT aRwevs. is `pnev-
maturi netareba~, romelic griSkinas mimzidvel biusts, unda vifiqroT,
yvela xelgaSlili msurvelisaTvis moaqvs, mTeli groteskul-ironiuli
skabrezulobis miuxedavad, agreTve ormag konotacias Seicavs. Tanamedrov
mkiTxvelSi pnevmaturi burRis, an CaquCis asociaciis aRmZvreli es sity-
va warmoqmnilia ZvelberZnuli `pnevma~-dan, () romelic `sunTqvas~
niSnavs. terminologiurad, Sua saukuneebis RvTismetyvelebam is jer kidev
filon aleqsandrielis (Zv.w. 20 ax.w. 40) nawerebidan aitaca da qristian-
uli gagebiT `sulis~ aRmniSvnel sityvad aqcia. `pnevmatologia~ dasavlur
RvTismetyvelebaSi saerTod, suliwmindas Semswavleli Teologiuri disci-
plinaa. ase rom griSkinTan dakavSirebiT, suliereba da inteleqtualizmi
zustad isevea miniSnebuli, rogorc uebsterisa da donis sulier miswrafe-
bebSi seqsualuri ltolva. gamodis, rom materialuri da sulieri samyaro
erTmaneTs mkveTrad upirispirdeba, magram meore mxriv orive erTmaneTis Ca-
nasaxs Seicavs, msgavsad Cinuri inis da ianisa. leqsi efuZneba sakmaod rTul,
`oTxmag~ metaforas: uebsteris da donis sulier sferoTa eqspertoba iseT-
save parodiul-seqsualr konotacias Seicavs, rogorc griSkinas meZavuri
momxibvleloba da mTeli misi erTob skabrezuli portreti - parodiul
sulierebas. erTi mxriv, leqsSi suli da xorci (mxatvruli Semoqmedeba da
meZavis yofa, mTeli misi `saqmianoba~) dapirispirebulia erTmaneTTan, meroe
Temur kobaxiZe
80
mxriv erTmaneTisgan ganuyofeli. eliotis usasrulo ironiac swored
amaSi gamoixateba: Tu griSkinas moTanTale biusti `pnevmas~, anu sulsa da
`sulierebas~ Seicavs, xolo donis da uebsteris amaRlebuli miswrafebebi
sqesobriv ltolvasa da `mdabio instinqts~, maSin sadRaa, saerTod, zneo-
brivi faseulobebi? sadRaa religia, mxatvruli Semoqmedebs amaRlebuli
zeSTagoneba, sadRaa suliereba? cdunebiT aRsavse `abstraqtuli mocemu-
lobani~ gars uvlian griSkinis biwier xibls da mxolod `Cevni saZmo-Ra
mixoxavs gamxmar neknebze~, rom `Tbilad Segvinaxos~ Cvenive metafizika:
And even the Abstract Entities
Circumambulate her charm;
But our lot crawls between dry ribs
To keep our metaphysics warm.
simbolur-azrobrivi datvirTvis sawyisiTa Ziebas aq metad Sors mivye-
varT parodiuli froidistuli narTaulebidan (mxatvruli Semoqmedebis
seqsualuri determinirebuloba), TviT imis mtkicebamde, rom erTi SexedviT
dapirispirebuli sawyisebi arsebiTad erTi da igivea, an erTmaneTis `sarCu-
lia~. faqtia, rom am gziT elioti ironiulad `auqmebs~ sulisa da xorcis
tradiciul diqotomias da sulier faseulobaTa TavisTavadobasTan, maT
avtonomiurobasTan dakavSirebiT Rrma skefsiss gamoxatavs. parodiuli
erosi (griSkina, rogorc siZvis `qurumi~) da parodiuli tanatosi (ueb-
steris `micvalebulTa xatovaneba~) faqtobrivad, erTi da igivea orive
parodiaa. faseulobebi nivelirebulia, magram es dRes da guSin ki ar momx-
dara, ase iyo ukve donis da uebsteris droidn. elioti erTmaneTs ki ar
upirispirbs epoqebs, aramed maT arsebiT identurobaze pesimisturi daskv-
na gamoaqvs. radganac es pesimizmi usazRvrod ironiulia, sarkastulic ki,
leqsis aRqmisas xSirad iqmneba `TamaSis~, avtoriseuli `araseriozulo-
bis~ zedapiruli STabeWdileba, romelic ifanteba am Rrmad seriozuli
nawarmoebis siRrmiseuli gansjisas. arsebiTad, es swored is `amaRlebuli
seriozulobaa~, romelzedac Tavis droze wrda didi kritikosi meTiu ar-
noldi da romelsac, maxvilgo-nierebasTan erTad, qlinT bruqsma Tavis
cnobil wignSi mTeli Tavi miuZRvna (bruqsi 1939: 18-38).
eliotis, iseve, rogorc Tavis droze donis, `metafizikuri~ ironia im
skefsiss gamoxatavs, romliTac es krizisuli xanis Semoqmedebi xSirad
ekidebodnen sinamdviles. skefsisi da is Rrma pesimizmi, romelTa saboloo
daZlevac eliotma mxolod mogvianebiT, religiur faseulobaTa aRiare-
bis gziT SesZlo, misi adreuli poeziisaTvis sakmaod damaxasiaaTebelia.
meore mxriv, Znelia eliots, Tundac adreuls, Tanmimdevruli skeptikosi
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopotami~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
81
uwodoT es misi poeziis erT-erTi Strixi, an ufro erT-erTi xerxia Semoq-
medebiTi gzis dasawyisSi. rogorc `hipopotami~, ise `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
pirveli msoflio omis wlebSi Seiqmna, gaCaRebuli brZolebis dros da es
niSandoblivia. gasuli saukunis damdegi da ociani wlebi xom is dro iyo,
rodesac bevri didi Semoqmedi Zalze mtkivneulad aRiqvamda kacobriobis
istoriis erTi udidesi periodis epilogs. sruldeboda renesansuli hu-
manizmisa da misi memkvidre ganmanaTleblobis, Semdeg _ romantizmis ide-
alTa daqveiTebisa da saboloo degradaciis xangrZlivi procesi. warsuls
Cabarda `viqtorias epoqac~ - klasikuri britanuli liberalizmisa da
`sazogadoebrivi harmoniis~ xana. mxatvrul literaturaSi kars iyo mom-
dgari `unayofo miwis~, `kacis fitulebis~, joisis `ulises~ da kafkas
`procesis~ epoqa. evropul mxatvrul azrovnebaSi optimistur, liber-
alur-humanistur warmodgenebs masoflmxed-velobrivi Cixis gamZafrebu-
li gancda Caenacvla.
damowmebani:
bruqsi 1939: Brooks Cl, Modern Poetry and the tradition. Chapel Hill NC: Crolina UP,
1939
elioti 1951: Eliot T. S. Selected Essays. London: Faber & Faber, 1951.
elioti 1988: Eliot T. S. The Letters of T. S. Eliot. Ed. by Valerie Eliot. Vol. I, London: Har-
court Brce Jovannovich, 1988.
mileri 2007: Miller J. E. T.S.Eliot: The Making of an American Poet, 1888-1922. Pennsylva-
nia State UP, 2007.
mohaksi 1984: Mohacsy Il. The Legend of the Unicorn: An Illumination of the Maternal Split.
Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry,
(1984).
sauTemi 1984: Southam B. C. A Guide to the Selected Poems of T. S. Eliot. London: Harcourt
Brace & Co, 1994.
smiti 1966: Smith Gr. T. S. Eliots Poetry and Plays. A Study in Sources and Meaning. Chi-
cago: Chicago UP, 1966 .
templini 1997: Tamplin R. A Preface to T. S. Eliot. London: Longman, 1997.
Smidti 2001: Schmidt P. The Ghent Altarpiece. Ghent, Amsterdam: Ludion, 2001.
(?)12: Likewise, in sixteenth- to eighteenth-century England, to die was a euphe-
mism for orgasm.
Temur kobaxiZe
82
Temur Kobakhidze
Dichotomy of Body and Soul:
T.S.Eliots The Hippopotamus and Whispers of Immortality
Summary
Whispers of Immortality and The Hippopotamus were composed in the middle of
the World War 2, while Eliot stayed in London. Sharp ironical, grotesque imagery and even
caricature are characteristic of both poems as is their rich allusiveness. They share much
of their subject-matter and the theme, although that is hardly recognizable on the surface.
Each in its own way, they both deal with the dichotomy of body and soul, the subject that
would have been obviously religious had not Eliot regarded it with a great deal of ironic
distance and skepticism of an erudite poet-analyst, and by no means with reverence of a
devotional poet.
Within the basic antithesis of The Hippopotamus, that of the hippopotamus and the
True Church, smaller antitheses are developed by the major opposites. For example, the
hippopotamus seems frm but is frail, while the True Church presents no such opposi-
tion; yet this antithesis proves to be truer of the church. The mysterious way in which
God works, gives us not only the satiric wonder of the sleeping church but also the
sympathetic wonder of the limited hippopotamus taking wing and ascending to heaven.
Striking similarities between the poem and Jan van Eycks Ghent Altarpiece (Adoration
of the Mystic Lamb) prove that part of Eliots design was to draw a parody analogy with
this world famous piece of painting by borrowing from it some of the crucial imagery for
his poem. All those quiring angels and martyrd virgins, by whom the hippopotamus
shall be kist, the harp of gold, on which the hippopotamus performs, blood of the
Lamb, by which he will be cleaned, and the True Church itself, personifed by a group
of high ranked clerics in papal tiaras, etc. are depicted in van Eyck altarpiece, which is
commonly considered to be one of the most important masterpieces of the 16th century
Northern Renaissance painting. Behind all the external irony and grotesque, Eliots poem
can doubtlessly be perceived as an inter textual context, where by means of a parallel
extra textual associations, the motif of the Ghent Altarpiece is explicitly recognized. Par-
ody of the Ghent Altarpiece in The Hippopotamus can be identifed as part of the main
current in Modernist aesthetics and its ideology, which repudiated root and branch the
Renaissance values together with what was called humanitarianism in T.S.Eliots time.
The attention, however, is drawn to what we now call the period of relative decline of
the High Renaissance values, and the introduction of Mannerism and Baroque, strongly
exemplifed by the 17th century metaphysical poetry and the Jacobean drama.
Whispers of Immortality makes the use of both bodily lust and spiritual aspirations
just like The Hippopotamus refers to The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb in its imagery. In
sulisa da xorcis diqotomia: tomas eliotis `hipopotami~ da `ukvdavebis CurCuli~
83
fact, both Webster and Donne are possessed by death and see the skull beneath the skin,
but ironically, in Eliots system of values, possessed is quite naturally perceived as ob-
sessed, and obsession by death acquires a highly dubious meaning. In the 17th century lyr-
ics, as well as in the high society jargon of the time to die often constituted an euphemism
for sexual climax (Cf. Donnes Canonization: We can die by it, if not live by love),
the ironic innuendo here doubtless being that Webster appears to be sex-obsessed. Donns
spiritual exercises too, especially his aptness to seize, and clutch, and penetrate, bear
strong resemblance to a sexual contact, being in fact, its metaphorical description. It is
obvious that the soul and body are merged in both Donne and Webster, as are their spir-
itual intentions and the underlying ironic sexuality. Poetically, this also is a metaphysical
poem, exemplifying Eliots thesis of dissociation of sensibility, which took place by the
end of the 17th century and from which we never recovered. At a frst glance, the
Elizabethan and Jacobean authors are taken against moderns. In contrast to the spiritual
aspirations of Donne and Webster, we are much possessed by Grishkin , no breastless
creature, but giving promise of pneumotic bliss. Alien, overwhelming animal, and rank,
the fesh now dominates man. Unlike Webster or Donne, we have to separate thought and
sense, otherwise living sense will conquer our feeble metaphysics:
But our lot crawls between dry ribs
To keep our metaphysics warm.
Grishkin (whose prototype has been a Russian ballet girl Serafma Astafeva of Diaghi-
levs company, who stayed in London after Diaghilev had left) with her friendly bust,
which gives pneumotic bliss seem to represent the fesh per se, the body as opposed to
soul, and so it does at a frst galnce. But the latent meaning of Eliots phrasing goes much
deeper and reveals an absolutely different and even paradoxical attitude. Pneuma (the
of pneumotic bliss) is the Greek word for breath but the Christian tradition start-
ing with Philon of Alexandria, has attributed to it the meaning of soul. In fact, pneuma-
tology is a discipline in Western theology, which is dedicated to the studies of the Holy
Spirit. It seems quite obvious, that just like the metaphysical and highly spiritual striving
of Donne and Webster have a strong sexually determined underfow, Grishkins uncorseted
and friendly bust contains pneuma, and hence the most exceptional spirituality, associated
with the Holy Spirit. In fact, in Whispers of Immortality the dichotomy of body and soul
is canceled, and the cancellation represented with bitter irony if not sarcasm. Body and soul
coexist, if not in harmony, but for Eliot of the 1910s, they serve as each others manifesta-
tions. Death is not a spiritual, but a biological matter marked with strong sexual implica-
tions, and life is lust personifed in Grishkin, who is a carrier of pneumatic spirituality.
Eliots metaphysical irony is part of general skepticism refected in his early poetry,
the quality reaching its climax in The Hollow Men, where there is no room even for irony
Temur kobaxiZe
84
anymore. The turn of the century and the 1910s were the time when many distinguished
men of letters reacted most painfully to the end of one of the longest and most productive
periods in Western cultural history. World War II and its consequences exemplifed to them
the end of the long Renaissance history, succeeded by the Age of Reason and Romanticism.
In European minds, the culture of Victorian era, known for its show-off social harmony
and hypocrite morals was also coming to an end. Upcoming was the composition of The
Waste Land and The Hollow Men, of Joyces Ulysses and Kafkas The Trial. The West-
ern creative thought was dominated with the sensation of an overwhelming cultural and
psychological deadlock and the premonition of crisis.
85
literaturaTmcodneobis qrestomaTia
mixail baxtini
karnavalizebuli literatura
karnavalis (sxvadasxvagvar dResaswaulTa da karnavaluri tipis wes-
CveulebaTa da formaTa erTobliobis gagebiT), misi arsis, pirvelyofil
sazogadoebasa da adamianis pirvelyofil azrovnebaSi misi Rrma fesvebis,
klasobriv sazogadoebaSi misi ganviTarebis, iSviaTi sicocxlisunari-
anobisa da waruSleli xiblis problema kulturis istoriis erT-erTi
urTulesi da usainteresoesi sakiTxTagania. safuZvlianad mas aq, cxadia,
ver ganvixilavT. aq Cven karnavalizebis, anu literaturaze, Tanac mis Jan-
rul mxareze karnavalis zemoqmedebis problema gvainteresebs.
TviTon karnavali (vimeorebT: karnavaluri tipis yvelanair dResaswaulTa er-
Tobliobis azriT), cxadia, ar aris literaturuli movlena. igi sawesCveulebo
xasiaTis sinkretuli sanaxaobrivi formaa. es aris Zalian rTuli, mravalmxrivi
forma, romelic epoqebis, erebisa da sxvadasxva dResaswaulebis Sesabamisad,
saerTo karnavalur safuZvelTan erTad, sxvadasxva nairsaxeobiTa da elferiT
xasiaTdeba. karnavalma simbolur cxadad xelSesaxeb formaTa ena SeimuSava,
didi da rTuli masobrivi msvlelobebiT dawyebuli da calkeuli karnavaluri
JestebiT damTavrebuli. es ena diferencirebulad, SeiZleba iTqvas, danawevrebu-
lad (nebismieri enis msgavsad) erTian (magram rTul) karnavalur msoflgancdas
gamoxatavda, romliTac gamsWvaluli iyo yvela misi forma. SeuZlebelia am enis
ramdenadme srulad da adekvaturad gadatana sityvierebis enaze, miT umetes _
ganyenebul cnebaTa enaze, magram igi eqvemdebareba konkretul-grZnobadi niSniT
masTan naTesaur kavSirSi myofi mxatvruli saxeebis, anu literaturis enaze
gadatanas. karnavalis gadatanas literaturis enaze Cven mis karnavalizebas vu-
wodebT. am transportirebis TvalsazrisiT, qvemoT karnavalis calkeul momen-
tebsa da Taviseburebebs gamovyofT da ganvixilavT.
karnavali aris sanaxaoba rampisa da Semsruleblebad da mayureblebad
dayofis gareSe. karnavalSi yvela uSualo monawilea, karnavaluri qmede-
bis Tanaziaria. karnavals ar ucqeren da, mkacrad rom vTqvaT, mis gaTama-
Sebas ki ar axdenen, aramed cxovroben masSi, cxovroben misi kanonebiT,
vidre es kanonebi moqmedeben, anu karnavalur cxovrebas ewevian. TviTon
karnavaluri cxovreba aris iseTi cxovreba, romelic amogdebulia Cveu-
lebrivi kalapotidan, anu erTgvari `ukuRma cxovrebaa~, `gadmobrunebuli
samyaroa~ (`monde lenvers~).
mixail baxtini
86
karnavalis dros uqmdeba wesebi, akrZalvebi da SezRudvebi, romlebic
Cveulebrivi, anu arakarnavaluri cxovrebis dinebasa da wyobas gansaz-
vraven; upirvelesad uqmdeba ierarqiuli wyoba da masTan dakavSirebuli
SiSis, mokrZalebis, pietetis, eTiketis da a.S. formebi, anu yovelive is,
rasac adamianTa socialur-ierarqiuli da yvela sxvagvari (maT Soris
asakobrivi) uTanasworoba ganapirobebs. uqmdeba yovelgvari distancia
adamianebs Soris da ZalaSi Sedis gansakuTrebuli karnavaluri kategoria
_ laRi familaruli kontaqti adamianebs Soris. es aris karnavaluri mso-
flgancdis Zalian mniSvnelovani momenti. adamianebi, romlebic cxovre-
baSi Seuvali ierarqiuli barierebiT arian dayofilni, karnavalur moe-
danze erTmaneTTan Tavisufal familarul kavSirs amyareben. familaruli
kavSiris es kategoria rogorc masobriv qmedebaTa organizaciis xasiaTs,
aseve Tavisufal karnavalur Jestikulaciasa da gulwrfel karnavalur si-
tyvas gansazRvravs.
karnavalSi konkretul-emociuri da naxevrad realuri da naxevrad gaTa-
maSebuli formiT adamianis adamianTan urTierTobaTa axali modusi yalib-
deba, romelic arakarnavaluri cxovrebis umZlavres socialur-ierarqiul
urTierTobebs upirispirdeba. adamianis qceva, Jesti da sityva Tavisufl-
deba yovelgvari ierarqiuli mdgomareobis (wodebis, Tanamdebobis, asakis,
qonebrivi mdgomareobis) Zalisagan, romelic mTlianad ganapirobebda maT
xasiaTs arakarnavalur cxovrebaSi, da amitomac isini, Cveulebrivi arakar-
navaluri cxovrebisaTvis logikis TvalsazrisiT, eqscentruli, Seusabamo
xdebian. eqscentruloba karnavaluri msoflgancdis gansakuTrebuli kat-
egoriaa, romelic organulad aris dakavSirebuli familaruli kontaqtis
kategoriasTan; igi adamianis bunebis faruli Sreebis gamoxatvisa da gamov-
lenis saSualebas iZleva.
familarulobasTan aris dakavSirebuli karnavaluri msoflgancdis me-
same kategoriac _ karnavaluri mezalansebi. laRi familaruli damok-
idebuleba yvelaferze vrceldeba: yvela Rirebulebaze, azrze, movlenasa
da saganze. karnavaluri kontaqti da SeTavseba myardeba yvelafers Soris,
rac arakarnavaluri ierarqiuli msoflgancdiT daxSuli, Caketili, gan-
calkevebuli da erTamaneTisagan dacilebuli iyo. karnavali aaxlovebs,
aerTianebs, SeauRlebs da SeaTavsebs wmindas profanulTan, maRals dabal-
Tan, diads mdaresTan, brZnuls sulelurTan da a.S.
amasTan aris dakavSirebuli meoTxe karnavaluri kategoriac _ profa-
nacia: karnavaluri mkrexelobani, karnavalur damdablebaTa da damiwebaTa
mTeli sistema, miwisa da sxeulis mwarmoeblur ZalebTan dakavSirebuli
karnavaluri uxamsobani, karnavaluri parodiebi wminda teqstebsa da
gamonaTqvamebze da a.S. [...]
karnavalizebuli literatura
87
es karnavaluri kategoriebi da upirvelesad _ adamianisa da qveyniere-
bis laRi familarizebis kategoria, aTaswleulebis manZilze litera-
turaSi, gansakuTrebiT _ prozauli romanis dialogur xazSi gadadioda.
familarizeba xels uwyobda epikuri da tragikuli distanciis rRvevas da
asaxvis yvela sagnis gadatanas familaruli kontaqtis zonaSi; igi arsebi-
Tad vlindeboda siuJetisa da siuJetur viTarebaTa organizaciaSi, gana-
pirobebda avtoris poziciis gansakuTrebul familarul damokidebulebas
gmirebisadmi (rac SeuZlebelia maRal JanrebSi), nergavda mezalansebisa da
maprofanirebel damdablebaTa logikas da bolos _ udides gardamqnel
zegavlenas axdenda literaturis Tavad sityvier stilze. [...]
mTavari karnavaluri qmedeba aris karnavaluri xelmwifis gamasxreba,
misi Semkoba da ganmkoba. [...]
mefis gvirgviniT Semkobasa da mis mocilebaSi ganfenilia karnavaluri
msoflgancdis TviT birTvi _ cvlilebaTa da gardaqmnaTa, sikvdilisa da
ganaxlebis paTosi. karnavali yovlis momspobi da yovlis ganmaxlebeli
drois zeimia [...] Semkoba-ganmkoba ormxrivi ambivalenturi wes-Cveulebaa,
romelic gamoxatavs cvla-ganaxlebis garduvalobasa da amavdroulad
_ mis cxovelmyofelobas, yovelgvari wyobisa da wesrigis, yovelgvari
Zalauflebisa da yovelgvari mdgomareobis (ierarqiulis) mxiarul far-
dobiTobas. Semkoba imTaviTve gulisxmobs Semdgom ganmkobas: igi Tavidanve
ambivalenturia. mimdinareobs namdvili xelmwifis _ misi monis an masxaris
Semkoba, da amiT xdeba gadmotrialebuli karnavaluri samyaros gaxsna da
sakralizeba. Semkobis wes-CveulebaSi ceremonialis yvela momenti, Zalau-
flebis simboloebi, romlebic Sesamkobels gadaecema, is samosi, romli-
Tac igi imoseba, ambivalenturi xdeba, mxiaruli fardobiTobis xasiaTs
iZens, TiTqmis butaforuli xdeba (magram es sawesCveulebo butaforiaa);
maTi simboluri mniSvneloba orplanianobas iZens (rogorc Zalauflebis
realuri simboloebi, anu arakarnavalur samyaroSi isini erTplanianebi,
absoluturebi, damZimebuli da monoliTurad seriozuli arian). dagvir-
gvinebaSi imTaviTve gamosWvivis gangvirgvineba. aseTia yvela karnavaluri
simbolo: isini yovelTvis Seicaven uaryofis (sikvdilis) perspeqtivas an
piriqiT. dabadeba moaswavebs sikvdils, sikvdili _ axal dabadebas. kar-
navali arafris absolutizebas ar axdens, igi yvelafris fardobas iu-
wyeba. [...] karnavalisaTvis ucxoa rogorc absoluturi uaryofa, aseve
absoluturi mtkiceba. metic, swored gangvirgvinebis wes-CveulebaSi
gansakuTrebiT cxadad Canda cvlisa da ganaxlebis paTosi, aRmaSenebeli
sikvdilis saxe. amitomac literaturaSi yvelaze xSirad gangvirgvinebis
wes-Cveuleba gadmohqondaT. magram, vimeorebT, Semkoba-ganmkoba ganuyofe-
lia, isini orbunebovani arian da erTmaneTSi gadadian; absolutur gan-
mixail baxtini
88
calkevebisas mTlianad ikargeba maTi karnavaluri azri. [...] dagvirgvineba-
gangvirgvinebis wes-Cveulebam didi zegavlena iqonia literaturul-mxat-
vrul azrovnebaze. man ganapiroba mxatvruli saxeebisa da mTlianad nawar-
moebebis agebis gansakuTrebuli ganmagvirgvinebeli saxeoba, Tanac iseTi,
rodesac gangvirgvineba arsebiTad ambivalenturi da orplaniania. magram
Tu gangvirgvinebis saxeebSi karnavaluri ambivalenturoba ikargeboda, ma-
Sin aseTi saxeebi knindebodnen, uaryofiTi gangvirgvinebis wminda moralur
Tu socialur-politikuri xasiaTs iZendnen, erTplaniani xdebodnen, hkar-
gavdnen TavianT mxatvrulobas da liton publicistikas emsgavsebodnen.
erTxel kidev unda SevexoT karnavaluri saxeebis ambivalentur bunebas.
karnavalis yvela saxe ormxrivia, TavianT TavSi cvlisa da krizisis orive
poluss aerTianebs: dabadebasa da sikvdils (orsuli sikvdilis saxe),
kurTxevas da wyevlas (damlocveli karnavaluri wyevlebi sikvdilisa da
aRdgomis erTdrouli surviliT), qebasa da lanZRvas, siymawvilesa da si-
beres, qvenasa da zenas, winasa da ukanas, sicruesa da sibrZnes. karnavaluri
azrovnebisaTvis uaRresad damaxasiaTebelia wyvili saxeebi, romlebic
kontrastis (maRali _ dabali, msuqani _ gamxdari da a. S.) da msgavsebis
niSniT (oreulebi _ wyvilebi) arian SerCeulni. damaxasiaTebelia agreTve
sagnebis piruku gamoyeneba: samosis ukuRma (an piruku) Cacma, magaliTad,
Sarvali _ Tavze, WurWeli _ qudis nacvlad, saojaxo nivTebis iaraRad
gamoyeneba da a.S.yovelive es eqscentriulobis karnavaluri kategoriis
gamovlinebaa, sayovelTaod miRebulisa da aRiarebulis darRveva da Cveu-
lebrivi kalapotidan amovardnili cxovrebaa.
karnavalSi uaRresad ambivalenturia cecxlis saxe. es iseTi cecxlia,
romelic erTdroulad Tan anadgurebs da Tan aaxlebs qveynierebas. ev-
ropul karnavalebSi yovelTvis iyenebdnen ganskuTrebul nagebobas (Cveu-
lebriv _ urems sxvadasxvagvari karnavaluri bargiT), romelsac `jojox-
eTs~ uwodebdnen; karnavalis dasasruls am `jojoxeTs~ sazeimod cecxls
ukidebnen (zogjer karnavaluri `jojoxeTi~ karnavalurad iyo SeTavseb-
uli siuxvis rqasTan). damaxasiaTebelia romauli karnavalis `moccoli~-s
wes-Cveuleba: karnavalis yovel monawiles xelSi anTebuli sanTeli (`namw-
vi~) eWira, Tanac yvela cdilobda sxvisi sanTlis Caqrobas SeZaxiliT `Sia
ammazzato!~ (`sikvdili Sen!~). romis karnavalis Tavis cnobil aRweraSi
(`italiur mogzaurobaSi~) goeTe, romelic cdilobs, axsnas karnavaluri
saxeebis Rrma azri, aseT uaRresad simbolur scenas aRwers: `moccoli~-s
dros biWuna aqrobs mamamisis sanTels mxiaruli karnavaluri ZaxiliT:
`Sia ammazzato, il Signiore Padre!~ (`sikvdili Sen, mama batono!~).
aseve uaRresad ambivalenturia TviTon karnavaluri sicili. geneti-
kurad igi ritualuri sicilis uZveles formebTan aris dakavSirebuli.
karnavalizebuli literatura
89
ritualuri sicili mimarTuli iyo uzenaesisaken: lanZRavdnen da dascino-
dnen mzes (umaRles RvTaebas), sxva RmerTebs, umaRles miwier Zalaufle-
bas, raTa aeZulebinaT isini ganaxlebuliyvnen. ritualuri sicilis yvela
forma sikvdilTan da aRorZinebasTan, Seqmnis aqtTan, Seqmnis Zalis sim-
boloebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. ritualuri sicili reagirebda mzis sic-
ocxlis krizisebze mzis (mzis wrebrunva) cxovrebaSi, RvTaebis sicocxlis,
samyarosa da adamianis cxovrebis krizisebze (samgloviaro sicili). masSi
dacinva Serwymuli iyo aRtacebasTan.
ritualuri sicilis am uZvelesma mimarTebam uzenaesisken (RvTaeba da
Zalaufleba) ganapiroba sicilis privilegias antikurobasa da Sua sau-
kuneebSi. sicilis formiT nebadarTuli iyo bevri ram iseTi, rac serio-
zuli formiT ikrZalebida. Sua saukuneebSi sicilis nebadarTuli formis
safariT SesaZlebeli iyo `parodia sacra~, anu parodia wminda teqstebsa da
ritualebze.
karnavaluri sicilic uzenaesisken _ xelisufalTa da simarTlis, mso-
flwesrigis cvlis mimarT aris mimarTuli. sicili cvlis orive poluss
moicavs, mimarTulia Tavad cvlis procesisadmi, Tavad krizisisadmi. kar-
navaluri sicilis aqtSi SeTavsebulia sikvdili da aRorZineba, uaryofa
(dacinva) da damkvidreba (aRtacebuli sicili). es aris uaRresad mso-
flmxedvelobrivi da universaluri sicili.
unda SevexoT sicilTan dakacSirebiT kidev erT sakiTxs _ parodiis kar-
navalur bunebas. parodia `menipes satirisa~ da saerTod yvelanairi kar-
navaluri Janris ganuyofeli nawilia. wminda JanrebisaTvis (eposi, trage-
dia) parodia ucxoa, xolo karnavaluri JanrebisaTvis, piriqiT, organulad
niSandoblivia. antikur xanaSi parodia ganuyoflad iyo dakavSirebuli kar-
navalur msoflgancdasTan. parodireba didebis Saravandedis mamxilebeli
oreulis Seqmnaa, igive `ukuRma samyaroa~. amitom parodia ambivalenturia.
antikuroba, arsebiTad, yvelafris parodirebas axdenda: magaliTad, satir-
uli drama misi winamorbedi tragikuli trilogiis parodiuli sasacilo
aspeqti iyo. parodia, cxadia, ar iyo parodiis sagnis calsaxad uaryofa.
yvelafers aqvs Tavisi parodia, anu _ sasacilo aspeqti, vinaidan sikvdi-
lis gziT yvelaferi aRorZinebasa da ganaxlebas eqvemdebareba. romSi par-
odia iyo rogorc samgloviaro, aseve triumfaluri sicilis aucilebeli
momenti iyo (cxadia, erTic da meorec karnavaluri tipis wes-Cveulebas war-
moadgenda). karnavalSi parodireba Zalian uxvad gamoiyeneboda da mas sxva-
dasxva forma da xarisxi hqonda: sxvadasxva saxeebi (magaliTad, sxvadasx-
vagvari karnavaluri wyvilebi) sxvadasxvanairad da gansxvavebuli kuTxidan
axdendnen erTmaneTis parodirebas; igi damagrZelebeli, damapataravebeli,
damamaxinjebeli mrude sarkeebis msgavsi mTeli sistema iyo.
mixail baxtini
90
parodiuli oreulebi aseve xSir movlenad iqca karnavalizebul liter-
aturaSi. es gansakuTrebiT cxadad Cans dostoevskisTan, _ misi romanebis
TiTqmis yvela mTavar gmirs ramdenime oreuli hyavs, romlebic sxvadasx-
vagvarad axdenen mis parodirebas: raskolnikovisaTvis _ svidrigailovi,
luJini, lebeziatnikovi, stavroginisaTvis _ piotr verxovenski, Satovi,
kirilovi, ivane karamazovisaTvis _ smerdiakovi, eSmaki, rakitini. yovel
maTganSi (yovel oreulSi) gmiri kvdeba (anu xdeba misi uaryofa), raTa ga-
naxldes (anu, rom ganiwmindos da Tavis Tavze amaRldes).
axali drois viwrod formalur literaturul parodiaSi kavSiri kar-
navalur msoflaRqmasTan TiTqmis mTlianad gawyvetilia. magram aRorZinebia
epoqis parodiebSi (erazmTan, rablesTan da sxv.) karnavaluri cecxli jer
kidev gizgizebda: parodia ambivalenturi iyo da acnobierebda Tavis kav-
Sirs sikvdil-ganaxlebasTan. amitom gaxda SesaZlebeli karnavalis wiaRSi
dabadebuliyo erT-erTi udidesi da yvelaze karnavaluri romani msoflio
literaturaSi _ servantesis `don-kixoti~. [...]
karnavaluri tipis dResaswaulebs udidesi adgili ekava antikurobis
farTo saxalxo masebis cxovrebaSi _ rogorc berZnulis, aseve gansa-
kuTrebiT _ romaulis, sadac karnavaluri tipis centraluri (magram ara
erTaderTi) dResaswauli saturnaliebi iyo. aranaklebi (da SesaZloa _
kidev ufro meti) mniSvneloba hqonda am dResaswaulebs Suasaukuneobriv
evropasa da aRorZinebis epoqaSi, rodesac isini nawilobriv uSualod ro-
mauli saturnaliebis cocxal gagrZelebas warmoadgendnen. saxalxo kar-
navaluri kulturis sferoSi antikurobasa da Sua saukuneebs Soris ar
yofila tradiciis raime wyveta. karnavaluri tipis dResaswaulebi maTi
ganviTarebis yvela epoqaSi uzarmazar, dRemde arasakmarisad Sefasebul da
Seswavlil zegavlenas axdendnen mTeli kulturis ganviTarebaze, maT So-
ris _ literaturis, romlis zogierTma Janrma da mimarTulebam gansa-
kuTrebiT mZlavri karnavalizeba ganicada. antikur epoqaSi gansakuTrebiT
Zlieri karnavalizeba Zvelma atikurma komediam da seriozul-sasacilos
mTelma dargma ganicada. romSi satirisa da epigramis yvela nairsaxeoba
organizaciulad iyo dakavSirebuli saturnaliebTan, saturnaliebisaT-
vis iqmneboda anda, yovel SemTxvevaSi, am dResaswaulis dakanonebul kar-
navalur silaReTa safarvelis qveS iqmneboda (ase, magaliTad, marcialis
mTeli Semoqmedeba uSualod aris dakavSirebuli saturnaliebTan).
Sua saukuneebSi uvrcesi sasacilo da parodiuli literatura xalxur
enebze da laTinurad ase Tu ise karnavaluri tipis dResaswaulebTan iyo
dakavSirebuli _ sakuTriv karnavalTan, `briyvTa dResaswaulTan~, laR
`saaRdgomo sicilTan~ (`risus paschalis~) da sxv. Sua saukuneebSi TiTqmis
yovel saeklesio dResaswauls (gansakuTrebiT iseTebs, rogoricaa uflis
karnavalizebuli literatura
91
sisxlisa da xorcis dResaswauli) saxalxo Tavyrilobebis karnavali ieri
dahkravda. mraval imgvar erovnul dResaswauls, rogorcaa, magaliTad,
xarebTan brZola, aSkarad karnavaluri xasiaTi hqonda. karnavaluri gan-
wyoba sufevda bazrobis, rTvelis dReebSi, miraklebis, misteriebis, so-
tis da a.S. dadgmis dReebSi; Sua saukuneebis mTel Teatralur-sanaxaobriv
cxovrebas karnavaluri xasiaTi hqonda. gviandeli Sua saukuneebis did
qalaqebSi (iseTebSi, rogoricaa romi, neapoli, venecia, parizi, lioni, ni-
urnbergi, kiolni da sxv.) saerTo jamSi yovel wels sam Tvemde (zogjer _
metxans) sruli karnavaluri cxovreba sufevda. SeiZleba iTqvas (cxadia,
garkveuli dazustebebiT), rom Sua saukuneebis adamiani orgvar cxovrebas
eweoda: erTi iyo oficialuri, monoliTurad seriozuli da moRuSuli
cxovreba, romelic mkacr ierarqiul wesrigs eqvemdebareboda da SiSiT,
dogmatizmiT, mokrZalebiTa da pietetiT iyo aRsavse, xolo meore iyo kar-
navaluri moednebis laRi cxovreba, romelic aRsavse iyo ambivalenturi
siciliT, mkrexelobebiT, yvelaferi wmindas profanaciebiT, damdablebiTa
da uxamsobiT, yvelasTan da yvelafrisadmi Sinauruli damokidebulebiT
gamsWvaluli. es orive cxovreba dakanonebuli da drois mkacri sazRvrebiT
iyo gamijnuli erTmaneTisagan.
cxovrebisa da azrovnebis am ori sistemis (oficialurisa da kar-
navaluris) monacvleobisa da gamijnulobis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe ve-
rasodes gavigebT Sua saukuneebis adamianis kulturul cnobierebas, ve-
rasodes CavwvdebiT bolomde Sua saukuneebis literaturis mraval iseT
movlenas, rogoricaa, magaliTad, `parodia sacra~. orgvari cxovreba _
oficialuri da karnavaluri _ antikur samyaroSic arsebobda, magram iq
(gansakuTrebiT _ saberZneTSi) isini arasodes yofila ase mkveTrad gami-
jnuli).
Sua saukuneebSi xdeboda agreTve evropel xalxTa sametyvelo cxovre-
bis karnavalizeba: enis calkeuli Sreebi _ e.w. moednebis familaruli
metyveleba _ karnavaluri msoflgancdiT iyo gamsWvaluli; iqmneboda
agreTve laRi karnavaluri Jestikulaciis uzarmazari fondi. yvela evro-
peli xalxis familaruli metyveleba, gansakuTrebiT uxamsi da damcinavi,
Cvens dromde aRsavsea karnavaluri reliqtebiT; Tanamdrove uxamsi da dam-
cinavi Jestikulaciac aRsavsea karnavaluri simbolikiT.
aRorZinebis epoqaSi karnavalurma stiqiam, SeiZleba iTqvas,Pwaleka
zRudeebi da oficialuri cxovrebisa da msoflgagebis mraval sferoSi
SeiWra. upirvelesad didi literaturis TiTqmis yvela Janri moicva, rom-
lebic arsebiTad gardaqmna. moxda mTeli mxatvruli literaturis uaR-
resad Rrma da TiTqmis sruli karnavalizeba. karnavaluri msoflgancda da
misi kategoriebi, karnavaluri sicili, Semkoba-ganmkobis, cvlisa da gad-
mixail baxtini
92
acmis karnavalur qmedebaTa simbolika, karnavaluri ambivalenturoba da
familaruli, cinikur-gulaxdilis, eqscentrulis, saxotbo-salanZRavi
laRi karnavaluri sityvis yvela niuansma Rrmad SeaRwia mxatvruli lit-
eraturis TiTqmis yvela JanrSi. renesansuli msoflmxedvelobis rTuli
formebic karnavaluri msoflgancdis safuZvelze yalibdeba. garkveul-
wilad karnavaluri msoflgancdis prizmaSi xdeboda humanistebis mier
SeTvisebuli antikurobis gardatexa. aRorZineba karnavaluri cxovrebis
mwvervalia. Semdeg daRmasvla iwyeba.
XVII saukunidan dawyebuli saxalxo karnavaluri cxovreba ukan ixevs,
TiTqmis mTlianad hkargavs sayovelTao xalxurobas, misi xvedriTi wili
adamianTa cxovrebaSi mkveTrad klebulobs, misi formebi Raribdeba, knin-
deba da suls Rafavs. jer kidev aRorZinebis droidan ganviTarebas iwyebs
sakaro-sazeimo maskaraduli kultura, romelmac araerTi karnavaluri
(ZiriTadad garegnuli dekoratiuli xasiaTis) forma da simbolo SeiT-
visa. Semdeg ganviTarebas iwyebs dResaswaulTa da garTobaTa ufro far-
To (amjerad _ ara saxalxo) xazi, romelsac SeiZleba maskaraduli xazi
ewodos; masSi karnavaluri msoflgancdis zogierTi silaRe da Soreuli
elferi SemorCa. mravali karnavaluri forma moswyda Tavis saxalxo sa-
fuZvlebs da moednidan kamerul maskaradul xazSi gadainacvla, romelic
dRemde arsebobs. karnavalis mravali Zveli forma dResac ganagrZobs arse-
bobasa da ganviTarebas moednebis balaganur komikSi, da agreTve _ cirkSi.
[...] zogi ram karnavaluri atmosferodan garkveul pirobebSi Tavs inarCu-
nebda bohemaSi, romelic umeteswilad karnavali msoflgancdis gadagva-
reba da Sebilwvaa (masSi xom natamalic aRar aris darCenili sayovelTao
xalxurobis karnavaluri suliskveTebisagan). [...]
ra Tqma unda, karnavalic am sityvis zusti mniSvnelobiT da karnavaluri
tipis sxva zeimebi (magaliTad, xarebTan brZola), agreTve maskaraduli
xazi, balaganuri masxaraoba da karnavaluri folkloris sxva formebi
garkveul uSualo zemoqmedebas literaturaze Cvens dromde ganagrZoben.
magram es zegavlena umeteswilad nawarmoebebis SinaarsiT ifargleba da ar
exeba maT Janrul safuZvels, anu moklebulia Janris warmomqmnel unars.
axla SegviZlia davubrundeT Janrebis karnavalizebas seriozul-sasaci-
lo sferoSi, romlis saxelwodebac ki karnavalurad ambivalenturad JR-
ers.
`sokrates dialogis~ karnavaluri safuZveli, misi erTob rTuli lit-
eraturuli formisa da filosofiuri siRrmis miuxedavad, eWvs ar iwvevs.
am Janris Tavdapirvel birTvs safuZvlad daedo cvlisa da mxiaruli far-
dobiTobis suliskveTebiT gamsWvaluli saxalxo-karnavaluri `paeqroba~
sikvdilsa da sicocxles, sibnelesa da sinaTles, zafxulsa da zamTars
karnavalizebuli literatura
93
da a.S. Soris, paeqroba, romelic azrs saSualebas ar aZlevs calmxriv
seriozulobis, uvargisi garkveulobisa da erTniSnadobis gaqvavebuli saxe
miiRos. amiT `sokrates dialogi~ gansxvavdeba rogorc wminda ritori-
kuli dialogisagan, aseve tragikuli dialogisagan, magram karnavaluri
safuZveli mas ramdenadme sofronis mimebTan aaxlovebs. TviT azrisa da
WeSmaritebis dialoguri bunebis sokratiseuli aRmoCena gulisxmobs di-
alogis monawileTa urTierTobis karnavalur familarizebas, maT Soris
yovelgvari distanciis gauqmebas; metic, Tavad gansjis saganisadmi, ragind
diadi da mniSvnelovani iyos, da Tavad WeSmaritebisadmi damokidebulebaTa
familarizebas gulisxmobs. platonis zogierTi dialogi Semkoba-ganmkobis
karnavaluri principiT aris agebuli. [...] saerTod, karnavaluri legendebi
arsebiTad gansxvavdebian heroizebisaken mimarTuli epikuri Tqmulebebisa-
gan: isini amdableben gmirs, miwaze dahyavT igi, axdenen mis familarizebas,
daaxloebas da gaadamianurebas; ambivalenturi karnavaluri sicili nacar-
tutad aqcevs yvelafers, rac gacveTili da gaSeSebulia, magram ar spobs
saxis namdvil gmirul birTvs. unda iTqvas, rom romanis gmirTa saxeebic
(gargantua, ulenSpigeli, don kixoti, fausti, simplicisimusi da sxvebi)
karnavaluri legendebis atmosferoSi iqmnebodnen.
kidev ufro cxadad Cans menipes karnavaluri buneba. karnavalizebiT aris
gamsWvaluli misi gare Sreebic da Sina siRrmiseuli birTvic. zogierT
menipeSi karnavaluri tipis dResaswaulebia asaxuli (magaliTad, varon-
Tan or satiraSi naCvenebia romauli dResaswaulebi; iuliane gandgomi-
lis erT-erT menipeSi olimpoze gamarTuli saturnaliebis dResaswauli
iyo naCvenebi). es jer kidev garegnuli (ase vTqvaT, Tematuri), magram mainc
kavSiria. gacilebiT ufro sagulisxmoa menipes sami planis _ olimpos,
qvesknelisa da miwis _ karnavaluri gaazreba. olimpos gamosaxulebas
aSkarad karnavaluri xasiaTi aqvs: menipes olimposaTvis damaxasiaTebelia
laRi familarizeba, skandalebi da eqscentruloba, Semkoba-ganmkoba. olim-
po lamis karnavalur moedans emsgavseba (ix., magaliTad, lukianes `tragi-
kuli zevsi~). zogjer olimpiuri scenebi karnavalur damdablebaTa da
damiwebaTa planSia mocemuli (imave lukianesTan). kidev ufro saintereso
da Tanamimdevrulia qvesknelis karnavalizeba. qveskneli aTanabrebs yvela
amqveyniur mdgomareobaTa warmomadgenels, aq Tanabari uflebiT xvdebian
da familarul kontaqts amyareben erTmaneTTan imperatori da mona, mdi-
dari da maTxovari da a.S.; sikvdili ganZarcvavs yvelas, vinc cxovrebisas
Semkobili iyo. xSirad qvesknelis gamosaxvisas `ukuRma samyaros~ logika
gamoiyeneboda: imperatori qvesknelSi mona xdeba, mona _ iperatori da a.S.
menipes karnavalizebuli qveskneli ganapirobebda Sua saukuneebis mxiaru-
li jojoxeTis gamosaxulebebs, ramac Tavisi daboloeba rablesTan pova. am
mixail baxtini
94
Suasaukuneobrivi tradiciisaTvis antikuri qvesknelisa da qristianuli
jojoxeTis mizandasaxuli SeTavsebaa damaxasiaTebeli. misteriebSi eSmake-
bic (`diableriebSi~) aseve Tanamimdevrulad karnavalizebuli arian.
menipeSi miwieri planic karnavalizebulia: TiTqmis yvela scenisa da re-
aluri cxovrebis movlenis miRma, romlebic umeteswilad naturalistur-
ad aris gamosaxuli, gamosWvivis met-naklebad cxadi karnavaluri moedani
da familaruli kontaqtebis, mezalansebis, gadacmebisa da mistifikacieb-
is, kontrastuli wyvili saxeebis, skandalebis, Semkoba-ganmkobis specifi-
kuri karnavaluri logika. ase, magaliTad, `satirikonis~ qoxmaxebis yvela
naturalisturi scenis miRma met-naklebi sicxadiT karnavaluri moedani
gamosWvivis. `satirikonis~ siuJetic Tanamimdevrulad karnavalizebulia.
amis mowmeni varT agreTve apuleusis `metamorfozebSi (`oqros virSi~).
zogjer karnavalizeba ufro Rrma SreebSia ganfenili da aseT SemTxveva-
Si mxolod calkeuli saxeebisa da movlenebis karnavalur obertonebze
saubris saSualeba gveZleva. magram zogjer igi garegnuladac vlindeba,
magaliTad, zRurblze mkvlelobis wminda karnavalur epizodSi, rodesac
luciusi adamianebis nacvlad Rvinis tikebs gangmiravs da daRvrili Rvino
sisxli hgonia; igive iTqmis momdevno scenaze, rodesac misi mistificire-
buli karnavaluri gasamarTleba xdeba. karnavaluri obertonebi ismis
agreTve tonalobis mxriv iseT seriozul menipeSi, rogoricaa boeciusis
`filosofosis nugeSi~.
karnavalizeba menipes TviT uRrmes filosofiur-dailogur birTvamde
aRwevs. rogorc vnaxeT, am JanrisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sikvdil-sicocx-
lis ukanaskneli kiTxvebis mTeli simwvaviT wamoWra da garkveuli univer-
salobac (kerZo problemebi da gaSlili filosofiuri argumentireba mis-
Tvis ucxoa). karnavaluri azri ganfenilia ukanaskneli kiTxvebis sfero-
Si, romlebsac igi ara ganyenebul-filosofiuri an religiur-dogmaturi
TvalsazrisiT aSuqebs, aramed axdens maT gaTamaSebas karnavalur qmede-
baTa da saxeTa konkretul-xelSesaxebi formiT. amitom karnavalizeba saSu-
alebas iZleoda ukanaskneli kiTxvebi ganyenebul-filosofiur sferodan
karnavalurad dinamiuri, mravalgvari da elvare saxeebisa da movlenebis
konkretul-xelSesaxeb planSi yofiliyo gadatanili. karnavalizeba saSu-
alebas iZleoda `filosofia heteras Wreli samosiT yofiliyo Semosili~.
karnavaluri msoflgancda aRmZravi Rvedia ideasa da avantiurul mxatvrul
saxes Soris. axali drois evropul literaturaSi amis naTeli magaliTia
volteris filosofiuri moTxrobebi maTi ideuri universalizmiTa da kar-
navaluri dinamikiTa da siWreliT (magaliTad, `kandidi~); am moTxrobebSi
Zalian cxadad vlindeba menipeisa da karnavalizebis tradiciebi. amgvarad,
karnavalizeba menipes TviT filosofiur birTvamde aRwevs.
karnavalizebuli literatura
95
amgvarad, menipeSi TiTqosda nairsaxovani da SeuTavsebeli elementebis
saocari SeTavseba moCans: filosofiuri dialogis, avanturisa da fantas-
tikis, qoxmaxebis naturalizmis, utopiis da a.S. axla ukve SegviZlia vTq-
vaT, rom is iSviaTi Zalis mqone SemakavSirebeli sawyisi, rac am nairsaxo-
van elementebs Janris organul mTlianobaSi moaqcevs, karnavali da kar-
navaluri msoflgancdaa. evropuli literaturis ganviTarebis momdevno
etapzec karnavalizebam xeli Seuwyo Janrebs, azrTa daxurul sistemebs,
sxvadasxva stilebs da a.S. Soris zRudeebis moSlas; igi auqmebda yovel-
gvar daxSulobas da urTierTugulvebelyofas, aaxlovebda daSorebuls,
aerTianebda gancalkevebuls. es aris karnavalizebis didi funqcia lit-
eraturis istoriaSi.
axla oriode sityva menipesa da karnavalizebis Sesaxeb qristianul
niadagze.
menipem da mis orbitaSi ganviTarebulma monaTesave Janrebma garkveuli
zegavlena iqonies Camoyalibebis procesSi myof Zvel berZnul, romaul da
bizantiur mwerlobaze.
Zveli qristianuli mwerlobis ZiriTadi TxrobiTi Janrebi _ `saxare-
bani~, `kaTolike epistoleni~, `apokalifsisi~ da `wmindanTa da wamebulTa
cxovrebani~ _ dakavSirebulia antikur aretalogiasTan, romelic Cveni
welTaRricxvis pirvel saukuneebSi menipes orbitaSi viTardeboda. qris-
tianul JanrebSi, gansakuTrebiT _ mravalricxovan `saxarebebsa~ da mo-
ciqulTa `epistoleebSi~ yalibdeba qristianuli dialoguri sinkrizebi:
is, visac acTuneben (qriste, wmindani) da macduri, morwmune da urjulo,
wmindani da codvili, mdidari da Raribi, qristes mimdevari da fariseveli,
mociquli (qristiani) da warmarTi da sxv. [...] aseTi antikuri Zirebi, `saw-
yisebi~ (`arqaika~) aqvs im Janrul tradicias, romlis erT-erT mwvervali
dostoevskis Semoqmedebaa. es `sawyisebi~ mis SemoqmedebaSi ganaxlebuli
saxiTaa warmodgenili.
magram am saTaveebisagan dostoevskis ori aTaswleuli aSorebs, romlis
ganmavlobaSi Janruli tradicia ganagrZobda ganviTarebas, rTuli xdeboda
da saxes icvlida (Tumca inarCunebda mTlianobasa da uwyvetelobas). ori-
ode sityviT menipes Semdgom ganviTarebaze.
rogorc vnaxeT, ukve antikur da adreqristianul niadagze menipe
amJRavnebda iSviaT `protevsisebur~ Tvisebas, icvlida garegnul formas
(Tumca inarCunebda Sinagan Janrul Tvisebriobas), romanis srul mocu-
lobas iZenda, iTavsebda monaTesave Janrebs, mkvidrdeboda sxva did Jan-
rebSi (magaliTad, berZnul da adreqristianul romanSi). es Tavisebureba
Tavs iCens menipes ganviTarebis Semdgom etapze, rogorc Sua saukuneebSi,
aseve axal droSi.
mixail baxtini
96
Sua saukuneebSi menipes Janruli Taviseburebani laTinuri saeklesio
mwerlobis zogierT dargSi ganagrZobdnen arsebobas da ganaxlebas, rom-
lebic, ganskuTrebiT mowameTa cxovrebis zogierT nairsaxeobaSi, uSualod
agrZelebdnen Zveli qristianuli literaturis tradiciebs. ufro Tavisu-
fali da originaluri saxiT menipe Sua saukuneebis iseT dialogizebul da
karnavalizebul JanrebSi cocxlobda, rogoricaa `kamaTi~, `paeqroba~, am-
bivalenturi `xotba~ (desputaisons, dits, dbats), moralite da mirakli,
xolo gviandel saukuneebSi _ misteria da soti. menipes elementebi ig-
rZnoba Sua saukuneebis mkveTrad karnavalizebul parodiul da naxevradp-
arodiul literaturaSi: imqveyniur parodiul xilvebSi, parodiul `sax-
arebaTa sakiTxavebSi~ da a.S. da bolos, am Janruli tradiciis ganviTarebis
Zalian mniSvnelovani momentia Sua saukuneebisa da adreuli aRorZinebis
xanis novelisturi literatura, romelic Zlier aris gamsWvaluli kar-
navalizebuli menipes elementebiT.
aRorZinebis xanaSi _ mTeli literaturisa da msoflmxedvelobis Rrma
da TiTqmis sayovelTao karnavalizebis epoqaSi _ menipe yvela did JanrSi
(rablesTan, servantesTan, grimilshauzenTan da sxvebTan) mkvidrdeba, amas-
Tanave viTardeba menipes sxvadasxvagvari renesansuli formebi, romlebSic
umetes SemTxvevaSi SeTavsebulia am Janris antikuri da Suasaukuneobrivi
tradiciebi: deperies `mSvidobis winwili~, erazmis `qeba sisulelisa~,
servantesis `samoZRvrebo novelebi~, `Satyre Menippe de la vertue du Catholi-
con dEspagne~ (`menipes satira espaneli kaTolikonis Rirsebebze~, 1594 w.,
erT-erTi udidesi politikuri satira msoflio literaturaSi), grim-
ilshauzenis, kevedosa da sxvebis satirebi.
axal droSi menipe ara mxolod sxva karnavalizebul JanrebSi mkvidrde-
ba, aramed sxvadasxva variantiTa da saxelwodebiT damoukidebladac
ganagrZobs ganviTarebas: `lukianes dialogi~, `saubrebi micvalebulTa
samefoSi~ (antikuri tradiciiT aRbeWdili nairsaxeoba), `filosofiuri
moTxroba~ (menipes nairsaxeoba, romelic damaxasiaTebelia ganmanaTle-
blobis xanisaTvis), `fantastikuri moTxroba~ da `filosofiuri zRapari~
(romantizmisaTvis, magaliTad, hofmanisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli formebi) da
sxv. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom axal droSi menipes Janrul Taviseburebebs
sxvadasxva literaturuli mimdinareobebio da SemoqmedebiTi meTodebi
iyenebdnen da sxvadasxvagvarad aviTarebdnen mas. ase, magaliTad, volteris
racionalisturi `filosofiuri moTxroba~ da hofmanis romantikuli
`filosofiuri zRapari~, maTi mxatvruli arsis, ideuri Sinaarsisa da,
cxadia, SemoqmedebiTi individualobis didi sxvaobis miuxedavad (sakmari-
sia, magaliTad, SevadaroT `mikromegasi~ da `pawia caxesi~), menipes saerTo
Janruli niSan-TvisebebiT xasiaTdebian da orive mkveTad karnavalizebu-
karnavalizebuli literatura
97
lia. unda iTqvas, rom axali drois literaturaSi menipe karnavalizebis
yvelaze mZlavri da elvare formebis ZiriTadi matarebeli iyo.
da bolos saWiroa imis aRniSvna, rom Janruli saxelwodeba `menipe~,
iseve rogorc yvela sxva antikuri Janruli saxelwodeba _ `epopea~, `tra-
gedia~, `idilia~ da sxv., _ axali drois literaturis mimarT gamoyenebi-
sas, antikurobisagan gansxvavebiT, ara garkveuli Janruli kanonis, aramed
Janruli arsis aRsaniSnad ixmareba. (magram Tu iseTi Janruli terminebi,
rogoricaa `epopea~, `tragedia~ da `idilia~, axali drois literaturis
mimarT gamoyenebisas sayovelTaodaa miRebuli, Cveulebrivia da, ar gveuc-
naureba, rodesac `omsa da mSvidobas~ epopeas, `boris godunovs~ _ tra-
gedias, xolo `Zveli drois memamuleni~ _ idilias vuwodebT. magram Jan-
ruli termini `menipe~ uCveuloa (gansakuTrebiT _ Cvens literaturaTm-
codneobaSi) da amitom misi gamoyeneba axali drois literaturis nawar-
moebTa (magaliTad, dostoevskis) mimarT SesaZloa ramdenadme ucnauri da
naZaladevi mogveCvenos).
Cveni eqskursis dros ukve aRvniSneT, rom menipesa da misi monaTesave
Janrebis Cvens mier mocemuli daxasiaTeba mTlianad vrceldeba dostoevs-
kis Semeqmedebis Janrul Taviseburebebze. [...]
gavixsenoT is uzarmazari mniSvneloba, romelic dostoevskisaTvis
hqonda volterisa da didros dialogur kulturas, romlis saTaveebs
sokrates dialogTan, antikur menipesTan da _ nawilobriv _ diatrib-
asTan da soliloqviumTan mivyavarT. Tavisufali menipes meore nairsaxeoba,
fantastikuri da zRapruli elementebiT, gvxvdeba hofmanTan, romelmac
mniSvnelovani zegavlena iqonia adrindel dostoevskize. dostoevskis
yuradReba miiqcies agreTve edgar pos moTxrobebma, romlebic TavianTi
arsiaT axlos arian menipesTan. [...]
Tavisi TematikiT `sasacilo adamianis sizmari~ dostoevskis wamyvani Te-
mebis erTgvari sruli enciklopediaa; amasTanave es Temebi da maTi mxatvru-
li xorcSesxmis wesi erTob damaxasiaTebelia menipes JanrisaTvis. `sasaci-
lo adamianis~ centralur figuraSi cxadad gamosWvivis karnavalizebuli
literaturis `brZeni briyvis~ da `tragikuli masxaras~ ambivalenturi
seriozul-sasacilo saxe. [...] `sasacilo adamianis sizmari~ menipesaTvis
uaRresad damxasiaTebeli TemiT iwyeba, _ es aris Tema iseTi adamianisa,
romelmac erTaderTma icis WeSmariteba da amitom mas yvela dascinis,
rogorc giJs. [...] SevexebiT dostoevskis kidev ramdenime sxva tipis nawar-
moebs, romlebic TavianTi arsiT axlos arian menipesTan, magram pirdapir
ar Seicaven fantastikur elements. aseTia upirvelesad moTxroba `Tvin-
ieri qalwuli~, romelSic JanrisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mwvave siuJeturi
anakriza, mkveTri kontrastebiT, mezalansebiTa da moraluri eqsperiment-
mixail baxtini
98
ebiT, soliloqviumis saxiTaa gaformebuli. moTxrobis gmiri Tavis Tavze
ambobs: `me dumiliT saubris ostati var, me mTeli Cemi cxovreba dumiliT
Cavilaparake da mTeli tragediebi dumiliT gavatare Cems TavTan~. gmiris
saxe Tavis Tavisadmi swored dialoguri damokidebulebiT aris gaxsnili.
[...] amgvar menipesTan, arsebiTad, axlos aris agreTve `baraTebi iatakqve-
SeTidan~ (1864), romelic agebulia rogorc diatriba (saubari dauswreb-
el mosaubresTan); igi Ria da faruli polemikiT aris gamsWvaluli da
aRsarebis arsebis elementebs Seicavs. am nawarmoebSi menipes sxva nacnobi
elementebic moCans: mwvave dialogur sinkrizebi, familarizeba da pro-
fanireba, qoxmaxebis naturalizmi da sxv. SevexebiT dostoevskis kidev erT
nawarmoebs erTob damaxasiaTebeli saTauriT _ `uxamsi anekdoti~ (1862).
es Rrmad karnavalizebuli moTxrobac axlosaa menipesTanA(magram varonis
tipis menipesTan). aq yvelaferi aRsavsea mkveTri karnavaluri kontraste-
biT, mezelansebiT, ambivalenturobiT, damdablebiTa da ganmkobiT.
romanSi `danaSauli da sasjeli~ sonia raskolnikovis mier sonias
pirveli monaxulebis cnobili scena (saxarebis kiTxviT) lamis sruli qris-
tianizebuli menipea: mwvave dialoguri sinkrizebi (rwmena urwmenobasTan,
morCileba siamayesTan), mwvave anakriza, oqsimoronuli SeTavsebebi (moaz-
rovne _ borotmoqmedi, meZavi _ wmindani), ukanasknel kiTxvaTa Riad dasma
da saxarebis kiTxva qoxmaxis garemoSi. menipeebia raskolnikovis sizmrebi
da agreTve svidrigailovis sizmari TviTmkvlelobis win.
`idiotSi~ menipe aris ipolites aRsareba (`Cemi aucilebeli axsna-
ganmarteba~), romelic terasaze Tavad miSkinis dialogis scenis CarCoSia
Casmuli da ipolites TviTmkvlelobis sceniT mTavrdeba. `eSmakebSi~ ase-
Tia stavroginis aRsareba am aRsarebis CarCo _ dialogi stavroginsa da
tixons Soris. `ymawvilSi~ aseTia versilovis sizmari.
`Zmebi karamazovebSi~ SesaniSnavi menipe aris ivanesa da alioSas saubari
mivardnili dabis savaWro moedanze traqtirSi `dedaqalaqis qalaqi~. aq
traqtiris orRanis xmaze, biliardis burTebisa da ludis boTlebis sa-
cobTa tkacunSi beri da aTeisti msoflios ukanasknel sakiTxebs wyveten. am
`menipes satiraSi~ Casmulia meore satira _ `legenda did inkvizitorze~,
romelsac damoukidebeli mniSvneloba aqvs da qristesa da eSmakis saxare-
biseuli sinkrizis mixedviTaa agebuli. es orive urTierTdakavSirebuli
`menipes satira~ msoflio mxatvrul-filosofiuri literaturis udides
nawarmoebTa rigs ganekuTvneba. da bolos, aseve Rrma menipea ivane karamazo-
vis saubari eSmakTan (Tavi: `eSmaki, ivane feodoroviCis koSmari~). [...]
karnavalizebis movlena dostoevskis SemoqmedebaSi, cxadia, scildeba
menipes farglebs da mas damatebiTi Janruli wyaroebi aqvs, romlebic cal-
ke ganxilvas saWiroeben. dostoevskize, isve rogorc XVII-XIX saukunee-
karnavalizebuli literatura
99
bis mraval mweralze, karnavalizeba upirvelesad literaturul-Janruli
tradiciis saxiT zemoqmedebda, xolo karnavalizebis araliteraturuli
wyaro, anu _ karnavali, mTeli sicxadiT, SesaZloa, arc ki hqonia gacno-
bierebuli. magram karnavali, misi formebi da simboloebi, da upirvelesad
Tavad karnavaluri msoflgancda mraval literaturul JanrSi iWreboda,
mTlianad msWvalavda da ayalibebda maT Taviseburebebs, maTi erTgvari
ganuyofeli nawili xdeboda. literaturis enaze gadatanili karnavaluri
formebi cxovrebis mxatvruli wvdomis mZlavr iaraRad, gansakuTrebul
enad iqcnen, romlis sityvebsa da formebs simboluri ganzogadebis, anu
siRrmeSi ganzogadebis udidesi Zala SeswevT. [...] XVII, XVIII da XIX sau-
kuneebis literaturisaTvis karnavalizebis umTavres wyaros aRorZinebis
xanis mwerlebi warmoadgendnen _ upirvelesad bokaCo, rable, Seqspiri,
servantesi da grimilshauzeni (es ukanaskneli scildeba aRorZinebis far-
glebs, magram mis SemoqmedebaSi karnavalis Rrma gavlena aranaklebad ig-
rZnoba, vidre SeqspirTan da servantesTan). aseTsave wyaros warmoadgenda
agreTve (uSualod karnavalizebuli) pikareskuli romani. garda amisa, am
saukuneTa mwerlebisaTvis karnavalizebis wyaro, cxadia, antikurobisa
(maT Soris _ `menipes satira~) da Sua saukuneebis karnavalizebuli lit-
eratura iyo.
dostoevskisaTvis karnavaluri tradiciis aTvisebisas didi mniSvnelo-
ba hqonda XVIII saukunis literaturas da upirvelesad _ voltersa da
didros, romlebisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia karnavalizebis SeTavseba anti-
kurobisa da aRorZinebis xanis dialogebiT nasazrdoeb maRal dialogur
kulturasTan. [...]
karnavaluri tradiciis ufro Rrma SeTvisebis magaliTi hpova dosto-
evskim balzakTan, JorJ sandTan da viqtor hiugosTan, romlebTanac nakle-
bad gvxvdeba karnavalizebis garegnuli gamovlinebebi, magram samagierod
karnavalizebiT Rrmad aris gamsWvaluli didi da Zlieri xasiaTebisa da
vnebaTaRelvis agebuleba. vnebaTa karnavalizeba upirvelesad maT ambiva-
lenturobaSi vlindeba: siyvaruli SeTavsebulia siZulvilTan, siZunwe _
uangarobasTan, Zalauflebis siyvaruli _ TvidakninebasTan da a.S.
karnavalizebis SeTavsebas cxovrebis sentimentalur aRqmasTan dos-
toevski poulobda sternTan da dikensTan. da bolos, karnavalizebis SeT-
avseba romantikuli (da ara racionalisturis, rogorc volterTan da
didrosTan) saxis ideasTan dostoevskim edgar posTan da gansakuTrebiT _
hofmanTan pova. calke unda iTqvas rusul tradiciaze. aq, gogolis garda,
unda vaxsenoT dostoevskize puSkinis Rrmad karnavalizebuli nawarmoebe-
bis _ `boris godunovis~, belkinis moTxrobebis, boldinos tragediebisa
da `pikis qalis~ uzarmazari zegavlena.
mixail baxtini
100
karnavalizebis am mokle mimoxilvas odnavadac ara aqvs sisrulis pre-
tenzia. CvenTvis mTavari iyo tradiciis ZiriTadi xazebis Cveneba. erTxel
kidev xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, rom Cven gvainteresebs ara calkeuli mwer-
lebis, calkeuli Temebis, ideebisa da saxeebis zegavlena, aramed uSualod
TviT Janruli tradiciis zegavlena, romelsac igi am mwerlebidan iT-
visebda. [...].
karnavalizebis problemis swori gagebisaTvis Tavi unda davaRwioT
karnavalis gamartivebul gagebas, mis gaigivebas axali drois maskaradul
xazTan da miT umetes mis uxams bohemur gaazrebas. karnavali gardasuli
diadi aTaswleulebis sruliad saxalxo msoflgancdaa. es msoflgancda,
romelic Tavisufalia SiSisagan, maqsimalurad aaxlovebs qveyanas adami-
anTan, da adamians adamianTan (yvelani laRi familaruli kontaqtis zo-
naSi arian moqceulni) da cvlaTa sixaruliTa da mxiaruli fardobiTobiT
upirispirdeba SiSiT danergil, dogmatur da axlis warmoqmnisadmi mtru-
lad ganwyobil calmxriv da moRuSul oficialur seriozulobas, romel-
ic arsebuli mdgomareobisa da sazogadoebrivi yofis absolutizirebisaken
miiswrafvis. karnavaluri msoflgancda swored amgvari seriozulobisagan
Tavisuflebas iZleoda. magram yovelive amaSi odnavadac ar aris fuqsava-
toba da uxamsi bohemuri individualizmi. aseve unda gavemijnoT karnavalis
Teatralur-sanaxaobriv koncefcias, rac erTob damaxasiaTebelia axali
droisaTvis. karnavalis swori gagebisaTvis unda mivmarToT mis saTaveebsa
da mwvervalebs, anu antikurobas, Sua saukuneebsa, da bolos, aRorZinebis
epoqas. [...]
Cven ukve aRvniSneT reducirebuli sicilis didi mniSvneloba msoflio
literaturaSi. sicili aris Taviseburi, magram logikuri eniT gamoux-
atavi esTetikuri damokidebuleba sinamdvlisadmi, anu misi mxatvruli xe-
dvisa da wvdomis garkveuli saSualeba da, maSasadame, agreTve mxatvruli
saxis, siuJetis, Janris agebis garkveuli xerxi. ambivalentur karnavalur
sicils uzarmazari SemoqmedebiTi _ Tanac Janris warmomqmneli _ Zala
hqonda. amgvari sicili movlenas cvlisa da gadasvlis procesSi iWerda
da wvdeboda, movlenaSi Camoyalibebis orive poluss da maT uwyvet da cx-
ovelmyofel, ganaxlebisaken midrekil cvalebadobas aRnusxavda: sikvdil-
Si ganWvretilia dabadeba, dabadebaSi _ sikvdili, gamarjvebaSi _ dama-
rcxeba, damarcxebaSi _ gamarjveba, SemkobaSi _ganmkoba a.S. karnavaluri
sicili arc erT am moments ar aZlevs calmxriv seriozulobaSi gaqvavebis
saSualebas.
Cven aq Zalauneburad vaxdenT karnavaluri ambivalenturobis logizire-
basa da damaxinjebas; rodesac vambobT, rom sikvdilSi `ganWvretilia~ da-
badeba, amiT Zalauneburad vxleCT da ramdenadme vacilebT erTmaneTisagan
karnavalizebuli literatura
101
sikvdilsa da dabadebas. cocxal karnavalur saxeebSi ki TviT sikvdili
orsuladaa da mSobiarobs, xolo mSobiare dedis wiaRi sikvdilad gvev-
lineba. swored amgvar saxeebs badebs SemoqmedebiTi karnavaluri sicili,
romelSic ganuyoflad arian Serwymuli dacinva da aRtaceba, Zageba da
qeba.
rodesac literaturaSi karnavalisa da karnavaluri sicilis gada-
tana xdeba, isini met-naklebad saxes icvlian mxatvrul-literaturuli
amocanebis Sesabamisad. magram nebismier SemTxvevaSi da nebismieri xasi-
aTis gardamqmnis SemTxvevaSi ambivalenturoba da sicili mxatvrul sax-
eSi mainc rCeba. amasTanave garkveul pirobebsa da garkveul JanrebSi Sesa-
Zloa moxdes sicilis reducireba. sicili kvlavac ganapirobebs saxis
struqturas, magram TviTon minimumamde daxSulia: asaxuli sinamdvilis
struqturaSi Cven, marTalia, vamCnevT sicilis kvals, magram TviT sicili
ar gvesmis. ase, magaliTad, platonis (pirveli periodis) `sokrates dia-
logebSi~ sicili reducirebulia (Tumca ara mTlianad), magram igi rCeba
mTavari gmiris (sokrates) saxis struqturaSi, dialogis wayvanis meTodSi,
da rac mTavaria, inarCunebs arsebobas sruliad WeSmarit (da ara ritori-
kul) dialogurobaSi, romelic azrs Camoyalibebis procesSi myofi yofi-
erebis laR fardobiTobaSi moaqcevs da ar aZlevs mas abstraqtul-dogma-
tur (monologur) uZraobaSi gaqvavebis saSualebas.
aRorZinebis xanis literaturaSi sazogadod ar xdeba sicilis re-
ducireba, Tumca misi `xmis simaRles~ aq uTuod sxvadasxva gradaciebi aqvs.
rablesTan, magaliTad, igi saqveynod ismis. ukve servantesTan igi saqveynod
aRar ismis, marTalia, `don kixotis~ pirvel wignSi sicili jer kidev sak-
maod xmamaRla gaismis, xolo meoreSi, pirvel wignTan SedarebiT, sakmaod
reducirebulia. es reducireba mTavari gmiris struqturasa da siuJetis
cvlilebebTanac aris dakavSirebuli. XVIII da XIX saukuneebis litera-
turaSi sicili, rogorc wesi, sakmaod daxSulia _ ironiamde, iumoramde
da reducirebuli sicilis sxva formebamde.
(dasasruli. dasawyisi wina nomerSi).
rusulidan Targmna Tamar nucubiZem.
wignidan: . _ ,
, 1968.
M. Bakhtin Problems of Dostoevskys Poetics.
Translated by Tamar Nutsubidze.
102
leqsmcodneoba
Teimuraz doiaSvili
sikeTis yvavilebi
visac qarTuli leqsi uyvars da versifikaciis kvlevac ainteresebs,
akaki xinTibiZis saxeli nacnobicaa da axlobelic. `akakis leqsisa~ da
`galaktionis poetikis~ avtorma naxevar saukuneze meti miuZRvna leqsm-
codneobis problemebis mecnierul Seswavlas, Tavis interesTa Tvalsawi-
erSi moaqcia xangrZlivi, TiTqmis aTaswlovani periodi qarTuli poeziis
ganviTarebisa rusTvelis epoqidan Tanamedroveobamde da araerTi is-
toriulad mniSvnelovani da Teoriulad Rirebuli sakiTxi gaarkvia.
* * *
akaki xinTibiZes momadlebuli hqonda poeziisa da leqsis mkvlevari-
saTvis iseTi aucilebeli Tvisebani, rogoricaa intuicia da analitikuri
unari, warmosaxva da gemovneba, erudicia, magram me mainc gansakuTrebiT
maocebda misi gulmodgineba, iSviaTi niWi Sromisa, Tanamimdevroba da moT-
mineba miznisaken mimaval gzaze.
es mizani sapirado arasodes yofila. akaki xinTibiZes mxolod erTi
ram amoZravebda mudam da yovelTvis! qarTuli mwerlobis msaxurebis
survili.
mosavalic xvavrieli hqonda: mravali, wigni, aseulobiT gamokvleva da
literaturuli werili.
* * *
batoni akakis saarsebo atmosfero kvleva da azris gaziareba iyo. misi
pirovnuli buneba yvelaze ukeT maSin Canda, rodesac kolegebs Tu farTo
auditorias Ziebis Sedegebs acnobda. es ar iyo mxolod saqmis mcodne pro-
fesionalis gamosvla moxseneba axali, saintereso Temaze. baton akakis
hqonda midrekileba, mecnieruli komunikaciis procesi erTgvar ritual-
ad, sulieri gandobis aqtad eqcia, romlis drosac TanamdgomT qarTuli
leqsis morig, mis mier mignebul saidumlos aziarebda.
* * *
akaki xinTibiZem TiTqmis yvela klasikos poetze dagvitova poetikuri
narkvevi: SoTa, sulxan-saba, guramiSvili, besiki, romantikosebi, ilia,
sikeTis yvavilebi
103
akaki, vaJa, gamorCeulad ki mainc galaktions afasebda galaktionis po-
ezia iyo misi aRtacebisa da mudmivi gaocebis sagani.
Tavisi `didi sameulic~ hqonda. SoTa vaJa galaktioni, xolo Tu
versifikaciul jadoqrobaze midgeboda saqme, aq ufro kategoriuli iyo:
rusTaveli da galaktioni Tanabrad!
siyvaruls galaktionisadmi saqmiT adasturebda. amaze metyvelebs wer-
ilebis vrceli seria did poetze, agreTve grandiozuli `galaktionis
riTmis leqsikoni~, romelic akaki xinTibiZis Taosnobis Seiqmna da, sam-
wuxarod, dRemde gamoucemelia.
* * *
batoni akaki bunebiT saTno, keTilmosurne adamiani iyo, magram mtkice
da Seuvalic; veraviTari safrTxe da usiamovneba, veraviTari koniunqtura
ver Seacvlevinebda Tvalsazriss, Tu mis WeSmaritebas irwmunebda. albaT,
esec aris mizezi imisa, rom qarTvel literatorTagan iSviaTad ganucdia
vinmes imdeni daumsaxurebeli wyena Tu usafuZvlo Tavdasxma, ramdenic
baton akakis. me minaxavs igi umZimes wuTebSi, mopaeqreTa uRirsi gamox-
domebiT gaognebuli, magram am viTarebaSic TavSekavebuli da gawonas-
worebuli. is, rogorc zneobis kaci, arasodes kargavda Rirsebis grZnobas,
profesionalis patiosnebiT icavda polemikis wesebs mxolod argumen-
tirebis logikas aRiarebda.
* * *
bolo xanebSi, rodesac avadmyofoba mieZala da gareT gamosvla gau-
Wirda, xSirad vsaubrobdiT telefoniT. ainteresebda, ras vakeTebdi, Tvi-
Tonac emociurad miambobda, raze muSaobda imJamad. zogjer raimes mo-
Zebna-dazustebasac mTxovda fundamenturi monografiisaTvis `qarTuli
leqsis istoria da Teoria~, romlis saboloo redaqtireba moaswro ki-
dec. TiTqos ver grZnobda Savi aCrdilis siaxloves, ise iqceoda: weras ar
wyvetda, iumors ar Ralatobda, rac mTavaria, gansacdels ar gauborote-
bia uTqmelad sevdiani, ufro Tbili da alersiani gaxda.
erT dRes gulis morigi Setevisgan gamobrunebulma dareka. yurmili
Cemma meuRlem aiRo. batonma akakim uguneboba Seatyo da mizezi hkiTxa
SviliSvils wiTela gaurTulda da ojaxSi dazafrulni viyaviT. batonma
akakim gagvamxneva, bavSvs axlave movrCeno da... yurmilSi simRera gaisma:
`batonebo, mouoxeT~. es simRera adreT bevrjer momismenia, batoni akaki
mas didi krZalviT da grZnobiT galobda xolme megobrebTan erTad. axla,
uRono da dasustebuli, TiTqmis uxmod amoTqvamda sityvebs, mainc mRero-
da _ bavSvs umReroda! gaognebulni vusmendiT...
Teimuraz doiaSvili
104
saocreba moxda Temurikos imave Rames ukeTesoba daetyo. gaixara ba-
tonma akakim, sityvasac gadamikravda xolme, rogoraa saqme, xom mogirCine
SviliSvilio?!
* * *
akaki xinTibiZisagan bevri sikeTe maxsovs, safiqralic bevri damitova
da mosagonaric. amis droc mova. axla ki, am mcire werilis werisas, isev
Camesmis CurCuliT, vedrebiT namReri sityvebi: `mouoxeT... ia da vardi hfe-
nia...~
me ase mgonia: batoni akakis saflavze mudmivad hyvavis sikeTis uxilavi
yvavilebi ia da vardi. maTi xilva yvelas SeuZlia, vinc amqveynad sikeTis
rwmeniT cxovrobs.
Warbi riTmis gagebisaTvis
105
akaki xinTibiZe
Warbi riTmis gagebisaTvis
Warbi riTmis cneba SemuSavebuli ar aris. igi pirdapiri azriT esmiT:
`vefxistyaosnis~ maRalsa da dabal SairSi or da sammarcvliani riTmebia,
xolo oTx-xuTmarcvlianebi Warbia.
es gageba mcdaria.
`vefxistyaosnis~ oTxmarcvliani riTma: naTurqalsa-nasuqalsa-nabu-
qalsa (56), xuTmarcvliani _ moisminebda-moiwyinebda-moilxinebda-Tina-
Tinebda (52), iseve, rogorc galaktionis akademia-nakadebia (`goties~)
Warb riTmebad ar CaiTvleba.
zogi mkvlevari qarTul leqsSi sammarcvlianze (`daqtilurze~) grZel
riTmas ver xedavs da zemoT motanili riTmebi `zedaqtilurad~ miaCnia. zogis
azriT ki, qarTulSi xuTmarcvlianze ugrZesi riTma saerTod ar arsebobs.
qarTul leqss midrekileba aqvs grZeli riTmebisaken.
guramiSvilis riTma: Savberdi-gavhmtverdebi-davmterdebi-davjerdebi
oTxmarcvliani, griSaSvilis: akakiseburs-akiskisebuls-xuTmarcvliani;
lado asaTianisa gadabrialebiT-SavbrialebiT _ Savnabdianebi _ eqvs-
marcvliani, gvxvdeba rvamarcvliani riTmac: gagvaWoriWorebeno _ dagva-
SoriSorebeno (xalxuri).
arc erTi es riTma Warbi ar aris.
riTmis siWarbis ganmsazRvreli metruli sqemaa, metrul sqemasTan Se-
satyvisoba.
`vefxistyaosnis~ 98-e strofi, romlis metruli sqemaa 44/44 ormar-
cvliani riTmiT iwyeba: cxensa-Cvensa da oTxmarcvlianze gadadis: anafren-
sa-wanarbensa, magram 130-e strofSi es simetria darRveulia: getyvia-Se-
mityvia-gisetyvia-dautyvia. strofi maRali Sairisaa (44/44) da riTma an
ormarcvliani unda hqondes, an oTxmarcvliani.
Tu Semityvia-gisetyvia-dautyvias ormarcvliani evfoniuri Tanxmoba
aqvs (tyvia), getyvia-gesityviaSi bgeriTi Tanxmoba aSkarad sammarcvliania
(etyvia).
am uswormasworobas mkiTxveli ver grZnobs, radgan igi leqsis ritms
mihyveba da am SemTxvevaSi luw (or) marcvlian riTmas aRiqvams. Tumca gety- gety-
via-gisetyvias sammarcvlianobas ver gaeqcevi da, amdenad, igi Warbi riTmaa.
aseve, poemis meore strofi metruli sqemis Sesabamisad (53/53) moiTxovs
sam an xuTmarcvlian riTmas; magram misi riTma oTxmarcvliania, e.i. War- xuTmarcvlian riTmas; magram misi riTma oTxmarcvliania, e.i. War- riTmas; magram misi riTma oTxmarcvliania, e.i. War- oTxmarcvliania, e.i. War- e.i. War-
bia: yovlisa tanisa-satanisa-gasatanisa-wasatanisa.
85-e strofSi, romelic maRali SairiTaa dawerili da luwmarcvlian
akaki xinTibiZe
106
riTmas saWiroebs, misi oTxive cali sammarcvliania. sariTmo sityvebs:
pirsa, gmirsa TavSi winare sityvaTa a xmovani erTvis: wylisa pirsa-viTa
gmirsa-unagirsa-anatirsa. gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa: a gmirsa-agirsa.
es riTmac Warbia.
87-e strofis riTmaSi; gulmduRarisad-molizRarisad-Rari sad-aRarisad
sariTmo erTeulia sammarcvliani arisad, magram ra vuyoT riTmis mesame-meo-
Txe calebSi oTxmarcvlian bgeriT Tanxmobas: giSrisa Rari sad aRarisad?
rogor SevelioT riTmis am srul identurobas: a Rari sad aRarisad?
134-e strofSi riTmis sami cali oTxmarcvliania: raca qmari-dasanTq-
mari-asaqmari, magram pirvel da meore calebSi sammarcvliani riTma iki-
Txeba: raca qmari-Senaqmari (aqmari), rac metrul sqemasTan (44/44) Seusa-
bamobis gamo, Warbia.
galaktionis leqsSi `Tovli~ kadencia xuTmarcvliania variaciebiT
23, 32 (ufro bunebrivi 2 3-ia), amitomac ZiriTadi riTma (katrenis II-IV
striqonebisa) TiTqmis yovelTvis sami marcvliT ifargleba: vberdebi-
naxaverdebi, cxovreba-memaxsovreba, dafnaSi-udabnoSi, damTova-mimatova,
broleba-gamoqroleba, binaSi-winaSe.
xididan fena-dawvenac leqsis adrindel variantebSi (gaz. `saxalxo sa- fena-dawvenac leqsis adrindel variantebSi (gaz. `saxalxo sa- leqsis adrindel variantebSi (gaz. `saxalxo sa- (gaz. `saxalxo sa- `saxalxo sa-
qme~, `artistuli yvavilebi~) sammarcvliani iyo: xididan cvena-dawvena,
magram 1927 wlis krebulSi cvena fenam Secvala. ioseb griSaSvili werda:
`galaktionma moixsna Teqa provincialuri. adre hqonda cvena~ (Tumca cve-
na provinciuli forma ar aris: foTolcvena).
sammarcvlovani riTma ormarcvlianze Camovida: fena-dawvena, rogorc
es pirvel strofSi: fena-moTmena. riTma gaRaribda. metrul sqemasac ver
moergo, Warbi gaxda.
Warbia galaktionis `orxideebis~ oTxmarcvliani riTma: dasevdili-isev
diliTYsqemis mixedviT (5/4/5) riTma unda yofiliyo an xuTmarcvliani, an
sam (or) marcvliani. arada, iseTi sasiamovno evfoniuri Tanxmobaa dasevdi-
li-isev diliT, rom misi ormarcvlianze gadayvana dasevdili-diliT an,
miTumetes, sammarcvlianze (evdili ev diliT) arasgziT ar SeiZleba.
maSasadame, riTmis siWarbe mis grZliobasTan ki ara, saleqso sqemasTanaa
dakavSirebuli, sqemis moTxovnas ar Seesabameba: an grZelia masze, an - mokle.
albaT, mkiTxveli Semomedaveba: sityvas `Warbi~ negatiuri Sinaarsi aqvs,
Warbi riTma ki usiamovno SegrZnebas ar iwvevso.
sruli WeSmaritebaa!
poetebic ar eridebian Warb riTmebs. riTmis metrul sqemasTan Sesaba-
misobas mis evfoniur simdidres amjobineben. galaktionis oTxmarcvlian
riTmebSi ufro xSirad sammarcvliani bgeriTi Tanxmobaa, xolo xuTmar-
cvlianebSi oTxmarcvliani.
Warbi riTmis gagebisaTvis
107
Warbi riTma, faqtobrivad, mkiTxvelis cnobierebis miRmaa, radgan leqsi
ritms mihyavs; ritmis gareSe ar arsebobs (verlibrsac Tavisi ritmi aqvs),
riTmis gareSe ki ramdenic gnebavT.
riTma, Warbi iqneba Tu metrul sqemasTan gawonasworebuli, leqsis xa-
siaTs ver cvlis.
es gansakuTrebiT Warb riTmaze iTqmis, romelic mxolod fonikazea dafu-
Znebuli, radgan riTmas sxva parametrebic aqvs: kerZod, ritmi da semantika,
romelic riTmis Rirsebis erTi pirveli msazRvrelia, fonikaze metic.
riTmis semantika ki mTliani sityvebis Sewyobas gulisxmobs da ara si-
tyvaTa nawilebisas, rac Warb riTmaSia.
amitom: a gmirsa _ agirsa, a Rari sad aRarisad riTmebi ar aris.
es cdomileba qarTuli riTmis silabur-tonuri Teoriidan momdinare-
obs, romlis mixedviT, riTmad klauzulebia miCneuli, sariTmo sityvaTa
maxvilisSemdgomi nawilebi.
amrigad, Warbi riTma leqsze uaryofiT gavlenas ver axdens, mis Rirsebas ar
amcirebs, amitom poetebic ar eridebian mas (TviT rusTaveli da galaktioni!).
Tumca lado asaTianis leqsebSi Zalze iSviaTia Warbi riTmebi. TiTqmis
yvela misi riTma metruli sqemis Sesatyvisia: niSnianebi-moSrialeben, es
alublebi-vesaubrebi, ZaZa bunebas-daZabuneba, siaruli-mxiaruli:
rusTavelis prospeqtze siaruli
nu momiSalos RmerTma;
viyo mudam ase mxiaruli,
qarTveli poeti merqvas.
samwuxarod, didxans ar dascalda lado asaTians rusTvelis prospe- rusTvelis prospe- prospe-
qtze siaruli.
Akaki Khintibidze
Towards Understanding Excessiveness of Rhyme
Summary
The notion of excessive rhyme is not worked out yet. It is understood in its direct sense:
There are two and three-syllable rhymes in The Knight in the Panthers Skins high and
low verses, four-syllable rhymes are regarded as excessive.
Such kind of interpretation is wrong.
Four-syllable rhyme of The Knight in the Panthers Skin: naturqalsa-nasukalsa-nabu-
qalsa (56), fve-syllable rhyme: moismenda-moitkenda-moilkhenda-tinatinebda (52), like
akaki xinTibiZe
108
Galaktionis academy-nacadamy (To Gothie) will not be considered as excessive.
Some researchers cannot see longer than three-syllable rhymes (dactylic) and consider
the above mentioned rhymes as Super-dactylic. Some of them think that there are not
rhymes longer than fve-syllable in Georgian.
Georgian verses are inclined towards long rhymes.
Guramishvilis rhyme: shavberdebi-gavhmtverdebi-davmterdebi-davjerdebi - four syl-
lable, Grishashvilis: akikisebuls-akiskisebuls fve-syllable; Lado Asatianis: gadabri-
alebit-shavbrialebit-shavnabdianebi six-syllable, there are eight-syllable rhymes as well:
gagvachorichorinebeno-dagvashorishorebeno (folklore).
None of these rhymes are excessive.
Metric scheme is defning feature for excessiveness of rhyme, correspondence with
metric scheme, it does not correspond to the requirement of the scheme: is either shorter
or longer it.
Probably, the reader will argue with me: the word excessive has a negative connota-
tion, but excessive rhyme does not provoke unpleasant feelings.
It is true!
Poets do not try to avoid excessive rhymes. They prefer its euphonic richness rather
than its correspondence with metric scheme. In Galaktionis four-syllable rhymes there is
more often three-syllable sound assent, in fve-syllable rhymes four-syllable.
Excessive rhyme is actually beyond readers consciousness, as rhythm leads the poem;
it does not exist without rhythm, but it is possible without rhyme.
Rhyme, be it excessive or in correspondence with the metric scheme, cannot change the
character of the verse.
This it especially true for excessive rhyme, which is based only on phonics, as rhyme
has some other parameters as well: rhythm and semantics, which are the primary defning
features of its dignity, more than phonic.
The semantics of rhyme means the collocation of whole words and not of parts of
words, as in excessive rhyme.
This misinterpretation comes from syllabic-tonic theory of Georgian rhyme, according
to which, parts that come after stressed syllables in rhymed words are regarded as rhyme.
Therefore, excessive rhyme does not have a negative impact on the verse, does not
diminish its dignity that is why poets do not try to avoid using it (even Rustaveli and
Galaktioni).
Although, excessive rhymes are extremely rare in Lado Asatianis poems. Almost all
of his rhymes correspond to the metric scheme. Almost all its rhymes correspond to metric
scheme.
109
Tamar barbaqaZe
galaktionis monorimi
(`ieri~, `ferad-feradi~)
galaktion tabiZis TxzulebaTa uaxles gamocemaSi (tabiZe 2005: 372)
poetis cnobili leqsi `ieri~ dabeWdilia Zveli TariRiT (1915 w.):
iyo dila mSvenieri,
dila feradi,
magram uceb wamovida
caieradi.
ase iyo Seni dilac
bedisweramdi,
sanam yofnis ar dagkravda
caieradi.
rom iWeqa, gza dayruvda
seriT seramdi,
da maisis wamovida
caieradi.
eh, wamodi, Cemo wvimav,
mgoni, meRirsa,
moTminebiT megrZno risxva
Seni mexisa
rom Sens elvas SeuerTdes
lurja merani,
caierads Cemi Cangis,
caieradi.
iyos qrola maradisi,
magram verraTi
ver daacxros droTa CvenTa
caieradi.
zemoxsenebul gamocemaSi am leqsis Taobaze vkiTxulobT, rom mis avtografs
(a 5570) axlavs avtoris xelmowera da mis mier gadaxazulia saTauri `caieradi~,
magram daculia poetis minaweri: `ca ierad~. aqvea minawerebi: `.
~, `feradi, veraTi, feravdi~. zemoxsenebul gamocemaSi, rogorc
vTqviT, `ieri~ 1915 wliT aris daTariRebuli, rac, ra Tqma unda, saeWvoa.
Tamar barbaqaZe
110
minawerebma: `feradi, veraTi, feravdi~ logikurad gagvaxsena galaktio-
nis 1938 wels dawerili leqsi: `ferad-feradi~:
me xom sxva var, dRe cismare,
maxvils vferavdi,
Sen ki gqonda dReT sizmari
ferad-feradi.
miyvars am xmis gagoneba,
radgan verraTi
ver wavSale mogoneba
ferad-feradi.
Semiyvarda eg xma tkbili
bedisweramdi,
sad ar damdevs misi Crdili
ferad-feradi.
iyos ise, rogorc darCa
amieramdi, _
CemTvis ZonZi, SenTvis farCa
ferad-feradi.
orive leqsi monoriTmiania. `ieris~ sayrden riTmad warmogvidgeba si-
tyva `caieradi~, romelic 5-jer meordeba 24-striqonian leqsSi. monori-
mis danarCeni sariTmo erTeulebia: feradi-bedisweramdi-seramdi-merani-
verraTi. gamonaklisia sariTmo wyvili: meRirsa-mexisa.
`ferad-feradis~ kompozicia eyrdnoba fuZegaorkecebul, polilogur
kompozits: ferad-feradi: vferavdiferad-feradi-verraTi-ferad-fera-
di-bedisweramdi-amieramdi-ferad-feradi. 8-jerad riTmaSi oTxjer ga-
meorebulia: `ferad-feradi~, xolo ori cali riTmisa: vferavdi-veraTi,
rogorc viciT, ukve moniSnuli hqonda galaktions `ieris~ avtografSi.
sazomi orive monorimisa erTnairia: cametmarcvledi (4/4/5) ase iSviaTi
galaktionis poeziaSi. cametmarcvledi, rogorc cnobilia, aRorZinebis
periodidan iRebs saTaves, gansakuTrebiT xSirad ki misi sxvadasxva varia-
cia (35/5, 4/4/5, 43/24 (24/43) daviT guramiSvilis leqsebSi gvxvdeba. ga-
laktionis poeziaSi cametmarcvledi, izosilabur sazomTa Soris, gamoye-
nebis sixSiriT, erT-erT bolo adgilzea: variaciiT 33/43 sul ori leqsi
dauweria poets, xolo zemoxsenebuli 44/5 oTx leqsSi gvxvdeba. 1927 wlis
krebulSi Sesuli leqsebic: `daiRupa is xomaldi~ da `zRvis fskeridan~
swored 445-iT aris Sesrulebuli:
galaktionis monorimi (`ieri~, `ferad-feradi~)
111
daiRupa is xomaldi didi xania,
o, ramdeni mwuxareba amitania.
(`daiRupa is xomaldi~)
ak. xinTibiZe wers: `Semdeg poetma es izosilaburi striqonebi datexa
(`ieri~) (xinTibiZe 1987: 212).
rogorc vxedavT, galaktionis poetikis, misi metrikis cnobili mkvle-
vari ueWvelad miiCnevs, rom `ieri~ 1927 wlis mere unda iyos dawerili. Cven
ar gveeWveba, rom `ieri~ da `ferad-feradi~ erTmaneTs enaTesaveba da Tu
`ferad-feradis~ TariRi eWvs ar iwvevs, namdvilad 1938 wels aris dawer-
ili, `ieri~ 1928-1938 wlebiT unda daTariRdes. SeuZlebelia, 1915 wels
daewera galaktions `ieri~ da igi ar Seetana arc `artistul yvavilebSi~
(1919 w.) da arc 1927 wlis krebulSi.
rogorc miuTiTeben, `1928-58 wlebSi galaktioni... pirdapiri azriT,
awarmoebda namdvil teqstologiur oms sakuTari teqstebis winaaRmdeg
cvlida atribucias, axal teqsts awerda Zvel TariRs da a.S. garkveuli
azriT, man moigo es `30-wliani omi~ (1928-1958 w.w.). man gaimarjva, radganac
`gadawera~ ara mxolod warsuli, aramed momavalic, momaval mkvlevarTa
reaqciebi~ (SaTiriSvili 2004: 23-24).
Cans, galaktionis meore saleqso reforma, romelic `20-30-iani wlebis
mijnaze daiwyo da poetis bolo periodis lirikaSi Tvisebrivad axali
mxatvruli sistemis SeqmniT dasrulda~ (doiaSvili 1995: 34), Seexo poe-
tis metrikasa da riTmasac. kerZod, cametmarcvledisa da monorimisaTvis
galaktions 30-ian wlebamde yuradReba ar miuqcevia. es sazomic (44/5) da
monorimic siaxlea galaktionis 30-iani wlebis versifikaciaSi.
galaktionis meore saleqso reforma iTvaliswinebda `sinamdvilis,
rogorc esTetikuri obieqtis, aRiarebas da Sesabamis koreqtivebs poe-
ziis arsis gagebaSi. aRorZinda poetisa da xalxis, poeziisa da xalxis
interesebis ganuyoflobis idea, gadaisinja poetur enasa da stilTan
dakavSirebiT damokidebuleba, poeturoba unda daefuZnos ara rTul,
elitur enas, ara rCeul sityvebs, aramed yoveldRiur sasaubro me-
tyvelebas, poeziisaTvis umTavresia sada, gasagebi stili, xalxuri
ena, msubuqi leqsi~ (doiaSvili 1995: 35) aseTi iyo saxalxo poetis,
galaktion tabiZis azri poetisa da poeziis daniSnulebaze 30-50-ian
wlebSi: `...Cvens simRerebSi ismis xalxis guliscema, xalxis Zlieri,
naTeli da mgznebare xma~ (tabiZe 1975: 198). g. tabiZis 30-ian wlebis Ca-
nawerebSi poeti sakuTar Tavs miznad usaxavda `organiulad SeTvisebas
masiuri, xalxuri Semoqmedebisas, romelic idealuria mravali formis
mxriv...~ (tabiZe 1975: 312)
Tamar barbaqaZe
112
sayuradReboa, rom `ferad-feradis~ kompozicia, monorimTan erTad,
kidev erT^ burjs, sityva `xmas~ eyrdnoba: `miyvars am xmis gagoneba~, `Se-
miyvarda eg xma tkbili~. `xma~ xalxuri leqsisa da simReris kilos unda
gulisxmobdes da igi galaktionis 1934-1941 wlebis monorimebSi Tavise-
burad ametyvelda. am Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi galaktions 18 monorimi
dauweria, mesamedi (6 leqsi) ki swored 1938 wliT aris daTariRebuli. sa-
gulisxmoa, `xmasTan~ mimarTebiT, 1939 wels dawerili leqsi: `xmamaRla~:
Cems gulSi arc winaT,
arc axla,
arc SiSi yofila,
arc daRla.
aJRerdiT, Cangebo,
xelaxla:
xmamaRla, xmamaRla,
xmamaRla!
xolo 1938 wels galaktioni monorimiT wers Tavis umSvenieres, dRes
ukve popularul simRerad qceul, leqss: `ar var oboli am qveyanaze~. es
monorimi `xmis~, `hangis~ Zlevamosilebas eZRvneba:
ar var oboli am qveyanaze, 1.
Sen megulebi nugeSad sanam...
ra aris tkbili dedis nanaze,
me mimatova adre im nanam.
mainc davdivar am qveyanaze.
sul ar vivlidi am qveyanaze, 2.
nugeSad rom ar megulebode,
dae, mgosnobiT mraval nanaze
zogs vyvarebode, zogs vZulebode
oblad Tavs ar vTvli am qveyanaze.
ar var oboli am qveyanaze, 3.
ager qnarebi, ager gulebi...
zRvao, is hangi Sen gaanaze,
kvlav vityvi: raki Sen megulebi,
oblad Tavs ar vTvli am qveyanaze.
es samstrofiani monorimi sayuradReboa formis siaxliT: kentstriqo-
nian strofebad danawevrebuli monorimi iSviaTia: monoriTmiani leqse-
galaktionis monorimi (`ieri~, `ferad-feradi~)
113
bis umravlesoba stroful danawevrebas ar cnobs. asea dawerili `ieri~
da `ferad-feradi~, asea vaJa-fSavelas monoriTmiani leqsebis umravle-
soba (barbaqaZe 1984: 138); galaktioni ki xuTstriqoniani strofebiT wers
Sedevrs _ monorims dedis nanaze, romelic poetis STagonebas kvebavs cx-
ovrebis (`zRvao, is hangi Sen gaanaze...~) xmebiT. `xmasTan~ erTad, galak-
tionis monorimis Tanamgzavri sityvebia: Cangebi, qnarebi, gulebi..., magram
umTavresi am monorimebisaTvis aris xma `caieradisa, anu xma maisis uecari
wvimisa, rasac `caierads~ uwodeben poetis mSobliur imereTSi.
am sityvas (`caieradi~) ori aTeuli wlis winaT mixeil alaviZem miaqcia
yuradReba da ganmarta, rom igi maisis wvimas _ uecars, Sxapunas _ unda
aRniSnavdes (alaviZe 1982: 130). monorimi `ieri~ sityva `caieradis~ swored
am mniSvnelobas unda gulisxmobdes. sayuradReboa, rom sityva `ca-ierad~
pirvelad `artistul yvavilebSi~ gvxvdeba leqsSi `SiSi~:
... da rogor mxedrebi,
rogorc ca-ierad.
mewyerad, samumad
gvedeba es Wiri.
(tabiZe 1919: 113)
sul ki sityva: `caieradi~ galaktionis poeziaSi xuTjer gvxvdeba:
oTxjer `ierSi~, xolo erTxel - `SiSSi~.
ueWvelia, rom galaktions uyvars Tavisi siyrmisdroindeli sityva,
ufrTxildeba mas, radgan `caieradis~ xma dedis nanasTan aris gaTanabre-
buli. sulis musika, Sinagani harmoniis, sidiadis SegrZneba ki poets exma-
reba amqveyniuri aurzaurisa da uxerxulobis daZlevaSi. `ferad-feradi~
kontrastul wyvils gulisxmobs: `me~ da `Sen~ dapirispireba gansazRvravs
leqsis kompozicias, romelic ferad-feradi mogonebebis fonze iqmneba: Tu
gavixsenebT `ieris~ avtografis (a 5570) minawerebs: `caierad~, `feradi,
veraTi, feravdi~ unda vifiqroT, rom poeti erTma mogonebam meoresTan
miiyvana, meorem mravali sxva ram gaaxsena. `ca-ierad~ `artistuli yva-
vilebis~ leqsis `SiSis~ gaxsenebam gaaxmiana, xolo `caieradi~ `ferad-
ferads~ daedo safuZvlad; rac Seexeba minawers zemoxsnebul avtografSi:
`. ~, SesaZloa, is SemTxveviT aRmoCnda im
furcelze, romelzec `ieria~ Sesrulebuli. magram maniqevelobis Taobaze
msjeloba qarTul istoriografiaSi, filosofiasa da literaturismcod-
neobaSi (iv. javaxiSvili, S. nucubiZe, p. ingoroyva) swored 20-30-iani wle-
bis mijnas ukavSirdeba; Sesabamisad, `ieri~ 30-iani wlebis kuTvnilebaa da
ara 1915 wlisa.
Tamar barbaqaZe
114
galaktionis monorimis kvleva amjerad am ori, saanalizo leqsis (`ieri~,
`ferad-feradi~) mixedviT warmovadgineT da, Sesabamisad, galaktionis
TxzulebaTa uaxlesi gamocemis II da V tomebiT SemovisazRvreT.
savaraudo iyo, rom monorimi galaktionis poeziisaTvis organuli ar
iqneboda da, amitomac, iSviaTad Segvxvdeboda Tavidan bolomde erTi riT-
miT gamarTuli leqsi. pirveli qarTuli poetikuri traqtatis `WaSnikis~
avtori monorims `boloerTs~ uwodebs da mis nimuSsac gvTavazobs: `mefis
Tqmuli boloerTi~ (`me Sevamke ca, qveyana, zRva, mTa, veli, nayofT gvari,
...~) xuTi, erTi saerTo riTmiT Sekruli strofisagan Sedgeba da amitomac
hqvia `bolo erTi~. aseve boloerTia `mefis Tqmulic~ (`SuriT aRivsnen
ugbilni~), grZelSairiT (53/53) Sesrulebuli (baraTaSvili 1981: 23); mo-
noriTmiani leqsebi sagangebod SeviswavleT vaJa-fSavelas poeziaSi, radgan
xalxur xmebs eyrdnoboda igi, monoriTmianobac mosalodneli iyo vaJas
lirikisaTvis (barbaqaZe 1984: 135).
galaktionis poeziaSi ki, rogorc vTqviT, sul ar velodebodiT mono-
riTmiani leqsebis amgvar simravles: II tomSi (1915-1921 wlebi) 15 `bolo-
erTi~ leqsia Setanili, xolo V tomSi (1932-1940 wlebi) 18 monorimi; sul
14 weliwadSi 33 monorimi.
sagulisxmoa, rom monorimebis: `Cemi simRera, (`zogs oqromkediT mo-
naqsovari~), `hquxda xmovani qari mravali~, `xmamaRla~, `melanqoliuri
mesimRere~, `srolis xma mTaSi~ - saTaurebi `xmas~ ukavSirdeba, xolo mo-
norimebi: `ar var oboli amqveyanaze~ da `verxvebi~ didi xania popularul
simRerebad aris qceuli saqarTveloSi.
mcire gadaxveva: galaktioni, sruliad samarTlianad, amayobda, rom kar-
gi xma hqonda. igi igonebs: `... arasodes iseTi `mravalJamieri~ ar maxsovs,
Cven sami rom vmRerodiT: me, vano sarajiSvili da daviT pavliaSvili~ (ta-
biZe 1975: 213). cnobilia, rom galaktioni niko sulxaniSvilis momReral-
Ta gundis wevri iyo 1910 wlidan. galaktioni igonebs:
`niko iRebs gammas, sruliad ubralo gammas, do, re, mi... me vyvebi
jer sruliad ubralod. Semdeg gadadis variaciebze da Cemi xma umaRlesi
notidan gadmodis dabalze. dablidan maRalze da ase Semdeg didxans.
kompozitori guldasmiT amowmebs yovelives. ukanaskneli akordi miwyda.
gamocda damTavrda.
yvela sulganabulia. mec vucdi sulxaniSvilis daskvnas, ukanasknel ga-
naCens. is cota xans sdums da Semdeg dajerebis, aRtacebuli ieriT xmaSi
(xazgasma Cvenia T.b.) ambobs:
_ ra sufTa altia, gasaocari xaverdovani da wkriala, Zlieri alti!
unazesi lirikaa! ramdeni wlisa xarT?
_ TxuTmetisa, batono niko!
galaktionis monorimi (`ieri~, `ferad-feradi~)
115
_ rodesac ocs wels gadascdebiT, es Tqveni altic baritonad iqceva.
Cveulebrivad ase xdeba. darCiT Cems gundSi, vimReroT erTad! xalisianad
sTqva man da mxarze xeli damkra~ (tabiZe 1975: 240-241).
zemoxsenebuli mogoneba isedac sainteresoa, magram gansakuTrebiT mniS-
vnelovania aq galaktionis mier ierisa da xmis dakavSireba: `aRtacebuli
ieriT xmaSi ambobs...~ e.i. xmas aqvs Tavisi ieri, intonacia, iseve, rogorc
saxes aqvs ieri, gamometyveleba. xmis ieri gansakuTrebulia galaktionis
monorimisaTvis.
damowmebani:
baraTaSvili 1981: baraTaSvili m. swavla leqsis Tqmisa. Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis ga-
momcemloba, 1981.
barbaqaZe 1984: barbaqaZe T. vaJa-fSavelas monoriTmiani leqsebi. WaSniki. qarTuli le-
qsmcodneobis sakiTxebi. Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba,
1984.
doiaSvili 1995: doiaSvili T. galaktion tabiZis saxeobrivi azrovneba. sadisertacio
macne filologiis mecn. doqtoris samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad.
Tb.: 1995.
tabiZe 1975: tabiZe g. Txzulebani. t.XII, Tb.: gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1975.
tabiZe 2005: tabiZe g. saarqivo gamocema ocdaxuT wignad. w. II, leqsebi (1915 - 1921),
Tb.: gamomcemloba `literaturis matiane~, 2005.
SaTiriSvili 2004: SaTiriSvili z. galaktionis poetika da ritorika. 1915-1927. Tb.: ga- z. galaktionis poetika da ritorika. 1915-1927. Tb.: ga- galaktionis poetika da ritorika. 1915-1927. Tb.: ga- 1915-1927. Tb.: ga- Tb.: ga- Tb.: ga- ga-
momcemloba `logos presi~, 2004.
Tamar Barbakadze
Galaktions Monorhhyme
Summary
The article deals with the fact that even in the brand new editions of Galaktion Tabidzes
works we come across the same dating of verses without taking into consideration their
style, poetics and versifcation.
The research reveals: the peculiarity of Galaktions second poetic reform: Approach
to the voice of folk poetry, dialect was refected in verses with common rhyme written in
1928-1958. It is so called mono rhyme, which traditionally belongs to folk poetry.
Tabidzes well-known mono rhyme Expression (Ieri) is dated by 1915 which in not
correct. This poem is directly linked or precedes poets mono rhyme: Colourful-Colour-
ful (Peradi-Peradi), which was written, without doubt, in 1938.
Tamar barbaqaZe
116
Galaktions second poetic reform (20-30s of XX century) was about poets metrics and
rhyme. Galaktioni had paid no attention to thirteen-syllable words and mono-rhyme until
30s. This criterion (44/5) and mono-rhyme is innovation in Galaktions versifcation.
It should be noted, that the composition of Perad-Peradi (Colourful-Colourful), is
based not only on mono-rhyme but on the word voice as well: I like hearing this voice,
I fell in love with this sweat voice. Dialect should be meant in the voice of folk verses
and songs and it found its expression in Galaktions 1934-1941 mono-rhymes. Galaktioni
managed to write 18 mono-rhymes during these 7 years, third of them (6) are dated by
1938.
The word Tsaieradi, which is repeated 5 times in 24-line verse, represents the poems
Expression (Ieri) key rhyme element.
The composition of Perad-Peradi(Colourful-Colourful) uses double rooted, poly-
logic composites as a base: vperavdi-perad-peradi-versati-perad-peradi-bedistseramdi-
amieramdi-perad-peradi. perad-peradi is repeated for four times.
Thirteen-syllable starts from the epoch of Renaissance, its variations (35/5, 4/4/5,
43/24, 24/43) are most frequently met in Guramishvilis works. By means of frequency of
use 4/4/5 is in the last place.
The basis for versifcation interrelation of analysed mono-rhymes are found. Likeness
of Ieri and perad-peradi, is shown not only with the help of identity of mono-rhymes
lexical units but with same meter: both mono-rhymes are written by rare criterion thir-
teen-syllable 44/5, which Galaktioni has not used until 30s.
The author focuses on the word form that forms compositional basis for Galaktions
mono-rhyme Ieri: rare, exotic, dialectic form: Tsaieradi, denoting sudden, poring rain
of May. Galaktioni has once mentioned this word in the collection Artistic Flowers, then
repeats it for four times in Ieri. The sound of the rain is connected with folk, childhood
sounds, recollecting of which defnes Galaktions song mood.
117
giorgi lobJaniZe
arabuli leqsis ganaxlebisaTvis brZolis II etapi
(momxreebi da mowinaaRmdegeni)
arabuli leqsis struqturuli da Tematuri ganaxlebis procesSi mkv-
levrebi ramdenime etaps gamohyofen

(abbasi 1996: 82). aRniSnuli sqemis
mixedviT, ganaxlebis meore etapi gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebidan iwyeba
(al-amadi 1966: 12). mecnierebi dRemde kamaToben imis Taobaze, vin SeiZleba
miviCnioT ganaxlebis II etapis mebairaxtred _ iranuli warmomavlobis
erayeli poeti qali naziq al-malaiqa (1923-1993) Tu sirieli poeti badr
Saqir as-saiabi (1926-1964)

(axali... 1974: 101).
Tumca, Cveni azriT, amas principuli mniSvneloba ar aqvs, radganac ar-
abuli leqsis Tvisebrivi ganaxlebis mcdeloba aRniSnul or poetamdec
araerTxel yofila da am procesSi mravali literatori monawileobda.
ubralod, yvela wina mcdeloba spontanuri xasiaTisa iyo, xolo naziq
al-malaiqas 1949 wels dastambuli poeturi krebulis `nakverCxlebi da
nacari~ (`Sazaia va ramad~) winaTqma, SesaZloa, erTgvar manifestad miviC-
nioT, sadac poeti qali mecnierulad, logikuri argumentebis moSvelie-
biT asabuTebs yvela Tavis SemoqmedebiT novaciasa da, aqedan gamomdinare,
arabuli leqsis ganaxlebis aucileblobas.
iTvleba, rom xsenebulma winasityvaobam, erTi mxriv, Seqmna axali arabuli
poeziis damkvidrebisaTvis aucilebeli logikuri baza, meore mxriv ki, gamo-
avlina poeziis Sesaxeb Teoriul naazrevsa da praqtikul gamocdilebas Soris
arsebuli yvela mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba da Seusabamoba (abbasi 1996: 93).
sainteresoa, rom naziq

al-malaiqa, rodesac arabuli leqsis trad-
iciuli leqswyobis pirobiTobaTagan gaTavisuflebis aucileblobaze
laparakobs, sakuTar msjelobas sainteresod asabuTebs. kerZod, igi ar-
abul enas zusti poeturi miniSnebebisadmi (al-iSara) ugulisyurobasa da
sazogado bundovanebaSi (ibham) `adanaSaulebs~. Tumca iqve icavs kidec am
bundovanebas da acxadebs, rom `bundovaneba adamianis fsiqikuri cxovrebis
mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawilia da Cven am movlenas, TavisTavad, ver-
sad gaveqceviT, miT ufro Tu gvinda, rom xelovnebis meSveobiT fsiqika
aRvweroT da fsiqikuri cxovreba zustad, xelSesaxebad gavaanalizoT~.
leqsmcodneTa SefasebiT, naziq al-malaiqa Tavisi am `winasityvaobiT~,
sruliad mourideblad, gamoTqvams rwmenas poeturi revoluciis aucile-
blobisa da im cvlilebebisadmi, rasac aRniSnuli revolucia Sedegad
moitans (qadqani 2001: 56). igi acxadebs mzadyofnas, gaxsnilad miiRos yve-
giorgi lobJaniZe
118
la Sedegi _ rogoric ar unda iyos is _ da ambobs: `darwmunebuli var,
dRevandeli arabuli poezia cvlilebaTa mdinaris napiras dgas, romlis
yovelmxriv movardnili, yvelafris Zirfesvianad mglejveli niaRvrebi
adgilze poeziis tradiciuli safuZvelebis nasaxsac ki aRar datoveben.
tradiciuli poetikis yoveli wesi _ riTma da ritmi iqneba Tu stili
_ erTianad moiryeva. sityvaTa areali ki ise gaiSleba da gafarTovdeba,
rom poets Tvalwin gamosaxvisa da gamoTqmis SesaZleblobaTa sruliad
gansxvavebul, axal, farTo horizonts gadauSlis. Tu warsulSi TavisTa-
vadi poeturi gamocdileba adamianis fsiqikas garedan uyurebda, axla es
gamocdileba fsiqikas Signidan gaaSuqebs~ (al-malaiqa 1946: 3).
am yvelafris Zirfesvianad mglejveli~ ganaxlebis Tavisebureba isi-
caa, rom didi siswrafiT viTardeba da dayovneba ar axasiaTebs. yvelafers
daunaneblad acamtverebs da kritikis saSualebasac ki aRaravis utovebs.
meore Taviseburebad SeiZleba procesis permanentuloba miviCnioT. siax-
leebi droTa ganmavlobaSi Zveldeba. amis gamo poezia mudmivad novaciis
momxrea da wes-kanonTa Tu gayinul kliSeTa sazRvrebs arasodes emorCile-
ba (al-malaiqa 1946: 4).
axali arabuli poeziis specialistebi aRniSnaven, rom maSin, roca naziq
al-malaiqa wignSi `axali arabuli poeziis sakiTxebi~ (pirvelad daist-
amba 1962 w.), cdilobda axali poeziis kritikis zogi safuZveli Camoeyal-
ibebina, axali poeziis talRa imaze gacilebiT Zlieri iyo, rom kritikisa
da analizis mowesrigebul farglebSi moemwyvdiaT

(axali... 1974: 50).
Tumca mniSvnelovania isic, rom ganaxlebis Teoriuli safuZvlebi iqmnebo-
da im adamianis mier, romelic TviTon iyo am ganaxlebis erT-erTi iniciatori
da sulisCamdgmeli. praqtikulad, al-malaiqa Tavisi Teoriuli naSromebis
meoxebiT cdilobda SemoeTavazebina yvela im SemoqmedebiTi Taviseburebis mec-
nieruli analizi, rac mis poezias axasiaTebda. es garkveulwilad hgavda
sakuTari aracnobieris Semecnebas, romlis drosac araCveulebrivad ganaTle-
buli poeti miRebul Sedegebs koleqtiur aracnobierze ganazogadebda.
garda amisa, mkvlevrebi yuradRebas aqceven im garemoebas, rom arabuli
leqsis ganaxlebas safuZveli qalma da ara mamakacma poetma Cauyara (abbasi
1996: 79).

amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba maSin mieniWeba, Tu gaviTval-
iswinebT, rom axali arabuli poeziis erT-erTi niSani individualizmis
gamkveTreba, pirad grZnobebze Seulamazebeli, pirdapiri laparaki, fsiqi-
kis siRrmeebSi CaZirva, am siRrmeTa moxelTeba da gareT gamotana iyo. es
ki gansakuTrebiT rTuli gaxldaT qalisaTvis CvenTvis saintereso epoqa-
Si, radganac, tradiciulad, arabul qveynebSi miiCnevdnen, rom kaci qalis
grZnobebis gadmocemas TviT qalze ukeTac ki axerxebda. garda amisa, sa-
zogadoeba imas, rasac kacisgan SedarebiT mSvidad miiRebda, qals arafriT
arabuli leqsis ganaxlebisaTvis brZolis II etapi
119
apatiebda. arabuli sazogadoebaSi, sadac qals arasodes gaaCnda mamakacis
Tanabari sazogadoebrivi uflebebi, grZnobebi, romelzec qali poeti dau-
faravad saubrobda, ucxo, mtruli da tradiciuli `ojaxis burjisagan~
miuRebeli Canda. amitomac, siaxlisaken swrafva da poeziaSi axali Tema-
tikis Tanamimdevruli damkvidreba umTavresad ucxouri poeziiT zedmetad
gatacebasa da am poeziis arcTu jansaR gavlenas braldeboda.
Tumca naziq al-malaiqa Tavidanve dabejiTebiT miuTiTebda, rom axali
arabuli poeziis stilistikis Sesaqmnelad poets, romelic novatoriul
Ziebebs gadawyvetda, upirvelesad tradiciuli arudis sistemis zedmiw-
evniTi codna moeTxoveboda. swored arudis sistemas unda dafuZneboda
yvela is novacia, rac Zaldautaneblad Cajdeboda Tanamedrove arabuli
leqsis Tematikisa da struqturis formalur niSanTa erTian konteqstSi
(axali... 1974: 210).
TviTon naziq al-malaiqa SesaniSnavad flobda tradiciuli arabuli
poeziis saleqso formebs da swored am codnisa Tu flobis safuZvelze
agebda axal stilistikas.
sxvaTa Soris, aqve saintereso unda iyos imisi aRniSvna, rom zogi mkv-
levri andalusiuri muvaSahis gaCenis winapirobadac arudis sistemis mi-
marT andalusielTa mometebul _ Teoriul Tu praqtikul _ cnobiswadils
miiCnevda, rac leqsis imdroindel cnobil ostatTa erTgvar SejibrSi gam-
oixateboda. Sejibri iTvaliswinebda leqsebis Txzvas arudis sistemis im
sazomTa mixedviT, rasac `al-araid al-muhmila~ ewodeboda. `al-araid
al-muhmila~ aerTianebda iseT sazomebs, romelic arudis sistemis avtorma
xalil ibn ahmadma sazomTa erTian skalaze savsebiT samarTlianad ganalaga,
rogorc Teoriulad SesaZlebeli

(kudelini 1973: 14), magram praqtikulad
am sazomTaTvis arcerT arab poets arc arudis sistemis Seqmnamde da arc
mas Semdgom arasodes miumarTavs (andalusiuri... 1963: 300).
Tumca andalusiaSi mimdinare poeturi porcesebisagan gansxvavebiT, axal
arabul poezias leqsis sturqturaSi arasodes gamouyenebia xalil ibn
ahmadis Teoriuli sazomebi da Tanamedrove poetebi mxolod gavrcelebu-
li struqturuli elementebis e. w. bahrebis gamravalferovnebis aucile-
blobaze saubrobdnen. amitomac marTebuli Cans ihsan abbasis Sefaseba,
rom `am mxriv Tanamedrove arabi poetebi gacilebiT tradicionalistebi
iyvnen, vidre muvaSahebis _ andalusiaSi mcxovrebi arabi _ avtorebi~

(ab-
basi 1996: 203). Tumca igive mecnieri am movlenas imiT xsnis, rom Taname-
drove poetebi ise iyvnen gatacebulni arudis sistemiTa da am sistemis
calkeuli sazomebiT, rom gulubryvilod sjerodaT, TiTqos gavrcele-
buli bahrebis gamoyeneba SesaZlebeli iyo ise, rom amiT arudis sistemis
sazomebi ar darRveuliyo. amitomac Tuki sazomebi irRveoda, es uneblieT
giorgi lobJaniZe
120
ufro xdeboda, vidre winaswarganzraxuli da kargad mofiqrebuli gegmis
safuZvelze (qadqani 2001: 67).
gardaqmnaTa daCqarebulma tempma da poetTa dauokebelma da erTi Sexed-
viT moulodnelma swrafvam saleqso enis ganaxlebisaken kritikosTa dab-
neuloba da garkveulwilad uaryofiTi reaqcia gamoiwvia. am procesis Tan-
amdevi kritikuli gamokvlevebi SeiZleba or kategoriad daavajgufoT: er-
Tis mxriv aRweriTi, leqsis Sinaarsis ganmmartebeli, xolo meores mxriv,
TviTonac poeturi, eqspresiuli xasiaTis statiebi. aRniSnuli viTareba
bunebrivad wamoWris kiTxvas: arsebiTad siRrmiseuli kritikuli Teoriis
gareSe rogor SeZlo arabulma poeziam fexze damdgariyo da TviTganax-
lebis qaoturi procesi permanentuli gaexada. SekiTxva TavisTavad gu-
lisxmobs im obieqtur garemoebas, rom yovelgvari literaturuli siax-
le, romelic sakuTar arsebobasa da xangrZlivobas aucileblad miiCnevs,
uTuod saWiroebs kritikis seriozul Tanadgomas. xolo Tu aseTi ram ar
gvaqvs, maSin sxva faqtorebi unda amuSavdes dawyebuli saqmis gadasarCenad
da bolomde misayvanad. arabuli poeziis SemTxvevaSi es roli ramdenime
faqtorma iTamaSa. kerZod, axali Tematikis ayvavebam da drois suliskveTe-
basTan am Tematikis sinqronulma Tanxmobam, SemoqmedebiT problemebTan
gulwrfeli brZolis mdidarma gamocdilebam, aseve Zveli saleqso forme-
bis gamofitvama da axali epoqis saTqmelis gadmosacemad maTma Semoqmedeb-
iTma uunarobam. ra Tqma unda, iyo sxva faqtorebic, romelTagan sami, ra-
kiRa TiToeuli maTgani Tavis mxriv ganaxlebis procesis sam safexursac
gamoxatavs, saWiroa calke da dawvrilebiT iqnes ganxiluli.
pirvel faqtors mogviano xanis arabuli saliteraturo kritika `Cum
Tanamonawileobas~ uwodebs. am terminSi igulisxmeba is, rom arabuli leq-
sis ganaxlebis procesi dasawyisidanve Sors iyo Sinagani gaTiSulobisa da
aSkara winaaRmdegobaTagan, Tu ar CavTvliT ramdenime poetis pirovnul
pozicias, romelic ufro gamonaklisi iyo, vidre sayovelTao da gavrcele-
buli Sexedulebani. magaliTad, badr aS-Saqir as-saiabis dapirispireba
salah abd-as-saburTan anda al-baiaTisa da naziq al-malaiqas polemika
Tavisufali leqsis naklovanebaTa Taobaze.
magram yvela, vinc weris axali stilistikis momxre iyo da am stiliT
TviTgamoxatvas amjobinebda, Tundac uSualod misi wvlili procesSi
Zalze mokrZalebuli yofiliyo, TavisTavs `axali skolis~ erTiani ojaxis
wevrad miiCnevda da aRniSnuli jgufis saerTo `mters~ _ `tradicional-
istTa skolis~ Sexedulebebs upirispirdeboda. es `Cumi Tanamonawileoba~
Tavis SigniT uamrav gansxvavebul mosazrebas, damokidebulebasa da, bolos
da bolos, gansxvavebul gemovnebas gulisxmobda, amitomac didi iyo Sinagani
dapirispirebis, TviT umwvavesi uTanxmoebis aRmocenebisa da ganviTarebis
arabuli leqsis ganaxlebisaTvis brZolis II etapi
121
albaToba. pirvel etapze axali poeziis moZraoba am ganxeTqilebas aRniS-
nul SexedulebaTa da uTanxmoebaTa mkafiod Camouyalibeblobam gadaarCina.
kerZod ki iman, rom formalur doneze `axali moZraobis~ meTaurebs Tavi-
anTi naazrevisaTvis anda ideur-literaturuli mimarTulebisaTvis Sesa-
bamisi forma jer kidev ar moeZebnaT. Tumca gamoxatvis iseT gansxvavebul
yalibsa da saSualebebs eZebdnen, sadac TavianTi grZnobebis adekvatur in-
tegrirebas moaxerxebdnen, radganac Zveli, tradiciuli saleqso formebi
saamisod aSkarad aRar gamodgeboda. Tumca roca mkiTxveli, erTis mxriv,
naziq al-malaiqas krebulebs _ `Ramis metrfe qali~ an `nakverCxlebi da
nacari~, as-saiabis wignebs `damWknari yvavilebi~ da `miTebi~, al-baiaTis
krebulebs `angelozebi da eSmakebi~ da `damsxvreuli kokebi~, meore mxriv
ki abd as-saburis ormisraian fragmentebs da arudis sistemis sazomebiT
Seqmnil sxva leqsebs gaecnoba, maT Soris arsebiT, Tematur gansxvavebas
versad aRmoaCens.
mkafio ar iyo arc Sexedulebani da arc poeziis gzebi da mimarTule-
bani.
amitomac am `Cumi Tanamonawileobis~ winaaRmdeg ver SevxvdebiT iseTi ti-
pis kritikas, rogoric adonisma `winaaRmdegobis poeziis~ Taobaze dawera. ra
Tqma unda aRsaniSnavia is, rom adonisis kritikuli werili im dros Seiqmna,
roca `axal poezias~ fexi jer kidev myarad ar moekidebina, `winaaRmdegobis
poezia~ ki, romelic lamis saerTo saxalxo movlenad iyo gamocxadebuli,
`wminda wylis evropul leqss~ araerTi kuTxiT daemuqra.
adonisi aRniSnavs: `Cveni poezia okupirebul teritoriebze, jer erTi,
arc patara Senakadia Tanamedrove arabuli poeziis dedamdinaris gverdiT,
aramed TavisTavadi, damoukidebeli dinebaa da meorec, is gagrZelebaa da ara
dasawyisi. gagrZeleba im erovnul ganmaTavisuflebeli poeziisa, romelsac
arabi xalxi am saukunis (igulisxmeba me-20 saukune g. l.) pirvel naxevarSi
gaecno da revoluciuri poezia ar yofila~ (adonisi 1967: 11).
adonisi Tavis Sexedulebas ramdenime mosazrebiT amyarebs. misi azriT, po-
eziis saanalizo mimarTuleba mTlianad jdeba tradiciuli da memkvidreo-
biT miRebuli stilistikis CarCoebSi da Sors dgas revoluciurobisagan,
radgan is revolucias gare movlenad ganixilavs, romelic SeiZleba erT-erT
Temad gamoiyenos. am mxriv, winaaRmdegobis poezia wminda wylis eposia, rad-
ganac aRsavsea hiperboluri suliskveTebiT, hiperbola ki amSvidebs TviTSe-
mecnebis vnebas da sabolood aClungebs mas~ (adonisi 1967: 15).
adonisis aRniSnuli mosazrebebi CvenTvis imdenad aris saintereso, ram-
denadac, winaaRmdegobis poeziaze saubris miuxedavad, `Cumi Tanamonawile-
obis~ SemoqmedebiTi banakis wevrebs Soris pirvel xelSesaxeb uTanxmoe-
basac aaSkaravebs. arsebiTad aqedan daiwyo is didi Teoriuli gansxvavebebi,
giorgi lobJaniZe
122
romelic SedarebiT srulyofilad ramdenime literaturuli gamocemis
furclebze aisaxa.
es gamocemebi SegviZlia axali poeziis damkvidrebis erT-erT umniSvnelo-
vanes faqtorad miviCnioT. maTgan pirvel rigSi ki unda davasaxeloT Jurnali
`apolo~, romelic albaT imis magaliTad gamodgeba, rom poeziis nebismieri
axali mimarTuleba literaturis istoriaSi sabolood dasamkvidreblad
saWiroebs literaturul wreebSi popularul gamocemas. aseTi roli ar-
abuli leqsis ganaxlebis I etapze ergo gamocemas `apolo~, romelic 1932
wels ahmad zaqi abu Sadim (1892-1955) da literaturuli jgufis `apolos~
wevrebma daarses. gamodioda 1935 wlamde da arabuli modernizmis erT-erT^
mebairaxtered iTvleboda. arabuli leqsis ganaxlebis II etapze ki `apo-
los~ funqciebi TavisTavze orma libanurma almanaxma aiRo. es almanaxebi
iyo: `al-adab~ (`literatura~) da `aS-Sir~ (`poezia~). pirveli maTgani 1953
wels daaarsa iusuf al-xalma da kvartalurad ibeWdeboda, meore ki 1957
wels gamoica iusuf al-xalis mxardaWeriTa da adonisis redaqtorobiT da
1964 wlamde gamodioda. samwliani pauzis Semdeg, 1967 wels isev ganaxlda
misi gamocema da 1969 wlamde gagrZelda.
aRsaniSnavia, rom almanaxi `poezia~ im dros, roca axal poezias Zalze
cota, faqtobrivad TiTebze CamosaTvleli momxreebi hyavda, am poeziis
qomagad da damamkvidreblad gamodioda da aRniSnuli gamocemis damsax-
ureba arabuli leqsis ganaxlebis procesSi bevrad sWarbobs sxva nebis-
mieri gamocemisas. almanaxi `poezia~ iyo aRniSnuli procesis sxvadasxva
mimarTulebis warmomadgenelTa dasaydeni da Taviseburi TavSesafari. aq
ibeWdeboda TviT yvelaze gabeduli da Tamami eqsperimentebi, romelic
tradiciuli sazogadoebis kritikasa da xSirad ulmobel risxvasac ki
imsaxurebda. garda amisa aqve qveyndeboda Tanamedrove msoflio poeziis
nimuSTa arabuli Targmanebi da Teoriuli werilebi axali poeziis arsisa
da viTarebis Sesaxeb. almanaxis daxurvis Semdeg ki is roli, rasac mimdin-
are saliteraturo procesSi manamde aRniSnuli almanaxi asrulebda, nawi-
lobriv itvirTa ramdenime gamocemam, magaliTad, Tavkif as-saiRis redaq-
torobiT 1968 wels gamocemulma Jurnalma `hivar~ (`dialogi~) da amave
wels adonisis mier daarsebulma Jurnalma `mavakif~ (`poziciebi~). amis
Semdeg kidev ramdenime gamocema gaCnda da ukve aramxolod libanSi, aramed
arabuli samyaros TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi, rasac sazogadoebaSi axali
poeziis mimarT arnaxuli interesi mohyva. interesma ki gamoiwvia axali
stilistikis SigniT sxvadasxva SemoqmedebiT poziciebze mdgomi litera-
torebis calkeul jgufebad gaerTianeba, romelTac TavianTi Semoqmedebis
popularzaciis saqmeSi igive funqcia ikisres, rasac adre mxolod beW-
duri gamocemebi asrulebda.
arabuli leqsis ganaxlebisaTvis brZolis II etapi
123
am droidan ukve SedarebiT gaadvilda gamomcemlobebTan urTierTobac.
CvenTvis saintereso periodSi axali poeziis calke krebulebad gamoce-
mis saqmes xsenebuli literaturuli Jurnalebis redaqciebi uZRvebodnen.
swored almanaxma `aS-Sir~ da yovelkvartalurma `al-adab~ SeimuSaves
is sagamomcemlo politika, romliTac axali poeziis krebulebi mkiTx-
velisaTvis mimzidvel da saintereso gamocemebad aqcies. amas garda, amave
mizniT yvela sxva gamomcemlobaze metad gaisarja libanuri `dar al-uda~,
romelic axali poeziis warmatebul warmomadgenelTa sruli krebulebis
(al-amal al-qamila) dastambvas Seudga.
magram es warmateba erTbaSad da moulodnelad ar mosula. SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom axalma arabulma poeziam TviTdamkvidrebis urTulesi gza gam-
oiara da Tavidan aRtacebiT axali stilis momxre literatorebs aravin
Sexvedria. Tavdasxma ki, piriqiT, uamravi SexvdaT da imaSic ki dasdes bra-
li, rom maTi mcdelobani iyo moRalaturi gegma arabuli saliteraturo
enis dasarRvevad da da dasamxobad.
Cvens mkiTxvels warmodgena rom Seeqmnas, ramdenad saSiSi iyo aseTi
braldeba poetTa axalTaobisaTvis, aucilebelia icodes, rom uzarmazar
farTobze gadaWimuli, erTmaneTisagan zogjer mkveTrad gansxvavebuli ar-
abuli qveynebis erTianobis erT-erT garantad saliteraturo arabuli ena
gvevlineba. amitomac, saliteraturo arabulze nebismieri formiT Tav-
dasxma lamis erovnul Ralatad ganixileba.
garda amisa, tradiciuli stilistikis momxre da moamage literator-
ebi axali poeziis adeptebs imaSic adanaSaulebdnen, rom maT ar xelewife-
bodaT arudis sistemis farglebSi Rirebuli nimuSebi SeeqmnaT, savsebiT
ver flobdnen Zvel gamocdilebas da amitomac iyvenen iZulebulni, trad-
iciuli mowesrigebuli kasidebis nacvlad `nafleT-nafleTi striqonebi~
eweraT da poeziad gaesaRebinaT. magaliTad, 1959 wels, ukve cnobili da
aRiarebuli mahmud abbas al-ukkadi (1889-1964), romelic im dros egvip-
tis literaturisa da xelovnebis umaRlesi mejlisis wevri iyo, damaskos
poeziis festivalSi axali poeziis zogi warmomadgenlis monawileobis wi-
naaRmdeg gamovida da ganacxada, rom am axalma poetebma, magaliTad, ahmad
abd al-muti al-hijazim (daib. 1935w.), ar ician poeziis Zireuli, pirvela-
di principebi. amitomac, namdvili literaturis gadasarCenad igi iZule-
bulia yvela Rone ixmaros da Tu saWiro gaxda, egviptis literaturisa da
umaRlesi mejlisis wevrobidanac ki gadadges.
amis sapasuxod al-hijazim imisaTvis, rom al-ukaadisaTvis daemtkice-
bina, tradiciuli arabuli sazomebi da stilistikac memarjvebao, erTx-
ans, Zveli poetebis mibaZviT, kasidebis wera wamoiwyo
magram axal poeziasTan tradicionalistTa dapirispirebas yvelaze ukeT
giorgi lobJaniZe
124
asaxavs erTi dokumenti. 1964 wels egviptis poetTa asociaciam am qveynis
kulturis erovnul saministros warudgina peticia, sadac naTqvami iyo,
rom axali poeziis moZraoba safrTxes uqmnis saliteraturo arabul enas
da garkveul jgufs SesaZleblobas aZlevs, amtkicon, dialeqtiT vikvebe-
biTo. enis damcireba ki TavisTavad gulisxmobs erTiani arabuli erovne-
bis abuCad agdebas, radganac poezia yovelTvis da yvela erSi xelovnebis
sxva dargebze metad icavda erovnul Taviseburebasac da enobriv siwmind-
esac. mTavari saSiSroeba ki isaa, rom am tipis poezia gamoxatavs arabul da
muslimur azrovnebasTan savsebiT dapirispirebul da gansxvavbul ideolo-
gias. magaliTad, zogierT nimuSSi codvisa da ganwmenidis, jvarcmisa da mkv-
dreTiT aRdgomis ideebi sxva religiuri sistemebidanaa nasesxebi. aseve didi
mkrexelobaa maT mier sityva `alahis~ xmareba, radgan am sityvas, ZiriTadad,
kerpTayvanismcemlebTan dakavSirebiT gamoiyeneben. mokled, axali poeziis
moZraoba es aris enobriv samoselSi gaxveuli ZirgamomTxreli saqmianoba,
romelic mtrobs yovelive erovnulsa da tradiciuls da cdilobs miwasTan
gaasworos didi arabuli poeziis mwvervalebi~ (axali... 1974: 37).
dakvirvebul mkiTxvels albaT ecnaura TviTon am peticiis ena, romel-
ic rig SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba dadanaSaulebis unificirebul stilistikad
miviCnioT TiTqmis yvela drosa da sazogadoebaSi.
TumcaRa samarTlianoba moiTxovs aRiniSnos, rom ideologiuri mosaz-
rebebis garda, romelic aSkarad diskriminaciul xasiaTs atarebs, iyo
bevri _ wmindad profesiuli _ SeniSvna, romelzedac argumentirebuli
pasuxi verc Teoriul da verc praqtikul doneze axalma arabulma poeziam
dRemde ver moaxerxa.
axali poeziis iseT Seurigebel mowinaaRmdegeTagan, rogoric iyvne:
aziz abaza, al-ukkadi Tu salih javdaTi, dRes ukve bevri cocxali aRaraa.
xolo am poeziis momxreebsa da mesveurebs ufro meti dro da saSualeba
miecaT sakuTari literaturuli ideebis bolomde aTvisebisa da damkvi-
drebisaTvis. Tumca gaCndnen axali mowinaaRmdegeebi, da xSirad TviTon ax-
ali poeziis momxreTa Sorisac, magram maTi naazrevis ganxilva ukve calke
werilis Temaa.
damowmebani:
abbasi 1996: abbasi i.
1996
adonisi 1967: adonisi 1967
al-amadi 1966: al-amadi
1966
arabuli leqsis ganaxlebisaTvis brZolis II etapi
125
al-malaiqa 1946: al-malaiqa () 1946
andalusiuri... 1963: andalusiuri literaturis istoria.
. 1963
axali... 1964: axali arabuli poeziis problemebi.
1974
kudelini 1973: . . - . : 1973.
(?)qadqani 1377: 1377
Giorgi Lobzhanidze
The II Stage of the Battle for the Renewal of Arabic Verse:
Supporters and Opponents
Summary
Researchers and historians of Arabic literature distinguish three main stages in the
process of development of Arabic literature.
Giorgi Lobzhanidzes article deals with the second stage of the development of New
Arabic poetry (from 1940s to 1980s), when, on the one hand, the opposition between tradi-
tional and new aesthetics has reached its pick and on the other hand, when the peculiarities
and main values have fnally been marked, which was later used by contemporary writers
to activate poetical language which was totally different from the old one.
Researchers cannot agree on the name of innovator of Arabic poetry and they name dif-
ferent poets from various Arabic countries, who had to implement similar reforms in nearly
the same period and due to these reforms to distribute all the burdens and poetical results.
Though, collection of Iraq poetess Nazik al-Malaikah Ash and Remains was writ-
ten several years prior the works of other poets, therefore the above mentioned collection
provide us with materials which helps us to mark all the tendencies of development, which
was later more clearly fxed in the books of other Arabic writers. Nazik al-Malaikahs col-
lection is preceded by the authors brief preface, which represents a kind of manifest for
defending aesthetics and values that are refected in the book.
If the preface of Nazik al-Malaikah only fxes the results of the process, Giorgi Lobja-
nidze in his article tries to clear out reasons, which has caused these results.
The author of the article briefy discusses literary condition in Arabic countries and
represents the works of Nazik al-Malaikah and other poets as a logical consequence.
In the second half of the XX century Arabic east initiated and speeded up the process of
industrialization and westernization. This process was relatively earlier passed by West.
Drastic changes that have taken place in the life style would without doubt be refected
on literature, as Arabic writer of the second half of the XX century was no longer the child
of the reality to where his ancestors have to live.
giorgi lobJaniZe
126
Poetic transformation of reality gave us new literary reality, whose system of morals
was gained by means of reaching humans feelings and intellect.
This system of values has included the content of poetry and has put it upside down.
The change of content farther required formal changes (changes in the form).
Therefore, collapse of traditional poetics and building new aesthetics on this tradition
happened in two directions.
From the point of content a lot of themes have entered the Arabic poetry in the period
under discussion, and changes of kaleidoscopic nature would probably confuse poets of
previous epoch.
Relation towards individualism was the main differentiating sign between traditional
and new poetics.
If in the previous epochs the persons voice was lost in the frames of artistic-imagina-
tive system, could hardly or not at all be distinguished, new poetry has completely ruined
that frame and positioned the individual in his centre of interest.
As a result, in poetry intimate mood was strengthened and was outlined such feelings,
which were previously condemned by poets.
Of course, intimacy does not consider only sexual feelings (it should be noted that tra-
ditional Arabic literature never avoided this topic and showed it with great interest), here
we speak about representing and analysing hidden, unconscious inclinations of human,
during the representation of which poetic word acquires more meaning.
Poetic forms that were used for centuries would not be appropriate for such kind of
drastic individualism, which like lifeless scheme, would not only prevent the expression
of new poetical content accents but would also slow down everything, what contemporary
poet regarded as his main message towards society.
Therefore, new poetical forms emerge in Arabic poetry in the second half of XX centu-
ry, opposing traditional Arud system and from the frst glance, are regarded as innovations
brought from outside (Western poetry).
Although, the author of the article analysis the formal changes made by Andalusia Ara-
bic poetry in traditional Arud system, contrasts these results with form novelty of Arabic
literature and concludes that new poetic forms established in contemporary Arabic poetry
should be more a logical consequence of the collapse of Arud system than blindly coping
organically strange elements from Western poetry.
If it was not that way, novelties of Arabic poetry could not be established and fnd logi-
cal development in todays literary processes.
All these in the article are displayed against the background of analysis of thoughts of
supporters and opponents of new poetry, which enabled the author to refect clearly and
exactly the process of development.
127
filologiuri Ziebani
laura grigolaSvili
kvlav Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis periodebisa da
mijnebisaTvis
qarTuli mwerloba sam umTavres etapadaa dayofili. es etapebia: Zveli,
axali, uaxlesi. aRniSnuli klasifikacia literaturaTmcodneTa Soris
dRes mraval kiTxvas badebs: ramdenad marTebulia V-XVIII saukuneebis
literaturis mTlianad Zvel qarTul mwerlobad miCneva, an misi gamijvna
axali da uaxlesi mwerlobisgan? mizanSewonilia Tu ara Zvel mwerlobaSi
sasuliero da saero xasiaTis nakadTa erTmaneTisgan gamoyofa? xom ar unda
davubrunoT sasuliero mwerlobas misi funqciuri datvirTvis gamomxat-
veli termini _ saeklesio || samRvdelo? sadavod iqca qarTuli mwerlobis
calkeul periodTa mijnebisa da maTi saxeldebis sakiTxic. uaryofil iqna
socialur-ekonomikur formaciebTan literaturul procesTa misadagebis
tradicia. samagierod gaCnda am periodTa aRmniSvneli axali, litmcod-
neobiTi terminebi: elinizaciis xana, saxismetyvelebiTi determinaciebi:
eideturi, eikonuri, sakuTriv saxismetyvelebiTi da a.S.
meti kategoriulobiT daismis qarTuli mwerlobis periodebisTvis ev-
ropuli kulturologiuri paradigmebis (renesansi, manerizmi, baroko...)
gamoyenebis sakiTxi. yvela es kiTxva gansjisken gvibiZgebs.
gamovyofT ramdenimes. am bolo dros gamoiTqva Tvalsazrisi, rom ar
arsebobs raime enobrivi Tu Sinaarsobrivi barieri, romelic `Zvel mw-
erlobas~ principulad, Tvisebrivad gamijnavda `axali~ an `uaxlesi~
qarTuli literaturisagan~ (TvaraZe 1997: 154), an kidev: `im faqtiT, rom
rusTaveli, `visramiani~, CaxruxaZe, Teimuraz I, arCili, sulxan-saba orbe-
liani, guramiSvili mTlianad `Zvelisadmi~ arian mikuTvnebuli, qarTuli
literaturis periodizaciis sistemidan amogdebulia Zvelsa da axals
Soris ganfenili da evropuli renesansis, barokos da ganmanaTleblobis
analogiuri movlenebis msgavsi gardamavali periodi~ (kenWoSvili 2007:
133-134).
vidre msjelobas gavagrZelebde, yuradReba unda gavamaxviloT samec-
niero literaturaSi gamokveTil erT Zalzed saintereso Tvalsazrisze
literaturuli procesebisa da stadialuri periodebis raobis Sesaxeb.
klasifikacia efuZneba literaturis Sinaarsobrivi da formaluri donee-
laura grigolaSvili
128
bis urTierTmimarTebas. am klasifikaciiT literaturis ganviTarebis is-
toriaSi gamoiyofa sami ZiriTadi safexuri, romelTa aRsaniSnavad gamoyen-
ebulia cnebebi: winarefleqsiuri tradicionalizmi, refleqsiuri tradi-
cionalizmi da posttradicionalizmi.
am koncefciis avtori s. averincevi, efuZneba ra evropuli da rusuli
litmcodneobiTi kvlevebis mdidar gamocdilebas, miiCnevs, rom aristoteles
droidan mokidebuli, roca literaturam pirvelad gaacnobiera Tavisi Tavi
da pirvelad moaxdina konstituireba Tavisi Tavisa, rogorc literaturisa, e.
i. Seimecna sruliad garkveuli avtonomiuri realoba, rogorc yvela sxva re-
alobisgan, pirvel rigSi ki yofisa da kulturisagan gansxvavebuli realoba,
man SeZlo TviTgamorkveva poetikasa da ritorikaSi (TviT aristotele, mama
evropuli logikuri tradiciisa, imavdroulad xom avtoria `poetikisa~ da
`ritorikisa~. _ s. averincevi). am droidan winarefleqsiuri tradicional-
izmi icvleba refleqsiuri tradicionalizmiT, xolo namdvili, araorazro-
vani niSnebi literaturis axali mdgomareobisa Tavs iCens mxolod XVIII s-is
II naxevarSi. aqedan mokidebuli literaturuli procesi eqvemdebareba post-
tradicionalur sistemebs literaturis ganviTarebisa, refleqsiuri tradi-
cionalizmis xana ki moicavs did, erTmaneTisagan metad gansxvavebul epoqebs.
esenia: elinizmi da romi, Sua saukuneebi da renesansi, baroko da klasicizmi.
maT erT-erT saerTo maxasiaTeblad, maTi homogenobis erT-erT faqtorad ki
miCneulia ritorikis principi (averincevi 1986: 112).
maSasadame, refleqsiuri tradicionalizmis epoqa iwyeba aristote-
les xanidan da grZeldeba romantizmamde. igi efuZneba nimuSis, kanonis,
tradiciis, konvenciis esTetikas. axali dro, axali literatura, axali
epoqa arRvevs literaturul tradiciebs, reglaments da iqmneba farTo
asparezi SemoqmedebiTi TavisuflebisaTvis, individualuri `mes~ gamoxat-
visaTvis, nairgvari stiluri da saxeobrivi konstruqciebisaTvis.
msjelobas Tu gavagrZelebT da qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebis
process am kuTxiT SevxedavT, kategoriulad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Zveli
da axali || uaxlesi mwerlobis erTmaneTisgan gamijvna (rac sulac ar niS-
navs maTi erTianobis uaryofas) ar ewinaaRmdegeba mxatvruli saazrovno
procesis ganviTarebis logikas. unda gaviTvaliswinoT is fundamenturi
literaturul-esTetikuri da msoflmxedvelobrivi principebi, rom-
lebic safuZvlad udevs, erTi mxriv, Zvel qarTul mwerlobas, meore mxriv,
axal da uaxles mwerlobebs. axlisgan gansxvavebiT Zveli mwerlobisTvis
damaxasiaTebelia msoflmxedvelobrivi simwyobre da mTlianoba, am wanamZ-
Rvrebze dafuZnebuli koncefcia adamianisa, avtorisa da mkiTxvelis mso-
flSegrZnebaTa da esTetikuri xedvis sruli Tanxvedra, fabulisa da siuJe-
tis urTierTomimarTebis specifika, realizmis Taviseburi gageba, droisa
kvlav Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis periodebisa da mijnebisaTvis
129
da sivrcis sruliad sxvadasxvagvari konceptebi da sxv. Tumca isic unda
gaviTvaliswinoT, rom aRniSnuli maxasiaTeblebi transformacias Zveli
qarTuli mwerlobis wiaRSive ganicdis, rac niadags qmnis kidec axali es-
Tetikuri principebis damkvidrebisaTvis.
sakiTxis naTelsayofad Suasaukuneobrivi mwerlobis ramdenime aspeq-
tze gavamaxvileb yuradRebas.
magaliTad, rogoria avtoris, Semoqmedis gageba Sua saukuneebis kul-
turaSi da ra SinaarsiT daitvirTeba igi axal droSi?
Suasaukuneobrivi gagebiT, Semoqmedi, iseve rogorc aRniSnul epoqasTan
dakavSirebuli sociumis yvela warmomadgeneli, Tavs organuli mTliano-
bis nawilad miiCnevs, igi mikrokosmosia, romelsac makrokosmosis kanon-
zomierebani msWvalavs. samyaros erTi centri aqvs (RmerTi, universumi),
yoveli Seqmnili am centrs eswrafvis: Semecnebis mizani Sesamecnebelisa
da Semmecnebelis sruli SeerTebaa. adamiani Semecnebis am gzaze yalibdeba
pirovnebad. yoveli adamiani erT zneobriv kanons emorCileba, zneobrivi
srulyofis erTi ideali ikveTeba _ qristes baZvis gziT Teozisi, ganRmr-
Toba. es kanonzomiereba gansazRvravs Sua saukuneebis esTetikur da eTikur
Sexedulebebs. es kanonzomiereba udevs safuZvlad mxatvrul-Semoqmedebi-
Ti procesis yovel komponenets. racionalizmis epoqaSi, axal droSi ki,
roca adamiani daSorda religiur TvalTaxedvas, man Tavisi Tavi organuli
mTlianobis nawilad ki ara, damoukidebel mTlianobad moiazra da zogadi
kanonzomierebis Semecnebis nacvlad sakuTar kanonzomierebaTa Seqmna dai-
wyo. pirovnuli ufleba TiTqos sazogadoebriv wesrigs ejibreba, yovel in-
divids TiTqos Tavisi cxovrebis gansakuTrebuli gza aqvs, rasac igi zogjer
uazrobamde mihyavs. aRniSnulma procesma individualizmi daamkvidra.
Sua saukuneebis kulturas msWvalavs Tvalsazrisi, rom WeSmariti Semo-
qmedi da erTaderTi pirovnuli avtori RmerTia, sxvebi RvTaebrivi Semoq-
medebis oden amxsnelebi, komentatorebi arian. isini Tavis mimarTebas uze-
naesisadmi mza religiuri formulebiT gamoxataven, mxatvruli naazrevi
efuZneba am religiur-dogmatur frazeologias, paradigmul saxeebsa da
gamoTqmebs. amitom iyo am epoqisTvis ucxo `geniosis~ cneba. amitom gam-
oiricxeboda raime konfliqti avtorsa da mkiTxvels Soris msoflSeg-
rZnebiTi xedvisa Tu esTetikuri aRqmis TvalsazrisiT.
axali dro, axali literatura (igulisxmeba romantizmi da misi Sem-
dgomi periodis literatura) aRiarebs mxolod individualur xmas, mx-
olod konkretuli SemoqmedisaTvis damaxasiaTebel intonaciebs. mxat-
vruli saxeebi originalobiT gamoirCeva, saxeobrivi sistema Semoqmedis
individualuri mignebisa da xedvis gamomxatvelia. mxatvruli teqstis
interpretaciaTa nairgvaroba savsebiT bunebrivia.
laura grigolaSvili
130
gansxvavebulia realizmis gagebac Zvel qarTul mwerlobasa da axal
mwerlobaSi. sasuliero mwerlobaSi realizmi ar gulisxmobs mxolod
grZnobad-meterialur sinamdviles. aq realuri upirvelesad zegrZnobadi,
sulieri sinamdvilea. metic: maradiuli sulieri faseulobebiT aRiqmeba
da ganizomeba materialur sivrceSi ganfenili yoveli movlena. `aTvlis~
anu xedvis wertili samyaros centrs uerTdeba. Semoqmedis aRqmaSi orive
ganzomileba (sulieri da materialuri) erTiandeba, xedva ki mimarTulia
zegrZnobadidan grZnobadisken, maradiuli, sulieri Rirebulebebidan
amqveyniuri faseulobebisken. aseT xedvas uwodeben `Sebrunebul perspeq-
tivas~, romelic arsebiTad gansxvavdeba pirdapiri perspeqtivisagan, axali
drois Semoqmedis xedvisgan.
sayuradReboa, rom bevri TvalsaCino literatori, magaliTad, n. kon-
radi, d. blagoi, v. Jirmunski uaryofs kidec ara mxolod petrarkasa da
bokaCos realizms, aramed TviT rables, servantesisa da Seqspiris real-
izmsac. `hipoTeza realizmis damkvidrebisa literaturaSi daaxloebiT
XIX saukunis meore mesamedSi dRes sakmaod argumentirebulad iTvleba~
(xlodovski 1967: 86).
Cveni sakiTxisTvis mniSvnelovania isic, rom literaturaTmcodneobaSi
fabulisadmi mwerlis damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT zogadad gamoyofen
or periods: erTia `mza fabuliT~ sargeblobisa da meore, fabulis `natu-
ridan~ gadmoRebisa. pirvel SemTxvevaSi Semoqmedi ar Txzavs fabulas, igi
mza saxiT iRebs mas miTologiidan, xalxuri gadmocemidan, an sinamdvili-
dan. mwerali movalea daicvas fabuluri tradicia. `es kanonad qceuli
principi damaxasiaTebelia ara mxolod antikuri poeziisaTvis, aramed Sua
saukuneebis mwerlobisaTvis, Zalian mniSvnelovani doziT aRorZinebisa da
klasicizmis epoqebisTvisac~ (koJinovi 1964: 447).
axal mwerlobaSi avtoris damokidebuleba fabulisadmi Tavisufalia.
igi TviTon Txzavs fabulas, misi SemoqmedebiTi fantazia sruliad Seuz-
Rudavia.
literaturis qronologiuri CarCoebisa da periodizaciis probleme-
bis gadasawyvetad sociologiuri kriteriumebis momarjveba dRes samar-
Tlianad miiCneva anaqronizmad, magram verc faqts wauvalT; `Sua saukuneebi
moicavs periods Zvelsa da axal istorias Soris da emTxveva feodalizmis
Casaxvis, ganviTarebisa da daSlis epoqas, termini `Sua saukuneebi~ ixmareba
rogorc dasavleTi evropis qveynebis, ise sxva regionebis mimarTac, Tumca
feodalizmis arsebobis xana yvelgan ar emTxveva erTmaneTs~ (qarTuli...
1987: XI, 51). magaliTad, sayovelTaod aRiarebuli Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad,
aRmosavleTSi Suasaukuneebi `gagrZelda~ lamis XVIII saukunemde. amas-
Tan, mxedvelobaSi unda gvqondes isic, rom Suasaukuneobrivi adamianis,
kvlav Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis periodebisa da mijnebisaTvis
131
sazogadoebis sulieri struqtura, misi Sinagan ganviTareba gansazRvravs
Sesabamis ekonomikur-socialuri formaciis procesebs da ara piriqiT.
anu feodalizmi ki araa ganmsazRvreli Sua saukuneebis kulturis, magali-
Tad, erT-erTi ZiriTadi kategoriis _ ierarqizmis principis Camoyalibe-
bisa, aramed swored am kulturologiurma kategoriam iqonia zegavlena
feodaluri struqturebis ierarqiuli wyobis warmoqmnaze.
vfiqrobT, yovelive zemoaRniSnuli gvaZlevs uflebas, Zveli qarTuli
mwerloba (V-XVIII ss.) miviCnioT erT megaperiodad, tipologiurad davu-
kavSiroT refleqsiur-tradicionalur kulturas da gavmijnoT igi post-
tradicionaluri epoqisgan.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom Zveli mwerloba, sazogadod, medievaluri
kultura misi warmoqmnidan dasasrulamde sruliadac ar aris erTgvaro-
vani. aman ganapiroba k. kekeliZiseuli klasifikacia qarTuli mwerlobisa
da misi dayofa oTx periodad (kekeliZe 1960: 42-79). aseT dayofas Cveni
mwerlobisa TviT literaturis ganviTarebis etapebi gvkarnaxoben.
ufro rTulad dgas am periodTa literaturaTmcodneobiTi determi-
naciis sakiTxi. jer erTi, myaria tradicia Zvel mwerlobaSi saero da sa-
suliero nakadTa erTmaneTisagan gamoyofisa, Tumca aseTi gamijvna zogs
sadavod miaCnia, radgan, erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba marTlac gaZneldes pasuxi
kiTxvaze: `ratom miekuTvneba daviT aRmaSeneblis `galobani sinanulisani~
sasuliero lirikas, daviT guramiSvilis sagaloblebi ki saeros? am kiTx-
vaze pasuxisTvis kvlav unda gavixsenoT, rom `galobani~ ufro tradicio-
naluria, kanonSia moqceuli, reglamentiTaa gansazRvruli, daviT guramiS-
vilis lirika ki tradiciulTan erTad, rogorc es barokuli poeziisaTvis
aris damaxasiaTebeli, Seicavs axal maxasiaTeblebsac, axal intonacias,
axal ritms, axal sazoms, rac meti subieqtivizmiT msWvalavs saTqmels.
magram ara mgonia, mizanSewonili iyos sasuliero mwerlobas davukanon-
oT, ufro swored, aRvudginoT funqciuri datvirTvis mqone terminebi:
`saeklesio~, `liturgiuli~, `samRvdelo~, radgan amiT SeiZleba Seiqmnas
saSiSroeba misi mowyvetisa qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebis erTiani
struqturisgan. es ki tolfasi iqneba, vTqvaT, iseTi viTarebisa, qarTuli
xelovneba rom davtovoT yinwvisis angelozis, gelaTis RvTismSoblis, an
ubisis freskebis gareSe. magram radgan termini `sasuliero~ TiTqos imas
niSnavs, rom es mwerloba saero, sekularuli mwerlobis Sinaarss su-
lieri, amaRlebuli idealebisken intenciiT upirispirdeba, iqneb jobdes,
sasuliero mwerlobas sakraluri vuwodoT, miT ufro, rom es termini
dRevandel literaturaTmcodneobaSi sul ufro ikidebs fexs.
arc is unda dagvaviwydes, rom swored sakraluri mwerlobis wiaRSi
aRmocenda qareTuli saero literatura, rac mecnieruli argumenta-
laura grigolaSvili
132
ciiT naTelyo k. kekeliZem (kekeliZe 1958: 5-6). da Tu vinmes k. kekliZis
es Teza naklebsarwmunod miaCnia, gaiTvaliswinos z. SaTiriSvilis uaR-
resad saintereso naSromis _ poeti da poeziis idea evropul kultur-
aSi _ is monakveTic, sadac saubaria evropuli lirikis instituciur
sawyisze _ locviT-meditaciur praqtikasa da Janrze. mecnieri efuZneba
ingliseli filologis luis martcis gamokvlevebs da Segvaxsenebs, rom
evropuli lirika XVI-XVII saukuneebSi inglisuri nacionaluri ekle-
siis (anglikanobis) wiaRSi aRmocenda da `swored inglisuri lirikuli
poeziidan iwyeba Tanamedrove lirikuli poezia, romelic vrceldeba jer
`safrangeTsa da germaniaSi, xolo Semdeg _ sxva evropul qveynebsa da ru-
seTSi~ (SaTiriSvili 1980: 67).
TiTqos ufro Wirs `vefxistyaosnisa~ da misi epoqis sxva literatu-
ruli Zeglebis (`amirandarejaniani~, `abdulmesia~, `Tamariani~) da ha-
giografia-himnografiis erT kulturul sivrceSi moazreba. magram aqac
pirvel rigSi yuradReba unda gamaxvildes im maxasiaTeblebze, romlebic
saerTo aqvT sasuliero mwerlobasa da `vefxistyaosans~ (aqac gzamkvlevad
k. kekeliZis zemoTmiTiTebuli naSromi gamogvadgeba) da romliTac isini
axali drois literaturul-mxatvruli principebisgan gansxvavdebian.
sagulisxmoa, rom renesansis epoqis yvelaze tipur, yvelaze Tvalsa-
Cino SemoqmedTa mimarTac ki Cndeba, vTqvaT, aseTi kiTxva _ ra doziTaa
maTs SemoqmedebaSi renesansuli da ra doziT ikveTeba aq adreSuasaukunee-
bisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi. magaliTad, gamoCenili italieli lit-
eratori vitore branka aqveynebs naSroms gamomwvevi saTauriT: Boccaccio
medievale, 1975 ( , italiuridan rusul enaze iTargmna
da gamoica 1983 w.). am wignis ZiriTadi debulebebis gadmocema winamdebare
naSromis mizans scildeba, ise ki gasaTvaliswinebelia, ra ostatobiT, ra
codniTa da erudiciiTaa naTelyofili bokaCos `dekameronis~ organuli
kavSiri Suasaukuneobriv kulturasa da literaturul tradiciebTan.
sazogadod, roca ikvleven renesansis kavSirs antikur kulturasTan, iqve
iCens xolme Tavs sakiTxi Suasaukuneobrivi fenomenis rolis Sesaxeb rene-
sansul msoflSegrZnebaSi. statiebis krebulSi ` - - - - - - -
~ (. 1984), Sesulia ramdenime werili, sadac gamokveTilia
Tvalsazrisi renesansis epoqis humanizmze qristianuli kulturis gavlenis
Rrma Seswavlis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. aseTebia: i. Cerniakis `a
~, a. gorfunkelis ` - - -
~ da sxv.
amave niadagze unda aixsnas dava kulturis ganviTarebis istoriaSi
`vefxistyaosnis~ adgilis gansazRvris Taobaze. e. meletinskis katego-
riuli daskvniT, `rusTavelis mikuTvneba renesansis moRvaweebisadmi, iseve
kvlav Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis periodebisa da mijnebisaTvis
133
rogorc Teoria aRmosavluri renesansisa, Sedegia ara rusTavelisa da zo-
gierTi aRmosavleli poetis gadaWarbebiT Sefasebisa, aramed Sua saukunee-
bis kulturis Seufaseblobisa~ (meletinski 1983: 218). misive azriT, `ukav-
Sirebs ra rusTavels misi epoqis evropul kulturas, damatebiT ganayofi-
erebuls arabuli da sparsuli gavlenebiT, e. g. xinTibiZe ufro axlos dgas
WeSmaritebasTan, vidre S. i. nucubiZe Tavisi `aRmosavluri renesansiT~ (me-
letinski 1983: 218). el. xinTibiZe ki miiCnevs, rom `rusTavelis Semoqmedeba
gviandeli Sua saukuneebis movlenaa, romelsac renesansuli elementebi
axasiaTebs. rusTaveli, rogorc poeti da moazrovne, Sua saukuneebisa da
renesansis zRvarze dgas, msgavsad dante aligierisa~ (xinTibiZe, 1993: 231).
misive daskvniT, `saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc dasavleT evropaSi, qris-
tianuli kulturis ganviTareba mivida kacobriobis azrovnebis procesis
am axal etapamde, romlis Semdgomi ganviTareba, ganxorcielebuli mxolod
evropis kulturuli ganviTarebis istoriaSi, renesansis saxeliTaa cno-
bili~ (xinTibiZe 1993: 211). isic unda gvaxsovdes, rom termini `renesansi~
Semfasebluri datvirTvas ar atarebs. is kulturis gnaviTarebis mxolod
erTi mniSvnelovani etapis aRmniSvnelia.
erTi ram cxadia, Tu adreuli Sua saukuneebis kulturaSi adamiani aisaxe-
ba erTi ganzomilebiT _ adamiani da RmerTi, gmiri _ RvTismsaxurebis gzaze,
gviandel Sua saukuneebSi adamiani ainteresebT sxvadasxva ganzomilebiT;
Semoqmedi gmirs gvixatavs rogorc mijnurs, rogorc megobars, rogorc
saraindo movaleobebis aRmsrulebels. oRond mis SegnebaSi yovelive es
RvTismsaxurebacaa (`vinca mokvdes mefeTaTvis, sulni maTni zecas rbian~).
sxva sakiTxia, rom TandaTan interesi adamianisadmi TandaTan Semoifargleba
empiriuli sinamdviliT. romantizmi, rogorc literaturuli movlena, up-
irvelesad, Rrma nostalgiaa Suasaukuneobriv harmoniaze.
daskvnis saxiT unda iTqvas, rom Zveli qarTuli mwerloba (V-XVIII
ss.) erTi mTlianobaa, tipologiurad is Suasaukuneobrivia, medievalu-
ria. misi umTavresi maxasiaTebelia _ refleqsiuri tradicionalizmi. am
literaturis ganviTarebis istoria, bunebrivia, gulisxmobs calkeul
etapebs, calkeul periodebs. vfiqrob, k. kekeliZis mier SemuSavebuli pe-
riodizaciis sqema seriozul cvlilebas ar saWiroebs. Tumca yoveli peri-
odis determinebaSi albaT SeiZleba meti konkretulobis Setana. SeiZleba
gamoikveTos evropuli literaturuli procesebis Sesatyvisi etapebi ev-
ropuli terminebiTve: protorenesansi, manerizmi, baroko, klasicizmi...
swored amgvarad moiazreben rusi medievistebi Zveli rusuli mwerlobis
(IX-XVII ss.) ganviTarebis process. aqve unda gaviTvaliswinoT r. siraZis
koncefcia Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis saxismetyvelebiTi periodizaciis
principebzec (siraZe 2008: 14-22).
laura grigolaSvili
134
qarTuli medievaluri mwerloba iyofa 4 periodad:
I _ sakraluri mwerlobis aRmocenebisa da ganviTarebis periodi (V-XI ss.). am
mwerlobisTvis damaxasiaTebelia eikonuri (xatisebri) gansaxovnebis esTetika.
II _ medievaluri mwerlobis klasikuri periodi (XII-XIII ss.). am peri-
odSi iwyeba mwerlobis sekularizacia, ikveTeba protorenesansis niSnebi.
literaturisTvis damaxasiaTebelia sakuTriv mxatvruli saxismetyveleba,
`sinTezuri esTetika~.
III _ medievaluri mwerlobis stagnaciis periodi (XIV-XV ss.). misTvis
saxismetyvelebiTi siaxleni araa damaxasiaTebeli.
IV _ medievaluri mwerlobis damagvirgvinebeli periodi (XVI-XVIII
ss.). SeiniSneba manerizmis, barokos, klasicizmis niSnebi. am epoqisTvis
damaxasiaTebelia saxismetyvelebiTi tendenciebis simbiozi.
rac Seexeba e. w. `gardamaval xanas~ (XVIII s-is bolo da XIX s-is dasaw-
yisi), mTlianad viziareb r. siraZis Tvalsazriss: `igi unda ganvakuTvnoT
axal qarTul mwerlobas, radgan iqiTken warimarTeba misi `gardamavloba~
(siraZe 2008: 22).
oRond unda gvaxsovdes, rom literaturuli procesebis CarCoebSi mo-
qceva srulebiTac ar aris universaluri xasiaTisa. Cven mravali gamon-
aklisis daSveba da aRiareba gvmarTebs. periodTa nominaciebSi mxolod
dominanturi literaturuli tendenciebi hpoveben asaxvas.
damowmebani:
averincevi 1986: . : -
. krebulSi: ( . - - - - - - -
. .: , 1986.
TvaraZe 1997: TvaraZe r. gadasaxedi. gamomcemloba `saqarTvelo~, 1997.
kekeliZe 1960: kekliZe k. qarTuli literaturis istoria. t. I. Tb.: gamomcemloba
`sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1960.
kekeliZe 1958: kekeliZe k. qarTuli literaturis istoria. t. II. Tb.: Tsu gamomcem-
loba, 1958.
kenWoSvili 2007: kenWoSvili i. gardamavali megaperiodi qarTul literaturaSi. kre-
bulSi: I saerTaSoriso simpoziumi, litmcodneobis Tanamedrove
problemebi (masalebi). Tb.: gamomcemloba `nekeri~, 2007.
koJinovi 1964: . , , . wignSi: . .:
, 1964.
meletinski 1983: . . .: 1983.
siraZe 2008: siraZe r. kultura da saxismetyveleba. Tb.: gamomcemloba `inteleq-
ti~, 2008.
kvlav Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis periodebisa da mijnebisaTvis
135
qarTuli... 1987: qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. t. XI, Sua saukuneebi. Tb.: 1987.
SaTiriSvili 2008: SaTiriSvili z. poeti da poeziis idea evropul kulturaSi. krebul-
Si: evropuli ideebis istoria da qarTuli kultura. Tb.: gamomecem- .: gamomecem- gamomecem-
loba `universali~, 2008.
xlodovski 1967: . ( -
). wignSi:
. .: , 1967.
xinTibiZe 1993: xinTibiZe e. Suasaukuneobrivi da renesansuli `vefxistyaosanSi~.
Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1993.
Laura Grigolashvili
Towards Periods and Boundaries of Old Georgian Literature
Nowadays, the problem of the periodization of Georgian writings is very actual among
literary critics. There arises a question: Is it correct to regard V-XVIII-century writings as
Old Georgian literature, or to distinguish it from New and Brand New writings? Should we
differentiate between ecclesiastic and secular types in early period? Should we restore the
term for ecclesiastic literature that expresses its function? The issue of the periodization
of Georgian literature and their naming is quite arguable. The tradition of matching liter-
ary processes to social-economical formations was neglected. In return, new literary terms
denoting these concepts have emerged: Hellenization period, aesthetic determinations: ei-
detic, iconic, personally aesthetic and others.
The article deals with the above mentioned issues and on the basis of scientifc re-
searches the author tries to prove that Old Georgian Literature (V-XVIII centuries) is a
whole. Typologically, it belongs to the middle ages, it is medieval, refectional traditional-
ism is its main characteristic.
The history of the development of the literature naturally means separate stages, pe-
riods. I consider that the scheme of periodization, worked out by K. Kekelidze does not
inquire further drastic changes. Still, more concreteness can be brought into the determina-
tion of each period. Stages corresponding to the processes of European literature can be
pointed out, expressed by European terms: proto-renaissance, mannerism, baroque, clas-
sicism This is the way Russian medievalists regard the process of the development of
Russian literature (IX-XVII centuries). We should also take into consideration R. Siradzes
conception about the principles of periodization of Ancient Georgian writings.
Georgian Medieval literature should traditionally be divided into four periods:
I The period of the emergence and development of sacral writings (IV-XI centuries).
Aesthetics of iconic imagining is peculiar for that period.
II Classical period of medieval literature (XII-XIII centuries). From this period we
laura grigolaSvili
136
witness the secularization of writings, signs of proto-renaissance are singled out. Artistic
aesthetics, Synthetic Aesthetics is characteristic of this literature.
III Period of stagnation of medieval writings (IV-XV centuries). Aesthetic innova-
tions are not peculiar for this epoch.
IV Last period of medieval writing (XVI-XVIII centuries). Signs of mannerism, ba-
roque, classicism are spotted.
It is implied, that in the nominations of periods only dominant literary tendencies are
refected.
137
kritikuli diskursi
nona kupreiSvili
70-80-iani wlebis kritika: `rekonstruqciidan~ novaciamde
poststalinuri qarTuli sabWoTa kulturis konteqstSi liotariseu- qarTuli sabWoTa kulturis konteqstSi liotariseu- qarTuli sabWoTa kulturis konteqstSi liotariseu- sabWoTa kulturis konteqstSi liotariseu- sabWoTa kulturis konteqstSi liotariseu- kulturis konteqstSi liotariseu- kulturis konteqstSi liotariseu- konteqstSi liotariseu- konteqstSi liotariseu- liotariseu- liotariseu-
li e.w. `metanarativebis Teoriis~ gaazrebis aucileblobam (mxedvelobaSi
maqvs b. wifurias werili `postsabWoTa travma literaturaSi da kidev
erTi metanarativis dasasruli~ (wifuria 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- metanarativis dasasruli~ (wifuria 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- metanarativis dasasruli~ (wifuria 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- dasasruli~ (wifuria 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- dasasruli~ (wifuria 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- ~ (wifuria 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- wifuria 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- 2004: 32) nacionaluri metanara- nacionaluri metanara- metanara- metanara-
tivis ara mxolod definicia, aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- ara mxolod definicia, aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- ara mxolod definicia, aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- mxolod definicia, aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- mxolod definicia, aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- definicia, aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- definicia, aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- , aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- aramed misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- misi warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- warmoqmnis zusti TariRic mogv- zusti TariRic mogv- zusti TariRic mogv- TariRic mogv- TariRic mogv- mogv- mogv-
ca: _ 1956 wlis martis dReebi, rac qronoligiurad stalinuri epoqis
dasasruls daemTxva.
sxva sityvebiT, iTqva, rom maSin miRebuli `represiuli travmisa da
frustraciis~ Sedegad gamoikveTa sabWoTa miTologizaciis axali naciona- ~ Sedegad gamoikveTa sabWoTa miTologizaciis axali naciona- Sedegad gamoikveTa sabWoTa miTologizaciis axali naciona- gamoikveTa sabWoTa miTologizaciis axali naciona- gamoikveTa sabWoTa miTologizaciis axali naciona- sabWoTa miTologizaciis axali naciona- sabWoTa miTologizaciis axali naciona- miTologizaciis axali naciona- miTologizaciis axali naciona- axali naciona- axali naciona- naciona- naciona-
luri miTologizaciiT Canacvlebis tendencia, rasac Tan axlda `sabWoTa
metanarativis farsad qceva~ da ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- farsad qceva~ da ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- farsad qceva~ da ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- qceva~ da ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- qceva~ da ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- ~ da ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- da ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- ZiriTadad mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- mxatvrul niSan-saxeTa meSveo- niSan-saxeTa meSveo- niSan-saxeTa meSveo- -saxeTa meSveo- saxeTa meSveo- meSveo- meSveo-
biT gamoxatuli `nacionaluri, antisabWouri utopiis~ damkvidreba.
dasawyisisTvis am msjelobaSi gamovyofdi, bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- am msjelobaSi gamovyofdi, bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- am msjelobaSi gamovyofdi, bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- msjelobaSi gamovyofdi, bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- msjelobaSi gamovyofdi, bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- gamovyofdi, bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- gamovyofdi, bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- , bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- bartis msgavsad, mxatvru- msgavsad, mxatvru- msgavsad, mxatvru- , mxatvru- mxatvru-
li da kritikuli diskursebis pirdapir da arapirdapir enaTa azrobriv
sibrtyeSi gadatanas, rasac werilis avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- gadatanas, rasac werilis avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- gadatanas, rasac werilis avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- , rasac werilis avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- rasac werilis avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- werilis avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- werilis avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- avtori ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- ara mxolod Janrobrivi de- mxolod Janrobrivi de- mxolod Janrobrivi de- Janrobrivi de- Janrobrivi de- de- de-
terminizmis, aramed mxatvruli da kritikuli refleqsirebis xarisxis
dasadgenadac mimarTavs. faqtiurad, analogiuri ganmarteba mieca litera- mimarTavs. faqtiurad, analogiuri ganmarteba mieca litera- mimarTavs. faqtiurad, analogiuri ganmarteba mieca litera- . faqtiurad, analogiuri ganmarteba mieca litera- faqtiurad, analogiuri ganmarteba mieca litera- , analogiuri ganmarteba mieca litera- analogiuri ganmarteba mieca litera- ganmarteba mieca litera- ganmarteba mieca litera- mieca litera- mieca litera- litera- litera-
turul da kritikul diskursTa funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- da kritikul diskursTa funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- da kritikul diskursTa funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- kritikul diskursTa funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- kritikul diskursTa funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- diskursTa funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- diskursTa funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- funqcionirebis sakiTxs gasuli sauku- sakiTxs gasuli sauku- sakiTxs gasuli sauku- gasuli sauku- gasuli sauku- sauku- sauku-
nis 70-80-ian wlebSi, msgavsi analizisTvis sakmaod Seuferebel garemoSi;
magaliTad, a. baqraZisa da j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- , a. baqraZisa da j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- a. baqraZisa da j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- . baqraZisa da j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- baqraZisa da j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- da j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- da j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- j. qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- . qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- qarCxaZis gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- gamonaTqvamebSi gamoikveTa mosaz- gamoikveTa mosaz- gamoikveTa mosaz- mosaz- mosaz-
reba imis Sesaxeb, rom literaturis simbolur-alegoriul saxeTa sistema
(anu arapirdapiri ena) ufro daculia kritikul diskursTan, rogorc
pirdapir enasTan, SedarebiT. amitomac kritikis mudmivad ganqiqebis survi-
li saSiSi Janris ganeitralebis, gauvnebelyofebisaken mimarTuli qmedebaa
da ara literaturuli procesis ramdenadme mastimulirebeli saSualeba
(baqraZe 1979: 413; qarCxaZe 2000: 3). sailustraciod gamodgeba agreTve
kritikos g. natroSvilis sityvis fragmenti, romelic mis mier geronti
qiqoZis saiubileo saRamoze iqna warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- saiubileo saRamoze iqna warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- saiubileo saRamoze iqna warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- saRamoze iqna warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- saRamoze iqna warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- iqna warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- iqna warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- warmoTqmuli: `qarTuli kritikuli az- : `qarTuli kritikuli az- qarTuli kritikuli az- kritikuli az- kritikuli az- az- az-
rovnebis kvalificiur kadrebs (romelTa Soris dasaxelebuli iyvnen g.
asaTiani, g margvelaSvili, o. paWkoria, g. kankava, a baqraZe, r. TvaraZe, T
doiaSvili, i.kenWoSvili da sxv.) SeuZliaT gauZRvnen romelic gnebavT did
literaturas... Tumca isini mainc ver warmarTaven literaturul process,
nona kupreiSvili
138
ver ucxadeben brZolas mdares, uxarisxos, zereles, ver uZleben dawolas,
romelsac axdens erTgvari wnexi, uxilavad rom dgas da wnevis sakmaod
didi Zala aqvs...~ (natroSvili 1971: 3).
radgan kritika kvlav ideologiur interesTa centrad, ufro zustad ki,
literaturis politikis ideologemebamde dayvanis qmediT saSualebad rCe- politikis ideologemebamde dayvanis qmediT saSualebad rCe- politikis ideologemebamde dayvanis qmediT saSualebad rCe- ideologemebamde dayvanis qmediT saSualebad rCe- ideologemebamde dayvanis qmediT saSualebad rCe- dayvanis qmediT saSualebad rCe- dayvanis qmediT saSualebad rCe- qmediT saSualebad rCe- qmediT saSualebad rCe- saSualebad rCe- saSualebad rCe- rCe- rCe-
boda (amasTan, literaturis zedamxedvelebs Tvisobrivad axali safrTxis,
uxilavi wnexis, SiSic moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- uxilavi wnexis, SiSic moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- wnexis, SiSic moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- wnexis, SiSic moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- , SiSic moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- SiSic moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- moeZalaT), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- ), bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- bunebrivia, saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- , saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- saxelmwifoebrivi kontro- kontro- kontro-
lis Tundac iluzoruli liberalizaciis pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- Tundac iluzoruli liberalizaciis pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- Tundac iluzoruli liberalizaciis pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- iluzoruli liberalizaciis pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- iluzoruli liberalizaciis pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- liberalizaciis pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- liberalizaciis pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- pirobebSic ki (breJnevis mmarT- ki (breJnevis mmarT- ki (breJnevis mmarT- (breJnevis mmarT- breJnevis mmarT- mmarT- mmarT-
velobis xana, `glasnost-perestroikis~ etapi) gaaqtiurda Tavad kritikosTa
TviTseleqcirebisa da polarizebis procesi, anu moxda gamijvna imaT Soris,
visac, erTi mxriv, `zemodan daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- , erTi mxriv, `zemodan daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- erTi mxriv, `zemodan daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- mxriv, `zemodan daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- mxriv, `zemodan daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- , `zemodan daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- zemodan daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- daSvebuli~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- ~ Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- Zveli kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- kritikuli sqemebiT apelire- sqemebiT apelire- sqemebiT apelire- apelire- apelire-
ba ar surda; meore mxriv ki, axleburad, profesiul enaze saubris dawyeba
ar undoda da arc SeeZlo. am fonze sul ufro alogikuri Canda miswrafeba
`socrealizmis mkvdradSobili esTetikis~ farglebSi moZraobisa, romlis
referenciis wertili ukiduresad politizirebuli kritikuli diskursi,
garegani da Sinagani cenzuris erTpirovnuli batonoba, daufaravi servilizmi
da kritikosis mantiamosxmuli subieqtis literaturuli saqmosnoba iyo.
nodar wuleiskirs swored 70-ianebis dasawyisSi SemTxveviT rodi Semoaqvs
`eSmaki mwerlis~, `eSmaki kritikosis~ cneba, romelic realobas asaxavda da
im droisaTvis myarad damkvidrebuli `ormagi cnobierebiT~ (kormeri 1997: 39)
anu rogorc jorj orueli ityoda, `doublethink~-iT sazrdoobda.
axali Taobis inteleqtualTa naazrevSi aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- Taobis inteleqtualTa naazrevSi aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- Taobis inteleqtualTa naazrevSi aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- inteleqtualTa naazrevSi aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- inteleqtualTa naazrevSi aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- naazrevSi aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- naazrevSi aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- aRniSnul problemasTan dakav- problemasTan dakav- problemasTan dakav- dakav- dakav-
SirebiT erTi sagulisxmo tendencia SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- erTi sagulisxmo tendencia SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- erTi sagulisxmo tendencia SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- sagulisxmo tendencia SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- sagulisxmo tendencia SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- tendencia SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- tendencia SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- SeiniSneba (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- (sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- sxva tendenciebze, SeZleb- tendenciebze, SeZleb- tendenciebze, SeZleb- , SeZleb- SeZleb-
isdagvarad, qvemoT mivaniSnebT). gamovsaxoT igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- , qvemoT mivaniSnebT). gamovsaxoT igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- qvemoT mivaniSnebT). gamovsaxoT igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- mivaniSnebT). gamovsaxoT igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- mivaniSnebT). gamovsaxoT igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- ). gamovsaxoT igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- gamovsaxoT igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- igi Tundac amgvari msjelo- Tundac amgvari msjelo- Tundac amgvari msjelo- amgvari msjelo- amgvari msjelo- msjelo- msjelo-
biT: guram asaTians, revaz TvaraZes Tu akaki baqraZes, qarTuli kulturis
identobis SenarCunebas rom eswrafodnen, uari ar uTqvamT komunisturi
partiis rigebSi gawevrianebasa Tu im privilegiebze, romlebsac sabWoTa
xelisufleba sakuTari legitimaciis safasurad gaiRebda xolme. araferi
rom ar vTqvaT, Tundac, otia paWkoriaze, romelic yofili politikuri
patimari iyo da misi, rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- iyo da misi, rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- iyo da misi, rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- da misi, rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- da misi, rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- misi, rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- misi, rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- , rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- rogorc kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- kritikosis, aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- , aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- aqtivoba am statusis mqone ada- am statusis mqone ada- am statusis mqone ada- statusis mqone ada- statusis mqone ada- mqone ada- mqone ada- ada- ada-
mianis gambedaobas ar scildeboda. aq, rogorc arCil jorjaZe werda erTi
cxare marqsisti polemistis Sesaxeb: `metyvelebis aparatia gafuWebuli~.
sinamdvileSi arCevanis zRvari ara kompartiis rigebSi yofna-aryofnaze
gadioda, (b. JRenti da k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- , (b. JRenti da k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- b. JRenti da k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- . JRenti da k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- JRenti da k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- da k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- da k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- k. lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- . lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- lorTqifaniZe partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- partbileTis mflobelni arc yo- mflobelni arc yo- mflobelni arc yo- arc yo- arc yo- yo- yo-
filan, Tumca orTodoqsi komunistebi rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- , Tumca orTodoqsi komunistebi rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- Tumca orTodoqsi komunistebi rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- orTodoqsi komunistebi rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- orTodoqsi komunistebi rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- komunistebi rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- komunistebi rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- rom iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- iyvnen, cxadia), aramed im ne- , cxadia), aramed im ne- cxadia), aramed im ne- ), aramed im ne- aramed im ne- im ne- im ne- ne- ne-
bis qona-arqonaze, romelic xelovnebasTan mimarTebiT erTpirovnulad
SemuSavebuli sabWouri koncefciis demontaJs sWirdeboda. moaxerxebda
kulturuli mexsierebis tradiciaze stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- mexsierebis tradiciaze stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- mexsierebis tradiciaze stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- tradiciaze stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- tradiciaze stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- gardacvalebis Semdeg aR- Semdeg aR- Semdeg aR- aR- aR-
mocenebuli `axali samocianelTa Taoba~ cru, yalbi cnobierebis velis
70-80-iani wlebis kritika: `rekonstruqciidan~ novaciamde
139
miRma gasvlas, daubrundeboda mxatvruli sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- gasvlas, daubrundeboda mxatvruli sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- gasvlas, daubrundeboda mxatvruli sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- , daubrundeboda mxatvruli sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- daubrundeboda mxatvruli sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- mxatvruli sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- mxatvruli sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- sityva enis, rogorc `yofiere- enis, rogorc `yofiere- enis, rogorc `yofiere- , rogorc `yofiere- rogorc `yofiere- `yofiere- yofiere-
bis saxlis~ wiaRs, kritikac, Sesabamisad, sakuTari azris privatulobas
SeiZenda, v. Sklovskis termins Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- , v. Sklovskis termins Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- v. Sklovskis termins Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- . Sklovskis termins Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- Sklovskis termins Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- termins Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- termins Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- Tu gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- gavixsenebT, sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- , sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- sulac e.w. `hamburguli an- e.w. `hamburguli an- e.w. `hamburguli an- .w. `hamburguli an- w. `hamburguli an- . `hamburguli an- hamburguli an- an- an-
gariSis~ principiT amoqmeddeboda. imave Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- ~ principiT amoqmeddeboda. imave Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- principiT amoqmeddeboda. imave Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- amoqmeddeboda. imave Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- amoqmeddeboda. imave Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- . imave Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- imave Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- Sklovskis mixedviT, rusul mw- mixedviT, rusul mw- mixedviT, rusul mw- , rusul mw- rusul mw- mw- mw-
erlobaSi `hamburguli angariSiT~ ar arsebobda, magaliTad, serafimoviCi
da veresaevi... bulgakovi sabrZolo xaliCaze iyo gasuli, babeli msubuq
woniT kategoriaSi iricxeboda, gorki _ saeWvo gaxldaT (vinaidan xSirad
formaSi ar iyo), xlebnikovi _ yofili Cempioni da a.S.
Cvens pirobebSi msgavsi Sefasebebis micema niWierebasa da profesion- pirobebSi msgavsi Sefasebebis micema niWierebasa da profesion- pirobebSi msgavsi Sefasebebis micema niWierebasa da profesion- msgavsi Sefasebebis micema niWierebasa da profesion- msgavsi Sefasebebis micema niWierebasa da profesion- Sefasebebis micema niWierebasa da profesion- Sefasebebis micema niWierebasa da profesion- micema niWierebasa da profesion- micema niWierebasa da profesion- niWierebasa da profesion- niWierebasa da profesion- da profesion- da profesion- profesion- profesion-
alizmTan erTad gansakuTrebul `sulier substrats~ (kiknaZe .2006: 80)
moiTxovda, anu tradicionalizmisa da `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- , anu tradicionalizmisa da `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- anu tradicionalizmisa da `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- tradicionalizmisa da `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- tradicionalizmisa da `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- da `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- da `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- `sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- sovietizmis~ mkacrad gansaz- ~ mkacrad gansaz- mkacrad gansaz- gansaz- gansaz-
Rvrul nazavs, romelic kritikosis sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- nazavs, romelic kritikosis sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- nazavs, romelic kritikosis sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- , romelic kritikosis sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- romelic kritikosis sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- kritikosis sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- kritikosis sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- sulieri gamocdilebiT unda yo- gamocdilebiT unda yo- gamocdilebiT unda yo- unda yo- unda yo- yo- yo-
filiyo aqtivizebuli. b. JRentis mtkicebis sawinaaRmdegod ki qarTul
mwerlobaSi kvlavac xelSeuxeblad grZnobdnen Tavs e.w. `nekritikabelni~
mwerlebi, romelTa garSemo Semokrebili `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- , romelTa garSemo Semokrebili `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- romelTa garSemo Semokrebili `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- garSemo Semokrebili `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- garSemo Semokrebili `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- Semokrebili `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- Semokrebili `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- `referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- referenciuli jgufebi~ faseu- jgufebi~ faseu- jgufebi~ faseu- ~ faseu- faseu-
lobaTa sakuTar sistemasa da am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- sakuTar sistemasa da am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- sakuTar sistemasa da am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- sistemasa da am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- sistemasa da am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- da am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- da am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- am sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- sistemaSi advilad integrirebad fsev- advilad integrirebad fsev- advilad integrirebad fsev- integrirebad fsev- integrirebad fsev- fsev- fsev-
doavtoritetebs amkvidrebdnen. sabWoTa `literaturuli generlebis~
qeba-dideba da maT referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- -dideba da maT referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- dideba da maT referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- da maT referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- da maT referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- maT referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- maT referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- referenciul jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- jgufebSi yofna kritikoss sruli usa- yofna kritikoss sruli usa- yofna kritikoss sruli usa- kritikoss sruli usa- kritikoss sruli usa- sruli usa- sruli usa- usa- usa-
frTxoebis garantias aZlevda (gaweuli samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- garantias aZlevda (gaweuli samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- garantias aZlevda (gaweuli samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- aZlevda (gaweuli samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- aZlevda (gaweuli samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- (gaweuli samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- gaweuli samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- samsaxuris xarisxis dadgena uSec- xarisxis dadgena uSec- xarisxis dadgena uSec- dadgena uSec- dadgena uSec- uSec- uSec-
domod SeiZleboda maTTvis xelisuflebis mier gacemuli sacxovrebeli
binebis adgilmdebareobisa da TviT sarTulis mixedviTac ki). kritikosTa
umravlesobas amgvari usafrTxoeba haeriviT sWirdeboda, Tavad mwerals ki
sakuTriv misi kritikosisaTvis unda miegno. amitomac gaCnda mogvianebiT
Jurnal `kritikis~ iumoristul CanarTSi mwerali _ personaJis orsi- `kritikis~ iumoristul CanarTSi mwerali _ personaJis orsi- kritikis~ iumoristul CanarTSi mwerali _ personaJis orsi- ~ iumoristul CanarTSi mwerali _ personaJis orsi- iumoristul CanarTSi mwerali _ personaJis orsi- CanarTSi mwerali _ personaJis orsi- CanarTSi mwerali _ personaJis orsi- mwerali _ personaJis orsi- mwerali _ personaJis orsi- _ personaJis orsi- personaJis orsi- orsi- orsi-
tyviani replika: `veZeb kritikoss!~
sagulisxmoa, rom swored maSin, rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- , rom swored maSin, rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- rom swored maSin, rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- swored maSin, rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- swored maSin, rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- maSin, rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- maSin, rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- , rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- rodesac dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- dasavleTSi sul ufro Rrma- sul ufro Rrma- sul ufro Rrma- ufro Rrma- ufro Rrma- Rrma- Rrma-
vdeba harold blumis mier `esTetikidan danaSaulebriv gaqcevad~ wodebuli
procesi, marqsistul kliSeebs ganridebuli kritikuli azri sapirispiro
moZraobis veqtoris Ziebas iwyebs. sazogadoebis garkveul nawilSic Cndeba
moTxovnileba imgvar mwerlobasa da kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- imgvar mwerlobasa da kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- imgvar mwerlobasa da kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- mwerlobasa da kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- mwerlobasa da kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- da kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- da kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- kritikul refleqsiaze, romelic na- refleqsiaze, romelic na- refleqsiaze, romelic na- , romelic na- romelic na- na- na-
klebad iqneba damokidebuli bazissa da zednaSenze da naxevarsaukunovani
kulturuli wyvetis SedegTa minimalizebis niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- wyvetis SedegTa minimalizebis niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- wyvetis SedegTa minimalizebis niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- SedegTa minimalizebis niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- SedegTa minimalizebis niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- minimalizebis niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- minimalizebis niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- niSniT warimarTeba. akrZalu- warimarTeba. akrZalu- warimarTeba. akrZalu- . akrZalu- akrZalu-
li literaturuli skolebisa da mimdinareobebis, Serisxuli avtorebis
(m. javaxiSvilis, t. tabiZis, p. iaSvilis _ gr. robaqiZis dabruneba qarTul
kulturul sivrceSi gacilebiT gvian moxda) reabilitaciasTan erTad ara
marto xelaxla aRmoCenili Zveli, aramed axali Teoriuli saSualebebis
aucileblobac ikveTeba.
60-70-iani wlebis mijnaze modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- iani wlebis mijnaze modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- wlebis mijnaze modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- wlebis mijnaze modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- mijnaze modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- mijnaze modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- modernizmis determinizmisa da rekonver- determinizmisa da rekonver- determinizmisa da rekonver- da rekonver- da rekonver- rekonver- rekonver-
siis, igive ukan dabrunebis, aqtualuri sakiTxebi wamoWrili r. TvaraZis
nona kupreiSvili
140
`mTliani saqarTvelos mesityve~ (TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- mTliani saqarTvelos mesityve~ (TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- saqarTvelos mesityve~ (TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- saqarTvelos mesityve~ (TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- mesityve~ (TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- mesityve~ (TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- ~ (TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- TvaraZe 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- 1968: 5), o. jinorias `modern- o. jinorias `modern- . jinorias `modern- jinorias `modern- `modern- modern-
izmis arsi da Rirebuleba Tomas manis SemoqmedebaSi `doqtor faustusis~
mixedviT~ (jinoria 1970: 27), g. asaTianis (`modelebi da sinamdvile~, `meti
sinaTle~ (asaTiani 1970: 9-7) da z. gamsaxurdias `iluziebi da sinamdvile~
(gamsaxurdia 1970: 10) werilebSi da polemika, romelic am werilebis
garSemo gaimarTa (g. asaTiani, z. gamsaxurdia, r. jafariZe, a. mircxulava,
v. baakaSvili) da romelic aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- . baakaSvili) da romelic aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- baakaSvili) da romelic aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- ) da romelic aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- da romelic aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- romelic aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- romelic aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- aSkarad gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- gascda kritikis deversifikaciis farg- kritikis deversifikaciis farg- kritikis deversifikaciis farg- deversifikaciis farg- deversifikaciis farg- farg- farg-
lebs; imdenad gafarTovda, rom kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- ; imdenad gafarTovda, rom kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- imdenad gafarTovda, rom kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- gafarTovda, rom kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- gafarTovda, rom kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- , rom kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- rom kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- kulturis erTian problemad iqca, romel- erTian problemad iqca, romel- erTian problemad iqca, romel- problemad iqca, romel- problemad iqca, romel- iqca, romel- iqca, romel- , romel- romel-
sac cnobilma mkvlevarma karl ginzburgma totalitarizmis konteqstSi
`kulturis xelaxali aRmoCena~ uwoda. aRniSnul movlenas dasavleTSi
moRvawe es avtori sruliad samarTlianad uwodebs `komunisturi reJimis
winaaRmdeg mimarTul protests~ (ginzburgi 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- mimarTul protests~ (ginzburgi 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- mimarTul protests~ (ginzburgi 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- protests~ (ginzburgi 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- protests~ (ginzburgi 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- ~ (ginzburgi 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- ginzburgi 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- 2003: 49), romelmac pirovne- romelmac pirovne- pirovne- pirovne-
bis axali, faqtiurad, antisabWouri koncefcia gamoavlina, pirovneba ara
rogorc xelisuflebis funqcia, aramed kulturis subieqti. kultura ki
maradmedini, mudmivganaxlebadi fenomeni, romlis reducireba social-
ekonomikur determinizmTan SeuZlebelia. `samyaros amgvari individuacia~
erTjeradi aqti ar gaxldaT. igi xelisuflebisaTvis Tavisi ybadaRebuli
gaTanabreba _ `~-s TeoriiT, saSiSs xdida kulturis matarebel
adamianebs, radgan isini ara marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- , radgan isini ara marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- radgan isini ara marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- isini ara marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- isini ara marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- ara marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- ara marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- marto akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- akompleqtebdnen gansxvavebulad moaz- gansxvavebulad moaz- gansxvavebulad moaz- moaz- moaz-
rovneTa rigebs, aramed ukve qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- rigebs, aramed ukve qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- rigebs, aramed ukve qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- , aramed ukve qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- aramed ukve qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- ukve qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- ukve qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- qmnidnen da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- da momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- momavalSic Seqmnidnen damoukideb- Seqmnidnen damoukideb- Seqmnidnen damoukideb- damoukideb- damoukideb-
el teqstebsa da damoukidebel reprezentatorebs.
`enis geniis wvdoma~ da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- enis geniis wvdoma~ da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- geniis wvdoma~ da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- geniis wvdoma~ da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- wvdoma~ da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- wvdoma~ da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- ~ da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- da verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- verwvdoma, erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- , erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- erovnuloba da zeerovnuloba, saaz- da zeerovnuloba, saaz- da zeerovnuloba, saaz- zeerovnuloba, saaz- zeerovnuloba, saaz- , saaz- saaz-
rovno konceptebis: `warsuli, rogorc frTebi~ da `warsuli, rogorc
xundebi~ _ rogorc Tezisa da antiTezis wamoyeneba, miTosis SemoqmedebiTi
regeneraciis saSualebad miCneva da misi sruli miuRebloba, kritikasa da
da literaturaTmcodneobaSi intuitiuri meTodis da amis sapirispirod,
inteleqtismieri analizis upiratesobis aRiareba _ amgvarma da msgavs- analizis upiratesobis aRiareba _ amgvarma da msgavs- analizis upiratesobis aRiareba _ amgvarma da msgavs- upiratesobis aRiareba _ amgvarma da msgavs- upiratesobis aRiareba _ amgvarma da msgavs- aRiareba _ amgvarma da msgavs- aRiareba _ amgvarma da msgavs- _ amgvarma da msgavs- amgvarma da msgavs- da msgavs- da msgavs- msgavs- msgavs-
ma opoziciurma mosazrebebma mzis sinaTle swored kulturis problemis
dasmis konteqstSi ixiles. Tumca maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- konteqstSi ixiles. Tumca maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- konteqstSi ixiles. Tumca maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- ixiles. Tumca maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- ixiles. Tumca maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- . Tumca maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- Tumca maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- maTve gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- gaamJRavnes is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- is gadaulaxavi winaaRm- gadaulaxavi winaaRm- gadaulaxavi winaaRm- winaaRm- winaaRm-
degobebic, romlebic `sovietizmis~ sxvadasxva etapze met-naklebi inten- , romlebic `sovietizmis~ sxvadasxva etapze met-naklebi inten- romlebic `sovietizmis~ sxvadasxva etapze met-naklebi inten- `sovietizmis~ sxvadasxva etapze met-naklebi inten- sovietizmis~ sxvadasxva etapze met-naklebi inten- ~ sxvadasxva etapze met-naklebi inten- sxvadasxva etapze met-naklebi inten- etapze met-naklebi inten- etapze met-naklebi inten- met-naklebi inten- met-naklebi inten- -naklebi inten- naklebi inten- inten- inten-
sivobiT farulad anu zedapirze amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- farulad anu zedapirze amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- farulad anu zedapirze amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- anu zedapirze amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- anu zedapirze amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- zedapirze amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- zedapirze amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- amousvlelad arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- arsebobda da rig SemTxveva- da rig SemTxveva- da rig SemTxveva- rig SemTxveva- rig SemTxveva- SemTxveva- SemTxveva-
Si TviT am reJimiT iyo provocirebuli. isini ara Tu ganeitralda, aramed
ufro gaRrmavda da ganviTarda, rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- gaRrmavda da ganviTarda, rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- gaRrmavda da ganviTarda, rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- da ganviTarda, rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- da ganviTarda, rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- ganviTarda, rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- ganviTarda, rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- , rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- rac daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- daadastura kidec postsabWouri mov- kidec postsabWouri mov- kidec postsabWouri mov- postsabWouri mov- postsabWouri mov- mov- mov-
lenebis dramatizmma da, Tu gnebavT, nawilobriv, `postsabWouri travmis~
xarisxmac.
rodesac vsaubrobT am periodis qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- vsaubrobT am periodis qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- vsaubrobT am periodis qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- am periodis qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- am periodis qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- periodis qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- periodis qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- qarTuli sazogadoebis srul kon- sazogadoebis srul kon- sazogadoebis srul kon- srul kon- srul kon- kon- kon-
formizmze, udardelobasa da TviTkmayofilebaze (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- , udardelobasa da TviTkmayofilebaze (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- udardelobasa da TviTkmayofilebaze (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- da TviTkmayofilebaze (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- da TviTkmayofilebaze (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- TviTkmayofilebaze (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- TviTkmayofilebaze (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- (niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- niJaraZe 1999: 42), samo- 1999: 42), samo- samo-
cianelTa Tu Semdgomi Taobebis mier Seqmnil fsevdokulturaze, qarTul
mwerlobaze, rogorc miTogeneraciis diskursze, kritikaze, romelic mx- , rogorc miTogeneraciis diskursze, kritikaze, romelic mx- rogorc miTogeneraciis diskursze, kritikaze, romelic mx- miTogeneraciis diskursze, kritikaze, romelic mx- miTogeneraciis diskursze, kritikaze, romelic mx- diskursze, kritikaze, romelic mx- diskursze, kritikaze, romelic mx- , kritikaze, romelic mx- kritikaze, romelic mx- , romelic mx- romelic mx- mx- mx-
70-80-iani wlebis kritika: `rekonstruqciidan~ novaciamde
141
olod maxinji an usaxuri formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- maxinji an usaxuri formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- maxinji an usaxuri formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- an usaxuri formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- an usaxuri formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- usaxuri formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- usaxuri formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- formiT Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- Tu vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- vlindeboda (andronikaSvili, mai- (andronikaSvili, mai- andronikaSvili, mai- , mai- mai-
suraZe 2007: 125) _ unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom es pretenzia ver gavrcel- 2007: 125) _ unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom es pretenzia ver gavrcel- unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom es pretenzia ver gavrcel- gaviTvaliswinoT, rom es pretenzia ver gavrcel- gaviTvaliswinoT, rom es pretenzia ver gavrcel- , rom es pretenzia ver gavrcel- rom es pretenzia ver gavrcel- es pretenzia ver gavrcel- es pretenzia ver gavrcel- pretenzia ver gavrcel- pretenzia ver gavrcel- ver gavrcel- ver gavrcel- gavrcel- gavrcel-
deba qarTuli kulturis rekonstruqciis im Zalisxmevaze, romelic 50-60-
iani wlebis mijnaze daiwyo, verc intonaciurad da stilurad saxecvlil
poeziaze da mis ironiul-parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- da mis ironiul-parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- da mis ironiul-parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- mis ironiul-parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- mis ironiul-parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- ironiul-parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- ironiul-parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- -parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- parodiul nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- nakadze, verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- , verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- verc 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- 70-ian wlebSi aRzeve- ian wlebSi aRzeve- wlebSi aRzeve- wlebSi aRzeve- aRzeve- aRzeve-
buli qarTuli romanis Janrze da bolos, verc kritikis im analitikur
paTosze, rasac iTxovda `Tavis epoqalur da esTetikur drosTan~ garkveul
kontaqtSi Sesuli literatura da Rebulobda kidec.
a. baqraZem ganmarta, realurad rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- . baqraZem ganmarta, realurad rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- baqraZem ganmarta, realurad rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- ganmarta, realurad rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- ganmarta, realurad rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- , realurad rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- realurad rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- rogori kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- kritikis arsebobaze SeiZlebo- arsebobaze SeiZlebo- arsebobaze SeiZlebo- SeiZlebo- SeiZlebo-
da saubari: Tu dRevandel literaturul kritikas mivudgebiT klasikuri
literaturuli kritikis poziciiT, romelic aucilebelad gulisxmobs
kritikoss sakuTari ideur-mxatvruli moZRvrebiT, maSin kritika, cxadia,
ar gvaqvs... Tu kritikas ganvixilavT, rogorc Semfasebels, analitikoss,
Suamavals mwerlobasa da publikums Soris, maSin Cven gvaqvs kritika da
yoveli qarTveli kritikosi, individualuri niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- qarTveli kritikosi, individualuri niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- qarTveli kritikosi, individualuri niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- kritikosi, individualuri niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- kritikosi, individualuri niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- , individualuri niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- individualuri niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- niWierebis Sesabamisad, em- Sesabamisad, em- Sesabamisad, em- , em- em-
saxureba sazogadoebas da mwerlobas~... (baqraZe 1980: 420). da Tu amave
werilSi avtorma kritikisa da kritikosis funqcionirebas mainc `eWvis
TvaliT Sexeda~, es moxda ara imitom, rom kritikuli refleqsirebis verc
erTi forma drois im monakveTSi ver iarsebebda, aramed ufro imitom, rom
kritikis `zneobrivad damnagvianeblebs~ a. baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- `zneobrivad damnagvianeblebs~ a. baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- zneobrivad damnagvianeblebs~ a. baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- damnagvianeblebs~ a. baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- damnagvianeblebs~ a. baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- ~ a. baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- a. baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- . baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- baqraZe `naZiralobisa da zne- `naZiralobisa da zne- naZiralobisa da zne- da zne- da zne- zne- zne-
dacemulobis elements~ rom uwodebs, rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- elements~ rom uwodebs, rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- elements~ rom uwodebs, rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- ~ rom uwodebs, rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- rom uwodebs, rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- uwodebs, rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- uwodebs, rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- , rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- rogorc grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- grafomanuli, mkvdari mw- , mkvdari mw- mkvdari mw- mw- mw-
erlobis adeptebs, ar unda daepyroT isedac danawevrebul-dasaxiCrebuli
literaturuli sivrce, SeuZlebeli ar unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- sivrce, SeuZlebeli ar unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- sivrce, SeuZlebeli ar unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- , SeuZlebeli ar unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- SeuZlebeli ar unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- ar unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- ar unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- unda gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- gaexadaT is sazogadoebri- is sazogadoebri- is sazogadoebri- sazogadoebri- sazogadoebri-
vi da SemoqmedebiTi TviTtransformacia, romlis sirTule `kritikosTa
Segnebul nawilsac~ unda etvirTa. cxadia, im mwerlebTan erTad, romlebic
sul ufro eridebodnen koniunqturul Temebs da sakuTari saTqmelic
gaaCndaT.
1972 wels gamosvlas iwyebs kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- wels gamosvlas iwyebs kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- gamosvlas iwyebs kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- gamosvlas iwyebs kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- iwyebs kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- iwyebs kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- kritikis specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- specialuri organo almanaxi `kri- organo almanaxi `kri- organo almanaxi `kri- almanaxi `kri- almanaxi `kri- `kri- kri-
tika~ (red. g. merkvilaZe), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- ~ (red. g. merkvilaZe), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- red. g. merkvilaZe), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- . g. merkvilaZe), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- g. merkvilaZe), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- . merkvilaZe), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- merkvilaZe), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- ), romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- romelic oficialurad `literaturul-mx- oficialurad `literaturul-mx- oficialurad `literaturul-mx- `literaturul-mx- literaturul-mx- -mx- mx-
atvruli kritikis mdgomareobasa da amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- kritikis mdgomareobasa da amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- kritikis mdgomareobasa da amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- mdgomareobasa da amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- mdgomareobasa da amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- da amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- da amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- amocanebis Taobaze morigi reagire- Taobaze morigi reagire- Taobaze morigi reagire- morigi reagire- morigi reagire- reagire- reagire-
bisTvisaa mowodebuli. Tumca kritikis mimarT wamoyenebuli tradiciuli
pretenziebi: kritika `naklebad momTxovnia sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- : kritika `naklebad momTxovnia sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- kritika `naklebad momTxovnia sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- `naklebad momTxovnia sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- naklebad momTxovnia sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- momTxovnia sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- momTxovnia sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- sakuTari Tavisadmi, rac mraval- Tavisadmi, rac mraval- Tavisadmi, rac mraval- , rac mraval- rac mraval- mraval- mraval-
wilad ganapirobebs kritikuli azrovnebis dabal ideur-Teoriul dones...,
... saWiroa literaturul-kritikuli azrovnebis donis mkveTri amaRleba~...
drois aRniSnul konteqstSi, uwindeli dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- aRniSnul konteqstSi, uwindeli dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- aRniSnul konteqstSi, uwindeli dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- konteqstSi, uwindeli dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- konteqstSi, uwindeli dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- , uwindeli dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- uwindeli dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- dominanturobis dakargvasTan er- dakargvasTan er- dakargvasTan er- er- er-
Tad, garkveul orazrovnebas iZens. almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- , garkveul orazrovnebas iZens. almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- garkveul orazrovnebas iZens. almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- orazrovnebas iZens. almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- orazrovnebas iZens. almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- iZens. almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- iZens. almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- . almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- almanaxSi momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- momavalSi gamoqveynebuli `ara- gamoqveynebuli `ara- gamoqveynebuli `ara- `ara- ara-
nomenklaturuli kritikosebis~ werilebi oficialur literaturasTan da- kritikosebis~ werilebi oficialur literaturasTan da- kritikosebis~ werilebi oficialur literaturasTan da- ~ werilebi oficialur literaturasTan da- werilebi oficialur literaturasTan da- oficialur literaturasTan da- oficialur literaturasTan da- literaturasTan da- literaturasTan da- da- da-
pirispirebas ara marto poetikis, aramed mTlianad literaturis, SeiZleba
iTqvas, kulturuli cnobierebis doneze avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- , kulturuli cnobierebis doneze avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- kulturuli cnobierebis doneze avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- cnobierebis doneze avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- cnobierebis doneze avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- doneze avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- doneze avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- avlendnen. mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- . mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- mizezi: `esTetikuri ris- : `esTetikuri ris- esTetikuri ris- ris- ris-
nona kupreiSvili
142
kis~ xarisxis zrdasTan erTad izrdeba kritikis pasuximgeblobis xarisxic,
`literaturuli da Sesabamisad kritikuli cxovrebis centralizebuli
modelis rRvevas~ (n. darbaiseli 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- rRvevas~ (n. darbaiseli 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- rRvevas~ (n. darbaiseli 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- ~ (n. darbaiseli 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- n. darbaiseli 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- . darbaiseli 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- darbaiseli 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- 2004: 9) enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- enisa da azrovnebis `desovietiza- da azrovnebis `desovietiza- da azrovnebis `desovietiza- azrovnebis `desovietiza- azrovnebis `desovietiza- `desovietiza- desovietiza-
cias~ literaturuli, eseisturi kritikis CarCoebis gafarToebac mohyva.
kulturis programis aqtivizireba, romelic 60-70 wlebSi gamokveTili
`neostalinelebisa da liberaluri inteligenciis~ dapirispirebis fonze
mimdinareobs (magaliTad, ruseTSi ` ~-is, `~-s, `buldozer- s, `buldozer- , `buldozer- buldozer-
uli gamofenis~, almanax `~-is garSemo Seqmnili aJiotaJi; saqarT- is garSemo Seqmnili aJiotaJi; saqarT- garSemo Seqmnili aJiotaJi; saqarT- garSemo Seqmnili aJiotaJi; saqarT- Seqmnili aJiotaJi; saqarT- Seqmnili aJiotaJi; saqarT- aJiotaJi; saqarT- aJiotaJi; saqarT- ; saqarT- saqarT-
veloSi: z. gamsaxurdias TviTgamocemebi: `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- : z. gamsaxurdias TviTgamocemebi: `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- z. gamsaxurdias TviTgamocemebi: `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- . gamsaxurdias TviTgamocemebi: `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- gamsaxurdias TviTgamocemebi: `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- TviTgamocemebi: `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- TviTgamocemebi: `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- : `saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- saqarTvelos moambe~, `oqros saw- moambe~, `oqros saw- moambe~, `oqros saw- ~, `oqros saw- oqros saw- saw- saw-
misi~; r. sturuasa da T. CxeiZis Teatraluri warmodgenebi; `
~-s publikaciebi) iTxovs sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- s publikaciebi) iTxovs sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- publikaciebi) iTxovs sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- publikaciebi) iTxovs sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- ) iTxovs sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- iTxovs sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- sociologiuri kritikis garkveul tradi- kritikis garkveul tradi- kritikis garkveul tradi- garkveul tradi- garkveul tradi- tradi- tradi-
ciaTa aRdgena-modificirebas. literaturuli teqstis analizi emsaxureba
pirovnebis marTebul socializacias, kulturasa da sociums Soris gaCe- marTebul socializacias, kulturasa da sociums Soris gaCe- marTebul socializacias, kulturasa da sociums Soris gaCe- socializacias, kulturasa da sociums Soris gaCe- socializacias, kulturasa da sociums Soris gaCe- , kulturasa da sociums Soris gaCe- kulturasa da sociums Soris gaCe- da sociums Soris gaCe- da sociums Soris gaCe- sociums Soris gaCe- sociums Soris gaCe- Soris gaCe- Soris gaCe- gaCe- gaCe-
nili distanciis aRmofxvras. a. baqraZe qrestomaTiul teqstebs, sabWoTasa
da klasikurs (`kolxeTis ciskari~, `suramis cixe~, `jayos xiznebi~, `haki
aZba~ da sxv.), swored am mizniT iyenebs. e.w. `neosociologiuri~ kritikuli
refleqsia sakmaod efeqturi aRmoCnda. man sxvadasxva Taobebs warsulisadmi
fxizeli damokidebulebis, erTi SexedviT, uimedod gadagvarebul garemoSi
`socialuri da politikuri aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- socialuri da politikuri aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- da politikuri aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- da politikuri aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- politikuri aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- politikuri aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- aqtivobisa~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- ~ da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- da rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo- mniSvnelo- mniSvnelo-
vania, `sakuTar mexsierebasTan uSeRavaTo, konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- , `sakuTar mexsierebasTan uSeRavaTo, konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- sakuTar mexsierebasTan uSeRavaTo, konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- mexsierebasTan uSeRavaTo, konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- mexsierebasTan uSeRavaTo, konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- uSeRavaTo, konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- uSeRavaTo, konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- , konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- konfliqturi muSaobis~ upirate- muSaobis~ upirate- muSaobis~ upirate- ~ upirate- upirate-
soba aCvena. sazogadoebis jansaRi nawilisaTvis amgvari gzavnili gasagebi
aRmoCnda, rasac a. baqraZis sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- , rasac a. baqraZis sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- rasac a. baqraZis sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- a. baqraZis sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- a. baqraZis sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- . baqraZis sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- baqraZis sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- sajaro leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- leqciebis mosmenis msurvelTa raode- mosmenis msurvelTa raode- mosmenis msurvelTa raode- msurvelTa raode- msurvelTa raode- raode- raode-
nobac adasturebda.
savsebiT gasagebia kritikis raobis ganmsazRvreli a. baqraZiseuli
msjeloba: `yoveli xalxis sityvakazmuli mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- : `yoveli xalxis sityvakazmuli mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- yoveli xalxis sityvakazmuli mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- xalxis sityvakazmuli mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- xalxis sityvakazmuli mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- sityvakazmuli mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- sityvakazmuli mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- mwerloba oTx burjs eyrd- oTx burjs eyrd- oTx burjs eyrd- burjs eyrd- burjs eyrd- eyrd- eyrd-
noba _ dramaturgias, kritikas, prozas da poezias. Tu romelime maT- _ dramaturgias, kritikas, prozas da poezias. Tu romelime maT- dramaturgias, kritikas, prozas da poezias. Tu romelime maT- , kritikas, prozas da poezias. Tu romelime maT- kritikas, prozas da poezias. Tu romelime maT- , prozas da poezias. Tu romelime maT- prozas da poezias. Tu romelime maT- da poezias. Tu romelime maT- da poezias. Tu romelime maT- poezias. Tu romelime maT- poezias. Tu romelime maT- . Tu romelime maT- Tu romelime maT- romelime maT- romelime maT- maT- maT-
gani sustia an ar arsebobs, maSin es literatura koWlia. amitom oTxive
dargi mwerlobisa Tanabrad unda viTardebodes~ (baqraZe 1979: 2), magram
ras unda niSnavdes a. baqraZis mierve SemoTavazebuli metaforuli saxe:
`kritika-pilpilmoyrili madli, kritikosi _ oTaraanT qvrivi~, Tu ara
im misiis gacnobierebas, romelic mweralTan erTad daekisra kulturuli
da erovnuli identobis waSlis safrTxis winaSe mdgar kritikoss, ufro
sworad, rogorc a. baqraZe ityoda, `kritikosTa Segnebul nawils~. aseT
SemTxvevaSi `gadarCenis sekularizebuli metaforis~ erTaderT pirovne- `gadarCenis sekularizebuli metaforis~ erTaderT pirovne- gadarCenis sekularizebuli metaforis~ erTaderT pirovne- sekularizebuli metaforis~ erTaderT pirovne- sekularizebuli metaforis~ erTaderT pirovne- metaforis~ erTaderT pirovne- metaforis~ erTaderT pirovne- ~ erTaderT pirovne- erTaderT pirovne- pirovne- pirovne-
basTan, (Tundac Rrmad moazrovne filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- , (Tundac Rrmad moazrovne filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- Tundac Rrmad moazrovne filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- Rrmad moazrovne filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- Rrmad moazrovne filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- moazrovne filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- moazrovne filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- filosofosTan m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- m. mamardaSvilTan) dakav- . mamardaSvilTan) dakav- mamardaSvilTan) dakav- ) dakav- dakav-
Sireba am adamianTa Rvawlis da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- am adamianTa Rvawlis da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- am adamianTa Rvawlis da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- adamianTa Rvawlis da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- adamianTa Rvawlis da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- Rvawlis da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- Rvawlis da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- da saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- saerTokulturuli konteqstis ugulebe- konteqstis ugulebe- konteqstis ugulebe- ugulebe- ugulebe-
lyofad aRiqmeba.
seriozul braldebad gaismis 70-iani, gansakuTrebiT ki 80-iani wlebis
kritikuli azris CarTva e.w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- azris CarTva e.w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- azris CarTva e.w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- CarTva e.w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- CarTva e.w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- e.w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- e.w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- .w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- w. filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- . filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- filologiuri diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- diskursis SeqmnaSi, romel- SeqmnaSi, romel- SeqmnaSi, romel- , romel- romel-
70-80-iani wlebis kritika: `rekonstruqciidan~ novaciamde
143
mac socialur aqtivobas moklebuli, ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- socialur aqtivobas moklebuli, ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- socialur aqtivobas moklebuli, ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- aqtivobas moklebuli, ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- aqtivobas moklebuli, ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- moklebuli, ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- moklebuli, ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- , ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- ukiduresad miTologizebuli cno- miTologizebuli cno- miTologizebuli cno- cno- cno-
bierebis sruli kraxi da Sesabamisad, `postsabWouri travma~ gamoiwvia.
vinaidan kritika nacionaluri narativis Semadgenel nawilad iqca, mis
mier aqcentirebuli faseulobaTa kriteriumebi iseve homogenurni aR- aqcentirebuli faseulobaTa kriteriumebi iseve homogenurni aR- aqcentirebuli faseulobaTa kriteriumebi iseve homogenurni aR- faseulobaTa kriteriumebi iseve homogenurni aR- faseulobaTa kriteriumebi iseve homogenurni aR- kriteriumebi iseve homogenurni aR- kriteriumebi iseve homogenurni aR- iseve homogenurni aR- iseve homogenurni aR- homogenurni aR- homogenurni aR- aR- aR-
moCndnen, rogorc qarTuli mwerlobis idealebi. am mosazrebis gaziareba
mxolod nawilobrivaa SesaZlebeli, vinaidan b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- nawilobrivaa SesaZlebeli, vinaidan b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- nawilobrivaa SesaZlebeli, vinaidan b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- SesaZlebeli, vinaidan b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- SesaZlebeli, vinaidan b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- , vinaidan b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- vinaidan b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- b. wifuriasa da rig sxva av- . wifuriasa da rig sxva av- wifuriasa da rig sxva av- da rig sxva av- da rig sxva av- rig sxva av- rig sxva av- sxva av- sxva av- av- av-
torTa mier calmxrivadaa gaazrebuli TviT nacionaluri narativis cneba.
masSi nagulisxmevia, rogorc Tavis droze l. bregaZem SeniSna, patriotul
Temaze Seqmnili wminda wylis sabWouri poeturi Tu prozauli teqstebi,
(maT `usircxvilo teqstebsac~ vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- maT `usircxvilo teqstebsac~ vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- `usircxvilo teqstebsac~ vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- usircxvilo teqstebsac~ vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- teqstebsac~ vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- teqstebsac~ vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- ~ vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- vuwodebdi), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- ), romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- romlebic sinamdvileSi fsev- sinamdvileSi fsev- sinamdvileSi fsev- fsev- fsev-
dopatriotulni iyvnen da am Temis srul profanacias axdendnen. amitom,
sasurvelia, totalitarizmis mxilebas ar gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- , totalitarizmis mxilebas ar gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- totalitarizmis mxilebas ar gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- mxilebas ar gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- mxilebas ar gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- ar gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- ar gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- gadahyves isic, ramac, faqti- isic, ramac, faqti- isic, ramac, faqti- , ramac, faqti- ramac, faqti- , faqti- faqti-
urad, mis sawinaaRmdegod imuSava. aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- , mis sawinaaRmdegod imuSava. aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- mis sawinaaRmdegod imuSava. aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- sawinaaRmdegod imuSava. aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- sawinaaRmdegod imuSava. aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- imuSava. aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- imuSava. aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- . aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- aseve gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- gadasaxedia `sabWoTa miTologi- `sabWoTa miTologi- sabWoTa miTologi- miTologi- miTologi-
zaciis nacionaluri miTologizaciiT~ Canacvlebis sqema, `nacionaluri
miTologizaciis~ cnebis sruli definiciis mizniT. SesaZloa, am sakiTxSi
mxareTa Seurigeblobas ufro Rrma fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- Seurigeblobas ufro Rrma fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- Seurigeblobas ufro Rrma fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- ufro Rrma fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- ufro Rrma fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- Rrma fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- Rrma fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- fesvebic hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- hqondes, vidre es erTi Sexed- , vidre es erTi Sexed- vidre es erTi Sexed- es erTi Sexed- es erTi Sexed- erTi Sexed- erTi Sexed- Sexed- Sexed-
viT Cans. bevri ram, rac mag., 1996 wels r. TvaraZesTan l. iakobaSvilis
polemikis dros iTqva, dRes bolomde legitimizebulia da arc es unda
iyos SemTxveviTi. sinamdvileSi, kritikam (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- SemTxveviTi. sinamdvileSi, kritikam (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- SemTxveviTi. sinamdvileSi, kritikam (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- . sinamdvileSi, kritikam (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- sinamdvileSi, kritikam (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- , kritikam (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- kritikam (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- (iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- iseve rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- rogorc mwerlobam) aSkar- mwerlobam) aSkar- mwerlobam) aSkar- ) aSkar- aSkar-
ad Segnebulad wamoswia win miTologizebis nakadi, romelic `gadarCenis
metaforisgan~ mowyvetilad ar unda iqnas ganxiluli, Tumca am arCevans
ufro safuZvliani da argumentirebuli axsna sWirdeba. sxva saqmea, rom
sabolood misi utrireba mainc moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- misi utrireba mainc moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- misi utrireba mainc moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- utrireba mainc moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- utrireba mainc moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- mainc moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- mainc moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- moxda. amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- . amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- amas Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- Tundac o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- o. CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- . CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- CxeiZis gaxmaurebu- gaxmaurebu- gaxmaurebu-
li werili `Rvinia gadaiCexa~ adasturebs. sabolood, iseTi STabeWdileba
iqmneba, rom komunisturi periodis TviT gamokveTilad antikomunisturi
movlenebic ki miuRebeli xdeba.
70-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi literaturaTmcodneobaSi zusti meTode-
bis SemoRwevis dro dgeba. 1977 wels qveyndeba r. yaralaSvilis statiebis
krebuli `wigni da mkiTxveli~, romelSic struqturalisturi da post-
struqturalisturi (mag. recefciuli esTetika) epoqis umniSvnelovanesi
novaciebia mimoxiluli. literaturuli komunikaciebis Taviseburebani am
statiebSi aRqmis tradiciul formaTa avtomatizmis daZlevis niSniTaa mo-
wodebuli; ganxilulia mkiTxvelis, recipientis, roli warmosaxviTi si-
namdvilis SeqmnaSi da am konteqstSi kritikisa da kritikosis mier SeZe-
nili radikaluri siaxlis Semcveli funqciebi.
`... kritikosis daniSnuleba _ wers r. yaralaSvili _ unda iyos ara
nawarmoebis `axsna~ da mkiTxvelisaTvis imis uwyeba, Tu `risi Tqma undoda~
mwerals, aramed misTvis gasaRebis miwodeba, Sesabamisi konstruqciuli
principis dadgena da ganmarteba... mxatvruli sistema, kodi, konstruqci-
nona kupreiSvili
144
uli principi _ ai, kritikosis moqmedebis are...~ teqstisa da maT Soris,
sakuTari kodebis mqone klasikuri teqstebis interpretacia, maTi mara-
diuli sicocxlis wyaroa `nawarmoebis aRqma unda icvlebodes da icvleba
kidec~... Tumca arc am mosazrebis avtoris, rolan bartis, agreTve re-
cefciuli anu aRqmis esTetikis principTa Semqmnelis da am wignSi damow-
mebuli mkvlevrebis roman ingardenisa da volfgang izeris, iseve rogorc
hermenevtikis erT-erTi damfuZneblis gadameris, amasTan tartus univer-
sitetis profesoris iuri lotmanis saxelebi mkiTxvelTa viwro wrisaT-
vis Tu iyo cnobili. amitom wamowyebuli saubari meTodebis Sesaxeb maTi
danergviTa da gamoyenebiT ar dasrulebula. es procesi sakmaod didi xniT
gadaido. Tumca wignis avtoris mcdeloba mimarTuli daxSuli kulturuli
sivrcis garRvevisa da Tavisuflebis kidev erTi monakveTis asaTviseblad _
TavisTavad umniSvnelo faqti ver iqneboda.
amave periodSi, axalgazrda kritikosi T. doiaSvili axdens struq-
turalisturi Ziebebis aqtualizebas, aRniSnuli meTodisaTvis `qarTu-
li niadagis~ dasazRvras. werilSi `struqturalizmi: PRO ET CONTRA~
(doiaSvili 1979: 46) `poeziis, rogorc enobrivi fenomenis, rogorc niSan-
Ta sistemis semiotikis kvlevis obieqtad gamocxadebis~ mizanSewonilebaa
aqcentirebuli. struqturuli lingvistikis meTodebis literaturaTm-
codneobaSi, kerZod, poetikaSi gadatana, struqturalizmis safuZvelTa
safuZvlad cnobili formulis `poezia=enas~ eWvqveS dayeneba, poeziis
enobriv faqtad gamocxadebis uperspeqtivoba aq ara ideologiuri mosaz-
rebebiTaa motivirebuli, aramed movlenis arsSi wvdomis logikiT; argu-
mentirebuli SeuTanxmebloba i. lotmanis daskvnebTan struqturalizmisa
da istorizmis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxSi; mxatvruli nawarmoebis niS-
namde dayvanis utopiurobis r. bartiseuli msjelobis `aqilevsis qus-
lad~ gamocxadeba; cnobili maTematikosis, kolmogorovis, gaTvlebisa
da `informaciuli esTetikis~ Teoretikosis, germaneli (maSin, dasavleT-
germaneli) mkvlevris, m. benzes literaturafobiuri gancxadebebis kri-
tikuli Sefaseba werilis avtoris erudiciisa da profesionalizmis gam-
ovlinebaa. sagulisxmoa, rom igi wers `Sinagani cenzuris~ gareSe, saqmis
codniT da saqmis sasargeblod da ara romelime literaturuli Cinovni-
kis saameblad. swored aseTi damokidebulebiT gamoirCeoda 80-ian wlebSi
kritikuli tandemi: doiaSvili _ bregaZe, romelTa publikaciebi Tavisu-
flad SegviZlia `hamburguli angariSis~ nimuSebad miviCnioT.
TviT is faqti, rom 70-80-iani wlebis qarTul kritikaSi mwvaved daismis
mimeturi da antimimeturi xelovnebis, konvenciuli leqsisa da verlibris,
ironiul-parodiuli nakadis (pirveli kritikuli werili am sakiTxs i.
kenWoSvilma uZRvna), tradiciuli da antiutopiuri romanis, litera-
70-80-iani wlebis kritika: `rekonstruqciidan~ novaciamde
145
turis utilitarizmisa da antiutilitarizmis, metaforuli da umeta-
foro azrovnebis, leqsmcodneobaSi, kerZod ki rusTvelologiaSi, trad-
iciuli (a. gawerelia) da struqturalisturi meTodis (akad. g. wereTeli)
gamoyenebis sakiTxebi da sxva, adasturebs imas, rasac werilis dasawyisSive
kritikis Tavisufali refleqsirebisken swrafva vuwodeT. literaturuli
procesis sirTule marto imaSi ki ar mJRavndeboda, ,rom gamomcemlobis
buRalteriaSi, t. Wanturias sityvebiT, sul ufro SeuZlebeli xdeboda
leqsisaTvis honoraris gamowera misi uCveulo formis gamo, aramed Tun-
dac imitom, rom `mimetizmi~ da parodiuli stili gverdigverd arsebobd-
nen... (Wanturia, doiaSvili 1981: 5).
mimeturi xelovnebis dasacavad dawerili ak. vasaZis wignis `mxatvru-
li Semoqmedebis fsiqologiis sakiTxebis~ garSemo gamarTuli polemika,
romelic imdroindel presaSi aisaxa (gamovarCevdiT l. bregaZisa da m. qur-
dianis werilebs), analogiur periods emTxveva. am konteqstSi realizmis
uryevi klasikuri nimuSebis, gogolis `cxvirisa~ da Seqspiris dramebis
antimimeturi literaturis nimuSebad gamocxadeba (bregaZe 1982: 4) mou-
lodnelobis efeqtTan erTad Zveli Taobis kritikosTaTvis literaturu-
li avanturizmis elementsac Seicavda da tradiciuli kritikuli analiz-
isTvis xelovnurad Seqmnil seriozul diskomfortad aRiqmeboda.
Tu gaviziarebT s. siguaseul Janrobriv-meTodologiur definicias, 70-
80-iani wlebis kritikaSi sabolood gamoikveTa impresionistuli eseizmi
(g. asaTiani, o. paWkoria, t. Wanturia, r. miSvelaZe. davZendi: j. Rvinjilia,
k. imedaSvili, g. benaSvili, z. abzianiZe), analitikuri eseizmi (m. kvese-
lava, T. Cxenkeli, g. gaCeCilaZe, v. javaxaZe, r. CxeiZe. aqac davZendi: o. CxeiZe,
r. TvaraZe, n. gelaSvili), agreTve e.w. sociologiuri kritika (a. baqraZe,
agreTve, r. jafariZe, n. wuleiskiri), romelmac yvelaze komunikaciuri
Janri, publicistika, gamoiyena, riTac kidev erTxel daadastura liter-
aturul-esTetikuri, gnebavT literaturul-Teoriuli da nacionaluri
problematikis erT epistemaSi Tanaarseboba.
80-iani wlebis kritikosTa Taoba (n. gelaSvili, s. sigua, m. kvaWantiraZe,
T. vasaZe, r. CxeiZe, m. joxaZe, a. mindiaSvili, T. qoriZe, z. gogia, a. bedukaZe.
v. amirxanaSvili,) `teqsts ufro ganmartavs, vidre afasebs~ (sigua 1984:
6) kvlevis axali meTodologia da stilistika (mag. s. siguasTan struq-
turalisturi, m. kvaWantiraZesTan hermenevtikuri, T. vasaZesTan raciona-
listuri) imdenad yovlismomcveli xdeba, rom maTi werilebi, tradiciuli
gagebiT, kritikul paToss arc Seicavs. TviT kulturuli identobis Temac,
romelic `rekonstruqtivistebma~ 60-70-ian wlebSi wamoswies, aq ara SiS-
veli formiT, aramed teqsturi analizis, argumentaciis saxiT mogvewode-
ba, rac, cxadia, sulac ar niSnavs erovnul infantilizms. nacionaluri
nona kupreiSvili
146
narativi am axal kritikul diskursSic sruladaa SenarCunebuli.
80-iani wlebis literaturuli kritika aSkarad `sxvadasxva mimarTule-
bebadaa diferencirebuli~. es kidev ufro cxadyofs mis `TiTqmis upre-
cendento aqtivobas...~ arsebobs am aqtivobis ramdenime mizezi: 50-60-iani
wlebis rekonstruqtivizmi; 70-ian wlebSi, ideologiuri decentraciis
procesis gaRrmavebis fonze, literaturul-Teoriuli novaciebis miRe-
bisa da gaazrebisaken mimarTuli tendenciebi. (mxedvelobidan cxadia, arc
e.w. `sanqcirebuli Tavisufleba~ unda gamogvrCes, romelic totalita-
rizmis am ukanasknel fazaSi kritikis mier jerovnad iqna gamoyenebuli).
aRniSnul mosazrebasTan dakavSirebiT unda gaviziaro n. darbaiselis
analitikuri daskvna: `... yvelaferi ganviTarebisken miemarTeboda,... unda
Camcxraliyo polemikuri paTosi, erTjerad efeqtebze gaTvlili rito-
rikuli abrundebis adgili kritikaSi Rrma azrs unda daeWira, magram sa-
zogadoebas, rogorc sistemas, ganviTarebis sxva logika aRmoaCnda...~ (dar-
baiseli 2003: 32). vfiqrob, angariSgasawevi mosazrebaa. gansakuTrebiT im-
aTTvis, vinc Cqarobs totalitarizmis kliSirebuli literaturul-kri-
tikuli azrovnebis sudara gadaafaros yvelafers, rac am wlebSi Seqmnila.
`ifqlisagan RvarZlis~ gamorCeva, rogorc gonierebis aqti, ar SeiZleba
komunisturi kulturpolitikis reinterpretaciis mcdelobad iqnas aR-
qmuli. nacionaluri narativic uTuod orgvari iyo: Tavsmoxveuli-fsevdo
da organuli. gadaWarbebulia, literaturacentrizmis gmobac social-
politikuri diskursis sasargeblod, radgan literaturacentrizmidan
sociocentrizmSi gadasvlas, rom dascloda, qarTul mwerlobasTan erTad
kritikac amzadebda. nu movindomebT imaze meti carieli adgilebis Seqm-
nas, vidre amis safuZveli realurad arsebobs.. gvaxsovdes, arafrisagan
araferi warmoiSoba.
damowmebani
andronikaSvili, maisuraZe 2007: 1990: - 1990: - - - - - - - -
. , # 82, 2007.
asaTiani 2003: asaTiani g. Txzulebani oTx tomad t. IV. Tb.: 2003.
barti 1989: . ( ) .: 1989.
baqraZe 2005: baqraZe a. Txzulebani rva tomad t. V. Tb.: 2005.
bergi 1997: . . 25, 1997.
bregaZe 1982: bregaZe l. mxatvruli gaucxoebis principi. Ggaz. literaturuli
saqarTvelo, 19 marti, 1982.
gasparovi 1997: . . 57, 1997.
ginzburgi 2003: . . .: 2003.
70-80-iani wlebis kritika: `rekonstruqciidan~ novaciamde
147
darbaiseli 2005: darbaiseli n. 90-iani wlebis qarTuli literaturuli kritika. 2005.
doiaSvili 1972: doiaSvili T. struqturalizmi: PRO ET KONTRA. ciskari #6, 1972.
TvaraZe 1997: TvaraZe r. gadasaxedi. mTliani saqarTvelos mesityve. Tb.: 1997.
Teoria 2006: literaturis Teoria (XXs. ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi da
mimdinareobebi) Tb.: 2006
kiknaZe 2006: kiknaZe z. `meranis~ genealogia. lit. Ziebani _ XXVII, 2006.
kormeri 1997: . -. .: 1997.
maisuraZe 2005: maisuraZe g. inteligencia. krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- maisuraZe g. inteligencia. krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- g. inteligencia. krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- g. inteligencia. krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- . inteligencia. krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- inteligencia. krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- . krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- krebuli: `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- : `saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- saqarTvelo aTaswleulTa gasa- aTaswleulTa gasa- aTaswleulTa gasa- gasa- gasa-
yarze~. Tb.: 2005.
mamardaSvili 1980: . . htttp://ru:philosophy.
Kiev.ua
natroSvili 1971: natroSvili g. geronti qiqoZis saiubileod. gaz. `literaturuli
saqarTvelo~, 28 maisi, 1971.
niJaraZe 1999: . . . , 10,1999.
Wanturia, doiaSvili 1981: Wanturia t. doiaSvili T. dialogi: jeri axla poetebzea. gaz.
`literaturuli saqarTvelo~, marti, 1981.
qarCxaZe 2000: qarCxaZe j. zneobis ekologia. J. arili, #16 (3), 2000.
yaralaSvili 1977: yaralaSvili r. wigni da mkiTxveli. Tb.: 1977.
wifuria 2004: wifuria b. postsabWoTa travma literaturaSi da kidev erTi metanara-
tivis dasasruli. J. sjani #5, 2004.
Nona Kupreishvili
Criticism of 70-80s: from Reconstruction to Innovation
Summary
The complexity of the research of Georgian critical thought of the II half of XX cen-
tury is conditioned primarily by unsystematic and controversial character of the refection
of the above mentioned period. From the Post Soviet position, in the conditions of the
existing theoretical and disciplinary reorientation, it requires different vision and analysis.
Popreception of western theories and the tendency of Nihilistic evaluation of brand new
Georgian literary processes can be of no use in this case.
After Stalins death, when public opinion had chance for transformation, there arose a
new generation of writers and critics (O. Chkheidze, N. Chkheidze, G. Asatiani, G. Kanka-
va, T. Chkhenkeli, P. Beridze, N. Kakabadze, M. Kveselava, G. Margvelashvili), who after
ripping iron curtains aside, after stepping in the world of different opinions and evalua-
tions, conspirationally or semi-conspirationally struggled against complete disorientation
of writing and considered depolitization of criticism, its returning to literature, as one of
the most essential means.
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
148
This important event, showed in the article, is connected not only with journal Tsiska-
ri (1957) and withTskiskreli, but with S. Chikovanis journal Mnatobi (1955-60) and
polemic letters of the newspaper Young Communist (1954). After analyzing publications
of the followers of anti-socialist aesthetics, especially G. Asatianis Essay First Dialogue
with Wide Remarks, as a contemporary version of Notes of a traveler we considered
it well-grounded to call this process reconstruction and those writers and critics who are
actively involved in it, Reconstructionists. Reconstruction, in the given context, should
be understood as an attempt to restore cultural gaps, as replacing dead time , as a hope to
return in time, history after a long period of time and life lack, as a chance for awakening
for those people who are lost in history.
The analysis of the critical thinking of 60-70s serves as a proof that ground has been
prepared for expressing interest towards culture. We called this event Rediscovery of
culture using K. Ginsbergs term.
To prove the free refection of critical thinking of 70-80s the fact of the activation of
following problems are listed and analyzed: The problem of mimetic and anti-mimetic art,
the need for co-existence of conventive verse and vers libre (free verse) against the back-
ground of vers librophoby, the emergence of ironical-parodic vers libre fow, the issues
of the use of traditional and anti-utopian novels, utilitarianism and anti-utilitarianism of
literature, metaphoric thinking, traditional and structural methods in versifcation.
The research showed that history of Soviet literature, so called post-Stalin period was
marked by existence of not only true literature, but healthy critical thinking as well.
149
Targmanis Teoria
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi da
sakiTxis kvlevis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri aspeqtebi
XI saukunis qarTuli saazrovno sistemis mkveTri orientacia bizan-
tiur kulturul procesebze mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravda ara mxolod
calkeuli kulturuli mimarTulebis, aramed mTlianad am periodis
qarTuli kulturis zogad tendenciebs. qarTuli religiur-filosofiuri
azrisa Tu zogadad, literaturuli procesebis ganviTareba bizantiuri
kulturuli procesebis paralelurad mimdinareobda da, Sesabamisad, aya-
libebda mis xasiaTs. mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobis intensivobac, romelic
Tavs iCens am periodis qarTul sinamdvileSi, ganpirobebulia qarTvel
mTargmnel-moRvaweTa surviliT _ gverdSi amoudgnen imdroindeli msof-
lios mowinave kulturul qveyanas, bizantias. amitom, Tu adreul period-
Si qarTveli moRvaweebi ZiriTadad qmnidnen originalur Zeglebs, am peri-
odisaTvis samwerlobo wreebSi gacxovelebuli mTargmnelobiTi saqmianoba
iwyeba. epoqis xasiaTisa da moTxovnebis Sesabamisad yalibdeba da droTa
ganmavlobaSi ixveweba mTargmnelobiTi koncefciac. literaturuli mTarg-
mnelobiTi tradicia ganarCevs or ZiriTad mTargmnelobiT praqtikas: di-
namikursa da formalurs. dinamikuri tipis Targmani (Sensus de sense) aris
Targmanis Tavisufali, parafrazirebuli, tendenciuri, igive ganmartebiTi
tipi, romelSic gamoikveTeba mTargmnelis sakuTari Sexedulebebi, sxvag-
varad, es aris e. w. modalur-adapturi tipi. xolo formaluri ekvivalen-
tis (anu semantikuri da formaluri) tipis Targmani (verbum e verbo) aris
zedmiwevniTi, sityvasityviTi struqturuli Targmanis tipi (bezaraSvili
2004: 319).
qarTuli mTargmnelobiTi tradiciisaTvis adreul etapze ZiriTadad
damaxasiaTebeli iyo dinamikuri tipis Targmani, romelsac mogvianebiT for-
maluri ekvivalentis Targmani enacvleba. zusti, adeqvaturi Targmani ded-
niseuli teqstisa ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli iyo elinofiluri mimarTuleb-
isaTvis. Tumca adeqvaturi Targmani jer kidev ar niSnavda elinofilur
mimarTulebaze orientirebas, radgan amgvari xasiaTis Targmanebi qarTul
mwerlobaSi gacilebiT adreul periodSic dasturdeba (mag. severiane gaba-
lovnelis equsTa dReTa V s.-is I nax.) (bezaraSvili 2004: 328).
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
150
Targmanis dednis teqstTan mimarTebis dadgenisa Tu romelime moRvawis
mTargmnelobiTi koncefciis Taviseburebaze msjelobisaTvis aucilebeli
winapirobaa im konkretuli pirvelwyaros mikvleva, romlidanac uSualod
iTargmna esa Tu is literaturuli Zegli. es sakiTxi qarTul filologiur
mecnierebaSi principulad daisva jer kidev 1969 wels. Tavis gamokvlevaSi
`bizantiur-qarTuli literaturuli urTierTobani~ prof. e. xinTibiZe
miuTiTebda: `SeuZlebelia qarTveli mTargmnelis mTargmnelobiT meTode-
bze vilaparakoT, Tu xelT ara gaqvT mis mier naTargmni sando teqsti da
swored is berZnuli redaqcia, romelsac igi Targmnida. amis aucile-
blobas is iwvevs, rom TiTqmis yvela Zveli bizantiuri literaturuli
Zegli Cvenamde aTobiT berZnuli xelnaweriTaa moRweuli. es xelnawerebi
xSir SemTxvevaSi redaqciuladac gansxvavdeba, variantul sxvaobebze rom
aRaraferi vTqvaT~ (xinTibiZe

1969: 145).
amave Tvalsazriss aviTarebs miSel van esbroki efTvime aTonelis mTargm-
nelobiT meTodebze msjelobisas. m. esbrokis umniSvnelovanes Sromad unda
CaiTvalos efTvime aTonelis mTargmnelobiTi meTodis axleburi Sefaseba,
romelic warmoadgina gamokvlevaSi `uthyme lHagiorite: le traducteur et ses tra-
ductions~ (Esbroeck 1988 : 73-107). gamokvlevis avtori kritikulad ganixi-
lavs k. kekeliZis mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom efTvime `an miumatebda de-
dans, an moaklebda mas, an Secvlida Taviseburad Txzulebis ama Tu im adg-
ils da iZleoda saTargmni Txzulebis savsebiT axal redaqcias. esbrokma
Tavidan gaaanaliza k. kekeliZis mier efTvime aTonelis mTargmnelobiTi
meTodis dasadgenad Seswavlili Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi (`mcire sju-
liskanoni~, `maqsime aRmsareblis cxovreba~, `mcire svinaqsari~, `ilarion
qarTvelis cxovreba~, `maqsime aRmsareblis SekiTxvebi Talasesadmi~, `wm.
miqelis saswaulebi~) da efrem mciris cnobili anderZi efTvimes Sesaxeb
da sxv. misi azriT, efTvime zustad, sityva-sityviT ar Targmnis, magram igi
kvecs an umatebs ara mTel paragrafebs, an sxva Txzulebebidan amoRebul
fragmentebs, aramed mxolod sityvebs. mkvlevris daskvniT, efTvime iyenebs
dasaxelebul TxzulebaTa sxva redaqciebs, romlebic dReisaTvis dakargu-
lia, an jer kidev gamosavlinebelia.
amdenad, raki arsebobs Targmani, e.i. arsebobs mTargmnelis problemac,
radgan Cvenamde araerT Zegls mouRwevia, romelTa mTargmnelis Sesaxebac
araferi viciT. xSiria SemTxveva, rodesac Txzulebis mTargmnelis, gadam-
werisa Tu damkveTis vinaoba erTmaneTSi ireva. aseve, arcTu iSviaTia erTsa
da imave periodSi erTi saliteraturo skolis farglebSi moRvawe mTargm-
nelTa naSromebis arasworad mikuTvneba sxva mTargmnelisadmi (amis naTel-
sayofad ioane petriwis, ioane WimWimelisa da ioane tariWisZis, an kidev
arsenis saxeliT moRvawe ramdenime pirovnebis erTmaneTSi aRreva, anda ni-
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
151
koloz gulaberisZisTvis giorgi mTawmindelis, eqvTime aTonelis, daviT
tbelisa Tu efrem mciriseul TargmanTa mikuTvnebac gamogvadgeboda). aseT
viTarebaSi, cxadia, mTargmnelis realuri vinaobis dasadgenad ramdenime
faqtors unda mieqces yuradReba: 1. Zeglis Sesaxeb arsebul istoriul wy-
aroebs; 2. literaturul tradiciebs; 3. mTargmnelobiT meTods, romelic
gangvasazRvrinebs im saliteraturo skolasa da, Sesabamisad, savaraudo
drosa da sivrces, rodesac da sadac es Txzuleba unda Sesrulebuliyo
(sakiTxis Sesaxeb ix. rafava 1983: 046). 4. informaciuli sisrulisaTvis
aucilebelia im erovnul enobriv stilur normaTa kvlevac, romliTac esa
Tu is Targmania Sesrulebuli. samecniero wreebSi miRebuli tradiciuli
kvlevis meTodi naklebad gulisxmobs Zeglis lingvistur analizs, rasac
Zalze xSirad araswor daskvnamde mivyavarT. daskvnisas gasaTvaliswinebe-
lia, moRvaweobis ra etapzea Sesrulebuli Targmani, radgan mTargmnelebi
sistematiurad azustebdnen da xvewdnen mTargmnelobiT meTodsa Tu termi-
nologiur struqturas.
qarTvel moRvaweTa mTargmnelobiT tradiciebi epoqaTa moTxovnilebis
Sesabamisad icvleboda. efTvime aTonelis mTargmnelobiTi meTodi gark-
veul etapze moZvelebuli aRmoCnda da aRar Seesabameboda gazrdil li-
teraturul moTxovnilebebs. axali mTargmnelobiTi meTodis damkvidre-
ba giorgi aTonelis saxels ukavSirdeba. igi cdilobs saTargmni masalis
dedanTan daaxloebas; TumcaRa droTa ganmavlobaSi giorgi mTawmindeli-
seulma Targmanebmac moiTxoves xelmeored gadasinjva. efrem mcirem aTo-
nis saliteraturo skolis mTargmnelobiTi tradiciebi Tvisobrivad axal
safexurze aiyvana, misi mTargmnelobiTi meTodis ZiriTadi principi swored
Targmanis dedniseul teqstTan zedmiwevniTi daaxloeba iyo.
aToneli mamebis mier Seqmnil mTargmnelobiT stilsa da mimarTulebas
XI-XII s.s. mkveTrad gaemijna gelaTis saliteraturo skola (tradici-
ulad, mkvlevarTa didi nawilis mosazrebiT, ioane petriwi, arsen iyal-
ToelTan erTad, am skolis fuZemdebeli da poziciis ganmsazRvreli iyo.
Tumca arsebobs aranakleb yuradsaRebi versiac, romelic ioane petriwis
moRvaweobas gelaTis saliteraturo skolas ar ukavSirebs) (lolaSvili
1978: 75; WeliZe 1995:). miuTiTeben, rom gelaTis skola erT-erTi mZlavri
da umniSvnelovanesi Stoa qarTuli Targmanis elinofinur mimarTulebaSi,
romelic... qristianuli azris istoriaSi agrZelebs aRmosavluri Teo-
logiis, aleqsandriuli skolisa da kabadokiuri patristikis xazs (me-
liqiSvili 1996: 65). swored gelaTis saliteraturo skola aris damfuZ-
nebeli axali enobrivi stilisa, romelic sxvaTagan TviTmyofadi niSnebiT
gamoirCeva. gelaTis mTargmnelobiTi skolis mimdevarni didi ZalisxmeviT
cdilobdnen daexvewaT qarTuli ena, gamoevlinebinaT misi SesaZleblobani
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
152
berZnulidan Targmnili literaturis filosofiuri azrisa da terminebis
zustad gadmocemis TvalsazrisiT. imis Sesabamisad, ras usaxavdnen sakuTar
Tavs miznad, maT SeimuSaves sruliad gansazRvruli principebi, romlebic
aq Targmnil Zeglebs sxvaTagan gamoarCevs Targmnis sizustiT, stiliTa Tu
leqsikiT. gelaTis skolis ZiriTad mimarTulebas sxva niSnebTan erTad zu-
stad Targmnis principi (Targmnisas ki mxolod qarTuli enis potencia-
lis, Zirebisa da mawarmoeblebis gamoyeneba) qmnis.
mTargmnelobiT skolebs Soris, erTi mxriv, arsebobs mniSvnelovani sx-
vaoba Targmanis stils, saTargmni masalis SerCevis, da a. S. TvalsazrisiT,
magram, meore mxriv, SesaZloa mTargmnelobiTi meTodi gansxvavebuli iyos
erTi avtoris memkvidreobis farglebSic, radgan, rogorc SevniSnavdiT,
stili SeiZleba Seicvalos saTargmni masalis Tematikis an mTargmnelis
moRvaweobis periodis mixedviT. es faqtori ki, SesaZloa, mcdari daskvnis
safuZveli gaxdes. zogadi daskvnebis gamotanisas aranaklebi sirTule SeiZ-
leba Seqmnas erTi saliteraturo skolis farglebSi Targmanis enobriv-
terminologiuri aspeqtebis msgavsebam. amitom sakiTxis kvlevisas aucile-
belia im konkretuli madiferencirebeli maxasiaTeblebis gaTvaliswineba,
romlebic erT mTargmnel-moRvawes meorisagan ganarCevs. madiferencirebe-
li statistikuri maxasiaTeblebi, romlebic samecniero literaturaSia
miTiTebuli (meliqiSvili 1996: 65), enis sxvadasxva sferos ganekuTvneba: 1.
terminologiuri sityvaTSemoqmedebisa; 2. yofiT-leqsikuri; 3. gramatiku-
li, garkveul SemTxvevebSi sintaqsuri maxasiaTeblebic.
Tu rogor SeiZleba kvlevis miTiTebuli meTodikis gauTvaliswineblobam
mcdar gzaze dagvayenos, amis sailustraciod warmovadgenT gelaTis sali-
teraturo skolis mTargmnelobiTi normebiT Sesrulebul or Zegls ek-
lesiastes ganmartebaTa gelaTur versias
*
da agiografiul Txzulebas
wm. barbares wameba.
eklesiastes ganmartebaTa gelaTuri versiis mTargmnelad k. kekeliZe
ioane WimWimels miiCnevda. SeniSnavda ra miTiTebuli Zeglisa da Teofila-
qte bulgarelis lukasa da markozis saxarebaTa ganmartebebis msgavsebas,
askvnida, rom Teofilaqte bulgarelis TxzulebaTa da eklesiastes gan-
martebis xsenebuli Zeglis mTargmneli erTi da igive pirovnebaa, xolo
am pirovnebis vinaobis Sesaxeb cnoba daculia Teofilaqte bulgarelis
TxzulebaTa Targmanis SesavalSive: `ioaneman filosofosman WimWimelman
eladelTa misagan spanT mosaxeled mad gardamoiRo Targmaneba wmidisa
evanReliisa~ (kekeliZe 1920: XIII).
* qarTuli xelnaweri (A 61) ori avtoris egzegetikur Txzulebas Seicavs mitrofane smirnel
mitropolitisa da olimpiodore aleqsandrieli diakonis eklesiastes ganmartebebs, magram, raki
Zegls mTlianobaSi erTiani struqtruli saxe aqvs da erTi mTargmnelis mieraa Sesrulebuli,
amitom cal-calke Txzulebebad diferencirebas ar vaxdenT.
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
153
vnaxoT, ramdenad SesaZlebelia am daskvnis gaziareba.
eklesiastes ganmartebaTa gelaTuri versiis mTargmnelis sakiTxze ms-
jelobisas verc xelnawerTa anderZ-minawerebi da verc sxva werilobiT
ZeglebSi Semonaxuli cnobebi ver dagvexmareba, radgan amgvari araferia
SemorCenili qarTul mwerlobaSi.
Zeglis mTargmnelis vinaobis Sesaxeb azris gamoTqma mxolod enobrivi
Taviseburebebisa da leqsikuri mxaris Seswavlaze dayrdnobiTaa SesaZle-
beli.
sakiTxze msjelobisas ZiriTadad veyrdnobiT d. meliqiSvilis statias
gelaTis saliteraturo skolis enobrivi stilis erTianobisa da indivi-
dualurobis sakiTxisaTvis, romelSic mecnieri gvTavazobs v. fuqsis mier
damuSavebuli statistikuri maxasiaTeblebis meTods da miuTiTebs, rom
amgvari meTodi calkeul avtorTa individualuri enobrivi stilis Seswav-
lis saSualebas iZleva. `rodesac garkveuli raodenobis enobrivi niSnebi
dasturdeba cnobil avtorTan da maTgan arc erTi ar gvxvdeba sadavo te-
qstSi (an piriqiT), SeiZleba calsaxa daskvnis gamotana: sadavo teqsti ar
ekuTvnis mocemul avtors~ (meliqiSvili 1996: 68).

statias darTuli aqvs diferenciuli enobrivi maxasiaTeblebis cxri-
li, romelSic mecnieri warmoadgens gelaTis saliteraturo skolis Zeg-
lebisaTvis niSandobliv terminologiur, yofiT-leqsikur da gramatikul
maxasiaTeblebs.
amdenad, eklesiastes ganmartebaTa sakvlevi Zeglidan gvainteresebs is
konkretuli terminebi da enobrivi maxasiaTeblebi, romlebic ama Tu im
mTargmnelis cnebiT-leqsikuri aparatis kuTvnilebadaa miCneuli da sxva
maxasiaTeblebTan erTobliobaSi SesaZloa dagvexmaros Zeglis mTargmne-
lis vinaobis gansazRvrisas.
*
amgvar terminTa rigSi unda ganvixiloT Zrva,
moZraoba leqsemebi. am formaTa gamoyeneba damaxasiaTebelia gelaTis sko-
lis moRvaweTa saliteraturo enisaTvis, gvxvdeba Cvens sakvlev Txzule-
baSic, isini TiTqmis Tanabari raodenobiT gvxvdeba rogorc saxelzmnis,
ise zmnis piriani formebis saxiT (15\17) da ZiriTadad aqvs gadaxris (da
ara moZraobis) mniSvneloba (midreka moZraobis mniSvnelobiT mxolod
petriwTan dasturdeba); TanSesityva forma ZeglSi erTxel dasturdeba,
magram ara imgvari terminuli gagebiT (berZnuli sullogismoc formis Se-
satyvisad), rogoriTac gvxvdeba petriwTan da amonios ermisis Txzuleba-
* aqve gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom zogierTi termini, romelic erT avtorTan yo- aqve gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom zogierTi termini, romelic erT avtorTan yo-
fiT-leqsikuri sferos kuTvnilebaa, meore avtorTan cnebiT-terminologiuri mniSvnelobiTaa
gamoyenebuli. ase, magaliTad, jerCineba arsen iyalToelTan terminologiuri sityvaSemoqmede-
bis produqtia, xolo eklesiastes ganmartebis gelaTur TargmanebSi yofiTi leqsikis sferos
ganekuTvneba. igive SeiZleba iTqvas midreka terminis Sesaxeb, romelsac mxolod petriwTan aqvs
terminuli datvirTva.
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
154
Ta qarTul TargmanebSi. am formis Sesatyvisad eklesiastes ganmartebaTa
gelaTur versiaSi gvaqvs termini filosofosebri: rameTu ixileT filo-
sofosebri metyuleba eklesiastesi [A 61: 40. II] _ Ora gar thn sullogis
tikhn apodosin tou Ekklhsiastou [PG: 796C].
termini Tbe, romelic qarTvel elinofilebTan efrem mciresTan, ar- qarTvel elinofilebTan efrem mciresTan, ar-
sen iyalToelTan, petre gelaTelTan... masalis, materiis mniSvnelobiT
gvxvdeba, amave mniSvnelobiT gvaqvs Cven sakvlev ZeglSic; eklesiastes gan-
martebebis gelaTur TargmanebSi dasturdeba, agreTve, termini gardani-
vTva, romlis zmnuri formac gvxvdeba ruis-urbnisis krebis ZeglisweraSi;
romeloba\viTareba terminebidan berZnuli to poion terminis Sesatyvisad
ZeglSi gvxvdeba romeloba (to poionis Sesatyvisad arsen iyalToelis
gviandel TargmanebSi `romelobis~ nacvlad ZiriTadia `viTareba,~ xolo
petriwTan romeloba); berZnuli akribiac-s Sesatyvisad ZeglSi, msgavsad
arsen iyalToelisa da ioane WimWimelisa, dasturdeba forma ganmkacreba;
gramatikuli formebidan ZeglSi gelaTuri TargmanebisaTvis niSandob-
livi ye sufiqsis gamoyenebis arc erTi SemTxveva ar dadasturda; ar da-
dasturda agreTve ars meSveli zmnis gamartivebisa da winamaval sityvasTan
Serwymis SemTxvevebi.
-ebiani mravlobiTis formebi, romlebsac gelaTis saliteraturo sko-
lis moRvaweebi narTanian mravlobiTTan erTad aqtiurad iyeneben, mcire
raodenobiT (18 SemTxveva) gvxvdeba TxzulebaSi; gvxvdeba, agreTve, I re-
zultativSi ia dabolovebiani formis gamoyenebis ori SemTxveva; gelaTe-
li mTargmnelebis stilisTvis niSandoblivi naT. br. + ZliT Tandebuliani
formebi eklesiastes TargmanebaSic gamoiyeneba; ZeglSi mxolod erTxel
gvxvdeba mebr Tandebuliani forma, amgvari formebis gamoyeneba petriwis
stilisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. gramatikuli sqesis gamoxatvis damkvidre-
bis mcdeloba saliteraturo qarTulSi gelaTeli mTargmnelebis moRva-
weobas ukavSirdeba. eklesiastes ganmartebaSi sqesis garCeva mxolod le-
qsikuri erTeulebiT xdeba da ara sqesis mawarmoebeli sufiqsebiT; -mi
Tandebuliani formebis, romlebic aseve tipiuria gelaTeli moRvaweebis
stilisTvis, gamoyenebis oTxi SemTxveva dasturdeba sakvlev ZeglSi, in-
tensiurad ixmareba am Tandebulis sruli forma mimarT da, agreTve, misi
variantuli Sesatyvisi momarT; sakvlev ZeglSi I kavSirebiTis III pirSi
subieqtis aRsaniSnad gvaqvs Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo ZeglebisaT-
vis tradiciuli -odian daboloeba (amgvar SemTxvevebSi petriwi odin
daboloebas iyenebs); xat terminis Targmanisas (rodesac adamianis, RvTis
msgavsi arsebis, Seqmnazea saubari) ioane petriwi iyenebs ebr Tandebuls
berZnuli kata windebulis Sesabamisad, eklesiastes TargmanebaSi msgavsi
formebi ar gvxvdeba.
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
155
gelaTel moRvaweebs berZnuli enis tradiciis gavleniT hqondaT mcde-
loba mdedrobiTi sqesis gamoxatvis damkvidrebisa saliteraturo enaSi.
es procesi, rogorc miTiTebulia samecniero literaturaSi, petriwam-
de gacilebiT adre dawyebula gramatikuli sqesis gamoxatvis mcdelo-
bas vxvdebiT efrem mciresTan, romelic a sufiqsis darTviT cdilobs
mdedrobiTi sqesis formirebas (danelia

1998a: 102):L `mdidara moiRebn
WiWnaursa, xolo qurivi matylsa SeRebulsa~. iqve efremi SeniSnavs: `Sei-
swave, mdidara axalmopovebulad dedalad sityuad, rameTu dedakaci ars,
momRebeli WiWnaurisa, xolo WiWnauri mamasa efTmes abreSumisa saxe-
lad moupovebia~ (danelia

1998a: 98) SeniSnulia (danelia

1998a: 94-107),
rom mdedrobiTi sqesis a sufiqsis uZvelesi saxea al sufiqsi, romelic
dasturdeba giorgi monazonis `xronigrafis~ gelaTuri stiliT Sesru-
lebul TargmanSi. aq moyvanilia citata eklesiastedan (92,78), romelSic
gvxvdeba forma momReralebni momRernis sapirispirod: movignen monani
da mevalni, da saxlis-wulni iqmnnes Cemda mraval ufros yovelTa yo-
filTasa uwinares Cemda ierusalms. da Sevkribe vecxlica da oqro da
simdidre mefeTa da yanaTa da ganvawyven momRerni da momReralebni da
saSuebelni Zisa kacisani, mwdeni da mwdeani.~ aq formebi momRerni (momRe-
ri mamr. sqesi) da momReralebni (Tavdapirvel formad moiazreba momRera
mdedr. sqesi) erTmaneTisagan sqesiT ganirCevian. eklesiastes ganmartebis
gelaTur TargmanebSi igive muxlebSi (II Tavis 8-9) sqesis garCeva xdeba ara
afiqsuri warmoebiT, aramed - leqsikuri erTeulebiT: vyven Cemdad memRerni
mamani da dedani saSuebelad Zisa kacisa, mewdieni mamani da dedani. da gan-
vdiden da SevsZine ufros yovelTa pirvelTa CemTa ierusalims Sina [48. I].
rogorc vxedavT, aq dakonkretebulia rogorc memRerni, ise mewdieni sqesis
gamomxatveli konkretuli sityvebiT _ mamani da dedani. gelaTis biblia-
Si, konkretulad ieremias winaswar-metyvelebaSi, dasturdeba formebi,
romlebsac erTvis mdedrobiTi sqesis a mawarmoebeli: da moaq[c]ies Semd-
gomad gavlinebisa mis da ukun-iqcnes yrmani da yrmaani, romelni ganevlin-
nes Tavisuflad da dautevebdes maT yrmebad da yrmaebad 34,11. Sdr. ierusa-
limuri nusxa (J): da moiqces Semdgomad ganvlinebisa mis da ukun-iqcnnes
monani da mevalni, romelni-igi ganavlines Tavisuflebad da Seidgenebdes
maT monad da mevlad. 34,11; daimorCileniT igini yofad Tquenda yrmebad
da yrmaaebad. 34,16. 34,11. Sdr. J: daimorCileT igini, raTa iyvnen Tquenda
monad da mevlad. 34,16 (danelia 1992b).
citirebul monakveTebSi yrma, fuZekvecadi saxeli, Sekvecili saxiTaa
warmodgenili -ebiani mravlobiTis sufiqsis darTvisas. pirvel SemTxveva-
Si yrm-eb-ad (mamr. sq. ara aqvs mawarmoebeli), meore SemTxvevaSi yrm-
a-eb-ad, am SemTxvevaSi a sufiqss md. sqesis gamoxatvis funqcia aqvs. meore
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
156
citatSi, rogorc vnaxeT, fuZec sruladaa warmodgenili da darTulia sqe-
sis mawarmoebeli sufiqsic - yrma-a-eb-ad. gelaTis bibliaSi a sufiqsian
warmoebasTan erTad (ebraela ier. 34,10; ufala es. 24,2; moxucebula
zaq. 8,4) gvaqvs id sufiqsiani mdedrobiTi sqesis saxelebi: Wabukidi (ara
ipoos qalwulebaWabukidisa,~ II Sj. 22,21), yrmidi (hrqua: romeli ars
yrmidi ese,~ ruT. 2.5) da a. S.
sqesis gamoxatva qarTuli saliteraturo enisaTvis arabunebrivi da
miuRebeli aRmoCnda, mTargmnel-redaqtorTa amgvari mcdeloba naZala-
devi, sqesis gamomxatveli sufiqsebi ki, rogorc k. danelia uwodebda
`gramatikuli barbarizmebi.~ amdenad, gramatikuli sqesi, romelic arc
erTxel ar dasturdeba eklesiastes ganmartebis gelaTur TargmanebSi, ver
damkvidrda qarTul saliteraturo enaSi.
yofiT-leqsikuri sferodan ZeglSi intensiurad gvxvdeba egera forma,
romelic saliteraturo qarTulSi efrem mciris Semotanili Cans, aseve
xSiria sadme, sadame da mobs formebs gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi, dasturdeba
agreTve, azmnobs formis gamoyenebis ramdenime SemTxvevac; termini mimde-
mi, romlis terminologiuri mniSvnelobiT gamoyeneba arsen iyalToels
unda ukavSirdebodes, ZeglSi orgzis gvxvdeba, magram orivejer yofiT-
leqsikuri da ara - cnebiT-terminologiuri mniSvnelobiT; eklesiastes
TargmanebaSi yofiT-leqsikuri mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba, agreTve, gioba
da jerCineba formebi.
statikuri maxasiaTeblebis cxrilis gamoyenebam kidev erTxel
cxad-yo, rom eklesiastes ganmartebaTa sakvlevi Zegli gelaTis salite-
raturo skolis moRvawis mieraa Targmnili. yofiT-leqsikur, terminolo-
giur da enobriv formebze dakvirvebis Sedegad Semdegi suraTi gamoikveTa:
#
mTargmneli anonimi
ioane
WimWimeli
avtorebi
mitrofane,
olimp. aleqsandr.
Teofilaqte
bulgareli
nusxa A 61 A 102; A 103
enobr. norm.
teqstebi
eklesiastes
Targmaneba
markozisa da lukas
saxarebaTa ganmarteba
1 -ye - ~
2 -eb + +
3 -ia + -
4 -admi; -isami - +
5 naT.+ ZliT + +
6 mebr +(1) -
7 mdedr. sqesi - +
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
157
8 -esTa - -
9 egera + +
10 sad(a)me + +
11 medad -
12 mimdemi +(1) +
13 Znad - +
14 mowleoba +
15 sazrisi -
16 cebna + -
17 midreka + -
18 Zrva, moZraoba + +
19 Segulissityua -
20 TanSesityua -
21 mobs + +
22 azmnobs +(2)
23 gioba +
24 jerCineba +
25 ganmkacreba +
Catarebuli kvlevis safuZvelze Zeglis mTargmnelad ver miviCnevT ioane
WimWimels, rogorc amas varaudobda k. kekeliZe (ioane WimWimelisa da Cven
mier sakvlevi Zeglis mTargmnelis stilis sxvaoba gansakuTrebiT mkveTrad
vlindeba admi, -isami Tandebuliani formebis gamoyenebisas. es formebi
intensiurad ixmareba saxarebaTa Teofilaqte bulgareliseuli ganmarte-
bebis qarTul TargmanebSi da erTxelac ar dasturdeba eklesiastes gan-
martebaTa sakvlev ZeglSi. sxvaoba Tavs iCens gramatikuli sqesis gamoxa-
tvis aspeqtiTac).
eklesiastes ganmartebaTa gelaTuri Targmanebis mTargmnels anonimad
miiCnevs e. WeliZe. naSromSi `Zveli qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo terminolo-
gia~ mkvlevari sxva terminTa rigSi ganixilavs berZnuli gnosic leqsemis
Targmnis Taviseburebas da SeniSnavs: `rac Seexeba grigol akrakantelisa
*

da olimpiodores ganmartebebs eklesiastes Sesaxeb, agreTve, ioane Wim-
* eklesiates ganmartebis mitrofaneseuli teqstis avtorad, minis (PG) gamocemis safuZvelze, e.
WeliZe grigol akrakantels miiCnevs. garkveuli periodis manZilze Cvenc amave Tvalsazriss vizi-
arebdiT. uaxloes momavalSi sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gamoqveyndeba Cveni naSromi, romelic sakiTxs
axali mimarTulebiT gaaSuqebs (n. m.).
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
158
Wimelis mier Targmnil Teofilaqte bulgarelis evangeliur komentarebs
(markozisa da lukas Tavebi), romlebic, rogorc aRvniSneT, did naTesaobas
amJRavneben efrem mciris terminologiasTan (eWvi ar aris, rom ioane Wim-
Wimelica da eklesiastes zemoaRniSnul ganmartebaTa ucnobi mTargmnelic,
romelsac k. kekeliZe imave ioane WimWimelTan aigivebs, uTuod efrem mciris
mowafeebi arian) maTSi berZnuli gnwsic TiTqmis ugamonaklisod Targmni-
lia, rogorc `mecniereba~ (WeliZe

1996: 454).
eklesiastes ganmartebaTa sakvlevi Zeglis mTargmnelis stilebrivi na-
Tesaoba efrem mciresTan aSkaraa, amasTan, aSkaraa mTargmnelis individua-
lobac. is terminebi, romlebic saliteraturo enaSi efrem mciris damkvi-
drebuli Cans, garkveuli odenobiT dasturdeba ZeglSi, magram xSirad maT
gverdiT maTive paralelur formebad moiazreba neologizmebi, romlebiTac
zogadad mdidaria XII-XIII saukuneebis qarTuli saliteraturo ena. ekle-
siastes ganmartebaTa mTargmnelis stili erTgvar gardamaval safexurs
warmoadgens efrem mciris stilsa da Semdgomi periodis gelaTis salite-
raturo skolis moRvaweTa stils Soris. diferenciuli enobrivi niSnebis
mixedviT Zegli yvelaze met siaxloes petre gelaTelis enasTan avlens.
magram im mkveTri sxvaobebis gamo, romlebic SeiniSneba amave mTargmnelTan
mimarTebaSi, petre gelaTeli namdvilad ver iqneba am Zeglis mTargmneli.
zemowarmodgenili kvlevis gaTvaliswinebiT, sakiTxi eklesiastes gan-
martebaTa miTiTebuli Zeglis mTargmnelis vinaobis Sesaxeb Riad rCeba da
moiTxovs damatebiTi safuZvliani argumentebis Ziebas mTargmnelis vinao-
bis gansasazRvrad.
vnaxoT ra suraTi gamoikveTeba wm. barbares wamebis agiografiul Ze-
glze am TvalsazrisiT dakvirvebisas.
wm. barbares wamebis qarTuli metafrasuli redaqciebis mTargmnel
SemdgenelTa Sesaxeb mkvlevarTa mier winaswar gamoTqmuli mosazrebiT
A128/Ath.2 redaqcia petriwis Tqmulia (kekeliZe 1957: 165), H1347/Gel.5
ki _ arsen iyalToelisa (aRweriloba 1989: 5). redaqciis mTargmnelis Se- aRweriloba 1989: 5). redaqciis mTargmnelis Se- ). redaqciis mTargmnelis Se-
saxeb cnobas gvawvdis A koleqciis 878-e xelnaweri: ,,ese merkviris wameba
da varvarisi petriwis Tqmulia, amisTvis orive erTad davswere, Tumca wr-
felTaTvs Znelsasmenel Cans, garna sityuaTa mosurneTaTvs didad tkbilia
da mecnierTagan Rrmad sasurvel enamzeoba petriwisa. ra aZlevs amgva-
ri ganacxadis safuZvels A 878 xelnaweris gadamwers, CvenTvis ucnobia.
Cveni azriT, grigol mRvdelmonazoni (xelnaweri A 878-is gadamweri) enis
sirTulisa da Znelsasmenlobis gamo ukavSirebs barbares wamebas petri-
wis saxels. Tavis mxriv, swored grigol mRvdelmonazonis zemomomxobil
daskvnas imowmebs k. kekeliZe, roca brZanebs: Znelsasmenelobas da enam-
zeobasac rom ar mivaqcioT yuradReba, TviT berZnuli forma varvara
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
159
erTi maCvenebelTagania ioane petriwis samwerlo normebisao (kekeliZe
1918: XIV). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom enamzeobis gamo gelaTis skolis ara-
erT xelnawers usafuZvlod miawerdnen petriws. argumentad ver gamodgeba
forma varvarac, radgan es saxeli yvela Zvel xelnawerSi (garda A 878-sa)
baniTaa warmodgenili (barbara). vini am xelnawerSi (igulisxmeba A 878)
rusulis (da ara berZnulis!) gavleniTaa gaCenili (rac XIX s.-is krebu-
lisaTvis Cveulebrivia da ara _ moulodneli). amgvarad, verc grigol
mRvdelmonazonis da, Sesabamisad, verc k. kekeliZis am mosazrebas A128/
Ath.2-is mTargmnelis Sesaxeb ver gaviazrebT.
redaqciis mTargmnelad H 1347 xelnaweris minawerebze dayrdnobiT ar-
sen iyalToels miiCneven. H 1347 krebulis gadamweri 159r da 203r-ze ixse-
niebs vinme arsenis: wmidao RvTismSobelo,.. meox meyav winaSe Zisa Senisa
friad codvilsa arsenis... da wmidao pirveldiakono stefane... meox meyav
friad codvilsa arsenis, xolo 72r ki iyalTels: ekrZale mkiTxvelo,
iyalTelsa hlocvidi. uSualod Cvens xelnawers anderZi ar erTvis. kre-
bulSi miTiTebuli araa iyalToeli (an arseni, Tuki es saxeli da zewodeba
erTsa da imave pirs miemarTeba) krebulis damkveT-Semdgenelia, gadamweri
Tu konkretuli statiis mTargmneli (an avtori). samecniero literatu-
raSi araferia naTqvami TviT krebulis paleografiul maxasiaTeblebze.
amdenad, verc Cven vimsjelebT imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad emTxveva Zeglis
gadamweris xeli arsenisas. rogorc qarTul xelnawerTa aRwerilobis H
fondis III tomSia miTiTebuli, H1347 XI-XII s.s metafrasuli krebulia,
es ki swored is droa, roca cxovrobda da moRvaweobda arsen iyalToeli.
miuxedavad amisa, Tuki qarTul xelnawerTa aRwerilobaSi gamoTqmuli var-
audi krebulis Sedgenis Sesaxeb paleografiuli niSnebiTaa gamyarebuli
da H 1347 xelnaweri marTlac XI-XII saukuneebis metafrasuli krebulia,
xolo krebulis minawerebze dayrdnobiT wmida barbares wamebis Targmanis
arsen iyalToelisaTvis mikuTvnebas bolomde argumentirebulad mainc ver
CavTvliT (radgan minaweri uSualod Cvens xelnawers ar erTvis). 2) mom-
devno xanis mwerlobaSi wmida barbares wamebis metafrasul redaqciaTa
Sesaxeb cnobebi Semonaxuli ar aris. 3) rakiRa pirdapiri sabuTi an lite-
raturuli wyaros mowmoba Zeglis mTargmnelis Sesaxeb ar gvaqvs, amjerad-
ac unda daveyrdnoT enobriv Taviseburebebs da leqsikur mxares. CvenTvis
saintereso orive xelnaweri garkveulwilad avlens erTmaneTTan msgavsebas,
rac ganpirobebulia imiT, rom orive mTargmneli gelaTis literaturuli
skolis warmomadgenelia. mTargmnelTa dadgena-identifikaciisaTvis gaci-
lebiT mniSvnelovani da Rirebuli or xelnawers Soris arsebuli gansxva-
vebebia. TvalsaCino rom iyos A128/Ath.2 xelnawerebisa da ioane platon-
uri filosofosis Sromebis da H1347/Gel.5 redaqciisa da arsen iyal-
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
160
Toelis TargmanTa Soris arsebuli stiluri da enobriv-terminologiuri
sxvaobani, Sesadareblad movuxmoT am mTargmnelTa ucilobel naSromebs da
maTi kvlevis Sedegad miRebul daskvnebs (nemesios emeselis anTropolo-
giuri da prokle diadoxosis Teologiuri traqtatebi, ioane damaskelis
gardamocema da giorgi amartolis xronoRrafi).
I. gramatikuli sxvaobani:
1. barbares wamebis a redaqciaSi vxvdebiT ebiani mravlobiTis gamoy-
enebis 18 SemTxvevas, rac sakmaod xSiria iseTi mcire zomis ZeglisTvis,
rogoric CvenTvis saintereso xelnaweria. miuTiTeben, rom ioane petri-
wis SromebSi ebiani mravlobiTis xmarebis 24 SemTxvevaa dadasturebuli.
amaTgan 20 gvxvdeba ,,ganmartebaTa bolosityvaobaSi, romelic XVIII sau-
kunis xeliT aris aRdgenili, e.i. petriwis enas ar axasiaTebs -ebiani mrav-
lobiTis formebi (rafava 1983: 058). Cveni xelnawerisTvis -eb mravlobiTis
iseTive aqtiuri mawarmoebelia, rogoric nar-Taniani (TumcaRa, erT SemTx-
vevaSi -eb gvxvdeba Tanian mravlobiTTan kombinaciaSic, rac damaxasiaTebe-
lia gardamavali periodisaTvis: ,,viTarca eliseman yrmebTa).
2. gelaTis skolis Zeglebs micemiTSi dasmuli saxelis mravlobiTis aR-
saniSnavad axasiaTebs -ye sufiqsoidis xmareba (ZiriTadad grZnoba-aRqmis
da yola-qonebis gamomxatvel inversiul zmnebSi), rac ar SeiniSneba barba-
res wamebis arc erT redaqciaSi. -ye sufiqsi ucxoa petriwisTvisac.
3. a redaqciis orive da b gelaTur (Gel.5) xelnawerebSi gvaqvs gaforme-
buli moTxrobiTi sakuTar saxelebTan (eliseman, dioskoreman...). SeniSnaven,
rom ,,kavSirTa Targmansa da ganmartebaSi moTxrobiTi brunva gauformebla-
daa warmodgenili (meliqiSvili 1975: 15).
4. gelaTur teqstebSi (petriwisgan gansxvavebiT) xSiria -mi Tandebuli
naTesaobiT da viTarebiT brunvebTan (petriwi am Tandebulebs mxolod or-
mag naTesaobiT-viTarebiTSi xmarobs). Cveni xelnawerebi iSviaTad, magram
swored arsenis jgufis da ara petriwis tradicias misdeven (Sendami da
misda mimarT) -mi Tandebulebis xmarebis SemTxvevaSi. ufro metad ki sruli
formiT mimarT (siZisa mimarT) iyeneben am nawilaks. Cvens xelnawerebSi ar
gvaqvs -momarT nawilakis xmarebis SemTxvevebi (arc srulad da arc gamar-
tivebuli saxiT).
5. petriwTan gvxvdeba -mde Tandebuli nanaTesaobiT viTarebiTTan, b re-
daqciaSi gvaqvs dResamomde forma -mde TandebuliT. redaqciaSi es Tande-
buli mxolod viTarebiT da ara ormag brunvas erTvis (gaTenebamde).
6. rogorc , ise b redaqciis mTargmnelebi Tanad zmnizedas prepozi-
ciuri wyobiT damoukidebeli mniSvnelobiTac xmaroben (berZnul dedanSi
Tanad leqsemas Seesabameba , da ).
7. ioane petriwis SromaTa enas axasiaTebs ars meSveli zmnis gamartiveba
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
161
da winamaval sityvasTan Serwyma. es movlena Tavs iCens rogorc Sedgenil
SemasmenelTan, ise TurmeobiTis formaSi. Cvens xelnawerebSi ki msgavsi
magaliTebi ar gvaqvs.
8. gansxvavebiT petriwisgan, Cvens xelnawerebSi ar gvaqvs nasaxelar zmna-
Ta ov xufiqsiani (saxarebiseuli perovis tipis) formebi.
9. arc erT xelnawerSi ar gvaqvs petriwisa da Tanadrouli sametyvelo
enisTvis damaxasiaTebel ia daboloebiani formebi I rezultativSi (gavix-
senoT vefxistyaosniseuli qvemore miTqvams, miqia-s tipis warmoeba),
romelic xronoRrafSi iSviaTad, magram mainc gvxvdeba (mag. Seuracxia)
(yauxCiSvili 1926: 8).
10. petriwTan I kavSirebiTis III pirSi gvaqvs odin daboloebiani forme-
bi (nacvlad odian tipuri savrcobisa), rac ar axasiaTebs arc a, arc b
redaqciebs (gelaTur teqstTa msgavsad).
11. ioane petriwTan Zali mxolod substantivis mniSvnelobiTaa nax-
mari da terminologiuri datvirTva, potenciis gageba aqvs. rogorc a,
ise redaqciis xelnawerebSi es leqsema Tandebulisa da derivaciuli fun-
qciiTac gvxvdeba (es ki ucxoa ioane petriwis enisTvis) da terminis mniSv-
nelobiTac.
12. ioane petriwi xSirad mimarTavs nuume, magra, maSa kavSirebs, Cveni
xelnawerebis Semadgenelni am kavSirebs ar mimarTaven.
13. Tu kavSirs a redaqciis Semdgeneli xmarobs pirobiTi damokidebuli
winadadebis bolos zmnis Semdeg. es movlena axasiaTebs gelaTur teqstebs
(mag. maqsime aRmsareblis pirosTan sityvisgebis gelaTur Targmans) (xo-
feria 1998: 59).
14. ioane petriwisTvis Cveulebrivia mebr Tandebuli berZnuli kata
s Sesatyvisad prepoziciuri wyobiT: mebr JamiT, mebr guamiTa da a.
S. Cvens xelnawerebSi es konstruqcia (mebr+moqm/viT.) ar gvxvdeba da
Sesabamisi berZnuli windebuli gadmocemulia martivi moqmedebiTi (/viTa-
rebiTi) brunvis formiT.
15. mTargmnelTa diferenciisaTvis mniSvnelovania sityvawarmoebis Tavi-
seburebanic: kompozotian warmoebaSi a redaqciisaTvis produqtiuli wina,
Tana, uku, adverbialuri warmoSobis prefiqsebi, uku arc erTgan ar gvx-
vdeba b redaqciaSi. am mTargmnelis dialeqtisTvis damaxasiaTebeli gare
prefiqsiani kompozitebia, rac ucxoa a redaqciis SemdgenelisTvis. oTxive
afiqsi aqtiuria petriwisa da iyalToelis metyvelebisTvis.
16. abstraqtul saxelTa warmoebisas a redaqciis mTargmneli Tanabari
aqtivobiT mimarTavs -eba/-oba sufiqsebs, b redaqciis mTargmnelisTvis ki
metad produqtiulia -eba formanti (ioane petriwisgan gansxvavebiT, rome-
lic oba mawarmoebels aniWebs upiratesobas).
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
162
17. uqonlobis saxelebi b redaqciaSi sasubieqto mimReobebisgan uaryo-
fiTi ar/ver nawilakebiTaa nawarmoebi.
18. a redaqciisTvis aqtiuria ca nawilaki, Cveulebriv igi erTvis sa-
xelebs, magram or SemTxvevaSi gvxvdeba III pirSi mdgar zmnasTanac (iyoca,
ganucxadaca). iyoca forma ca nawilakiT gvaqvs xronoRragSic.
19. rogorc a redaqciis mTargmnelis, ise xronoRrafis metyvelebisT-
vis damaxasiaTebelia re nawilaki. amave redaqciisTvis aqtiuria -me da
Ra nawilakebic, romelnic b redaqciaSi gvxvdeba, magram iSviaTad (vidre-
me, raime, arcaRa formebSi).
20. gelaTur teqstTagan gansxvavebiT, barbares wamebis arc erT redaq-
ciaSi ar gvaqvs gaformebuli mdedr. sqesi (msgavsad petriwisa); am Tval-
sazrisiT, gamonaklisia dioskoride forma, romelic ukonteqstodaa mox-
mobili.
21. orive redaqciaSi gvaqvs a nawilaki kiTxviTi an kiTxva-Zaxilis
Sinaarsis gasaZliereblad, xolo b redaqciis mTargmneli am TvalsazrisiT
o nawilaksac mimarTavs (es movlena damaxasiaTebelia xronoRrafisTvi-
sac).
22. petriwi da iyalToeli kai leqsemas da +c hendiadisuri wyviliT
gadmogvcemen. es movlena ar gvxvdeba b redaqciaSi; a redaqciaSi, gansxva-
vebiT b-sagan da +c gvaqvs, magram Zneli saTqmelia kai-s Seesabameba igi Tu
ara.
23. orive redaqciaSi gvaqvs uSemasmenlo winadadebebi, romelTa ricx-
vic -Si Warbobs. petriwis TargmanTagan gansxvavebiT, a redaqciaSi uSemas-
menlo winadadebebi Zalze cotaa.
24. a redaqciaSi aseve cotaa pasivuri konstruqciebi, gansxvavebiT pe-
triwisa da iyalToelis TargmanTa da redaqciisagan, sadac amgvari wina-
dadebebi xSiria.
25. amgvarive viTarebaa infinitivur winadadebaTa gamoyenebis Tvalsaz-
risiTac. a redaqciis mTargmnel-redaqtori am SemTxvevaSic zomierebas ar-
Cevs.
26. gansxvavebul suraTs gvaCvenebs mimReobur konstruqciebze dakvir-
veba. mas Zalze aqtiurad mimarTaven rogorc a, ise redaqciis mTargm-
nelebi. TumcaRa, gansxvavebiT A128/Ath.2 xelnawerebisgan, H1347/Gel.5-Si
TiTqmis ar gvaqvs metyveleba wris zmnis mimReoburi konstruqciebi.
27. madiferencirebeli gramatikuli niSnebis gamokveTisas gverds ver
avuvliT berZnul leqsikur erTeulebs. esaa: a) uTargmnelad gadmosuli
berZnuli leqsika (stratiotis tipisa); b) uTargmnelad gadmosuli berZ-
nuli leqsika, romelTa qarTuli mawarmoeblebi aqvT darTuli (Ter-
strovnoda tipisa). g) sakuTar saxelTa arasworad gadmosuli formebi,
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
163
rac qarTul TargmanSi saxelTa gadmotanisas siWreles iwvevs (dioskore,
iuliane/i/a, barbara da a.S.). d) Sinaarsis mixedviT sazogados msgavsad
Targmnili sak. saxeli (mzisqalaqis tipisa). amgvari, msubuqad rom vTqvaT,
Secdomebi ioane petriwis xelidan gamosul Zegls ar unda axasiaTeb-
des. amitomve gveeWveba, rom redaqcia arsenis Targmania (da gamovTqvamT
mokrZalebul varauds, rom Tuki mainc miviCnevT arseniseulad, maSin misi
moRvaweobis adreul periods unda mivakuTvnoT).
II. yofiT-leqsikuri maxasiaTeblebi: gelaTis saliteraturo skolis
enobrivi stilis erTianobisa da individualurobis Sesaxeb d. meliqiS-
vili SeniSnavs: yofiTi leqsikis sferoSi vgulisxmobT individualu-
ri metyvelebisaTvis (sityvaTxmarebisTvis) xSirad saxmarisi semantikis
sityvebs... romlebic sistematurad gvxvdeba... gelaTur xelnawerebSi da
saerTod ar dasturdeba ioane petriwis metyvelebaSi (meliqiSvili 1996:
69). terminologiur-leqsikur sakiTxebze msjelobisas swored is leqsi-
kuri erTeulebi gamovkveTeT, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia gelaTuri xe-
lnawerisaTvis da, piriqiT, ucxoa petriwis enisaTvis. Cvens SemTxvevaSi
esenia ZliTi, sadme, egera, mimdemi, Znad, iW/iW, mowleoba, gioba, Tmo-
ba, zmnoba, Znoba, jerCineba, modreka/Zrva, damWirva, Tb, (aR)wba, gerSi
leqsemebi, romlebic saTanado adgilas konteqstis moxmobiT araerTxel
davimowmeT. gameorebis Tavidan asarideblad magaliTebis moxmobisgan Tavs
SevikavebT da mxolod aRvniSnavT, rom am leqsemaTagan zogierTi orive re-
daqciisaTvis saerToa, zogi ki mxolod erT-erTis kuTvnilebaa: ZliTi,
midreka, Zrva, moba, zmnoba, jerCineba is leqsikuri erTeulebia, romelic
orive redaqciis mTargmnelis metyvelebas axasiaTebs; Tb, (aR)wbeba (es
leqsemebi gvxvdeba xronoRrafSic), xolo egera, sadme, mimdemi, (umimde-
mesad), Znad, iW, mowleoba, gioba (ugiobelad), damWirva, gerSi-mxolod
redaqciis yofiT-leqsikuri maxasiaTeblebia. es leqsikuri erTeulebi
ioane petriws an ar axasiaTebs, an principulad sxva SinaarsiT mouxmobs
maT (rogorc es ZliTi, Zrva, midreka terminTa magaliTze vnaxeT).
III. terminologiuri maxasiaTeblebi: dogmatur-saRvTismetyvelo da
leqsikur-terminologiur sakiTxebze msjelobisas sagangebod SevCerdiT
ontologiur-metafizikur da drois mcnebis gamomxatvel terminolo-
giaze rogorc a, ise redaqciebSi. rogorc SevniSneT, terminologiuri
TvalsazrisiT ufro sainteresoa A128/Ath.2 redaqcia, radgan locvaTa da
gamocxadeba-saswaulTa siWarbis gamo a jgufis xelnawerebi datvirTulia
specialuri saRvTismetyvelo leqsikiT. iqve mivuTiTeT, rom es termine-
bi qmnian sruliad Camoyalibebul terminologiur sistemas, sadac yvela
leqsemas Tavisi Sesatyvisi aqvs daZebnili. yofiT da specialur termino-
logiur sistemaze dakvirvebam kidev erTxel migviyvana daskvnamde, rom a
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
164
jgufis xelnawerebi ioane petriws ar ekuTvnis. amave daskvnis gamotanis
SesaZleblobas iZleva terminologiur maxasiaTebelTa gamokveTa. Cveni xe-
lnawerebi (rogorc a, ise jgufisa) terminologiuri maxasiaTeblebi sam
ZiriTad jgufad davyaviT: a) terminologia, romelic emTxveva sakuTriv
arsenis TargmanebSi dadasturebul terminebs. mag., A128/Ath.2 xelnawe-
rebSi gvaqvs: ipyroben yovlobasa, gardamocemis arseniseul TargmanSi
- epyrian yovelni (rogorc zemoT SevniSneT, xSir SemTxvevaSi a redaqciis
mTargmnel-redaqtori dogmaturi msjelobisas gardamocemis Sesabamis
epizodebs TiTqmis sityva-sityviT imowmebs). efrem mcire pyroba-s nacv-
lad mimarTavs Secva zmnas da Targmnis amgvarad: Seucven yovelni. amgva-
rive viTarebaa myofobiTi guaris SemTxvevaSic, rasac arsenTan igive Sewy-
vileba, xolo efremTan TvTeba Seesabameba; erTsa da imave konteqstSi berZ-
nuli ktisic efremTan dabadebulis, xelnaweris mTargmnelTagan ki, arse-
nis msgavsad, agebulis Sesatyvisia. orive xelnaweris mTargmneli mimarTavs
termins jerCineba berZnuli -s Sesabamisad, nacvlad efremiseuli
terminebisa da a.S. b) terminologia, romelic imeorebs Zvel tradiciul
leqsikas (mag. efrem mciris terminebs). amgvar leqsema-terminTa ricxvic
ar aris cota: kamaran leqsema redaqciis mTargmnels efremis msgavsad
pirdapir gadmoaqvs (kamara), xolo arseni mas sferissaxeobad Targmnis;
berZnuli tropoc redaqciaSi saxed aris Targmnili (amave xelnawerSi saxe
tropocis Sesatyvisadac gvxvdeba). tropoc saxe Sesabamisoba Cveulebri-
via, rogorc efremis, ise petriwis TargmanTaTvis. amgvarsave Targmans izi-
arebda Tavdapirvelad arsenic, xolo SemdegSi daamkvidra tropoc _ guari
Sesatyvisoba, rac saerTo gaxda gelaTuri teqstebisaTvis (WeliZe 1995:
124). g) terminebi, romelic sakuTriv Cveni xelnawerebisTvisaa damaxasiaTe-
beli. amgvar terminTa ricxvs miekuTvneba umTno, rac berZnuli aseea
leqsemis Sesatyvisia da, romelsac mimarTavs orive redaqciis mTargmne-
li.
amgvarad, statistikuri maxasiaTeblebis meTodis gamoyenebam gvaCvena,
rom barbares wamebis A 128/Ath.2 redaqcia gelaTis mTargmnelobiT sko-
laSia Sesrulebuli da arc terminologiurad, arc yofiT-leqsikuri da
gramatikuli niSnebiT ar asaxavs petriwis ucilobeli TargmanebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebel viTarebas. igi ar unda ekuTvnodes ioane petriws. a redaq-
ciis mTargmnel-redaqtori unda iyos bibliisa da (rogorc Zveli, ise axa-
li aRTqmis wignTa) da ,,gardamocemis kargi mcodne (rasac gvidasturebs
Zveli da axali aRTqmis saxeobrivi sistemis Sedareba-epiTetTa intensiuri
moxmoba). xolo, raki Txzuleba gelaTis mTargmnelobiTi skolis prin-
cipebiTaa Sesrulebuli, SesaZloa misi Semdgeneli unda veZioT gelaTis
bibliis mTargmnelTa, arsenis uSualo memkvidreTa da enobriv-stilur
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
165
tradiciaTa gamgrZeleblebs Soris. enobriv-terminologiuri maxasiaTeb-
lebis mixedviT, a redaqcia axlos dgas ioane sinelis ,,klemaqsis enasTan
(romelsac petre gelaTelis saxels ukavSireben). xolo redaqcia, savar-
audod, arsen iyalToelis mieraa Sesrulebuli mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweo-
bis adreul etapze, gardamocemis xelaxla Targmnamde.
amdenad, warmodgenilma meTodikam saSualeba mogvca kritikulad ga-
dagvesinja is daskvnebi, romlebic samecniero literaturaSi eklesiastes
ganmartebaTa gelaTuri versiisa da barbares wamebis (a da b redaqciebis)
mTargmnelTa Sesaxeb arsebobda da dagvesaxa kvlevis axali mimarTuleba.
vfiqrobT, mTargmnelis problemis amgvari meTodologiuri aspeqtebiT
ganxilva, romelic werilobiT wyaroebTan erTad gulisxmobs anonimuri
Targmanebis enobriv-terminologiur analizs, yuradsaRebi unda iyos ms-
gavsi sakiTxebiT dainteresebul pirTaTvis.
damowmebani:
aRweriloba 1989: aTonis qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba. xelnawerTa erovnuli centri.
t. I, Tb.: 1989.
bezaraSvili 2004: bezaraSvili q. ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika grigol
RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT. Tb.: gamom-
cemloba `mecniereba,~ 2004.
danelia 1998: danelia k. gramatikuli sqesis gamoxatvis sakiTxisaTvis. narkvevebi
qarTuli samwerlobo enis istoriidan. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1998.
danelia 1992: danelia k. ieremias winaswarmetyvelebis Zveli qarTuli versiebi. Tb.:
Tsu gamomcemloba, 1992.
Esbroeck 1988: Esbroeck M.v., Eutime lHagiorite: le traducteur et ses traductions.- Revue des Etu-
des Georgiennes et Caucasiennes (Bedi kartlisa XL VII), vol. 4, 1988
kekeliZe 1920: kekeliZe k. Targmaneba eklesiastesi mitrofane zmrnel mitropoli-
tisa. Tb.: 1920.
kekeliZe 1957: kekeliZe k. qarTuli naTargmni agiografia. etiudebi. V. Tb.: 1957.
kekeliZe 1918: kekeliZe k. kimeni. t. I, Tb.: 1918.
lolaSvili 1978: lolaSvili iv. arsen iyalToeli (cxovreba da moRvaweoba). Tb.: 1978.
meliqiSvili 1996: meliqiSvili d. gelaTis saliteraturo skolis enobrivi stilis er- meliqiSvili d. gelaTis saliteraturo skolis enobrivi stilis er-
Tianobisa da individualurobis sakiTxisaTvis. gelaTis mecnierebaTa
akademiis uwyebani. 2, Tb.: 1996.
meliqiSvili 1975: meliqiSvili d. ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena da stili. Tb.:
Tsu gamomcemloba, 1975.
rafava... 1983: rafava m., keWaRmaZe n. amonios ermisis Txzulebani qarTul mwerlobaSi.
gamosac. moamzada, leqsikoni da gamokvleva daurTo m. rafavam. Tb.: 1983.
nana mrevliSvili, eka CikvaiZe
166
WeliZe 1995: WeliZe ed. ioane petriwis cxovreba da moRvaweoba. J. religia, I-II, 1995.
WeliZe 1996: WeliZe ed. Zveli qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo terminologia. I, Tb.:
gamomcemloba mecniereba, 1996.
xinTibiZe 1969: xinTibiZe e. bizantiur-qarTuli literaturuli urTierTobani. Tb.:
Tsu gamomcemloba, 1969.
xoferia 1998: xoferia l. maqsime aRmsareblis `pirosTan sityvisgebis~ qarTuli
Targmanebi. sakandidato disertacia. Tb.: 1998.
yauxCiSvili 1926: yauxCiSvili s. giorgi amartolis `xronoRrafis~ qarTuli Targma-
ni. 2, Tb.: 1926.
xelnawerebi:
A 61 - Rirsisa mamisa Cvenisa mitrofane zmrnel mitropolitisa da ulmpiodore
diakonisa mier aRwerili Targmanebaeklesiastisa.
A128; Ath.2; H1347; Gel.5 - wmida barbares wameba.
A 878 - wmida merkviris wameba.
By N. Mrevlishvili, E. Chikvaidze
The Challenge of Translation in Ancient Georgia and
Main Methodological Aspects of the Study of the Issue
Summary
Evident orientation of the 11
th
century Georgian system of thinking to Byzantine
cultural processes signifcantly determined trends of not only specifc directions of
culture, but also basic cultural trends of Georgia of that period in general. Georgian
religious-philosophical concepts or the literary processes in general were developed
in parallel with Byzantine cultural processes, and acquired substance accordingly. The
intensity of translation activity that emerges in the reality of Georgia of this period is
conditioned by the desire of Georgian translators to compare to Byzantium -- a lead-
ing cultural country of the world of that period. Therefore, if Georgian writers mainly
created original works at an earlier stage, this period is marked by the commencement
of active translation activity. Over time, in line with the nature and requirements of the
epoch, the concept of translation was formed and refned.
The study of literary heritage of Georgian translators and the identifcation of in-
dividual linguistic-terminological qualifers is important for in-depth research of the
issue, as well as for the establishment of the identity of anonymous translators. Fre-
quently the names of a translator, copyist or sponsor are intermixed. Additionally, the
cases of erroneous attribution of translators of the same literary school and the same
mTargmnelis problema Zvel saqarTveloSi
167
period to other translators are not rare. In such conditions, it is obvious that several fac-
tors are to be taken into account for the establishment of actual identity of a translator:
1. Historical sources about the work; 2. Literary traditions; 3. Method of translation,
based on which literary school and, respectively, probable time and place of the giv-
en work can be ascertained. 4. For the completeness of information national stylistic
norms used for this or that translation are to be studied. The following factor is to be
taken into account when making a conclusion: the stage of career the translation was
performed, since translators continuously elaborated and refned translation method
or terminological structure. The work reviews theoretical material on the basis of two
works performed pursuant to translation standards of the Gelati Theological school:
Gelati version of the interpretation of Ecclesiastes and the Torturing of St. Barbara.
The presented methodology (method of statistical qualifers V. Fooks, D. Melikishvi-
li) has enabled us to critically review the conclusions that existed in scientifc literature
about the translators of the Gelati version of Exegesis of Ecclesiastes and of the Tortur-
ing of St. Barbara (Editions A and B) and set forth a new direction for the research. In
our opinion, tackling the issue of a translator by way of such methodological aspects
that entails the analysis of linguistic-terminological analysis of anonymous transla-
tions, in addition to written sources, should be noteworthy to the people interested in
similar issues.
168
folkloristika _ Tanamedrove kvlevebi
dalila bedianiZe
amiranis miTis kompoziciuri Taviseburebani
mecnierTa Soris sakamaToa sakiTxi arsebos Tu ara amiranis miTi,
Tu Cven mxolod amiranis eposTan gvaqvs saqme. amirani epikuri gmiri ki
aris, magram Cveni varaudiT, misi Tavgadasavali Camoyalibebulia qarTul
folklorSi rogorc eposad, aseve calkeul miTebad. Tu promeTes Tavga-
dasavals miTad miviCnevT, ratom ar unda miviCnioT amiranis Tavgadasavali
miTad? arsebobs araerTi Canaweri amiranis Sesaxeb, romelTaganac kompoz-
iciuri mTlianobiT gamoirCeva ori svanuri varianti da erTic fSauri,
Tumca leqsnarevi, magram kompoziciurad mTliani da Sekruli.
amiranis Tavgadasavali msgavsebas iCens araerTi xalxis epikuri gmireb-
is TavgadasavalTan, maT Soris antikuri miTosis personaJebis Tavgadasav-
lebTan. Cven amjerad yuradRebas SevaCerebT berZnuli miTosis gmirebTan,
heraklesTan, TezevsTan, persevsTan, peiriToesTan amiranis msgavsebaze da
mxolod gakvriT SevexebiT promeTes, vinaidan promeTe-amiranis Sesaxeb bev-
ri dawerila da aq axali araferi gvaqvs saTqmeli.
Tavis cnobil naSromSi `miTis poetika~ eliazar meletinski exeba
amiransac da aRniSnavs, rom amirani monaTesave berZnuli promeTesi, ms-
gavsebas iCens persevsTan, TezevsTan, heraklesTan rogorc urCxelTa dama-
marcxebeli gmiri. didi mecnieri aq mxolod erTi fraziT kmayofildeba
da ar ganixilavs msgavsebis faqtebs. Cven mas veTanxmebiT da Cveni mxriv
davumatebT, rom amirani peiriToesTanac iCens msgavsebas.
amiranis miTis svanuri variantebis mixedviT, misi kompoziciuri de-
talebi ZiriTadad aseTia: 1. amiranis mSoblebis satrfialo Tavgadasavali;
2. amiranis dabadeba; 3. mdinaris piras amiranis akvnis dadgma da monaTvla;
4. amirani mamis saxlSi; 5. amiranis mier mamis Tvalis dabruneba; 6. amiranis
Sexvedra calTvala devTan; 7. amiranis da misi Zmebis brZola devebTan; 8.
amiranis mier baybaydevis damarcxeba; 9. amiranis brZola devTan, romelmac
igi gadaylapa (iniciacia); 10. amiranis gamosvla devis wiaRidan; 11. mze-
Tunaxav qeTus (igive yamari) Zieba; 12. amirani da gmiri ambri-andrerobi;
13. kekluca keisris qalis qeTus motaceba; 14. brZola sacolis mamasTan
da Zmebis sikvdili; 15. amiranis Zmebis gacocxleba; 16. amirani ficism-
texeli; 17. amiranis RmerTTan Sexvedra; 18. amiranis mijaWva (Ciqovani 1947:
355-363; 363-375).
amiranis miTis kompoziciuri Taviseburebani
169
amiranis miTis svanur variantebs avsebs da siRrmes matebs fSauri vari-
anti, romlis kompoziciuri detalebic aseTia:
1. amiranis mama sulkalmaxs sami vaJi hyavda. umcrosi amirani iyo,
qristes naTluli. amiranis dedas darejani erqva. ded-mama daexocaT bavS-
vebs da maT devebi Cagravdnen.
2. sanadirod wasulT cxra mTas iqiT, meaTe mTaze iremi SexvdaT, romel-
mac koSkTan miiyvana isini (Semdeg modis poeturi CanarTi koSkisa da cam-
cumis Sesaxeb).
3. amirani da misi Zmebi Sexvdnen baybay devs, romelmac yamari uxsena maT.
amiranis mier baybayis mokvlis Semdeg misi Tavebidan amomZvrali sami Wia
sam gveleSapad iqca.
4. amiranma daxoca TeTri da wiTeli gveleSapi, Savma ki is Caylapa (ini-
ciacia). amiranma mas muceli gamosWra da gamovida, oRond gaqosavebuli.
5. igris epizodi.
6. yamaris gzaze devebs hqondaT qorwili cxra Zma devs. badrma, usupma
da amiranma isini daxoces da maT saxls daepatronen.
7. yamaris naxva amiranis mier, motaceba, WurWlis aSla da mdevris
dadevneba.
8. amiranis da misi Zmebis brZola mdevarTan, Zmebis sikvdili, yamaris
mamis mokvla yamaris daxmarebiT.
9. amiranma neka TiTis moWriT Tavi moikla, radgan Zmebi daexocnen brZo-
laSi, yamarma is Tagvis magaliTze gaacocxla. gaacocxles badri da usu-
pic da Sin wavidnen.
10. amiranis mteri ambri momkvdariyo misi barkali ver aswia amiranma,
ambris dedam aswia da Searcxvina amirani, romelic sabnelos Cajda.
11. RmerTma amirans misi TxovniT Zala moumata, magram amirani gaboro-
tda da gazviadda.
12. amiranma Tavis naTliasTan SeWideba daiJina. RmerTma samjer daaso
joxi, romelic amiranma orjer moglija, mesamed ki vera. RmerTma igi am
joxze miajaWva da zed gergeti da yazbegis mTa daaxura.
13. amirans Tan goSiac hyavs, romelic jaWvs lokviT aTxelebs, magram
did xuTSabaTs mWedlebi grdemls uros dahkraven da jaWvi isev sqeldeba.
14. amirani erTma monadirem naxa gamoqvabulSi da moindoma misi gaTa-
visufleba. igi jambara-sakidelis mosatanad wavida, rom amiranis xmali
imiT daeZra, magram misma colma ar moisvena, mainc gamoelaparaka (piroba
aseTi iyo monadire aravis unda dalaparakeboda). monadirem coli ki
mityipa da amiranTan mivida, magram is gamoqvabulic gaqra da amiranic (Ci-
qovani 1947: 312-327).
Cveni yuradReba miiqcia erTma qarTulma xalxurma zRaparma `broweu-
dalila bedianiZe
170
lis wyaro~ (rCeuli 1958: 42-47), romelSic gvxvdeba informacia amiranis
gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb. amiranis gaTavisufleba ar aris kavSirSi mTel
zRaparTan, igi calke ambad aris CarTuli zRapris SuaSi:
devkaci Tavisi sulis Citis kolofs amiranis gasaRebiT aRebs. `es
amiranis gasaRebi aris samyura balaxi sTqva mzeTunaxavma. didxans iyo
kldeze mijaWvuli amiran gmirTagmiri, misi codviT dedamiwa iwvoda, cas
da qveyanas ebraleboda, magram veravin uSvela... borkili ara tydeboda.
erTxel mivida WianWvela da uTxra: mecodebi, rom magre itanjebi da,
Tu damimadleb, giSvelio, agiSvebo. amirans gaecina da uTxra: dedamiwis
zurgze Senze patara ara dacocavs rao, magram guli ki yvelaze didi gqo-
nia da SeuZlebels iCemebo. WianWvelam uTxra. aba, me getyvi da Sen yuri
damigdeo _ erTxel gvelma bayayi daiWira, Caylapva undoda, magram gaaS-
vebina; bayayma Tavs uSvela, gadaxta balaxebSi, moglija matitela balaxi,
daidva nakbenze da wyluli moiSuSa; me gamikvirda, mivedi matitelasTan
da qeba Sevasxi: balaxi Sen yofilxar-meTqi. balaxi me kia ara var, ager
rom Cems gverdiT samyura izrdeba, is aris, rom cxraklitulebs aRebs da
borkilebs amtvrevs... midebis meti ara unda rao. es rom gavigone, mivedi,
movglije samyuras meoTxe foToli da wamogiReo. micocda, miadva amiranis
jaWvs da gaxsna borkili. amiranma Tavi aiSva da WianWvela daloca: rac tani
gaq, erTi aTasad imaze meti Zala mogeceso. es samyura balaxi amirans, ra-
Rai Tavi auSvia, gadaugdia, am wyeul devkacs upovnia da sadRac damaluli
aqvso. miixed-moixeda ZiZiSvilma da kedels Sua Cakiruli dainaxa amiranis
gasaRebi. gamoiRo, miadva kolofs, gaxsna, gamoiyvana Citi, misca xelSi xe-
lmwifis Svils waaglijes Tavi da mokvda devi~ (rCeuli 1958: 45). niSan-
doblivia, rom am zRaparSi naxsenebi oTxyura samyura balaxi aris magiuri
mcenare da mas msoflio folklorSi saerTaSoriso simbolos mniSvneloba
aqvs (bregaZe 2007: megruli).
am gaTavisuflebis epizodis gaTvaliswinebiT amiranis miTi kidev ufro
srul saxes iZens da ufro met msgavsebas iCens promeTes, Tezevsis da peiri-
Toes miTebTan (herale da persevsi mijaWvulni ar yofilan da Sesabamisad,
promeTes miTebSi gaTavisuflebis epizodic ar gvxvdeba). rogorc cno-
bilia, promeTes miTTan amiranis miTs akavSirebs gmiris xasiaTi da gmiris
mijaWva, zemoxsenebuli qarTuli zRapris mixedviT ki Tavs iCens msgavsebis
kidev axali detali gmiris gaTavisufleba.
promeTes mijaWva-gaTavisuflebaze bevri Tqmula, am sakiTxs aRar gam-
ovekidebiT, axla CavxedoT Tezevsis da peiriToes miTs (kuni 1965: 201-204):
Tezevsi iyo poseidonis Svili, misi mTavari gmiroba iyo minotavris mokv-
la. igi daumegobrda lapiTebis meomari tomis meTaurs Zlevamosil gmirs
peiriToes, romelmac colad SeirTo mSvenieri hipodamia. hipodamia male
amiranis miTis kompoziciuri Taviseburebani
171
gardaicvala. peiriToem igi iglova, Semdeg ki Tezevsis daxmarebiT moitaca
mSvenieri elene. elene wilisyriT Tezevss ergo da ara peiriToes. maSin
peiriToem hadesis colis persefones motaceba sTxova Tezevss. Tezevss
Tavzari daeca, magram megobars uari ver uTxra. isini mividnen hadesTan da
colis daTmoba mosTxoves. ganrisxda hadesi, magram Tavi Seikava da gmirebs
micvalebulTa samefos SemosasvlelTan kldeSi amokveTil taxtze daj-
doma ubrZana. rogorc ki taxtze daeSvnen, orive gmiri zed miejaWva, wa-
modgoma veRar SeZles da moZraobis unari dakarges. Tezevsi didxans darCa
aCrdilTa qveyanaSi. mZime tanjvas iTmenda qvesknelSi, magram bolos herak-
lem gaaTavisufla igi (niSandoblivia, rom promeTec heraklem gaaTavisuf-
la). rac Seexeba peiriToes, misi bedis Sesaxeb miTSi araferia naTqvami. unda
vifiqroT, rom TezevsTan erTad isic gaTavisuflda taxtze mijaWvisagan.
Tezevsi skirosis mefe likomedem zRvaSi gadaagdo maRali kldidan da ase
daiRupa. am mxriv Tezevsi amiranisgan gansxvavdeba, romelic promeTesaviT
ukvdavia, Tumca Tezevsi amiraniviT borot ZalebTan mebrZolia man mokla
minotavri da sxva gmirobebic Caidina. minotavris mokvlaSi mas daexmara
masze Seyvarebuli ariadne (Sdr. amirans rogor daexmara RrubelTbatonis
mokvlaSi masze Seyvarebuli yamari. es faqti sayuradReboa imiTac, rom
aq gvxvdeba qali sakuTari mamis winaaRmdeg Seyvarebulis dasaxmareblad.
mkrTalia, magram mainc aris aq analogi medeasa da iazonis ambavs Soris,
Tumca ariadne dionises coli gaxda da ara Tezevsisa).
amiranis msgavseba heraklesa, persevssa da TezevsTan (peiriToes warmo-
Soba ucnobia) moicavs gmiris warmoSobasac igi RvTaebrivi warmoSobisaa,
qal-RmerT dalis Svili, xolo berZen gmirebs mamebi hyavT RmerTebi (her-
akles zevsi, persevsac zevsi, xolo Tezevss poseidoni). amirani herak-
les hgavs imiTac, rom igi gvelTmebrZolia (gavixsenoT herakles pirveli
gmiroba) da imiTac, rom igi ukvdavia (heraklesac xom ukvdaveba mianiWes
olimpoze RmerTebma da colad heba SerTes). persevsis miTi msgavsebas iCens
amiranis miTTan erTi detaliTac patara persevsi da dedamisi danae ar-
gosis mefe akrisiam, orakulis winaswarmetyvelebiT SeSinebulma, xis ki-
dobanSi Casva da monebs zRvaSi gadaagdebina. kidobani meTevze diqtisma gam-
oitana zRvidan da orive dedaSvili Tavis Zmas, serifosis mefe polideqtes
mihgvara, romlis karzec gaizarda persevsi. es detali Cven mogvagonebs wy-
alTan dakavSirebul axalSobil miTosur gmirebs kriSnas, moses da sxva
da mogvagonebs amiransac, romlis akvanic wyaros pirTan iqna dadgmuli da
romelic ara mSobelma mamam gazarda. persevsis miTs im zRaprebTanac aqvs
kavSiri andromedes urCxulisagan gadarCenis detaliT, romlebSic gmiri
wylis mflobeli gveleSapis SeWmisagan ixsnis mzeTunaxavs, magram es ukve
sxva sakiTxia. persevsi gvelmebrZol gmiradac SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rad-
dalila bedianiZe
172
gan gorgona-meduzas, romelic man mokla, Tavze gvelebi asevia da meduzas
sisxlis wveTebisgan Sxamiani gvelebi warmoiSvnen am mxrivac hgavs igi
amirans, oRond persevsic mokvdavia, rogorc Tezevsi.
amiranis miTTan kompoziciur msgavsebas iCens zogierTi berZnuli miTis
dasawyisi detali `gmiris mSoblebis satrfialo Tavgadasavali~: herakles
dedas alkmenes, amfitrionis meuRles, zevsisagan eyola herakle. zevsma
aseve Seiyvara danae argosis mefis akrisias asuli, moevlina mas oqros
wvimis saxiT da misgan danaes eyola persevsi.
herakle, iseve, rogorc promeTe da amirani, RmerTebis winaaRmdeg me-
brZoli gmiria. igi SeebrZola sikvdilis RmerTs Tanatoss (mefe admetes
colis alkestidas gamosaxsnelad), zRvis RmerTs nerevss (hesperidebis
vaSlebisken mimavali gza aswavlebina), apolons (romelTanac zevsma Seari-
ga), mdinaris RmerT aqeloes (romelic gvelad iqca) igi mudam gamar-
jvebuli gamodioda. Tezevsma peiriToesTvis colis, persefones daTmoba
sTxova hadess, riTac mis winaaRmdeg gamovida da peiriToesTan erTad amis-
aTvis mijaWvul iqna.
amrigad, zemoxsenebul berZnul miTebTan herakles, persevsis, Tezevsis
da peiriToes Sesaxeb amiranis miTi msgavsebas iCens mTavari gmiris xasi-
aTiT, gvelTmebrZolobiT, mijaWvis da gaTavisuflebis detaliT (oRond es
ukanaskneli mxolod Tezevsis da peiriToes Sesaxeb miTSi gvxvdeba, garda
promeTesi).
amiranis miTis Cvens mier zemoT moyvanili variantebis kompoziciuri de-
talebi logikurad misdeven erTmaneTs, isini iCenen damoukideblobas sxva
qveynebis miTebisagan, aRmocenebuli arian qarTuli cnobierebis niadagze
da berZnul miTosTan ramodenime Sexebis wertili aqvT.
dasasruls erTsac aRvniSnavdiT _ berZnebs aqvT promeTes saxelTan
dakavSirebuli dResaswauli, xolo Cven, qarTvelebs, romelTac gvyavs
udidesi miTiuri gmiri amirani, ara gvaqvs amiranoba.
damowmebani:
bregaZe 2007: megruli xalxuri rwmena-warmodgenebi. J. `le kokaz iliustreSi~
_ moxseneba, wakiTxuli ilia WavWavaZis 170 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil
folkloristTa samecniero konferenciaze. 13 ivnisi, 2007.
kuni 1965: kuni n. a. Zveli saberZneTis legendebi da miTebi. Tb.: gamom-
cemloba `ganaTleba~, 1965.
rCeuli 1958: rCeuli qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi. el. virsalaZiT redaqciiT Tb.:
gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1958.
Ciqovani 1947: Ciqovani m. mijaWvuli amirani. Tb.: 1947.
amiranis miTis kompoziciuri Taviseburebani
173
Dalila Bedianidze
Compositional Peculiarities of Amiranis Myth
Summary
Amiranis myth is an ancient Georgian legend. There exist a number of its variations.
The Svan version of the myth represents Amiranis story most precisely and clearly.
According to Svan version of Amiranis myth its compositional details are the follow-
ing:
Love story of Amiranis parents 1.
Amiranis birth 2.
Placing Amiranis cradle on the bank of the river and his baptizing 3.
Amirani in his fathers house 4.
Amirani returns his fathers eye/ frst heroism 5.
Amiranis meeting with one-eyed Ogre (Devi) 6.
Amiranis and his brothers struggle with Ogres (Devis) 7.
Amirani defeats Ogre (Devi) 8.
Amiranis battle with dragons; swallowing of Amirani by Black Dragon 9.
Amiranis coming out from dragons belly 10.
Searching for Qamari 11.
Amirani and hero Ambri 12.
Kidnapping Qamari, a maiden unseen by the sun 13.
Struggle with Qamaris father and death of Amiranis brothers 14.
Amiranis suicide; Qamari restores him and his brothers to life 15.
Amirani oath breaker 16.
Amirani challenging the God 17.
Amiranis chaining 18.
Some of the compositional details of Amiranis myth have something in common with
elements depicting adventures of mythic heroes of other countries. For example, there are
similarities in comparison with Greek myth: Prometheus, Heracles, Theseus, Peirithous
myths. Heros birth and his struggle with different evil creatures should be singled out
among them. Compare Heracles struggling with snakes and Amirani with dragons,
heros challenging with God or Gods and his punishment, in some cases chaining, in some
cases placing under mountain / see Armenian myth Mheri, in some cases chaining on the
chair / see Theseus and Peirithous
The heroes of Greek myth are fnally liberated. Amirani frees himself too, but we come
across this detail not in Georgian myth, but in Georgian folk epic Source of Pomegran-
ates, recorded by Elene Virsaladze.
174
Dominik Irtenkauf (Deutschland)
Vergleichende Mythologieforschung: Grenzverkehr zwischen
Deutschland und Georgien - Amirani im Zentrum des Interesses
Einleitende Worte I.
Hans Blumenberg schreibt in seinem Buch Arbeit am Mythos davon, da den Gttern
das Lachen verboten werden soll. Platon schreibt gegen die griechischen Dichter Homer,
Hesiod und Aischylos an, die aus der Gtterwelt eine allzumenschliche machen, in der es
wie zuweilen bei den Menschen auch drunter und drber zugeht. Fr meinen Artikel
ist diese Auseinandersetzung in der antiken Literatur von Bedeutung, da ich entgegen des
Titel dieses Artikels nicht auf eine unabhngige Forschung im Bereich der Mythologie
abziele.
Als Musa-Stipendiat liegt meine Absicht vielmehr darin, eine stoffgeschichtliche als
auch materielle Untersuchung des Mythos anzustellen. Hans Blumenberg beschreibt meine
Absicht sehr treffend mit den folgenden Stzen: Geschichten brauchen nicht bis ans Letz-
te vorzustoen. Sie stehen nur unter der einen Anforderung: sie drfen nicht ausgehen.
(Blumenberg 2006: S. 143)
Arbeit am Mythos bedeutet im Knstlerischen: Bereitschaft zur Wandlung in der
Wissenschaft: Nachweis dieser Wandlungen. Die Metamorphose durchzieht die Welt der
griechischen Mythologie. Zudem besitzt die Mythologie ein immer noch unerschpfiches
Reservoir an Bildern, die fr eine literarische Arbeit von Bedeutung sind. Die Wissenschaft
in meinem Fall besonders die Komparatistik greift genau an jenen Schnittstellen, an
denen die literarische Umarbeitung gewisse Grenzen des Stoffs zum Beispiel der Fes-
selung des Prometheus an den Kaukasus zu berschreiten droht. An dieser gefhrlichen
Grenzberschreitung tritt die komparatistische Wissenschaft als philologische Kontrolle
auf und gibt den Rahmen der Neuinterpretation vor. Das scheint keine besondere Eigen-
art schriftstellerischen Arbeitens zu sein die Integritt der Tradition fordert eine solche
Vorgehensweise. Auf der anderen Seite ist es fr mich als Schriftsteller unerheblich, ob
ich einen mythologischen Text aus der Vergangenheit als Unterlage meiner Arbeit nehme
oder neue Bilder aus der Re-Lektre mythologischer Texte in meiner tglichen Umgebung
fnde. Es kommt mir in meiner literarischen Arbeit auf die Anwendbarkeit des Mythos
an. In der Wissenschaft mu man hingegen vorsichtiger im Umgang mit Mythologemen
sein. Die Mythologieforschung kann bereits auf eine eigene Tradition zurckschauen. In
Deutschland nimmt sie mit Christoph Martin Wieland und Gottfried Herder ihren Lauf.
Eine Gesamtberblick ber ihre Geschichte kann ich aufgrund Platzmangel nicht liefern.
Meine Arbeit zu Georgien soll nicht zu viel Wissenschaft enthalten. Was heit das?
Vergleichende Mythologieforschung: Grenzverkehr zwischen Deutschland
175
Die vergleichende Forschung schaut sich nach Bildern um, die Roland Barthes in seinen
Mythen des Alltags beschreibt. Wenn die Parallelen zwischen deutscher und georgischer
Mythologie in den Blickpunkt gerckt werden, kommen die Konturen der Heldenfguren
im Fall meines Buchprojekts zur besonderen Geltung. Sie werden so genau in ihren Kon-
turen untersucht, um als Palimpsest fr meine eigene Literatur zu dienen eine sofortige
Weiterverwendung.
Die Arbeit am Mythos bestimmt sich durch die Variabilitt der Gestaltung. An beste-
henden Mythen wird nach eingehender Beschftigung fortgeschrieben, was bereits in der
berlieferung enthalten ist.
Blumenberg spricht von einer Entgegensetzung zwischen Grundmythos und Wissen-
schaft. Wissenschaft mu sich, um zu funktionieren, vom Totalittsanspruch lossagen. Ein
Knstler mag Bilder gestalten, die eine breite Flche beschreiben. Sie drcken eine Aus-
sage zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt aus, die in sich stimmig und abgeschlossen ist. Hier
berhrt sich immer wieder aktualisierte Kunst mit dem Mythos, der eine Welt nicht unbe-
dingt abschlieend im Sinne von vernnftig erklrt, aber ab einem bestimmten Punkt nicht
hinterfragt werden mchte, da auf seinen Bildern die Sulen dieser oder einer vergangenen
Welt ruhen.
Die Wissenschaft ist sich ihrer Vorlufgkeit, besonders der theoretischen Konzepte,
stets bewut, wenn sie sich ber ihre eigenen Strukturen bewut wird. Die wissenschaftli-
chen Erkenntnisse werden immer wieder aufs neue geprft. Es sind Bausteine, auf denen
Weiteres fundiert werden kann.
In der Kunst kommt es nicht so sehr auf philologische Genauigkeit denn auf berzeu-
gungskraft an. Von Bildern lebt sie und die Rezeptionsforschung stellt eindeutig unter Be-
weis, da sich Autoren vermehrt am mythologischen Stoff bedient haben. Stoff meint hier
eine abgrenzbare Situation, eine Konstellation der mythologischen Welt, die spezifsche
Personagen und Beziehungen fordert.
Mich interessiert bei meiner Forschung die Zusammensetzung des PALIMPSESTS unter
dem sichtbaren Text an der Oberfche liegt ein anderer verborgen. Grard Genette exemp-
lifziert mehrere Kategorien des intertextuellen Bezugs. Es kommt mir nicht so sehr auf die
exakte Anwendung einer Theorie an, als vielmehr auf ein weiterfhrendes Verstndnis der
Mythen und vor allem ihre Weiterverarbeitung in der Kunst.
Es sind zwei unterschiedliche Annherungen: das wissenschaftliche Interesse unter-
sucht die Typologie der mythischen Figuren und ihre Genealogie. Das knstlerische Inter-
esse hingegen fragt nach der Bildhaftigkeit.
Bei der nheren Beschftigung mit der Mythologie fllt auf, da sie nicht aus einem
Gu geschaffen worden ist und stndiger Revision unterliegt. Besonders am Beispiel des
Halbgotts und Titans Prometheus kann man die stndige Umarbeitung, Nachbearbeitung,
Vernderung nachweisen. Schlielich berkommt dem Mythos eine kleine Schwche, in-
sofern der franzsische Schriftsteller Andr Gide im Prometheus-Mythologem eine par-
Dominik Irtenkauf (Germany)
176
odistische Note wahrnimmt und dies literarisch verarbeitet (Le Promthe mal enchain,
1899).
Ich stelle mir selbst die Frage, was passiert, wenn die Gtter anfangen, zu lachen. Der
Schalk treibt sich mglicherweise in das Gesicht des Forschers. Wenn der mythische Ernst,
die berwindung des anfnglichen Chaos, in heiteres Spiel umbricht, verlieren die Er-
kenntnisse mglicherweise an Tiefsinn, kaum aber an berzeugungskraft.
Ich spreche hier das Problem der zwiegespaltenen Rede an: der Wissenschaft auf der
einen und der Literatur auf der anderen Seite. Geschichten werden nicht geschrieben, um
nur einem kleinen elitren Zirkel zugnglich gemacht zu werden. Wer schreibt, mchte
Empfnger erreichen. In der zeitgenssischen Literatur entstehen Texte im Nu, ein stheti-
sches Urteil wird ber die rasante Weiterentwicklung der Medien erschwert.
Auch in bezug auf die Rezeption der Mythen im 21. Jahrhundert gilt zu vermuten, da
in allen Bereichen der Gesellschaft ein vages Verstndnis anzutreffen ist. Wie bei einem
Palimpsest kommt nie deutlich heraus, welche genauen Worte unter den aktuell sichtbaren
niedergefat sind. Mit einer solchen medialen Praxis kann die Wissenschaft nicht leben,
die Kunst schon. Die Wissenschaft fordert klare Defnitionen und Abgrenzungen. Der gra-
vierende Unterschied zwischen begrndbaren Thesen und berzeugenden Bildern spricht
sich meiner Meinung nach am deutlichsten in der Mediengeschichte aus. Als Schriftsteller
interessiert mich vornehmlich die Verwertbarkeit des vorgefundenen Materials. In diesem
Ansatz komme ich einem Bildenden Knstler nahe, der fr einen angemessenen Ausdruck
nach den rechten Mitteln sucht. An dieser Schnittstelle greift mein Interesse am Mythos
an: Wie schreibt sich dieser durch die Werke? Methoden fr eine solchgestaltige Analyse
gibt die komparatistische Rezeptionsforschung an die Hand. Ich habe bereits von Genette
gesprochen.
Ein weiterer Bezugspunkt aus essayistischer Perspektive wre Roland Barthes und
zwar aufgrund seiner stets bemerkbaren medialen Kompetenz. Sein Buch zur Fotografe
(La chambre claire) kann nicht nur zur (theoretischen) Betrachtung von Fotos herange-
zogen werden, sondern mehr noch zur Orientierung des eigenen Interesses dienen. Einer-
seits geht Barthes auf eine theoretische Grundlege seiner photographischen Wahrnehmung
ein; andererseits versucht der franzsische Essayist, seine persnlichen Wahrnehmungen
bezglich besonderer Photographien in seine theoretische Erluterungen zum Wesen der
Photographie an sich einzubringen. Dieser dialektische Sprung gelingt in einer przisen
Sprache, die zugleich Raum fr persnliches Kolorit zult.
Die persnliche Faszination an der Mythologie und ihrer Ausdruckskraft sollte ein
Stck weit zurckgenommen werden, um nicht in falschen Pathos und ungenaue Aussagen
zu verfallen. Dennoch bleibt zu konstatieren, da die Vergleichende Mythologieforschung
keinesfalls ein persnliches Bekenntnis ausschlieen mu, wenn sie sich nicht allein auf
die wissenschaftliche Untersuchung begrenzen mchte.
Texte entstehen unter Rckbezug auf Vorgngertexte in kompositorischer Hinsicht
Vergleichende Mythologieforschung: Grenzverkehr zwischen Deutschland
177
ist der Bezug auf diese Vorbilder eine vielgestaltige angewandte Praxis. Whrend der Ar-
beit am Mythos verndert sich der Ursprungsstoff und geht anteilig in die Neubearbeitung
ein. Jetzt mssten konkrete Beispiele folgen, um die Textarbeit zu verdeutlichen. Darauf
mchte ich in meinem Artikel jedoch verzichten und stattdessen auf die Weiterverarbeitung
Amiranis im Kontext meines Buchprojektes eingehen.
Zum Amirani-Mythos II.
Amirani wird auf persnliche Nachfrage bei Einwohnern Tbilissis als starker Mann
vorgestellt. Ein Held aus Berufung, Sohn der Jagdgttin Dali und des Jgers Sukalmachi
(nach der berlieferung des Chikovani-Buchs). Er setzt sich gegen die Unterdrckung des
einfachen Volks ein.
Als das Wortgeplnkel begann, gingen sie zum Karren und sagten zu ihrem jngsten
Bruder:
Bruder Amirani, du hilfst denen, die in Not und Gefahr sind. Vielen hast du wieder auf
die Fe geholfen. Deinem Wesen bist du bis heute nicht untreu geworden.
(Chikovani 1978: 122-123)
Die Arbeit an mythologischen Stoffen fordert in der schriftstellerischen Praxis eine
andere Ausrichtung als in der wissenschaftlichen Erforschung. Im Schriftstellerischen
kommt es auf die dramaturgische Zuspitzung an; in der Wissenschaft auf die Darstellung
der Zusammenhnge, die Offenlegung der Genealogie, die Rezeptionsgeschichte des my-
thologischen Stoffs.
Wenn ich mich in Georgien mit der Mythologie beschftige, hat das kein rein histori-
sches oder literaturwissenschaftliches Interesse. Ich bin auf der Suche nach neuem Stoff.
Lese ich georgische Romane, um mir einen Einblick in diese Nationalliteratur zu ver-
schaffen, lese ich sie nicht allein als Ausdruck einer bestimmten Nation, die mit anderen
Nationalliteraturen verglichen werden kann, sondern auch als Unterlage fr meine Arbeit
am Palimpsest.
In meiner Literatur berarbeite ich meine Forschungserkenntnisse in einen literarisch
ausgearbeiteten Text.
Amirani entstammt der Mrchenwelt, wie einige Parallelen zum Mrchenstoff nahele-
gen. Das Mythologem besitzt eindeutig folkloristische Bezge, weist ebenfalls Bezge zur
Heldensage auf (Kampf gegen Ungeheuer beziehungsweise Dewis, Eroberung einer sch-
nen Frau, Auszug von der Heimat), doch stellt sich trotz der ber dreihundert Fassungen
eine gewisse Beschrnkung des mythologischen Stoffs ein.
Er hat sich aus der Mrchenwelt nie wirklich emanzipiert. Das Buch von Micheil Chi-
kovani war bislang aufgrund mangelnder Sprachkenntnisse meine Forschungsgrundlage.
Mir ist die Expansivitt der Amiranologie bewut, die Vielzahl an Textvarianten ebenso.
Im Palimpsestverfahren knnen die einzelnen Schichten durcheinander geraten, jeweils
Dominik Irtenkauf (Germany)
178
den Platz der anderen einnehmen. Hans Blumenberg geht in seinem Buch zum Mythos
hufg auf das Prinzip der Metamorphose ein. Diese eigentliche Prinzip der Mythologie
mchte ich als Erkenntnismethode bernehmen; und zwar die Arbeit am Mythos bedingt
eine berarbeitung des alten Stoffs und seine Erprfung im zeitgenssischen Alltag. Die
letzte Forderung stammt, so mu ich eingestehen, aus meiner eigenen Emanzipation aus
der deutschen Romantik. Die Verbindung der Sagenwelt eines Landes mit den Konstellati-
onen, die sich im Alltag von Zeit zu Zeit wiederholen.
Die Leser werden Friedrich Schlegels Rede ber die Mythologie sicher kennen. Aus
dieser ertnt die Forderung nach einer sogenannten Neuen Mythologie. Meines Erachtens
kann diese immer noch bearbeitet werden und sie fndet unablssig neue Formen.
In der gegenwrtigen deutschsprachigen Literatur besteht ein deutlicher Hang zu einem
rein dokumentarischen Stil. Die Mythologie interessiert hierbei nicht viel, da ihr ein bil-
dungsbrgerlicher Ballast, ein akademischer Zwang anhaftet. Erst durch die Vereinfachung
ihrer Bildsprache auf wesentliche Figuren gewinnt die Mythologie an neuer Aussagekraft.
Was fand ich nun whrend meines Aufenthalts in Georgien an Amirani?
Amirani ist bodenstndiger als Prometheus. Aus den mir einsehbaren Quellen geht
hervor, da Amirani allein durch seine Mutter, die Jagdgttin Dali, einen Bezug zur Gt-
terwelt unterhlt. Die notierte Amiranisage ist bereits aus dem Umfeld der georgischen
Mythologie herausgelst. Es gibt kein breites Gtterpantheon, in dem er sich bewegt. Ihn
begleiten seine beiden Halbbrder auf seinen Fahrten und bestehen gemeinsame Abenteu-
er. Das Amirani-Mythologem weist einige Zge der Heldensage auf: die Ausfahrt, das Be-
stehen der Abenteuer, das Krftemessen mit Ungeheuern und dem Wolkenknig mit dem
kleinen, aber gewichtigen Unterschied, da er nicht an den Ausgangspunkt zurckkehrt,
sondern angekettet im Kaukasus endet.
Bestraft wird Amirani letztlich fr die Herausforderung Gottes, jedoch nicht aufgrund
einer Tat fr die Menschheit, deren Zweckmigkeit Zeus im griechischen Mythos immer
wieder in Zweifel zieht, sondern weil er den Gott im Krftemessen herausfordert und damit
seine Unterordnung nicht akzeptiert.
Prometheus hingegen wird fr den Feuerraub, einer gefhrlichen Sache fr den Men-
schen, in den Kaukasus verbannt. Der Kontakt zwischen griechischer und georgischer Welt
ist belegt, wofr unter anderem auch die bernahme des Christentums spricht, wenn auch
die Weisungen aus Byzanz, einem Auenposten der hellenischen Welt, stammten.
Ehrlich eingestanden, habe ich whrend meiner schriftstellerischen Arbeit in Georgien
mehr Sympathie fr Amirani empfunden, da dieser weniger bearbeitet wurde als Prome-
theus. Die Spuren in der georgischen Literatur sind eher sprlich gest, ganz im Gegensatz
zu Prometheus, der auch in der deutschsprachigen Literatur eine breite Resonanz gefunden
hat. Am bekanntesten drfte Goethes Prometheus-Gedicht sein. Ein georgischer Amirani-
Roman steht noch aus. Oder besser gesagt: ein Roman, der sich in seinem Kern auf den
mythischen Helden konzentriert.
Vergleichende Mythologieforschung: Grenzverkehr zwischen Deutschland
179
Da setze ich an und hinterfrage diese Vernachlssigung. Um ein Buch ber das My-
thologem eines fremden Landes gewissermaen gegen ein nur oberfchliches Verstndnis
abzusichern, ist die Forschung an der berlieferung notwendig. In der Amiranisage treten,
wie ich bereits anfhrte, Muster der Heldensage auf. Darber hinaus kann man Amirani
als ein archaisches Symptom des Heldentums verstehen. Was heit das? Amiranis Figur
lt gewisse Schlsse ber die Rolle des Heldens zu. Er untersttzt die Unterdrckten und
sorgt fr eine Befriedung der noch chaotisch anmutenden Welt, die von Ungeheuern und
Bsewichten erfllt ist.
Zieht man nun meine berlegungen zum Palimpsest in Betracht, kann der Amirani-
Stoff die fundamentbildende Schicht des Palimpsests abgeben, als Hintergrund einer er-
neuten Beschftigung mit georgischer Mythologie. Untersttzend kommt hierbei der
bergang des Amirani-Stoffs in den Sagenschatz zugute, das heit, der Inhalt des Stoffs
erfhrt durch Kinder- beziehungsweise Mrchenbcher eine weite Verbreitung. Das fllt
mir auch in Geschften auf, wenn ich mich mit Lebensmitteln eindecke, da erstens der
Name Amirani bekannt ist und zweitens er als starker Mann, geradezu als Draufgn-
ger wahrgenommen wird und hiermit ein gewisser parodistischer Zug in die Heldensa-
ge kommt. Wohlgemerkt, in der Rezeption kommt dieser parodistische Zug zur Geltung.
Nicht im Textkonvolut, was einen interessanten Schlu auf die Perzeption postmodernen
Heldentums zult.
Im Alltag kann ber einen berstarken Helden wie Amirani blo im Gestus der Ironie
gesprochen werden.
Diesen parodistischen Zug mchte ich aufgreifen, denn er fungiert als Schnittstelle zur
germanischen Mythologie, besser gesagt: zu einem jngeren Stoff, der aber fr die deut-
sche Literatur in etwa die Bedeutung des Rustaweli-Poems Der Mann im Tigerfell ber-
nimmt. Ich spreche vom Nibelungenlied und seinem Helden Siegfried, der den Drachen
ttet und fr seinen Herrn Gunther manches Wagnis eingeht. Seine treuherzige Loyalitt
verunmglicht eine gegenwrtige Neubearbeitung Siegfrieds als ernstzunehmenden Hel-
den; in der Kunst ist allein ein parodistischer Umgang mit ihm mglich, so meine These.
Diese Rezeption des Helden in der deutschen Kunst mag auf die Auswirkungen des Zwei-
ten Weltkriegs zurckzufhren sein.
Eine Konzentration auf bloe Kraftmeierei fhrt zu amsantem Lcheln whrend der
Einkufe auf den Straen Tbilissis. Fr mich persnlich fhrt die Mythologieforschung zu
einer integrativen Funktion des Mythos: durch typologische bereinstimmungen ist eine
Verstndigung ber Lndergrenzen mglich. Grenzverkehr fndet statt.
Meine Beschftigung mit Amirani als unterer Schicht des Palimpsests mag unter den
kritischen Augen der Amiranologie, einer spezialisierten Disziplin, nicht standhalten kn-
nen. Durch Textstudium bemhe ich mich um ein close reading, das jedoch den Text als
Ausdruck eines bestimmten Diskurs aufiest, das heit ihm seinen Ort in der Medienge-
schichte zuweist. Der Bezug auf die mediale Struktur eines Textes bildet fr meine eigenen
Dominik Irtenkauf (Germany)
180
Forschungen zwischen Literatur und komparatistischer Wissenschaft ein wesentliches Bin-
deglied. Er erklrt die Rezeption der Mythologie sowohl vom Produzenten als auch vom
Rezipienten des Textes aus: die bernahme eines Mythologems in die Bildkomposition
eines Gemldes oder in den Handlungsverlauf eines Romans lt Schlsse auf die ber-
zeugungskraft des Bildes zu. Diese berzeugungskraft setzt ein vorgngiges sthetisches
Urteil voraus. Das Urteil kommt auf der Rezipientenseite zustande, was ein mglicher-
weise schlechtes Licht auf meine Forschung werfen mag, da mich whrend der Studie fr
ein Buchprojekt auch stets die andere Seite, der Leser, interessiert, ohne den jede Literatur
berfssig wre. Diese Einsicht hat keineswegs mit einer Willfhrigkeit dem Leser ge-
genber zu tun, sondern mit einem ehrlich begrndeten Interesse an seiner Position. Ein
kleines Land, dessen kulturelles Erbe noch nicht die Aufmerksamkeit bekommt, das es
verdient, sollte nicht durch eine unverstndliche Sprache noch weiter von Mitteleuropa ge-
rckt werden. Der Spagat zwischen verstndlicher und treffender Sprache kann nur durch
ein Interchangieren zwischen wissenschaftlicher Forschung und literarischem Ausdruck
gelingen.
Mein Buch zum zeitgenssischen Amirani in Georgien versucht, georgische Mytholo-
gie in Literatur zu berfhren, mit dem konkreten vierteljhrlichen Aufenthalt im Sommer
2007 verbindend. Das heuristische Prinzip der Metamorphosen untersttzt die intertextu-
elle Bezugnahme der einzelnen Schichten meines Palimpsest-Buchs je nach Grad der
Vernderung sind unterschiedliche Antworten mglich auf die Frage: Wer war, wer ist und
wer wird Amirani sein?
In der germanischen Mythologie stossen wir auf die drei Nornen, Skuld - Urd und
Werdandi, die die Fden des Lebens in den Hnden halten und ber Vergangenheit, Gegen-
wart und Zukunft entscheiden. Sie stehen in manchem Supermarket in der Hauptstadt, und
teilen mir gewisse Geheimnisse des georgischen Alltags mit. Ich schaue zurck und sehe:
Amirani. Ich schaue auf mich und sehe: einen in Georgien gestrandeten Schriftsteller. Ich
schaue voraus und sehe: ein Buch ber Amirani und Georgien.
Die mittlere Schicht wird vom Helden in der Fremde gestaltet. Dieser nimmt sich in
der Kampfbereitschaft bewut zurck; weil es nicht um die Durchsetzung seines Willens
geht und der endlose Kampf gegen eine chaotische Ordnung in einer post-mythischen
Zeit nicht lnger zu seiner wichtigsten Pficht gehrt. Der Held in der Fremde tritt aus dem
mythologischen Muster und nimmt das Wagnis einer Eingewhnung an. Im Palimpsest-
Verfahren funktioniert die literarische Arbeit durch berarbeitung, Ausstreichung, Fort-
schreibung. Die Mythologie gewinnt durch konzentrierte Textarbeit an neuem Leben, weil
Amirani als bestimmtes literarisches Muster im Handlungsverlauf anwendbar ist. Jedoch
gilt es trotz des Palimpsest-Verfahrens trotzdem auf die einzelnen Verknpfungen und Va-
rianten zu achten.
In der germanischen Mythologie lt sich ein Groteil nur durch andere Zeugnisse
rekonstruieren. Hufg mu sich der Mythologieforscher bei rmischen Schreibern einen
Vergleichende Mythologieforschung: Grenzverkehr zwischen Deutschland
181
Eindruck verschaffen, wie zum Beispiel bei Tacitus. Jeder Text reprsentiert sicher auch
ein spezifsches Interesse an der Sache, und so mu sein diskursiver Entstehungsort stets
mitbercksichtigt werden. Das Nibelungenlied nimmt Zge der germanischen Mythologie
auf; es lt sich durchaus als partielle Wiederaufnahme der germanischen Mythologie ver-
stehen, vermengt diese jedoch mit der im Mittelalter fortgefhrten Aventiuere, die sich an
antike Heldenepen anschliet, jedoch das hfsche Ideal der Ritterlichkeit hinzufgt.
Amirani ist als mythisches Substrat in einer frheren Stufe stehen geblieben, und die
Vielzahl an oralen Textvarianten belegt zunchst eine gewisse Rezeptionskraft, das heit:
im Reich der Mrchen und Geschichten, die man sich abends vor dem Schlafengehen er-
zhlt, besitzt Amirani einen festen Platz. In der Weltliteratur hingegen verfgt er ber keine
stndige Vertretung. Prometheus wird ihm mglicherweise den Rang abgelaufen haben.
Amirani sendet keine Botschafter in die Welt aus. Die Grnde mgen auch in einem hhe-
ren Alter des Mythologems liegen. In diesem Artikel wollte ich von meiner Arbeit am My-
thos erzhlen, weniger von den spezifschen Charakteristika des Mythologems Amirani.
Wenn Lvi-Strauss vorschlgt, alle erhobenen Fassungen eines Mythos in einer Blatt-
struktur bereinander zu projizieren, um dadurch den Kernbestand zu ermitteln, so ist dies
die Ausfllung des Zeitfaktors: alle Varianten werden einer unbestimmten Zeitebene zu-
geordnet. Es ist nicht mehr das ewig Wahre, aber doch eines, fr das Zeitverlauf und Zeit-
stelle gleichgltig sind. Fr eine philosophische Mythologie ist das besonders gehrtete
Material des Mythos in seinem Geschichtsgang nicht zuletzt dadurch aufschlureich, da
an seinem Widerstand gegen die Richtung und Strke der verformenden und destruktiven
Krfte Aufschlsse fr die geschichtlichen Horizonte gewonnen werden knnen, aus denen
sie einwirken. (Blumenberg 2006: S. 301)
Resmee III.
Mein Fazit mchte ich mit einem Zitat aus einem Brief Gottfried Benns an Kthe von
Porada beginnen:
Europa ist der Erdteil der Abgrnde und Schatten, denken Sie doch, da im hellsten
Griechenland Prometheus an den Felsen mute und wie er litt! (zitiert bei Blumenberg
2006: S. 329)
Der Kaukasus wurde vom deutschen Dichter ins helle Griechenland gerckt. Der Kau-
kasus verliert an Auerordentlichkeit im geographischen, aber vor allem mythologischen
Sinne. Es knnte als Lob aufgefat werden, wenn der Felsen im Kaukasus als wenn nicht
Mittelpunkt, so doch als Bestandteil Europas wahrgenommen wird. Durch Prometheus
rckt der Kaukasus nher an Europa, doch mchte ich nicht in den Kanon einstimmen,
Amirani sei ein georgischer Prometheus. Es gibt einige Unterschiede: es fehlen die Tricks-
terattribute. Amirani ist gewitzt und bermenschlich stark, doch unterliegt er letztlich der
gttlichen Herausforderung. Prometheus ebenso, was die Fesselung an den Felsen bezeugt,
Dominik Irtenkauf (Germany)
182
doch verliert Prometheus nicht den Rckhalt in der Gtterwelt. Herakles gelingt es letzt-
lich, Prometheus in manchen Varianten des Mythos zu befreien. Bei Amirani wird diese
Befreiung immer wieder vereitelt. Amirani als nationale Allegorie bietet sich fr Georgien
an, und wurde im 19. Jahrhundert unter anderem von Dichtern wie Akaki Zereteli aufge-
griffen. Zu sehr hnelt die von vielen blutigen Kmpfen geprgte Geschichte Georgiens
dem Schicksal des Halbgotts Amirani.
Amirani ist unbearbeiteter als die Mythologeme aus der griechischen Mythologie; er
lt so nehme ich das in meiner schriftstellerischen als auch wissenschaftlichen Praxis
wahr mehr Freiraum fr eine Neuinterpretation, die sich an der bestehenden Tradition
ausrichtet.
Meine Absicht in Georgien ist es, die Amiranisage als untere Schicht des Palimpsests
wahrzunehmen, die Textur der Mythologie in der Kultur als auch im Alltagsleben aufzu-
spren und mit Hilfe einer Arbeit am Mythos zu verstehen lernen. Hierfr nimmt meine
Vorgehensweise wissenschaftliche Zge insofern an, als da ich Differenzen nicht nivellie-
re, sondern in meine Arbeit einfieen lasse. Zugleich ffnet sich mein literarisches Auge
den offensichtlichen nderungen an der Oberfche. Dieses Projekt dauert seit Beginn
der literarischen Moderne an. Bitte verlangen Sie von mir nicht, ein Werk, einen Schrift-
steller oder gar eine Jahreszahl fr diesen Umbruch zu nennen. Er macht sich bis heute
bemerkbar, ist lange noch nicht ausgestanden und fordert vom wahrnehmenden Subjekt
eine jeweils auf die Fragestellung abgestimmte Phnomenologie.
Meine Phnomenologie speist sich aus Grard Genettes Intertextualittskonzept des
Palimpsestverfahrens, Blumenbergs Arbeit am Mythos, den ich weniger philosophisch wie
er, sondern medienpraktisch verstehen mchte und meinen eigenen kontingenten Erfahrun-
gen in den drei Monaten, die ich in Georgien verweilte.
Aus dieser trigonalen Konzeption entwickelt sich eine Untersuchung zu Amirani, ange-
reichert mit Muskeldehnungen meines Kopfes, die persnliches Kolorit als auch fktiona-
lisierte Erlebnisse ausdrcken, und Refektionen zur zeitgenssischen Rezeption jedweder
Mythologie.
Ich mchte zu Grard Genette noch einige Worte anfhren: In seinem Buch Palimpses-
te. Die Literatur auf zweiter Stufe (Frankfurt am Main 1993) fhrt er anhand einer Vielzahl
an Beispielen vor, in welcher Beziehung ein Hypo- zu einem Hypertext steht, wie in einem
neu verfaten Text Spuren einer Vorlage auftauchen. Aus seinem Ansatz kann ich fr mei-
ne eigene schriftstellerische Arbeit die Kunst der feinen Trennung erlernen, das heit mir
wird bewut, da das Amirani-Mythologem ber mehrere Schichten verfgt, die jeweils
zeitlich voneinander geschieden werden mssen. Zudem wird ein Gefhl der perspektivi-
schen Vernderung vermittelt - wird der Rahmen einer Vorlage erweitert oder reduziert,
neubearbeitet oder bernommen, variiert oder plagiiert?
Diese intertextuelle Webarbeit geschieht auf dem Hintergrund einer Arbeit am Mythos,
zu der ich bereits oben nheres ausgefhrt habe. Bei dieser Arbeit bleibe ich nicht am
Vergleichende Mythologieforschung: Grenzverkehr zwischen Deutschland
183
Original kleben, sondern fhre es in einem anderen Medium - der Literatur - fort, um da-
durch die Aussagekraft georgischer Mythologie zu testen. Auch beziehe ich andere Medien
als die textuelle oder orale berlieferung ein; wie zum Beispiel die Bildende Kunst oder
den internationalen Film. Auf diese Weise soll eine mglichst ausgewogene Sicht auf das
mythologische Umfeld Amiranis ermglicht werden. Die Ergebnisse kann ich zum derzei-
tigen Stand meiner Forschungen noch nicht absehen.
Sptestens wenn das Buch zu Amirani im Rahmen des Musa-Stipendiums verffent-
licht wird, werde ich nhere Details preisgeben knnen.
Literatur:
Barthes 1980: Barthes R. La chambre claire. notes sur la photographi. Paris : Gallimard,
1980.
Blumenberg 2006: Blumenberg H. Arbeit am Mythos. Frankfurt am Main, suhrkamp verlag,
2006.
Chikovani 1978: Chikovani M. (Hg.). Das Buch vom Helden Amirani. Ein altgeorgischer Sagen-
kreis, bersetzt von Heinz Fhnrich, Leipzig: Kiepenheuer, 1978.
Genette 1993: Genette G. Palimpseste. Die Literatur auf zweiter Stufe. Frankfurt am Main,
suhrkamp verlag, 1993.
dominik irtenkaufi
`SedarebiTi miTologia. germania-saqarTvelos Soris sazRvris
monacvleoba amirani interesTa centrSi~
reziume
Cemi saboloo mizania, erTad movaqcio mecnieruli kvleva da litera-
turuli interpretacia, im wignSi, sadac laparaki iqneba amiranis saxeSi
gamoxatul gmirobis qarTul miTologiur motivze. winamdebare statia
efuZneba leqcias, romelic Cavatare SoTa rusTavelis literaturis in-
stitutSi 2007 wlis 17 oqtombers, ganaTlebis saministros mier organize-
buli programis ,,muza-saqarTvelos~ farglebSi. maSin me visaubre amiranis
miTologiis specifiur maxasiaTeblebze da gadavwyvite Tavi ameridebina
Temisadmi gansakuTrebulad samecniero midgomisTvis. amis nacvlad, yura-
dReba gavamaxvile miTologiis warmosaxviT Zalaze dRevandel yoveldRiur
cxovrebaSi.
winamdebare statiaSi amiranis problemis kvleva, erTi mxriv, eyrdnoba
Jerar jenetis palimpsestis interteqstualobis Teorias, meore mxriv, _
Dominik Irtenkauf (Germany)
184
hans blumensbergis wigns Arbeit am Mythos (miTosze muSaoba), imdenad ram-
denadac me mainteresebs is miTologiuri cvlilebebi, romelic ganicada
miTologiam mas Semdeg rac pirvelad gamoCnda konkretuli miTologiuri
motivi _ gmiri ucxo miwaze. Cemi kvleva miTologiur Temaze SeiZleba Se-
vadaroT amerikeli mecnieris Jozef kempbelis popularul wigns ,,aTasi
saxis mqone gmiri~. Tavis wignebSi is yovelTvis cdilobs ipovos msgavseba
msoflios sxvadasxa miTologiebs Soris.
Cemi statiis da SemdgomSi, wignis, mizania gaacnos germanel mkiTxvels ara
marto qarTuli miTologia, aramed yoveldRiuri cxovreba da miTologiis
roli dRevandel saqarTveloSi. amis gamo, me ZiriTadad dainteresebuli
var qarTuli miTologiisa da zRaprebis aRqmiT xelovnebis sxvadasxva sf-
eroSi. es aris Cemi, ase vTqvaT, intermedialuri midgoma. amas garda, vc-
dilob ganvaviTaro specialuri fenomenologiuri midgoma sakiTxisadmi,
raTa davabalanso cru Sexedulebebi da miTis erTi mimarTulebiT aRqma.
es fenomenologiuri meTodi Seicavs qarTuli miTologiis pirovnul re-
interpretacias, germanuli kulturis gaTvaliswinebiT. germania-saqarT-
velos Soris sazRvrebis gadakveTasTan dakavSirebuli kiTxvebi ganixileba
kulturuli msgavsebebisa da gansxvavebebis aspeqtSi.
amirani jer kidev ZiriTadi miTologiuri motivia, romelic unda iqnas
mxatrulad reinterpretirebuli.
185
kulturis paradigmebi
kaxa kacitaZe
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi
arqaul kulturaSi
dasavleTSi sul ufro intrensiurad viTardeba kvlevebis tipi, romel-
Tac samxedro-kulturologiuri SeiZleba vuwodoT da romelic moicavs
imis Seswavlas, Tu rogor aRiqmeboda ama Tu im kulturaSi is fenomeni,
omis saxeliT rom aris cnobili. m. osovskaias, r. kardinis da sxvebis naS-
romebma am mimarTulebiT sruliad axali horizonti gaxsna. warmodgenil
samxedro-kulturologiuri Tematikisadmi miZRvnil statiaSi Cven Sevexe-
biT omis arqauli aRqmis erT-erT yvelaze aqtualur da dramatul moments
_ gmiri-beladis (SeTavsebiT epikuri samxedro gmiris) daRupvasTan dakav-
Sirebul rig aspeqtebs.
omi, sikvdili, sicocxle
sayovelTaodaa cnobili, rom samxedro saqmes sikvdilTan specifikuri
damokidebuleba aqvs. es sakiTxi dawvrilebiT gavarCieT strategiis sa-
fuZvlebis bolo monakveTebSi (kacitaZe 2006: 501-520) da axla mxolod
mokled gavimeorebT ZiriTad daskvnebs.
arsebobs sami sfero, romelTac sikvdilisadmi specifikuri, SeiZleba
iTqvas, uaRresad intimuri damokidebuleba aqvT. esenia: filosofia, ro-
melic sokratuli Tu kvazisokratuli gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad (romelic
XI-XIII saukuneebis qarTul filosofiur skolebze gadamwyvet gavlenas
axdenda), sxva araferia, Tu ara `wurTvna sikudilisa~, `sikvdilis trei-
ningi~ _ sakuTar Tavsa da sxvebSi sikvdilis SiSis gadalaxva, inteleqtu-
aluri amaRleba Cven sasrulobaze, oRond sruliad sxva formiT, vidre es,
vTqvaT, iaponur kulturaSi iyo;
medicina sfero, romelic gulisxmobda sikvdilisgan dacvas (cxadia,
es dacva yovelTvis pirobiTia, vinaidan sikvdili mainc Cveni mudmivi da
Tanxmxlebi Tanamgzavria);
samxedro saqme, romlis ZiriTadi saqme (`biznesi~) sikvdilia, `mokvdi-
nebaa~, oRond es mokvdineba gacilebiT sxva da specifikuria, vidre, vTqvaT,
`qileris~ mier Cadenili mkvleloba. samxedroc klavs, an, sul cota,
kaxa kacitaZe
186
gegmavs amas, magram misi qmedeba arsebiTad gansxvavebulia da ara mxolod
imitom, rom mis mier ganxorcielebuli mkvleloba saxelmwifos mieraa
institucionizebuli. es SeiZleba arc ise mniSvnelovani detalia. ufro
mniSvnelovania is, rom samxedros arsebobis wesi principulad gansxvavdeba
qileris arsebobis wesisagan (qilers, rogorc sikvdilisadmi specialur
mimarTebas, ar ganvixilavT im martivi mizezis gamo, rom is paTologiaa
maSin, roca samxedros, medikosisisa an filosofosis damokidebuleba si-
kvdilis mimarT normaluri adamianis damokidebulebis formaa). SesaZloa,
amerikis strategiuli aviaciis devizi _ `mSvidoba Cveni profesiaa~ _
arcTu adekvaturi xumroba iyo, magram is garkveul zRvars aRniSnavs si-
kvdilsa da sicocxles Soris; zRvars, romelic Zalian myifea, Tumca ar-
sebobs da samxedroebs am myife zRvarze uwevT moqmedeba.
magram omis arsi erTxel da samudamod mocemuli ram ar aris, is Tavis
istoriul arsebobaSi sxvadasxvagvarad avlens Tavs. ase rom, icvleba da-
mokidebuleba samxedro saqmis mimarT. aseve mudmivad icvleba sikvdilis
adamianiseuli gageba. Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva epoqebSi adamianebis, gansaku-
TrebiT samxedroebis (pirvel rigSi, bunebrivia, Cven isini gvainteresebs)
mier sicocxlis, sikvdilisa da imis aRqma Tu ra iqmena sikvdilis Semdeg,
sruliad sxvadasxvagvaria. am sami `ramis~ urTierTmimarTebis gageba udi-
des gavlenas axdens samxedros qcevaze (Tu swams saiqios arseboba, adamiani
erTgvarad SeiZleba moiqces, Tu ara swams sxvagvarad). Tavad urTierT-
mimarTebas ki kulturis tipi, misi ZiriTadi parametrebi da indikatorebi
gansazRvraven. esaa is uSinaganesi kavSiri kulturasa da samxedro saqmes
Soris, romelic bolo dromde mkvlevarebis yuradRebis miRma rCeboda.
yovel kulturas Tavisi warmodgena aqvs sikvdilze da imazec, Tu ra
iqneba sikvdilis Semdeg. am mxriv gamonakliss arc Cven mier ganxiluli
kulturebi warmoadgens. metic, es kulturebi erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad mi-
jnaven Cveulebriv sikvdilsa da omSi daRupvas. magaliTad, Zvelirlan-
diurad brZolaSi daRupvas erqva torchair, sityvasityviT _ dacema (rom
vambobT xolme `brZolis velze daecao~, amis msgavsad), xolo Cveulebriv
sikvdils ewodeboda et atbath sityvasityviT: sikvdiliT mokvda (warmod- warmod-
genebi... 2002: 42). Cveulebriv sikvdili mravali formiT ganisazRvreboda,
magaliTad: rogorc danakargi, dafarulobaSi gadasvla, wasvla, kleba,
qroba da a.S. amasTan sikvdilis sxvadasxva formebisadmi damokidebuleba
sxvadasxva socialuri fenebSi sxvadasxva unda yofiliyo. Tu meomrisaTvis
brZolaSi moulodneli daRupva samoTxeSi moxvedris garantia iyo, miwis
muSisaTvis bunebrivi mdgomareoba loginSi mSvidi sikvdvili iyo. gvianze-
pirsityvieri da masze damyarebuli naratiuli tradicia saiqios Sesaxeb,
romelmac Cvenamde moaRwia, samxedro aristokratias wreSi iqmneboda an,
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
187
ukidures SemTxvevaSi, misTvis iyo gankuTvnili da sikvdilze mis Sexedu-
lebebs asaxavda. aq mTavari iyo xanmokle sicocxle da iseTi sikvdili,
romelic gmirad gaqcevda da saukuneebis manZilze gagiTqvamda saxels. aRa-
rafers vityviT imis Taobaze, rom amgvari sikvdili saiqios, `samoTxeSi~
moxvedris garantia iyo (rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, warmarTul samoTxes ara-
feri aqvs saerTo qristianulTan). magaliTad: axalgazrda RvTaeba bal-
dri, erTaderTi skandinavuri RvTaeba, Tavad odinis usayvarlesi Svili,
romelic regnerankamde iRupeba, germanul-skandinaviur samoTxeSi ki ar
xvdeba, aramed erTgvar jojoxeTSi. mizezi erTia: is brZolaSi ar daRu-
pula, sabrZolo iaraRiT ki ara, totis moxvedriT daiRupa da ver dai-
mkvidrebs adgils iq, sadac mxolod omSi daRupulebi eZlevian netarebas,
cxadia ise, rogorc es Zvelgermanels esmoda (Tu rogor esmoda, qvemoT
vnaxavT). baldris mdgomareobas TviT mamamisi, RvTaebaTa Soris upirve-
lesi _ odinic ki ver amsubuqebs. msoflio kanonis winaSe wasvla masac
ar SeuZlia. amitom sruliad logikuria, rom iseTi gmirebi, rogorebic
kuhulini an aqilevsi arian, siyrmidanve irCeven xanmokle, magram saxelovan
sicocxles, romelsac garda saaqaoSi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi saxelia-
nobisa, saiqioSi privilegirebuli mdgomareoba mosdevs. da es logikuri
arCevania imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu CavwvdebiT _ rogor esmoda sicocxle,
sikvdili da sikvdilis Semdgomi cxovreba winasaxelmwifoebrivi donis sa-
mxedro aristokratias.

sikvdilis uwyeba
sikvdilis mauwyebeli niSani
albaT, yvelas gvaxsovs cnobili `sikvdilis niSani~ robert luis sti-
vensonis `ganZis kunZulidan~.es sikvdilis niSani erTi Savad SeRebili qa-
Raldia, mekobreebma rom gaugzavnes Tavis yofil kolegas. Tumca, SegviZlia
vTqvaT, rom sikvdilis momaswavebel niSanze, am sityvis farTo gagebiT,
SegviZlia uamravi arqauli eTnosisa da folkloruli tradiciis gaTva-
liswinebiT visaubroT. Zalian zogadad, esaa raRac xdomileba, movlena
an maTi erToblioba, romelic, wesisamebr, personaJis, gmiris (realurad
arsebulis da Semdeg miTologizebulis, an Tundac gamogonilis) aRsas-
ruls moaswavebs. magaliTisaTvis SegviZlia gavixsenoT arsena, romelic,
rasakvirvelia, ar aris arqauli da magiuri personaJi, magram tipologiu-
rad garkveul msgavsebas avlens maTTan (gavixsenoT: `uzarbaznod ar iqneba
Tqveni arsenas daWera~ da sxv.). arsenas daRupvamde ramdenime xniT adre
misdis sikvdilis momaswavebeli niSani. mas esizmreba:
kaxa kacitaZe
188
vnaxe wuxeli sizmari, imisTana Tqvensa mtersa,
vnaxe wuxeli sizmari, sisxlSi viRebavdi wversa,
wreul me xom ar movrCebi, rac rom unda gadawydesa,
an TaTari miRalatebs, qarTveli ar momarCensa.
aseTi uamravi magaliTi SeiZleba moiZebnos ara mxolod arqaul
folklorSi, an masze damyarebul naratiul ZeglebSi, aramed iseT Txzu-
lebaSic ki, rogoricaa poema simona doliZis Sesaxeb, sadac gmirs, daRu-
pvamde mcire xniT adre esizmreba, rom yelze gveli axvevia. am monakveTis
amocanaa sikvdilis momaswavebeli aseTi niSnebis ramdenime tipis gamoyofa
da maTi gaaanalizeba. amasTan xazs vusvamT, rom, naSromis Tematikidan ga-
momdinare, mxolod gmiri meomrebis magaliTebiT SemovifarglebiT.
pirvel yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom am niSans Tavisi adresati hyavs,
romelsac SeuZlia gaigos, rom raRac xdomileba ama Tu im piris (rogorc
wesi, Tavad misi) aRsasrulis momaswavebelia (swored ase aRiqvamen sikvdi-
lis niSans arsena da simona doliZe). amasTan es niSani drois an sivrcis
garkveul, gansakuTrebul monakveTSi SeiZleba iqnes miRebuli. magaliTad,
simona doliZis SemTxvevaSi aqcenti droiT parametrze keTdeba:
cxra enkenis Tves mesizmra,
viTom yels mexvia gveli,
vecade, ver moviSore,
ise SemeSala xeli.
aranakleb cnobili abragis, mixo WuWulaSvilis sikvdilis momaswavebe-
li niSani ki sivrcis monakveTTan aris dakavSirebuli:
Cemi wera da ajali,
sizmarSi vnaxe cxadada,
Turme viyavi qiziySi,
damSvidebuli wynarada,
marcxena wveri momparses,
marjvena damrCa calada.
marjvena xelis TiTebSi,
sisxli mdioda Savada.
maSinve vuTxari biWebsa,
ver gadavrCebi mSralada.
kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom arc arsena da arc revolucioneri abra-
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
189
gebi arqauli personaJebi ar arian da genetikurad maTTan raime kavSiri Tu
aqvT, imdenad Soreuli, rom misi daZebna Wirs, magram tipologiurad isini
garkveul msgavsebas avlenen arqaul gmirebTan da amitom maT magaliTzec
SegviZlia sikvdilis momaswavebeli niSnebis ilustrireba.
oreulTan Sexvedra rogorc sikvdilis momaswavebeli niSani
sikvdilis momaswavebel erT-erT niSnad sakuTar oreulTan Sexvedra
SeiZleba miviCnioT. principSi oreulTan Sexvedraca da sizmarSi miRebuli
sikvdilis momaswavebeli niSanic movlenaTa erT rigs ganekuTvneba. saku-
Tari daRupvis momaswavebel sizmarSi gmiri, rogorc wesi, garkveul mdgo-
mareobaSi Cayenebul sakuTar Tavs xedavs anu sakuTar oreuls xvdeba. amave
dros oreulTan Sexvedra SeiZleba moaswavebdes pirovnebis gaorebas, misi
daSlis dasawyiss, romelic sabolood misi aRsasrulis mauwyebelia. zo-
gierTi mkvlevaris azriT, amave konteqstSi unda ganvixiloT sarkis gatexva,
rogorc sikvdilis an raime ubedurebis momaswavebeli. sarkis gatexva xom
gmiris erTiani xatis damsxvrevas, mis fragmentaciasa da, Sesabamisad, aR-
sasruls moaswavebs. amave rigis movlenebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT sikvdilis
momaswavebeli erT-erT niSanTagani, romelic kuhulins evlineba: ukanask-
nel brZolaSi mimavali kuhulini mdinareze gadasvlisas xedavs axalgazr-
da mtiral qaliSvils, romelic gasisxlianebul tansacmelsa da abjars
recxavs. kargad rom daakvirdeba, kuhulini dainaxavs, rom es misi sakuTari
samosi da abjaria. gadalaxavs Tu ara gmiri mdinares, qaliSvili qreba. ase-
ve, irlandiur sagaSi `da hokis saxlis dangreva~ qalRvTaeba badbi ambobs,
rom recxavs lagams im mefisa, romelic daiRupeba. Tumca lagami am dros
ukve sisxliania. sagulisxmoa sisxlis, rogorc sikvdilis momaswavebeli
niSnis farTo gavceleba moyolebuli arsenadan, romelic sisxliT iRebavs
wversa, damTavrebuli kuhuliniT. rodesac am ukanasknels sasikvdilo br-
Zolis win dedamisi Rvinos miutans, es ukanaskneli sisxlad iqceva.

tabus darRveva
gmiris mier raime akrZalvis, tabus darRveva agreTve SeiZleba gaxdes
sikvdilis niSani. oRond am SemTxvevaSi saqme ufro specifikur viTare-
basTan gvaqvs, vidre raime saxis winaswarmetyvelebisas. tabus uneblie Tu
Segnebuli darRveviT gmiri ara Tu iRebs gafrTxilebas SesaZlo aRsasru-
lis Sesaxeb, aramed erTgvarad axdens mis provocirebas. magaliTisaTvis
SegviZlia gavixsenoT, rom arsenas sikvdils win swored `tabus~ darRveva
uZRvis, rodesac is wiTel paraskevs Rvinis smas iwyebs.
kaxa kacitaZe
190
tabuTa amgvari sistema, rogorc aRvniSneT, farTod iyo gavrcelebuli
Zvel irlandiaSi, sadac tabus geisi ewodeboda. geisi SeiZleboda perso-
naJs Tavad daewesebina sakuTari TavisaTvis, aseve SeiZleboda es geisi sxvas
daedo masze. amasTan geisis darRvevam SeiZleba prognozistuli funqciac
miiRos (igi moaswavebdes gmiris daRupvas) da kauzativurisac (gaxdes gmi-
ris daRupvis mizezi). amasTan problemas warmoadgens is, rom gmirs SeiZ-
leba ramdenime urTierTgamomricxavi geisi edos, romelTagan erTis Ses-
ruleba TavisTavad iwvevdes meoris darRvevas.
magaliTad kvlav kuhulinis eposi SeiZleba aviRoT. ukanasknel brZo-
laSi mimaval kuhulins gzad xsenebuli kalatinis sami jojo asuli Sexv-
deba, romlebic kocons arian mimsxdarni da circelis Samfurebze ZaRlis
xorcs wvaven. isini kuhulins SesTavazeben am arcTu sasiamovno mwvadis ga-
sinjvas. kuhulins geisi adevs, romelic ZaRlis xorcis Wamas ukrZalavs
(es geisi kulanis ZaRls da Tavad gmiris saxels ukavSirdeba). magram amave
dros adevs geisi, rom uari ar Tqvas sufrasTan mipatiJebaze. didxans ua-
robs gmiri, magram rodesac jojoebi bralad dasdeben, rom maT Raribul
sufras iwunebs, igi ZaRlis xorcs gasinjavs, ris Sedegadac Tavisi Zalis
nawils kargavs. amas ki saboloo jamSi gmiris daRupva mosdevs.
verbaluri winaswarmetyveleba
sikvdilis erT-erT momaswavebel niSans warmoadgens mavanis mier gmi-
risaTvis misi momavali daRupvis winaswarmetyveleba. aseTi winaswar
metyvelebis tradicia mraval arqaul kulturaSi gvxvdeba. magaliTad: wi-
naswarmetyvelebis aRmniSvneli irlandiuri sityva tairngire warmodgeba
kompozitidan do-airngir, rac sityvasityviT niSnavs winaswar (air=winaswar)
yvirils (gair). amasTan amgvari winaswarmetyvelebis avtori SeiZleba mxo-
lod adamiani ki ar iyos, aramed nebismier cocxali arseba.
aseTi arsebis rolSi SeiZleba gamovides, upirveles yovlisa, cxeni an
ZaRli, romelic patronisadmi erTgulebiT gamoirCeva. maTi qmedeba gafr-
Txilebaa patronisadmi, ar Caidinos garkveuli qmedeba, Tumca SesaZlebe-
lia sikvdilis winaswarmetyvelis rolSi gamodiodes magiasTan dakavSire-
buli sxva arsebac, magaliTad _ gveli an mgeli.
cxenis mier gmiris gafrTxilebis magaliTi momavali sikvdilis Sesaxeb
narTebis eposSi gvxvdeba. gmiri soslani saiqiodan rom dabrundeba, gafr-
Txilebis miuxedavad, gzad quds rom dainaxavs, aiRebs da qamarSi gairWobs.
sinamdvileSi es Turme qudi ki ara, qudad gadaqceuli soslanis mteri
sirdoni yofila. soslani Tavis molaparake cxens imdens awvalebs, aiZu-
lebs _ uTxras, rogor SeiZleba misi (cxenis) mokvla. cxenic iZulebulia
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
191
uTxras, rom is (cxeni) molod maSin mokvdeba, rodesac fexis qaCaCebs qve-
moT esvrian. Semdeg ekiTxeba, rogor SeiZleba Tavad gmiris mokvla. razec
soslani pasuxobs, rom muxlisTavebs garda mTlianad foladisaa da mxo-
lod maSin mokvdeba, Tu muxlisTavebze balsagis borbali (erTdroulad
personaJicaa da, Cans, raRac basri badros msgavsi iaraRic) gadauvlis.
`hoda, ar Segindos ufalma, _ uTxra cxenma, _ mec damRupe da Seni Tavic.
aba naxe, qamarSi qudis Zvela rom gairWe, eg gaTagis vaJi sirdoni gaxlda~
(narTebi 1988: 164). marTlac, sirdoni jer cxens mouswrafebs sicocxles,
xolo Semdeg balsagis borblis meSveobiT soslansac mouRebs bolos (ama-
ze dawvrilebiT qvemoT visaubrebT).
cxenis mier gmiris gafrTxilebis sxva magaliTia mocemuli kuhulinis
eposSi. sabediswero brZolaSi gamgzavrebis win kuhulinis meetle vera-
friT abams etlSi mis rux cxens. rodesac kuhulini cxens miuaxlovdeba,
is samgzis daudgeba marcxena mxariT, xolo Semdeg sam sisxlian kurcxals
gadmoagdebs. gasagebia, rom cxenebi, rogorc saiqiosTan dakavSirebuli
arsebebi (ix. zemoT), winaswarmetyvelabasTanac arian dakavSirebulni, sa-
xeldobr im winaswarmetyvelebasTan, maTi da maTi patronis daRupvas rom
exeba.
daTarsva
daTarsvasTan dakavSirebuli crurwmenebi sayovelTaod aris gavrcele-
buli _ dawyebuli imiT, rom romeliRac dRes raimes Cadena ar SeiZleba,
damTavrebuli e.w. marcxena fexze adgomiT. gmiris daRupvis momaswavebeli
niSnis magaliTi isev kuhulinis eposSi SeiZleba vnaxoT, sadac bolo brZo-
laSi mimaval kuhulins mosasxamis sakinZi dauvardeba, rac sxva miniSnebeb-
Tan kompleqsSi sikvdilis momaswavebeli kidev erTi niSania.
epikuri gmiris sikvdili
gmiris sikvdilis logika
gmiris sikvdili ar aris mxolod winaswarmetyelebis ubralo axdoma,
tabus darRvevis Sedegi an sikvdilis mauwyebeli niSnidan aucileblobiT
gamomdinare faqti. sikvdili amave dros gmiris heroizaciis aucilebeli
pirobaa, miT ufro, rom es sikvdili veragulad da orTabrZolis patiosa-
ni wesebis darRveviT xdeba. metic, am qmedebiT gmirebi TiTqosda gamoisyi-
dian manamde Cadenil uRirs qmedebebs (gavixsenoT, rom arqauli eposis
personaJebi sruliadac ar arian wmindanebi). gmiris sikvdili aerTianebs
kaxa kacitaZe
192
mTel siuJets im TvalsazrisiT, rom laitmotivad gasdevs mas, xolo meo-
re mxriv, amave siuJets erTianobad hkravs viTarca logikuri dasasruli.
amitom sikvdilis gziT gmiris heroizaciaa mTavari da ara Tavad gmiru-
li sikvdili. miT ufro, rom gmiri SeiZleba srulebiTac ar iRupebodes
gmirulad, magaliTad sigurdi an osuri narTebis gmiri soslani.
zogjer gmiris sikvdili racionalizebuli da motivizirebulia (maga-
liTad, sigurdi ciliswamebis msxverpli xdeba). magram gmiris daRupvis
faqts yvela SemTxvevaSi damoukidebeli mniSvneloba aqvs, imis miuxedavad,
gaaCnia raime motivacia, Tu wminda iracionaluri aqtis xasiaTs atarebs.
kidev ufro arsebiTia, rom gmirul daRupvamde, anu gmirad saboloo qce-
vamde, personaJi Tavad Cadis RalatiT mkvlelobas. magaliTad: sigurdi
RalatiT klavs fafnirsa da regins (mere ra, rom erTi drakoni iyo da meo-
re _ juja, Tan Tavad apirebdnen sigurdisaTvis bolos moRebas). mTavaria,
rom gmiri raindulad ki ar xocavs miwinaaRmdegeebs, aramed _ motyuebiT.
vTqvaT, amirani mis gadamrCenel devis das klavs, soslani motyuebiT klavs
bibics, romelmac igi daindo (rom aRaraferi vTqvaT soslanis origi-
nalur qurqze, romelic misi mtrebis skalpebidanaa Sekerili) da a.S. Tum-
ca, es gasakviri araa, arqauli sazogadoebis samxedro demokratiis epoqa
saraindo-kurtuazuli xana ar yofila, amitom gmiris mier sisastikis, an
gindac veragobis, Cadena gasakviri ar unda iyos. Tumca, daRupvis logikas
am sisastikesTan da veragobasTan araviTari pirdapiri kavSiri ara aqvs. bo-
los da bolos iRupeba beovulfi, romelsac arc veragoba Caudenia da arc
sisastike (Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom `beovulfSi arqauli eposis gmiris
niSnebTan erTad Cndeba saraindo romanis personaJisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
Tvisebebic).
gmiris sikvdilis aucilebel elements mis mkvlelze SurisZieba war-
moadgens. rogorc beovulfis 1384-e kupletSia naTqvami, megobrisaTvis
Suri unda iZio da ar itiro unayofod. rogorc wesi, daRupuli gmirebi
marTlac SurnaZiebi rCebian. Tumca zogjer, iSviaTad, isic xdeba, rom sa-
magieros mizRvis Semdeg Tavad SurismaZiebelic iRupeba. magram yvelaze
metad ubeduria is daRupuli gmiri, romelsac potenciuri SurismaZiebe-
lic ki ar hyavs.
rasakvirvelia, gmiri SeuZlebelia Cveulebriv brZolaSi moklan. mis
dasamarcxeblad an veragobaa saWiro, an _ gansakuTrebuli iaraRi (zog-
jer Tavad gmirisave), garemoebaTa uCveulo damTxveva an saqmeSi boroti Za-
lebis CarTva, romlebic yvelafer amas moaxerxeben. sainteresoa, rom XIX
saukunis meore naxevris da XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTuli folkloris
personaJebi arqauli eposis gmirebTan aqac iseTive tipologiur msgavsebas
amJRavneben, rogorc sikvdilis mauwyebeli niSnis SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad,
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
193
epikuri gmiris darad arsenas damarcxeba SeuZlebelia Cveulebrivi iara-
RiT (isev da isev: `uzarbaznod ar iqneba Tqveni arsenas daWera~). amitom
kuWatnelis lekis biWma zurgidan veraguli gasroliT mokla arsena oZel-
aSvili.
rainduli romanebis gmirebisa da arsenasi ar iyos, XX saukunis dasawy-
isis qarTuli revoluciuri folkloris sami devgmiris damarcxebac mxo-
lod RalatiT gaxda SesaZlebeli. daTiko SevardnaZe vinme WeliZes mouwam-
lavs, ris Sesaxebac firali guldawuxebuli ambobs:
Sen dailoce WeliZev,
rom gamikeTe vaxSami,
xmeli xili bevri gvqonda,
Zveli Rvino da qaTami,
sawamlavic Semapare,
rom Seviqmeni nasvami.
simona doliZe kidev ufro muxTali Ralatis msxverpli gaxda:
ar vfiqrobdi Tu gamcemda,
Cemi Zma andro doliZe.
andro doliZes Zma ar daundvia da simonasTan cnobili uriadniki ja-
fariZe mouyvania _ danarCeni mkiTxvelmac kargad uwyis. rac Seexeba mixa
WuWulaSvils, man orjer ganicada Ralatis simware: jer iyo da vinme gior-
gi mWedliSvili iseve moeqca, rogorc farsadan bodbisxeveli _ arsenas,
daaTro da daaWerina. magram mixa cimbiridan gamoipara. Tumca cud xalxs
ra gamolevs da vinme Samilas biWma gigam mixas saldaTebi miusia. garSemor-
tymulma mixam tyveobas TviTmkvleloba amjobina.
niSandoblivia, rom dasaxlebul poemaTa gardacvlili personaJebi Ta-
vianT sikvdilze pirvel pirSi mogviTxroben, rac imas niSnavs, rom sikvdi-
lis miuxedavad, mainc cocxloben, ukve rogorc folkloris maradiuli
gmirebi.
gmiri soslanis sikvdili
rogorc zemoT vTqviT, sikvdilis momaswavebel niSans verc narTebis gmi-
ri soslani gadaurCa. vnaxoT, rogor axda es winaswarmetyveleba. erTxel
soslani sanadirod iyo da mSvenieri fur-iremi dainaxa. rogorc xSirad
xdeba, is iyo mSvildi daumizna, rom fur-iremi mSvenier qaliSvilad iqca
kaxa kacitaZe
194
da soslans colad SerTva sTxova, razec gmirma sakmaod uxeSad upasu-
xa: `ramdeni gzaabneuli qaliSvilic Semxvdes, yvela colad rom SemerTo,
narTebis sofelSi maTi tevac ar iqneba~ (narTebi 1988: 166). qaliSvili
daemuqra, razec soslani gacecxlda da mandilosans nezvi uwoda. am Seu-
racxyofis Semdeg qaliSvili frinvelad iqca da gafrinda. Turme, nu ityvi
da xsenebuli lamazmani balsagis (rogorc Cans, mzis gansaxierebaa) asuli
yofila. man mamas SesCivla, soslanma Seuracyofa momayenao. ganrisxebulma
balsagma Tavis borbals (rogorc vTqviT, Cans, erTdroulad badrosebri
basri saganicaa da gansulierebuli personaJic) uxmo da soslanis mokvla
ubrZana. borbali soslanis mosaklavad gafrinda. `aba dauxvdi, narTelo
vaJkacoo~-o, _ gadmosZaxa balsagma. soslanis kiTxvas, ra iaraRiT upi-
rebda mokvlas, balsagma upasuxa, dasartymeli iaraRiTo da Tan mouwoda:
Tu vaJkaci xar, Subli dauxvedreo. soslanma foladis Subli SeuSvira.
moxvda borbali, magram Sublma aisxlita, scada soslanma borblis daWe-
ra, magram am ukanasknelma dasxltoma moaxerxa. balsagma isev gadmosZaxa,
borbali brundeba da mkerdi dauxvedreo. dauxvedra soslanma mkerdi da
isev asxlta borbali. axla ki soslanma imarjva, borbali daiWira da ori
nekni Caumtvria. borbali Seexvewa: gamiSvi da awi balsagis borbali ki ara,
soslanis borbali merqmevao, Tan RmerTi daiyena Tavmdebad. daujera sos-
lanma da gauSva.
gauSva da sul tyuilad. gzad borbals muxTali sirdoni Sexda da aswa-
vla, rogor eZia Suri soslanze. nekidan sisxli gamoidine da Semdeg fics
Zala daekargebao. mere mWedel qurdalagonTan midi da axal neknebs gamo-
giWedavs, bolos ki soslani ZmakacebTan erTad zilxanis velze nadirobis
Semdeg mosasveneblad iqneba wamowolili, midi da yvelas muxlebze gadaua-
reo. afrinda borbali da, vinc karavSi iwva, yvelas fexebi daaWra. magram
soslani Turme karavSi ar yofila. fexebdaWrili megobrebi rom naxa, ma-
Sinve mixvda, vin Caidenda amas da borbals gaekida. gzad vels, muryans,
cacxvs, rcxilas, wifels, muxas sTxova balsagis borblis dakaveba, magram
arc erTma ar daakava da soslanma yvela daswyevla. Semdgom aryis xem scada
balsagis borblis dakaveba, magram ver SeZlo. bolos da bolos balsa-
gis borbali sviam daakava. sviis totebSi gabmul borbals soslanma orive
gverdi Caumtvria da is iyo, unda moekla, rom borbali Seevedra, sicocx-
le maCuqeo.
didxans uarobda gmiri, magram bolos, mas Semdeg, rac borbalma fici
dado, oRond gamiSvi da Cemi ojaxis Tormet wevrs davxocav Seni Tormeti
Zmobilis sanacvlodo, soslanma kvlav gauSva borbali.
gauSva da isev Secda. ficis Sesasruleblad mimaval borbals kvlav sir-
doni Sexvda da daarwmuna, rom ficis Sesruleba mkvlelobis imitaciiTac
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
195
SeiZleboda: saxeldobr imiT, rom Tavisi ojaxis Tormeti wevridan zo-
gisaTvis fexze daeWra frCxilebi da zogisaTvis _ xelze. borbalic ase
moiqca. qurdonma qurdalagons kvlav gaamTelebina borblis gverdebi da
daarwmuna borbali, kidev erTxel ecada soslanisaTvis muxlebis gadaWra.
es mcdeloba warmatebiT dasrulda, balsagis borbalma soslans muxlebi
gadauWra, Tavisi ojaxis wevrebisaTvis daWrili frCxilebi miuyara da cad
afrinda.
ususurad mwolare soslans jer arwivma gadaufrina, mere qorma, Semdeg
_ mercxalma. gmirma samives sTxova, Cemi ambavi narTebs SeatyobineTo, ma-
gram mxolod mercxali daTanxmda. Semdeg daTvi, mgeli da melia movidnen.
pirvelma orma gulwrfeli wuxili gamoTqves soslanis bedis gamo da man
isini daloca, xolo meliam farisevlobisa gamo daiwyo da gmiris wyevla
daimsaxura.
amasobaSi mercxalma narTebs soslanis samwuxaro bedi amcno. soslan-
Tan mividnen, bajaRlo oqros kubo daumzades, abreSumis sudara. soslanma
Zmebs daubara, iseTi saflavi gamiTxareT, sami fanjara rom hqondeso, erTi
aRmosavleTiT mzem amosvlisas rom Semaxedoso, erTi SuaSi, mzem SuadRiT
rom damxedoso da erTic dasavleTiT, mzem Casvlisas rom damxedoso. Se-
mdeg daibara balsagis borbalsa da sirdonze Suri iZieTo, ris Sesru-
lebasac misi Wabuki ZmisSvili dahpirda da soslanmac mSvidad ganuteva
suli (ise, rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, mTlianad mainc ar momkvdara). narTebma
soslans samfanjriani saflavi gaukeTes, oqros kuboSi Caasvenes da mSvil-
isaric Caatanes.
cota xnis Semdeg soslanis Zmebma sirdoni daibares da uTxres: `sosla-
nis cxeni umxedrod gavelurdeba; Tu kaci xar, zogjer Sejeqi xolme~ (nar-
Tebi 1988: 176). sirdonma yasidad iuara, magram didi xnis Txovnis Semdeg
dasTanxmda. soslanis cxens rom moajdeboda, dascinoda da patrons augad
uxsenebda. erTxel ise gaTavxedda, soslanis saflavze mivida, saflavis ir-
gvliv Weneba iwyo da gmirs saflavSi CasZaxa: `hei, soslan, ras moveswar,
Seni naqebi cxeni me damrCa (narTebi 1988: 177). esa Tqva da zed saflavis Sua
sarkmelze gadaalaja. ver moiTmina mkvdarma soslanma mtris es Tavxedoba,
esrola qvemodan sarkmlis gavliT isari da sirdons tvini cas mianTxevia.
erTi balsagis borbalzec maZiebia Surio, _ inatra da, mgoni, sabolood
mokvda (rasakvirvelia, Tu folkloris gmiri SeiZleba sabolood mokv-
des). misma ZmiSvilma qurdalagons rkinis keti gaakeTebina da balsagis
borbali xizis velze daibara. iq ise dascxo rkinis keti, rom balsagis
borbals erTi nekni aRar SearCina mTeli. SeSinebuli borbali gaiqca, xan
ixvad iqca, xan tyis qaTmad, bolos saflavi gaiTxara da iq daimala. magram
soslanis Zmiswulma mainc miagno daatyveva, soslanis saflavTan miiyvana
kaxa kacitaZe
196
orad gahkveTa, erTi naxevari TaviT daudo soslans da meore ferxTiT.
Catarebuli analizis Semdeg SeiZleba iTqvas, rom soslanis sikvdili
gmiris heroizaciis formaa da ara gmiruli sikvdilis nairsaxeoba. mas
balsagis borbali veragulad klavs da umweo mdgomarobaSi tovebs. sos-
lanis sikvdili aucilebeli pirobaa imisaTvis, rom logikurad ganasru-
los misi gmirad gadaqceva. balsagis borblis ramdenjerme gaSveba Sinagani
logikis matarebelia. man xazi unda gausvas imas, rom Ria brZolaSi gmiri
daumarcxebelia da misi mokvla mxolod RalatiT SeiZleba. sikvdili rom
soslanis gmirad qcevis procesis gansrulebaa, isic adasturebs, rom igi
saflavidanac ki klavs Tavis mter sirdons. amasTan is bednieri mokluli
gmiria, ramdenadac hyavs SurismaZiebeli.
gmiri kuhulinis sikvdili
gmiri kuhulinis mTavari mteri, boroti dedofali medbi ar isveneb-
da da kuhulinis daRupvas eswrafoda. misi waqezebiT kuhulinis mier
mokluli jadoqar kalatinis Svilebma kuhulins mravali ubeduri xilva
mouvlines. mas Semdeg, rac gmirma arafrad Caagdo sikvdilis mauwyebeli
araerTi niSani da daarRvia geisi, romelic ZaRlis xorcis Wamas ukrZala-
vda, gadamwyveti brZolis Jami dadga. medbma kuhulinis winaaRmdeg axali
koaliciis Seqmna moaxerxa, romelsac saTaveSi kuhulinis mier daxocili
bumberazebis vaJebi lugaid kuroisZe da erk kairbres Ze Caudgnen. erkma
veragoba moifiqra. kuhulinis mtrebs urCia: SeerCiaT ori umamacesi meo-
mari, romlebic orTabrZolis imitacias moaxdendnen, xolo maT siaxloves
daeyenebinaT bardi (poeti, romlis Txovnaze uari irlandiaSi samarcxvi-
nod iTvleboda). bards kuhulinisaTvis misi Subi unda eTxova, romelzec
nawinaswarmetyvelebi iyo, rom misiT mefe ganigmireboda. imis gamo, rom
irlandiuri qcevis kodeqsi bardisaTvis nebismier Txovnaze uaris Tqmas
krZalavda (erTi gadmocemiT, romeliRac mefe iZulebulic ki gaxda, rom
bardisaTvis sakuTari Tvali daeTmo), kuhulini, cxadia, am Txovnas Seas-
rulebda. maSin kuhulinis mtrebs igi Tavisive SubiT unda ganegmiraT. es
veraguli gegma miRebul iqna.
amasobaSi kuhulini mowinaaRmdegeTa laSqars miuaxlovda da ganadgu-
reba dauwyo. ra sabrZolo ileTs ar mimarTa: asi quxilis ileTs, samasi
quxilis ileTs, samgzis cxra vaJkacis quxilis ileTs... mowinaaRmdegeebi
gafanta da Semdeg maT JuJvas mihyo xeli. imdeni mteri gaJuJa, ramdenic
zRvaSi qviSaa da caze varskvlavi. uecrad or erTmaneTTan Serkinebul me-
omars waawyda. maT siaxloves bardi idga. `sircxvili Sen, kuhulin, Tu am
meomar vaJkacebs ar gaaSveleb~, _ uTxra kuhulins. kuhulini miuaxlovda
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
197
meomrebs da TiToeul maTgans ise Caartya TavSi muSti, rom tvini gamouvi-
daT yurebidan da nestoebidan. `WeSmaritad gaaSvele isini, _ uTxra bard-
ma, _ awi isini erTmaneTs zians marTlac veRar miayeneben~. `eseni arafriT
ar daurvdebodnen, rom ara Seni Txovna~, _ upasuxa kuhulinma. amis Semdeg
bardma kuhulins Subi sTxova. kuhulinma upasuxa, rom Subi Tavad sWirde-
ba, vinaidan mtrebTan omobs. amaze bardma upasuxa, rom Tu Subs ar miscems,
bardi kuhulinze damcinav simReras SeTxzavs (irlandiaSi ufro didi sir-
cxvili ar arsebobda). `ar egebis, rom Sevrcxve ZRvnis gacemaze uarisa da
wuwuraqobisaTvis~, _ Tqva kuhulinma da bards Subi tariT win tyorcna,
Tanac iseTi ZaliT, rom bards Subli gauxvrita da kidev cxra mis ukan
mdgomi meomari miayola (warmoidgineT, ra moxdeboda, Subi wveriT win rom
esrola). amis Semdeg kuhulini mtris mwyobris siRrmeSi SeiWra da brZola
gaagrZela. xolo misma mterma natyorcni Subi aiRo da kuhulinisken sro-
la daapira. `am SubiT mefe mokvdeba~, _ iwinaswarmetyveles jadoqar ka-
latinis Svilebma. lugaidma Subi tyorcna, magram kuhulinis nacvlad misi
meetle laegi gangmira. kuhulini mxurvaled daemSvidoba Tavis erTgul
meetles da brZola gaagrZela Tanac ise, rom meetlis Tanamdebobac SeiTav-
sa. mtris mwyobris garRvevis Semdeg igi kvlav waawyda or urTierTmebrZol
meomarsa da bards. bardma kvlav sTxova kuhulins meomrebis gaSveleba. man
meomrebs xeli CasWida da iseTi ZaliT moityorcna sxvadasxva mxares, rom
maTi xorcis naglejebi irgvliv mimoifina. Semdeg bardma kuhulins Subi
sTxova. kuhulinis uars man upasuxa, rom is gmiris gamamasxaravebel leqss
SeTxzavda. _ me dReSi mxolod erTxel var valdebuli Sevasrulo Txovna,
_ upasuxa kuhulinma, _ dRes Txovna ukve Sevasrule. _ icode Sens gamo
mTel ulads gavamasxaraveb, _ daemuqra bardi. _ araodes momxdara, rom
Cemi siZunwis an xeiris gamo uladi Sercxveniliyo. marTalia, mcire xnis
sicocxleRa damrCa, magram es arc axla moxdeba, _ upasuxa kuhulinma.
man kvlav tariT win stryorcna Subi bards, Subli gauxvrita da mis ukan
mdgomi cxra meomaric gangmira. Subi axla erk kairbres Zem aiRo da ka-
latinis ZeT hkiTxa, vin mokvdeboda am SubiT. maT upasuxes, rom am SubiT
mefe mokvdeboda. erkis ukmayofilo SeniSvnaze, rom es maT erTxel ukve
iwinaswarnetyveles, kalatinis Svilebma auxsnes, rom winaswarmetyveleba
axda, vinaidan Subma laegi gangmira, es ukanaskneli ki irlandiel meetle-
ebs Soris upirvelesi, Sesabamisad meetleebis mefe iyo. styorcna erkma
Subi da kuhulinis cxeni ruxi gangmira. gamoiRo kuhulinma cxenis Wri-
lobidan Subi da daemSvidoba Tavis erTgul cxens. es ukanaskneli kiserze
naxevari caluRiT gaemarTa fuatis mTasTan arsebul rux tbaSi, saidanac
is odesRac kuhulinma moipova.
kuhulinma brZola etlSi Sebmuli erTi cxeniTRa gaagrZela. Semdgomi
kaxa kacitaZe
198
brZolisas igive scena gaTamaSda, rac pirvel or SemTxvevaSi. bardma kuhu-
lins Subi sTxova. gmiris pasuxad, rom man bardebis Txovna ukve orgzis Se-
asrula, mesame bardi daimuqra, rom is kuhulinis mTel gvars Searcxvenda.
ise, jobda ar damuqrebuda, vinaidan kuhulinma masac Subli gauxvrita da,
rogorc icoda xolme, cxra meomari miayola. Subi lugaidma aiRo da ka-
latinis vaJebs hkiTxa, vin mokvdeboda am SubiT. maT kvlav upasuxes, rom am
SubiT mefe mokvdeboda. lugaidis ukmayofilo SeniSvnaze, rom es maT ukve
Tqves, rodesac Subi erkma isrola, kalatinis vaJebma ganmartes, rom isini
marTlebi iyvnen, vinaidan Subma irlandiis cxenebis mefe mokla. maSin lu-
gaidma Subi styorcna da kuhulini ise gangmira, rom Signeuli gadmoucvi-
vda. amis mxilveli kuhulinis Savi cxeni etlidan gamovida da Savi tbisaken
gaswia, sadac odesRac kuhulinma igi moipova. gmiri saSinelma wyurvilis
grZnobam Seipyro. man mtrebs sTxova, iqve mdebare tbamde mieSvaT, sikvdilis
win rom gagrilebuliyo. es ukanasknelni daTanxmdnen, Tu ukan dabrunebis
pirobas miscemda. _ mxolod imas gTxovT, Tavad moxvideT CemTan, Tu ukan
dabrunebas ver movaxerxeb, _ sTxova kuhulinma. sasikvdilod daWrilma
gmirma ibanava, wyali Sesva da irlandielebs dauZaxa. moaxloebuli mteri
rom dainaxa, iqve mdgom maRal qvas mieba, raTa fexze mdgomi Sexvedroda
sikvdils. am dros misi ruxi moWenda (romelic TiTqosda mkvdari iyo),
raTa patroni daecva manam, sanam cocxali iyo. man kbilebiT gatkvira or-
mocdaaTi mteri. xolo TiToeuli CliqiT ocdaaT-ocdaaTi kuhulinis si-
kvdilis mosurne mospo. amis miuxedavad, lugaidi kuhulinTan miiWra da
Tavi mohkveTa. am dros gmirs xelidan xmali gauvarda, romelic lugaids
marjvenaze daeca da xeli mohkveTa.
mtrebma kuhulinis Tavi, xeli da fari waiRes da gzas daadgnen. gzad
lugaids banaoba mounda. swored banaobisas wamoewia lugains kuhulinis
biZaSvili da Zmadnafici konan Zlevamosili Tavisi ZaRlisTaviani cxeniT,
romelsac wiTeli nami erqva. konal Zlevamosili daTanxmda lugaidis Txo-
vnas, mxolod cali xeliT SebrZoleboda mas (rogorc gvaxsovs, lugaids
marjvena kuhulinis xmalma mohkveTa. xazs vusvamT, xmalma da ara kuhulin-
ma, romelic am momentisaTvis ukve mkvdari iyo). brZolisas konalma Tavisi
cxenis daxmarebiT daamarcxa lugaidi da Tavi mohkveTa. ase iZia gmirma
konalma Suri gmir kuhulinisaTvis. konalis sardlobiT uladebma mteri
sastikad daamarcxes, kuhulinis mokveTili Tavi daibrunes da Sin gamarjve-
bulebi dabrundnen. aseTi iyo kuhulinis aRsasruli.
Tumca, kuhulini samudamod ar gamqrala. rogorc erTi gviandeli le-
genda gadmogvcems, igi erTxel kidev gamocxadebia irlandielebs im Jams,
roca am ukanasknelTa Soris maTi ganmanaTlebeli wminda patriki qristia-
nobas amkvidrebda. wminda patriks igi saiqiodan gamouZaxia, raTa irlan-
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
199
diis warmarT xelmwife loigairesTvis eCvenebina qristianobis WeSmariteba
da jojoxeTis mTeli saSinelebebi: `erTxel loigaire da wminda patrikis
megobari wminda benini mak-indokis velze idgnen. uecrad iseTi Zalis civma
qarma wamoubera, rom orivem Zlivs Seikaves Tavi, rom ar waqceuliyvnen. be-
ninma auxsna, rom es qari jojoxeTis karibWidan SemoiWra. karibWe ki cota
xniT imitom gaaRes, rom iqidan kuhulini gamoeSvaT. Semdeg veli nislma
dafara da nislSi cxadad gamoCnda uzarmazari aCrdilisebri etli, ro-
melSic `oTxiT morbenali cxenebi iynen Sebmulni. etlSi orni iyvnen _
kuhulini da misi erTguli meetle laegi. kuhulini ametyvelda da mouwo-
da loigaires moqcevisaken. `irwmune RvTisa da wminda patrikisa, rameTu
Sens winaSe demoni ki ara, aramed kuhulinia, Ze sualtamisa~ (rolestoni
2004: 196) imis dasarwmuneblad, rom namdvilad kuhulinia, igi warmarT
xelmwifes sakuTar gmirobebs CamouTvlis da jojoxeTis saSinelebebze
mouTxrobs. Semdeg kuhulini wminda patriks sTxovs, ufals Seavedros,
rom misTvis zecis kari gaixsnas. amboben, ufalma kuhulinisa da wminda
patrikis vedreba Seiwyalao, xolo loigaire qristianad moqceula.
gmiris datireba
am monakveTSi daRupuli gmiris datirebaze visaubrebT. xazs vusvam: la-
parakia ara sazogadod gardacvlilis, aramed sworedac rom daRupulis
datirebaze. daRupuli gmiris amgvari datireba gulisxmobs gansakuTrebu-
li zepiri poeturi teqstis arsebobas, romelic Seicavs garkveul stere-
otipul formulebs. aq upiratesad SevexebiT datirebis rituals skandi-
navur da Zvel qarTul tradiciebSi, Tumca saWiroebis mixedviT gaviTva-
liswinebT agreTve keltur da baltoslavur tradiciasac.
Cveulebriv datirebis rituals asrulebs solisti (solistebi). ri-
tuali morgebulia konkretuli situaciisadmi, magram yovelTvis Seica-
vs garkveul stereotipul formulebsa da sqemebs. datirebis monawileTa
nawili solistis an solistebis qmedebas JestebiT (magaliTad, sxeulis
garkveuli qneviT) uWers mxars. cnobili mkvlevari desnickaia aRniSnavs:
`epikuri poeziisa da datirebis leqsikur-semantikuri da sintaqsur-sti-
listikuri Taviseburebebi mniSvnelovnad msgavsia. rogorc Cans, datire-
bis ritualisas did rols TamaSobs improvizireba mza formulebisa da
standartuli sqemebis safuZvelze~ (warmodgenebi... 2002: 203). mkvlevari
Tvlis, rom datirebis teqstebs msgavsi morfologia gaaCnia da Sedgeba
Sesavali formulisagan, varirebadi ZiriTadi teqstisa da damasrulebeli
wamoZaxilebisagan, romlebic xmamaRal qviTinSi gadadis.
datireba mimarTulia micvalebulze, TiTqosda am ukanasknels SeeZlos
kaxa kacitaZe
200
gaigos yvelaferi, rasac masze amboben. datireba aris im saxis ritualuri
teqsti, romelmac micvalebulebsa da cocxlebs Soris kavSiri unda da-
amyaros, daareguliros kavSiri daRupul gmirsa da cocxalTa samyaros
Soris. ufro zustad, datirebas ori adresanti hyavs _ rogorc cocxal-
Ta, ise micvalebulTa samyaroebi. orivem unda Seityos daRupuli gmiris
siqvelis Sesaxeb.
amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom datireba ar aris Selocvis nairsaxeo-
ba. am ukanasknelSi adresati sustadaa gamoxatuli maSin, rodesac datirebis
adresati, formulebis trafaretulobis miuxedavd personificirebulia.
misdami mimarTva Seicavs pirovnebis gadaZaxils pirovnebisadmi. datirebas
axasiaTebs maRali toni (lamis wivili) da teqstis Segnebuli gangrZobiTi
wakiTxva. laparakia Zaxilze, yvirilze, wivilze, tirilze da a.S.
Zvel inglisur teqst `beovulfSi~ SemorCenila monaTxrobi, sadac gmi-
ris damtireblis funqcia gayofilia bebruxanasa da gmiris saZmos Tormet
wevrs Soris. beberi qalis mier Sesrulebuli gulisgamgmiravi datireba
aviswmomaswaveblad JRerda datirebaze damswre pirTaTvis. balto-sla-
vianuri da balto-finuri monacemebis umetesobiT, damtireblis rolSi
mxolod qalebi gamodiodnen. n. ganinas azriT, datirebis mTavar Sinaarss
sayovelTao gaubedurebis aRwera Seadgenda.
arsebobda datirebis sxva formac, rodesac damtireblis rolSi mefis
saZmos wevrebi gamodiodnen. magaliTad, iordanesTan gvaqvs atilas dati-
rebis STambeWdavi suraTi: `hunTa mTeli tomis saukeTeso mxedrebi... esevi-
Tar ixseniebdnen mis gmirobebs: `hunTa didi xelmwife atila, Sobili ma-
mamis munZukisagan, uZlieres tomTa beladi! Sen, romelmac aqamde arnaxu-
li simamaciT erTma daipyari skviTTa da germanelTa samefoebi, romelmac
qalaqTa aRebiT Tavzari daec romaelTa orive imperias, da raTa danarCeni
[qalaqebi] ar gaZarculiyo, mowyaleba miiRe, maTi (romaelebis _ k.k.) ve-
dreba Seismine, da yovelwliur xarks dasjerdi. da am yovelives warmate-
biT dasrulebis Semdeg aResrule ara mtris mier miyenebuli Wrilobi-
sagan, ara Senianebis veragobisagan, aramed sixarulSi da mxiarulebaSi,
tkivilis gareSe, rodesac mTeli tomi janmrTeli da dauzianebeli iyo. vin
CaTvlis amas aRsasrulad, Tu aravin aris iseTi, viszec Suria saZiebeli~
(warmodgenebi... 2002: 216).
rogorc mkvlevarebi varaudoben, atilas datirebisas mamakacTa samglo-
viaro simReris adresatia rogorc gardacvlili beladi, ise mamakacTa mTe-
li samyaro. mamakacuri datirebis specifika imaSia, rom masSi gmiris garda-
cvalebiT miyenebuli SesaZlo zianis CamoTvlas enacvleba daRupulis Rir-
sebebis CamoTvla. Tumca, rogorc `beovulfis~ datirebis sqemidan SeiZleba
davaskvnaT, datirebis teqstSi Sedis wuxili gmiri-beladis (hlafordes
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
201
hryre) daRupvis gamo (ar dagvaviwydes _ atilas SemTxvevaSi damtireblebi
mas brZolaSi daRupulad ki ara, lxinsa da drostarebaSi gardacvlilad
miiCnevdnen, amitom mis datirebaSi daRupvaze aqcentireba ver iqneboda), na-
xsenebia lxinis Sewyveta, dacarielebuli darbazebi da a.S.
gmiri-beladis daRupva misi garemocvisaTvis (`saZmosaTvis~) didi ga-
mocdaa. is ganixileba ara mxolod socialur, aramed kosmiur planSic,
rogorc qaosis Zalebis gamarjveba, mdgradi kosmiuri (romelic Tavisi ar-
siT socialuricaa) struqturis darRveva. rac ufro maRalia daRupulis
socialuri rangi, miT ufro metia garRveva kosmiur doneze da miT ufro
Zlieria qaoturi Zalebis Semoteva. datireba ara mxolod zaralis kons-
tantaciaa, aramed im qaosis gamovlineba, romelic samyarosa da sociums
misi arsebobis garantis gardacvalebiT moaklda.
gmiri-beladis datireba saZmos wevrebis mier gulisxmobs Semdeg mo-
qmedebebs: `Tqma~, `ubnoba~, `gamocxadeba~, `uwyeba~, `qeba~, `dideba~,
`gansja~, `gankiTxva~. yvela eseni irTveba ufro farTo mniSvnelobaTa vel-
Si, romelic xasiaTdeba, rogorc `wuxili~, `datireba~, `simRera~, `se-
vdis simRera~, `reCitativi~, `sityva-simRera~. beladis datireba iazreba,
rogorc verbaluri gamoxatva sayovelTao qaosisa, gmiri-beladis garda-
cvalebas rom mohyveba.
amrigad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom arsebobs daRupuli gmiris datire-
bis ori forma: 1. qalebis mier Catarebuli datirebis rituali, romelsac
aqvs Civilis, wuxilis xasiaTi da romliTac aRiwereba qaosi, gmiris si-
kvdilis Semdeg rom dadgeba. 2. mamakacuri datireba, rogorc qaosis mani-
festacia, beladis xotba, misi gmirobebis aRwera, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi
_ Surisgebis aRTqma. amasTanave, rogorc specialistebi aRniSnaven, dati-
rebis ena (magaliTad, Zvelgermanuli) monaTesavea epiuri poeziis enisa da
dakavSirebulia maRali stilis zepirmetyvelebasTan, romelic sruldeba
sazogadoebriv-mniSvnelovani ceremoniebisas.
datirebis orive forma gvxdeba arqaul qarTul tradiciebSi. gmiris
datireba mamakacis mier gvxvdeba naratul ZeglebSi, xolo qalis mier
gmiris datirebia _ folklorul zepirspityvier tradiciaSi. rogorc
naratuli wyaroebidan dasturdeba, arsebobda specialuri instituti da-
mtireblebisa, `mgosanni glovisani~, romelTa amocana datirebis gziT gmi-
ris gandideba da SesaZlo qaosis dadgomis faqtze xazgasma iyo.
leonti mrovelisaTvis miwerili qronikis im monakveTSi, romelic far-
sman qvels eZRvneba, moTxrobilia, rom sparselebma, veraferi daakles
gmir mefes da ubralod mowamles igi (mzareulis mosyidvis gziT). Semdeg
teqstSi vkiTxulobT: `maSin iqmna glova da tirili, da tyeba yovelTa
qarTvelTa zeda, warCinebulTagan vidre glaxamde. da ityebdes yovelni Ta-
kaxa kacitaZe
202
vsa TvisTa yovelTa Sina qalaqTa da dabnebTa, rameTu dasxdebian mgosanni
glovisani, da Sekrbian yovelni da axsenebdian simxnesa da siquelesa, da
siSueniesa da saxierebasa farsman quelisasa, da ityodian esreT: `vai Cuen,
rameTu mogvZina sueman borotman, da mefe Cueni, romlisagan xsnil viyve-
niT monebisagan mterTa, moikla igi kacTa mgrZnebelTagan, da aw miveciT
Cuen wartyuevnad naTesavTa ucxoTa~ (qc 1958: 53).
am framgmentze yuradReba jer kidev pavle ingoroyvam gaamaxvila (ingo-
royva 19?: 259-269). is farsmanis datirebis teqsts arqaul originalad miiC-
nevda, ramac rig mkvlevarebSi skepticizmi gamoiwvia. Tumca, sruliad gauge-
baria, rogor Seityo XI saukunis avtorma leonti mrovelma datirebis ri-
tualis Sesaxeb, romelic sxva arqauli xalxebis datirebis ritualis zusti
analogia. pirvel yovlisa, aRvniSnavT imas, rom farsmanis datirebis teqs-
ti zustad jdeba arqauli datirebis teqstis zemoT moyvanil daxasiaTebaSi,
romlis Tanaxmadac (kidev erTxel gavimeorebT): `epikuri poeziisa da datire-
bis leqsikur-semantikuri da sintaqsur-stilistikuri Taviseburebebi mniSv-
nelovnad msgavsia. rogorc Cans, datirebis ritualisas did rols TamaSobs
improvizireba mza formulebisa da standartuli sqemebis safuZvelze~. fars-
man qvelis datirebaSi rom mogvepoveba sintaqsur-stilisturi da leqsikur-
semantikuri msgavseba epikur teqstebTan, eWvs gareSea (magaliTad, ritmuli
prozis wyoba). aseve eWvs gareSea, rom farsmanis datirebis teqstSi gvxvdeba
mza formulebi da standartuli sqemebi. erTaderTi saeWvo momenti improvi-
zaciaa, magram misi arseboba an ararsebobaze SeuZlebelia vilaparakoT manam,
sanam datirebis sxva analogiur teqsts ar davadgenT.
farsman qvelis datireba Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT aseve identuria
arqauli gmiris datirebisa. aqac xazgasmulia gmiris siqveleni (`axsene-
bdian simxnesa da siquelesa, da siSueniesa da saxierebasa farsman queli-
sasa~); amasTan `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ _ `mgosanTa glovisaTa~ tirilis
teqstis mxolod bolo monakveTia uSualod citirebuli. rogorc zemoT
iTqva, arqaul sazogadoebebSi gmiris datireba sam Tanmimdevrul etaps
moicavda: 1) Sesavali; 2) varirebadi ZiriTadi teqsti; 3) damasrulebeli
wamoZaxili, romelic xmamaRal qviTinSi gadadioda.
farsman qvelis datirebis teqstSi varirebadi ZiriTadi teqstis zus-
ti citati Semonaxuli ar aris, magram datirebis ritualSi mis arsebobas
calsaxad adasturebs fraza: `da axsenebdian simxnesa da siquelesa, da si-
Sueniesa da saxierebasa farsman quelisasa~. cxadia, es moxsenieba teqstis
ZiriTadi monakveTi unda yofiliyo. damasrulebeli wamoZaxilia: `vai Cuen,
rameTu mogvZina sueman borotman, da mefe Cueni, romlisagan xsnil viyveniT
monebisagan mterTa, moikla igi kacTa mgrZnebelTagan, da aw miveciT Cuen war-
tyuevnad naTesavTa ucxoTa~. ubralo dakvirveba naTelyofs, rom aq teqstSi
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
203
aRmavali ritmul-semantikuri eskalacia mimdinareobs (`vai Cuen~-dan `mive-
ciT Cuen wartyuevnad naTesavTa ucxoTa~-mde). imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom es
yvelaferi xdeba fonze, rodesac `ityebdes yovelni Tavsa TvisTa~, savsebiT
logikuria vivaraudoT, rom msgavsad sxva arqauli datirebis ritualebisa,
Cvens SemTxvevaSic datirebis dasasruli albaT xmamaRal qviTinSi gadadio-
da. datirebis teqstis morfologiis TvalsazrisiT, erTaderTi, ris Sesaxe-
bac `qarTlis cxovrebis~ teqstis mixedviT ver vimsjelebT, aris sakiTxi _
hqonda Tu ara datirebas Sesavali nawili.
teqstisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia arqauli datirebis is Taviseburebac,
rom misi adresati aris sazogadoebac (`vai Cuenda~) da Tavad micvalebu-
lic, romlis siqvelesac esmeba xazi. aseve eWvs gareSea isic, rom datire-
baSi xazgasmulia im qaosis dadgoma, romelic gmiris sikvdils mosdevs:
`da aw miveciT Cuen wartyuevnad naTesavTa ucxoTa~.
da bolos, SevexoT `mgosanTa glovisaTa~ instituts, anu pasuxi gavceT
sakiTxs, mandilosnebi axorcielebdnen gmiri xelmwifis datirebis ritu-
als Tu mamakacebi. im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom momxdari ambidan
ramodenime saukunis Semdegac ki qalebi da mamakacebi gancalkevebiT sadi-
lobdnen (rogorc es `SuSanikis wamebidan~ Cans) naTeli gaxdeba, rom gmiri
mefis damtireblebi mamakacebi unda yofiliyvnen (Sdr. svanur zars).
amrigad farsman qvelis datirebis teqstSi Semonaxulia gmiri-mefis dati-
rebis ritualisa da Sesabamisi teqstis iseTi momentebi, rogorebicaa:
gansakuTrebuli zepiri poeturi teqstis arseboba;
garkveul stereotipul formulebi;
datirebisas Jestebis arseboba (`ityebdes yovelni Tavsa Tavsa Tvi-
sTa~);
ZiriTadi teqsti da damasrulebeli wamoZaxilebi, romelic xmamaRal
qviTinSi gadadis;
datirebas ori adresanti hyavs: rogorc cocxalTa, ise micvalebulTa
samyaroebi. orivem unda Seityos daRupuli gmiris siqvelis Sesaxeb;
datirebis leqsikur-semantikuri da sintaqsur-stilistikuri msgavseba
epikuri poeziisTan;
datireba ara mxolod zaralis konstataciaa, aramed momavali qaosis
konstatirebac, romelic sociumSi misi arsebobis garantis gardacva-
lebis Semdeg dadgeba.
yovelive es amtkicebs, rom `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Semonaxuli datire-
bis teqsti struqturulad praqtikulad im teqstebis identuria, romle-
bic skandinaviuri, kelturi da sxva masalis safuZvelzea rekonsturire-
buli. es, sxvaTa Soris, garkveul safuZvels iZleva `qarTlis cxovrebis~
genezisis axleburi gagebisTvisac.
kaxa kacitaZe
204
Tumca qarTul kulturaSi, saxeldobr folklorSi, moipoveba sxva te-
qstic, romelSic damtirebeli kaci ki ara qalia. es teqsti naratiul ki
ara, zepirsityvierebis sferos ganekuTvneba. am teqstis Sesaxeb moviyvan
vrcel amonawers z. kiknaZis wignidan `qarTuli miTologia~ avtors mohya-
vs datirebis teqsti da vrcel komentars ukeTebs mas:
Sarmanaulo, Savardenoo,
mTibelni gixarianRaeo?
mTibel-mamyrisa sanayrodao
dumas ziscvarSi xarSavRaeo?
bevrais jixvis gamgoresao,
Tofsa xirimsa zidavRaeo?
mtrisa bevrais gamjavresao,
welsa frangulsa ibamRaeo?
stumris bevrisa masamsaxursao,
tyavsa qemxiTa xkeravRaeo?
bevrais mtrisa gamrigesao,
enasa bWeSi zidavRaeo?
am xevsuruli xmiT natiralSi paradigmulad aris aRnusxuli yoveli saq-
mianoba, romelTa aRsrulebaSi gadis TiToeuli ymis wuTisofeli. motirali
saTiTaod CamoTvlis maT daRupulis cxedarTan Sekrebili xalxis gasago-
nad. da sagulisxmoa, rom yovelive amas saymo, TiToeuli moyme diacis piriT
ismens. romc ar ganmeordes naTqvami, am sityvebs Rrmad ibeWdavs maTi maxso-
vroba. SromaSi, nadirobaSi, brZolaSi, maspinZlobaSi, saymos TanxmobisaTvis
zrunvaSi gadis cxovreba Sarmanaulisa. motirali Tavisi lakonurobiTa da
amomwuraobiT arqetipul mniSvnelobas iZens rigiTi ymis amsofliuri yo-
fierebisaTvis, Tumca is, rogorc natirali, damwuxrebuli gulis uSualo
amoZaxilia: dai tiris Zmaze, dabadebasa da sikvdils Soris moqceul erT si-
cocxleze, rogorc wuTissoflis dasasrulze, romlis tragizms itvirTavs
oriode TiTqosda umniSvnelo marcvali `Rae~ (kiknaZe 1996: 192).

valhala anu sikvdili da sicocxle
saiqioSi
Tavidanve aRvniSnav: imas, rac arqauli azrovnebis SemTxvevaSi xasia-
Tdeba, rogorc `saiqio~, araferi aqvs saerTo am terminis gaazrebasTan
monoTestur religiebSi. germanul da gansakuTrebiT keltur tradiciaSi
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
205
saiqio miRmuri, transcendenturi ram ki ar aris, aramed erTgvari para-
leluri samyaro, romelic Cveni samyaros gverdiT arsebobs da garkveul
wertilebSi kveTs kidec mas. aseTi wertili SeiZleba iyos ukacrieli sa-
saxle, mTa an borcvi, tbaze mdebare kunZuli da a.S. ramdenadac saiqio,
ufro zustad, saiqioebi, paraleluri samyaros xasiaTs atarebs, sulac
ar aris gasakviri, rom gmiri Cveni qveynidan saiqioSi moxvdes da Semdeg
ukan moaxerxos dabruneba. marTalia, saiqio Cvens samyaros hgavs, magram
garkveuli gansxvavebacaa. magaliTad, am pararelul samyaroebSi SeiZleba
drois dineba Cvens samyarosTan SedarebiT aCqarebuli an Senelebuli iyos.
qarTul tradiciaSi cnobilia SemTxveva, rodesac saiqios sityvebs sapi-
rispiro mniSvneloba aqvs, vidre saaqaos. magaliTad, `TefSebis damtvreva~
niSnavs TefSebis darecxvas. saiqios variantad qarTul tradiciaSi SeiZle-
ba ganvixiloT qajeTic.
aseTi saiqioebis, ufro zustad, parareluli samyaroebis Tema yvelaze
ukeT keltur tradiciaSia ganviTarebuli. Tumca Tema imdenad CaxlarTu-
lia, rom keltologebi dRemde davoben: uamravi paraleluri samyaro ar-
sebobda keltebTan Tu erTi da yvela danarCeni am erTi sxvebismomcveli
saiqios nawilebia. magram kelturi gadmocemebi paraleluri samyaroebis
Sesaxeb praqtikulad ar Seicavs daRupuli samxedroebis samyoflisa da
saiqioSi maTi cxovrebis wesis Sesaxeb informacias. amitom im informaciiT
SemovifarglebiT, romelic SemorCenilia islandiur tradiciaSi, saxel-
dobr, `umcros edaSi~. snori sturlusonis am TxzulebaSi Semonaxulia
valhalas anu im saiqios aRwera, sadac xvdebian daRupuli meomrebi. Tumca,
sanam uSualod valhalas aRweraze gadavidodeT, SevexoT saerTod parare-
lul samyaroebs skandinavur, saxeldobr, islandiur tradiciaSi.
daRupul meomarTaTvis gamiznuli mTavari saiqioa cnobili valhala,
val-holl `micvalebulTa srasasaxle~. sivrcobrivad is arsebobs gladshai-
mis gverdiT, xolo droiTi TvalsazriT xasiaTdeba, rogorc dasabamiseu-
li, rogorc im epoqis produqti, rodesac `RmerTebi mxolod iwyebdnen
dasaxlebas~. valhala xasiaTdeba, rogorc veli (vollr), saxli (rann), sra-
sasaxle (salr). valhalas gaaCnia iseTi atributebic, rogorebicaa: farTe
(vidr), brwyinvale oqrosi (gullbiartr). valhalasTan dakavSirebulni arian
iseTi personaJebi, rogorebicaa: odini, iremi eiqTuTurniro, valkiriebi
da a.S.
meore saiqio xasiaTdeba, rogorc ukvdavTa samyaro (O-dains-akr). yvela,
vinc iq midis, ganikurneba yovelgvari sneulebisagan, siberisgan da aras-
dros mokvdeba.
oiumi istorikos iordanes `getikaSi~ (goTebis istoriaSi) warmod-
genilia, rogorc skviTeTSi arsebuli idealuri qveyana. igi garSemorty-
kaxa kacitaZe
206
mulia WaobebiT da morevebiT, magram qveynis SigniT xvavi da baraqa sufevs.
mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom iordanesTan erT-erTi paraleluri samyaro
transformirda kvazirealur mxared iseve, rogorc imave avtorTan miTosu-
ri asebi da vanebi transformirdnen kvazirealurad arsebul tomebad.
Semdegi paraleluri samyaro iwodeba Folk-vangr-ad anu samxedro saZ-
mos velad. es valhalis erTgvari variantia, oRond ufro dabali donisa.
es fraias saufloa, sadac is odinTan erTad iyofs brZolebSi daRupul
vaJkacTa naxevars (ra niSniT xdeba es dayofa ucnobia, magram savaraudoa,
rom odins TavisTan valhalaSi saukeTeso mebrZolebi mihyavs, xolo danar-
Cenebi samxedro saZmos velze xvdebian). es paraleluri samyaro zecaSia.
Semdegi pozitiur saiqioebs, anu paralelur samyaroebs, Soris aris
glas-heimr-i anu brwyinvalebis (sixarulis) samyaro. Zneli saTqmelia,
valhalas nawilia igi, valhalis ubralo sinonimi Tu erTgvari miwieri
valhala. glas haimri garedanac da Signidanac bajaRlo oqrosia. iq Rmer-
Tebma aRmarTes taZari, agreTve Tormeti samefo taxti odinisaTvis.
Vingolf-i anu netarebis taZari, rogorc Cans, valhalis gare nawilia (va-
lhalis gverdiTaa). `umcrosi eda~-s mixedviT: `da mas [odins] kidev ewode-
ba daRupulTa mama, vinaidan isini, vinc brZolaSi daiRupnen, misi Svilo-
bilebi arian. da acxovrebs is mas valhalasa da vingolvSi da ewodebaT maT
einheriebi~ (warmodgenebi... 2002: 405).
aq aRar SevexebiT sxva pozitiur paralelur samyarebs, sadac cxovroben
ucodveli adamianebi, vinaidan maT daRupul meomrebTan, omTan da brZole-
bTan pirdapiri kavSiri ara aqvT. aRvniSnavT mxolod imas, rom am naTeli
saiqioebis garda, arsebobs bneli, negatiuri saiqioebi.
maT Soris, pirvel rigSi, unda gamoiyos hel-i (igive sityva dRevandel
inglisurSi jojoxeTs niSnavs). es sityva erTdroulad aRniSnavs mkvdrebis
samyarosac da am samyaros meufe goliaT qalsac. heli erTgvarad waagavs
berZnul tartarozs. is samyaros centrSi mdebare ifan idrgasilis fesveb-
Sia, CrdiloeTis mxares. Rrmad miwaSi. aq ZiriTadad arian adamianebi, rom-
lebic siberiT an avadmyofobiT daixocnen (anu amgvari sikvdili codvad
iTvleba brZolaSi daRupvasTan SedarebiT). iqve binadrobs mgel fenriris
oreuli _ giganturi ZaRli harmi da mamali.
jojoxeTuri paraleluri samyaros sxva nairsaxeobas warmoadgens nidha-
foll-i sityvasityviT _ mTisqveSeTi, erTi sityviT, qveskneli. mis binadarTa
Soris cnobilia Savi drakoni, romelsac frTebs Soris gvamebi hkidia. Cans
am qvesknelis sinonimuri unda iyos, an masTan raRacnairad dakavSirebuli
nidha-vellir-i velis qveSeTi, anu isev qveskneli. SesaZloa laparakia erTi da
imave qvesknelis or lokusze, romelTagan erTi dablobebs qvemoTaa moTa-
vsebuli, xolo meore _ mTebs qvemoT. velisqveSeTis qveskneli kvlav uka-
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
207
vSirdeba drakons. iq binadrobs juja sindri, agreTve micvalebulebic. es
qvesknelic CrdiloeTiTaa moTavsebuli.
Semdegi bneli paraleluri samyaroa nif-heimri _ bneleTis qveyana, romel-
sac helTan igive damokidebuleba aqvs, rogorc olk-vangrs valhalasTan, anu
bneleTis qveynis nawili misi identuria. isic msoflio ifnis fesvebs qvemoT
aris da iqac siberiT an avadmyofobiT daxocilebi imyofebian. is dasabamiseu-
lad arsebobs da masSi mudmivi sicive sufevs. misi meufec goliaTi helia.
da bolos, am arcTu sasiamovno samyaroebis CamoTvla unda davamTavroT Nif-
hel-iT. is helis kidev ufro qvemoT mdebareobs da iq goliaTi vaftrudniri su-
fevs. mis Sesaxeb Zalian cota ramaa cnobili. rogorc Cans, iq iseTi negatiuri
pirovnebebi xvdebian, romelTaTvis helSi yofnac ki arasakmarisi sasjelia.
ase SeiZleba mokled davaxasiaToT saiqioebis Tu paraleluri samyaroebis
nusxa skandinavur tradiciaSi. cnobilma rusma mkvlevarma t. toporovam gamo-
wvlilviT ganixila es sakiTxi da mivida im daskvnamde, rom saboloo jamSi es
samyaroebi or tipze daiyvaneba. erTi tipi ukavSirdeba iseT maxasiaTeblebs,
rogorebicaa: `qveS~, `miwisqveS~ ,`CrdiloeTs~, siSaves, floris ararsebobas,
iseT cxovelebs, rogorebicaa: gveli, drakoni, ZaRli, mgeli, mamali. es tipi
agreTve ukavSirdeba sikvdils (brZolaSi ardaRupvis garda, sikvdilis TiTq-
mis yvela formas (siberiT sikvdilidan _ daxrCobamde), da bolos _ siRrmesa
da siviwroves.
paralelur samyaroTa meore tipi ukavSirdeba cas, samxreTs an aRmosavleTs,
xeebs, mcenareebs, yvavilebs. mis faunas Citebi warmoadgenen. am tipis samyaro
aris naTeli, manaTobeli an mwvane. is ukavSirdeba sicocxlesa da kosmosis
ganaxlebas, agreTve sifarToves, sapirispirod pirveli tipis samyaroebis si-
viwrovisa.
meore tipis samyarosagan yvelaze ukeT valhalaa cnobili, sadac, rogorc
vTqviT, daRupul gmirTa sulebi sufeven. unda vifiqroT, rom pirveli tipis
negatiur samyaroSi im daRupul arsebaTa sulebi sufeven, romlebic SeiZleba
daxasiaTdnen, rogorc antigmirebi. germanuli saiqioebis am mokle daxasiaTe-
bis Semdeg gadavideT maTgan yvelaze cnobilze _ valhalaze.
jer SevexoT imas, Tu rogor Seityo kacobriobam valhalaSi gabatonebuli
cxovrebis Sesaxeb. am sakiTxze Semdegi gadmocema arsebobs: iyo Svedebis erTi
mefe, saxelad gulvi. mas mudam ainteresebda, ratom arian asebi esoden Zlie-
rebi. gulvi jadoqari iyo. erTxel moxucad gadaiqca da asebis samyoflis
_ asgardisaken gaswia. magram arc asebi iyvnen gulubryviloebi. Seityves,
rom gulvi maTTan modioda da xilva gaugzavnes. asebis samyofelTan misul-
ma gulvim Tavi vinme ganglerad gaasaRa. gulvi-ganglerma qalaqSi (asgardSi)
Sesvlisas uzarmazari sasaxle ixila da Semxvedrs sTxova, mis mepatronesTan
mieyvanaT. sasaxleSi Sesulma samefo taxtebze mjdomi sami xelmwife dainaxa,
kaxa kacitaZe
208
romlebic gaecvnen, rogorc `maRali~, `toladmaRali~ da `mesame~. rogorc
monaTxrobidan Cans, samive sxvadasxva hipostasiT warmodgenili iyo odini.
ganglerim moridebiT dauwyo maT sxvadasxva kiTxvebis micema. magaliTad, ro-
gor warmoiSva samyaro, vin arian mTavari RmerTebi da a.S. bolos igi valha-
lis mowyobasac Seexo. qvemoT warmogidgenT im teqstis Tavisufal gadmocemas,
valhalas rom exeba da Semonaxulia snori sturlusonis `umcrosi edas~ im
monakveTSi, `gulvis xilvebi (zmanebebi)~ rom ewodeba (ramdenadac saqme Tavi-
sufal gadmocemasTan gvaqvs zust citacias ar vaxdenT).
maSin ityoda gangleri (anu gulvi): `Sen momiTxrob, rom samyaros dasa-
bamis Jamidan yvela daRupuli axla valhalas odinTan sufeven. riT kvebavs
maT odini? ras aWmevs? valhalaSi xom uamravi adamiani grovdeba?~. maSin
ityoda maRali eseviTar: `marTals ambob. WeSmaritad mravali xalxia va-
lhalas Tavmoyrili. da metic iqneba, Tumca odes mgeli mova (laparakia
rignarekisas mgeli fenriris mosvlaze _ k.k.), mainc ukmarisni iqnebian.
ramdeni mkvidric ar unda hyavdes valhalas, yvelas eyofa tax sehrinmi-
ris CiCia. mas yovel dRe xarSaven, magram saRamosTvis kvlav mTelia. Seni
kiTxvebidan gamomdinare, vatyob, rom cotani moiZebnebian iseTi brZenni,
mTeli simarTle rom uwyodnen. andhrimniri hqvia mzareuls, xolo qvabs _
eldhrimniri. Tqmul ars:
andhrimniri xarSavs
sehrimnir-taxs
eldhrimnirSi xorci-
fleska -s (germanuli Flasche) SesaniSnavs,
mciredebma Tu ician
riT ikvebebian einheriebi.
maSin ikiTxa ganglerim: `da TviT odini, isic imasve Wams, rasac einhe-
riebi?
maRali ambobs: `mTels saWmels, magidaze rom udgas, or mgels uyris.
maT geri da freki hqviaT. ar sWirdeba odins araviTari saWmeli. Rvino _
ai misi saWmeli da sasmeli. iTqmeba:
geris da frekis,
kvebavs mebrZoli,,
meomarTa mama;
magram Tavad
abjriT mbrwyinavi,
mxolod Rvinos svams.
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
209
ori yorani uzis mxrebze da yurSi CasCurCuleben yovelives, rasac xedaven an
esmiT. hugini da mugini hqviaT yvavebs. is diliT agzavnis yvavebs da isinic mTel
msoflios moifrenen da sauzmisaTvis brundebian. maTgan igebs odini yovelives,
rac qveynad xdeba, amitom mas yvavebis RmerTs uwodeben. iTqmeba:
hugini da mugini
mudam cargvals,
frinaven dauRlelad,
huginze vSiSob,
muginze vSiSob,
dabrundebian Tu arayvavebi!.
maSin hkiTxa ganglerim: `aqvT einheriebs iseTi sasmeli, siuxviT rom ar
Camouvardebodes maT saWmels? Tu mxolod wyals svamen?
maRali pasuxobs: `ucnauria Seni SekiTxva. TiTqos yvelas mama (Alfr)
konungebs, iarlebs da didebulebs dahpatiJebs da wyals SesTavazebs! va-
lhalas moxvedrilT WeSmaritad saukeTeso sasmelad moeCvenebodaT wyali,
valhala ukeTes jildos rom ar sTavazobdes Wrilobebisa da sasikvdilo
tanjvisaTvis. sxva rasme getyvi: Txa saxelad haidruni cxovrobs valhala-
Si da Zovs igi im saxelovani xidan, leradi rom hqvia. Tafli, misi curidan
rom moedineba, yoveldRe avsebs did gobs. imdeni Taflia, rom sakmarisia
yvela einheriis dasaTrobad.
Tqva maSin ganglerim: `diax, arcTu mcire xeiria aseTi Txidan. saocari
unda iyos xe, romlidanac foTlebs Zovs.
isev ganglerim Tqva: `saocar sagnebze momiyevi. ramxela unda iyos va-
lhalis darbazni. albaT maT karebebTan adamianTa didi brboebi dganan.
maSin upasuxa maRalma: `ratom ar mkiTxav, ramdeni karia valhalaSi da
ramxelebi arian isini? odes Cems pasuxs gaigeb, ityvi, rom ucnauri iqne-
boda, Tu nebismieri Tavisi surviliT Sevidoda iq, an gamovidoda iqidan.
Tumca, isic marTalia, rom iq Camojdoma iseve advilia, rogorc iq Sesvla.
`grinmiris sityvebSi daaxloebiT asea naTqvami:
xuTi aseuli karebia,
da kidev ormoci
valhalaSi, WeSmaritad;
rvaasi meomari
gamova yoveli karebidan,
mgelTan Sesarkineblad.
kaxa kacitaZe
210
maSin Tqva ganglerim: `mravali adamiania valhalaSi. da marTla didi
meufea odini, amxela jari rom emorCileba. riT erTobian einheriebi, ro-
desac ar ilxenen?
upasuxa maRalma: `yovel dRes, odes warmodgebian, saWurvels aisxamen
da, rom gavlen darbazebidan, erTmaneTs sasikvdilod ebrZvian. esaa maTi
garToba. odes sauzmis Jami dadgeba, ukan brundebian valhalaSi da nadims
iwyeben. iTqmeba:
einheriebi yvelani,
marad ibrZvian
odinis sasaxlesTan,,
orTabrZolaSi ebmebian,
amTavreben ra brZolas,
mSvidad nadimoben.
rogorc vxedavT, valhala marTlac arqauli epoqis, winasaxelmwifoe-
brivi samxedro saZmoebis cxovrebis maradiuli xatia. iq maradiulad gr-
Zeldeba is, rac moZmeTaTvis dedamiwaze sruldeba. da mTel am brZolebsa
da nadimebs erTi meufe hyavs _ odini, romelic Tavis valhalel mxedrions
arasodes aklebs saWmels, sasmelsa da brZolis Jins.
arqauli RmerTebis aRsasruli
istoriuli procesis dialeqtikas arqauli epoqa logikurad mihyavs
dasasrulamde. am dasasruls mravali faqtori ganapirobebs, dawyebuli
instituciuridan (Temebisa da saZmoebis transformireba saxelmwifoe-
bad), damTavrebuli teqnoligiuriT (brinjaos Canacvleba rkiniT). Zvel
aRmosavleTSi es procesi ufro adre xdeba da ZvelaRmosavluri tipis
saxelmwifoebis SeqmniT sruldeba. igive procesi cota mogvianebiT xdeba
antikurobaSic, saberZneTsa da romSi. wina planze saxelmwifos damkvi-
drebasTan erTad TandaTanobiT iwevs samxedro siqvele, xolo magiuri
sawyisi ukana planze gadadis, TumcaRa sruladac ar qreba. principi _
`Samani meomarze Zlieria, magia samxedro siqveleze Zlieria~ _ warsuls
bardeba.
Cven uars vambobT am transformaciis dayvanaze mxolod erT, romelime
faqtorze _ materialursa Tu sulierze. es iseTive umaduri saqmea, ro-
gorc imis garkveva, kvercxi ufro adre gaCnda Tu qaTami. amis miuxedavad, Cven
mier ganxiluli sakiTxisaTvis saWirod mimaCnia mcire eqskursi teqnolo-
giis istoriis sferoSi. brinjao, brinjaos iaraRi organul kavSirSia ara
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
211
mxolod magiur mentalitetsa da Temur organizaciasTan, aramed garkveul
`samrewvelo ciklTanac~. mcire socialur jgufad, Temad organizebuli
sazogadoebis teqnologiuri cikli aseve SezRuduli iyo. teqnologiuri
ciklis centrSi mWedeli idga, romelic viwro-lokaluri, Temuri Tu saZ-
moseuli interesebidan gamomdinare moqmedebda. es cikli organul kavSirSi
iyo magiur msoflmxedvelobasTan da ukavSirdeboda gmirisaTvis iaraRis
gamokvervas, razec amdeni visaubreT. rkinis etapis dadgoma gulisxmobs ara
mxolod Temis Canacvlebas saxelmwifoTi, aramed rkinis teqnologiebis ga-
vrcelebasac. es teqnologia kargavs magiur xasiaTs da, Tu SeiZleba ase
iTqvas, gadadis industriul safuZvelze. saxelmwifo organizacia gulisx-
mobs rkinis iaraRis masobriv gavrcelebas, process, romelic mimdinareobs
Temidan da saZmodan saxelmwifos Seqmnis paralelurad.
rkinis gaCenasTan erTad, rasac saxelmwifoebrivi organizaciis piro-
bebSi rkinis iaraRis gavrceleba mosdevs, iqmneba `masobrivi~ armiebi. es
armiebi bevrad ufro racionaluri principebiT aris organizebuli, vidre
magiur-Samanur msoflgancdaze damyarebuli da brinjaos iaraRiT aRWurvi-
li laSqari. amgvar armiaTa Setakebisas axali, heroikuli, rkinis eris Se-
naerTebi gamanadgurebel dartymebs ayeneben ara mxolod brinjaos iaraRiT
aRWurvil jarebs, aramed TviT magiur mosoflgancdas. aseTi gamarjvebis
STambeWdavi aRwera moipoveba romael istorikos titus liviusTan, saxel-
dobr iq, sadac moTxrobilia romaelTa gamarjvebaze etruskebTan brZola-
Si. titus liviusi wers: `Tavdapirvelad romaelebi damarcxdnen, vinaidan
romael jariskacebs SeeSindaT qurumebisa, romlebic furiebis msgavsad
CiraRdnebis qneviTa da gvelebiT xelSi modiodnen. romaelebi uwesrigod
gaiqcnen TavianTi gamagrebebisaken. magram konsulebma, oficrebma da tribu-
nebma jariskacebs dacinva dauwyes imis gamo, rom maT bavSvebiviT SeeSindaT
am TvalTmaqcebisa. jariskacebs sircxvilma siTamame daubruna da Seuties
im nivTebs, romlebmac isini gaaqcies (sainteresoa, rom romaelebi aq mters
ki ara, nivTebs uteven _ k.k.). gafantes ra aCrdilebi, isini Tavs daesxnen
namdvil mters, gaarRvies maTi dacvis xazi, xelT Caigdes uzarmazari na-
davli da gamarjvebulni dabrudnen. TavianT SiSs isini uxeSi jariskaculi
xumrobiT dascinodnen~ (maiani 1964: 320).
Znelia ufro STambeWdavi aRwera imisa, Tu rogor daZlia rkinis xanis
heroikam brinjaos xanisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Samanur-magiuri msoflgan-
cda, romelic samxedro siqveles ki ara, CiraRdnebis qnevasa da gvelebis
trialiT Sesrulebuli ritualiT gamowveul SiSs emyareboda. etruskebi
romaelebs aCrdilebad warmoudgebaT. aCrdili isaa, rac Tavs gviCvenebs
sxvagvarad, vidre sinamdvileSia. mas Tan axlavs magiiT, Samanis mier war-
moebuli brZoliT gamowveuli SiSi. am SiSis gamarjvebis erTaderTi saSua-
kaxa kacitaZe
212
leba masze sicilia. amitom romaelebma gamarjveba maSin moipoves, rodesac
sakuTar SiSze sicili daiwyes.
titusis mier aRwerili romaelTa gamarjveba SesaZloa ufro mniSvne-
lovanic ki iyo, vidre karTagenze gamarjveba, rasac pativcemuli liviusi
aranakleb STambeWdavad aRwers. marTalia, punikur omebSi romaelebma an-
tikuri xanis erT-erTi udidesi mxedarmTavris damarcxeba moaxerxes, magram
etruskebze moTxrobili gamarjveba mainc ufro mniSvnelovania, rameTu aq
romaelebma ara marto mterze, aramed sakuTar SiSebsa da stereotipebze
gaimarjves da iqcnen imad, radac mTeli kacobrioba icnobs _ racionalu-
rad warmarTuli omis geniosebad.
titus liviusis aRwerili epizodi samxedro da politikuri istoriis
sferoSi imasve asaxavs, rasac rkinis gamarjveba brinjaoze. amgvari gamarjve-
bis saintereso gadmocemas dResac inaxavs qarTuli ena, ufro zustad ki is
sityvebi, omis warmoebas rom exeba. `brZola~ imave Ziris Semcvelia, romelic
Semonaxulia sityvaSi `brZeni~. es ukanaskneli SemorCenilia mxolod saku-
Triv qarTulSi _ enaSi, romelic rkinis xanis dadgomis Semdeg Cndeba. am sit-
yvis dasabamiseul mniSvnelobas megruli inaxavs, sadac qarTul `brZ~-s Sesa-
bameba ~burj~. megrulad `vuburjuanq~ niSnavs `veWidavebi~, `vebRlanZunebi~,
`burjafi~ niSnavs bRlarZunsa da Widaobas, magram am semantikur velSi jde-
ba imave sityvis sawyisiseuli mniSvneloba, rac niSnavs `borgvas~ `SfoTvas~.
es ukanaskneli gulisxmobs raRaciT Sepyrobas, normaluri mdgomareobidan
gadaxvevas, erTi sityviT, transs. svanurSi igive Ziri isev da isev Widaobas,
uwesrigo brZolas gulisxmobs (Sdr. sityva `borjRals~). amdenad, qarTuli
borgva transis mniSvnelobis Semcvelia da es mniSvneloba mogvianebiT tran-
sfomirdeba brZenis, rogorc magiuri codnis, mflobelisad. sapirispirod
amisa `Serkineba~, romelic mxolod qarTul enaSi moipoveba aRar Seicavs ma-
giuri transis mniSvnelobas. is protoraindul Serkinebas, e.i. rkinis iara-
RiT urTierTbrZolas gulisxmobs. marTalia, Tavad rkina SeiZleba davukav-
SiroT saerTo qarTvelur `rku~-s (rac imasve aRniSnavs, rasac `gawmenda~ da
SesaZloa Tavdapirvelad igi madnis gawmendas, sxvagvarad, rkinis miRebas ni-
Snavda). magram es arcaa arsebiTi. mTavari isaa, rom samxedro moqmedebaTa war-
moeba magiur-Samanuri brZolidan rkinis iaraRiT SerkinebaSi gadaizarda.
omi, am sityvis zusti gagebiT, am droidan Cndeba. `zusti gageba~ jer
kidev ar gulixmobs imas, TiTqos klauzevicis Tezisi omze, rogorc saxelm-
wifo politikis gagrZelebaze, ukve ZalaSi Sedis, Tumca aqeTken arsebiTi na-
biji idgmeba, gansakuTrebiT antikuri epoqis dasasruls. omi, rogorc kaco-
briobis saqmianobis Tvisebrivad axali (arqaulTan SedarebiT), instituti
im gagebiT Cndeba, rom saxelmwifos gacilebiT ufro meti resursi gaaCnia
omis warmarTvisaTvis, vidre Tems, saZmos, anda erTi konkretuli miznisaTvis
epikuri gmiris sikvdili da omis aRqmis zogierTi sakiTxi arqaul kulturaSi
213
Seqmnil saZmoebis koalicias. saxelmwifos Seqmnas axali mentalobis Seqmna
mosdevs, romlis pirobebSic icvleba mTlianad samyarosa da, maSasadame,
omis aRqmac. Zireulad icvleba omis warmoebis wesic, Tumca es gaqroba he-
geliseul moxsna-Senaxvis xasiaTs atarebs da gamqrali msoflmxedvelobis
rigi elementebi transformirebuli saxiT agrZelebs arsebobas.
saxelmwifos dabadebasTan erTad arqauli omis RvTaebebis aRsasrulic
dgeba. es aRsasruli mxolod nawilobriv hgavs skandinaviur rognareks,
romelsac am wignSi didi adgili davuTmeT. RmerTebis aRsasruls axali
wesrigis damyareba mosdevs. es araa im wesrigis ubralo aRdgena, romlis
dangrevac mgel fenriris Tavis awyvetiT iwyeba. axali wesrigi saxelmwi-
fos saxes iRebs, romlis mobinadrenic omis sxvagvar gagebas emyarebian,
vidre meTemeni an moZmeni. Tumca, amgvari gagebis kvleva omis arsis aRqmis-
admi miZRvnili sxva naSromebis sagania.
damowmebani:
ingoroyva (1978): ingoroyva p. TxzulebaTa krebuli. tomi IV. Tb.: 1978
kacitaZe 2006: kacitaZe k. strategiis safuZvlebi. Tb.: Ggamomcemloba `cisartyela~,
2006.
kiknaZe 1996: kiknaZe z. qarTuli miTologia. quTaisi: 1996.
maiani 1964: . . .: 1964
narTebi 1988: narTebi. cxinvali: 1988.
roleston 2004: . , . .: 2004.
qc 1958: qarTlis cxovreba. t. I, Tb.: 1958.
warmodgenebi... 2002: .
.: 2002.
Kakha Katsitadze
The Death of the Epic Hero and Some Aspects of the War Perception in Archaic
Culture
The type of researches that can be called military-culturological is developing inten-
sively in the Western countries and studies in what way the phenomenon, known as war, is
perceived in each seperate culture. M. Osovskayas, R. Kardins and others works opened
totally different perspectives towards this direction. In the given article, concerning mil-
itary-culturological theme, we will discuss one of the most actual and dramatic moment
of the archaic perception of war a range of aspects connected with the death of a hero-
leader.
kaxa kacitaZe
214
Every culture has its own idea about death and afterlife. Narrative tradition based on
folklore about the afterlife, which has reached us, was created in the circle of military aris-
tocracy, or was meant for them and refected their ideas about death. Here was highlighted
such kind of life and death which turned the person hero and would make him famous for
centuries. Such heroes as Kuhulin or Achilleus, from the very beginning chose short life
flled with fame. Such kind of life does not only bring fame in this world, but is also accom-
panied by privileges in the afterlife. It was a logical choice, if we take into consideration
how the military aristocracy understood life, death and afterlife.
The article deals with with the following topics concerning the death of an epic hero-
leader: sign warning about death, meeting with a double, as a sign alerting death, breaking
taboos, verbal fortunetelling, enchantment, logic of heros death, mourning over the hero,
perception about afterlife and death of archaic Gods.
The logic of the heros death is emphasised in the article. The heros death is not only
a simple justifcation of fortunetelling, consequence of taboo breaking or a fact following
the death telling sign. The death, at the same time, is a necessary condition for heroiza-
tion of protagonist as this death is accompanied by violation of rules. Moreover, with the
help of this act, heroes compensate their past actions (we should recollect that the heroes
of archaic times, are not saints). On the one hand, the heros death unites the whole plot,
it accompanies it as a lightmotif and on the other hand, unites this same plot as a logical
ending. Therefore, heroization of a protagonist with the help of death is important, and not
the heroic death. Moreover, the character may not die heroicaly at all, for example Sigurd
or hero of Ossati, Soslan.
The way pre-state society understood the phenmenon of war is discussed on the exam-
ple of heros death. Cultural-ritual aspects of war perception and the difference detween
past and todays perception of war is outlined.In the article it is concluded how new tra-
dition, established simultaneously with thefoundation of State defeats old, pre-State ap-
proach.
215
debiuti
marine germisaSvili
qarTuli dramaturgiis saTaveebTan
originaluri qarTuli dramaturgia komediis JanriT iwyeba. g. erisTa-
vis, z. antonovis, a. cagarelis da sxvaTa piesebi umetesad swored am Janrs
ganekuTvneboda. Sesabamisad, qarTuli drmaturgiis istoriaSi komedias
gansakuTrebuli roli aqvs.
iona meunargia wers: `komedia da sazogadod drama yovelgvar litera-
turul Txuzulebaze ufro Znelia dasawerad. TviT sagani amrig Txuzule-
baTa aris Zneli da miuvali. es is uxilavi, ucnobi da ganuzomeli adamianis
sulia, romlis siRrmeSic unda CaeSvas dramaturgi da uTvalyuros yovel-
gvar sulis moZraobas, yovelgvar mis survils da ganzraxvas. ...sakuTrad
komedia imgvar wvrilmans, umsgavsos da umniSvnelo moqmed pirebs iRebs
Tavisda Sinaarsad, romelTa survili da saqcieli imdenad damaxinjebulni
arian, rom uneblied sicils autexen kacs. komediis mwerlis samkali sul
yvelgan aris, saca sulels Tavisi Tavi filosofosad miaCnia, saca uRirsi
pirvelobas Cemobs, saca ubralo SemTxvevas didi mniSvneloba eZleva, saca
aris farisevloba, Tavismoyvareoba, angareba, Suri, zakva. amisTana mdida-
ri SinaarsiT komediis mwerali sxvadasxvagvarad sargeblobs. zogi imgvar
komediebs wers, romelSiac sazogado naklulevaneba aris gamoxatuli mTe-
li kacobriobisa; zogi komediis Sinaarsad mxolod erTi romelisame eris
naklulevanobas iRebs; zogi ki mxolod erTi romelisame sazogadoebis
zneobiT simaxinjes~. (meunargia 1954: 283-285.)
komediis zegavlena yovelTvis sicilia, xSirad cremlnarevi sicili,
rogorc amas akaki aRniSnavs. ,,mayurebeli dascinis moqmedi piris sasaci-
lo mdgomareobas, romeSliac Tavisi ararobiT TviTon gaiba Tavi. am si-
cils xandaxan Sebralebis grZnobac emateba, Tu komediis gmiri bedisagan
itanjeba.
komediis sicili sxvanairi sicilia. es sicili gamowveuli unda iyos ko-
mediaSi gamoyvanil pirTa mdgomareobiT. es ubralo sicili rodia, es dacin-
vaa. xolo am sicilsa da dacinvaSi avtoris dedaaazri yvelagan naTlad
unda moCandes, ufro naTels unda hfendes sasacilo sagnebs, maSin kome-
dia sasargeblo da Wkuis maswavlebeli, zneobis Tu patiosnebis damcveli
da sworis maCvenebelia~ (gunia 1889: 47,76). cnobilia, rom bevri komedia
sxvadasxvagvaria: xasiaTis komedia, zneobis komedia, intrigis komedia da
marine germisaSvili
216
sxv. aqedan upiratesoba eZleva xasiaTis komediebs da saukeTeso komediogra-
febic _ minandre, plavtusi, molieri adamianTa sazogado naklovanebebze
amaxvilebdnen yuradRebas. giorgi erisTavis dramaturgiaSi mniSvnelovani
adgili sworedac rom zneobis komediebs ekuTvnis. ,,giorgi erisTavis kome-
diis Sinaarsi Cveni eris naklulevanebaa. es naklulevaneba aris amaoTmor-
wmuneoba, daudevroba, uqmad dros gatareba, Zmisa ar gankiTxva, SeZlebazed
gardametebulis xarjva, valis siyvaruli, baqiaoba, sizarmace, da sxv. poeti
gamovida samwerlo asparezze im dros, roca suyvela es naklulevaneba hqon-
da Cvens sazogadoebas da Rirseba ki TiTqmis araviTari, garda vaJkacobisa
da rainduli xasiaTisa. amgvari usulo da uazro sazogadoeba dacemuli
sazogadoeba iyo, romelsac fexze dayeneba sWiroda. Cvens droSi es didi
vali komediam ikisra. qarTveli eris warmatebiT suldgmulma axalgazrda
giorgim yovelgvari misi naklulevaneba xelze daixvia da ise xelovnurad
gamosaxa es naklulevaneba, ise dascina mas, ise uwyalod hgvema, rom Semdgom-
Si, rodesac sazogadoebam dainaxa misi komediebi TeatrSi, xalxma TavisTavi
icno, dacinvam Tavisi keTili Sedegi moitana da sazogadoeba ramdenadac iyo
gamofxizlda. bevrs Tavis naklulevanebas Tavi aaSora komediis SurduliT
dawylulebulma gmirma~ (meunargia 1954: 291).
volteric amasve adasturebs da ambobs, rom komedia iseTi xelovnebaa,
romelic keTil zneobas aswavlis kacsao. amave azris gansamtkiceblad da
gasafarToeblad sergei mesxsac moviSveliebT: ,,imisTvis, rom komedias ke-
Tili zemoqmedeba hqondes sazogadoebaze, saWiroa < ... > esmodes misi mni-
Svneloba. Tu sazogadoeba komedias marto imisTvis uyurebs, rom icinos da
ar iswavlos, maSin komediis warmodgena amisTana sazogadoebisTvis srule-
biT unayofo iqneba~ (mesxi 1953: 120). aki iliac brZanebs: ,,didi komediis
Seqmna cxovrebis, adamianTa urTierTobis Rrma codnas, gansakuTrebul niWs
da iSviaT mxatvrul ostatobas moiTxovs.
molieri azriT, komediis amocana sazogadod adamianuri da umTavresad ki
Cveni Tanamedroveobis mankierebaTa gamoxatvaa. komedoigrafis gansakuTre-
buli damsaxureba isaa, rom komikuri situaciis fonze man Seqmna tipiuri
saxeebi tipiur garemoebebSi. mis komediebSi sicili, rogorc mZafri sa-
tira, Zlieri saSualebaa adamianTa zneobrivi aRzrdisaTvis. igi axlos
icnobda rogorc dabali, aseve maRali sazogadoebis cxovrebas. moliers
uyvarda Tqma: `me viReb sikeTes yvelgan, sadac ki mas vnaxulob~. Tumca
miseuli xalxuroba mogvianebiT uaryofiTad Seafases ganamanaTleblebma,
magram verc mis genias uaryofdnen.
swored am esTetikur principebze Seiqmna piesebi: `tartiufi anu muz-
muzela~, `don Juani anu qvis stumari~, `mizanTrofi~, `sasacilo pranWia
qalebi~, `Zalad eqimi~, `JorJ dandeni anu gasulelebuli qmari~, `Zunwi~,
qarTuli komediis sawyisebi
217
`gaaznaurebuli mdabio~, `skapenis cuRlutoba~, `eWviT avadmyofi~, `co-
lis SerTvevineba~, `siyvaruli mkurnalobs~, `sicilieli anu siyvaruli
mxatvrobs~, `sganareli anu qmari romelsac hgonia coli mRalatobso~,
`Cinebuli sasiZo~ da sxva. yvela zemoT xsenebuli komedia, qarTulad
iTargmna da TiTqmis yvela daidga kidevac qarTul scenaze.
,,adamianebi komediaSi unda iqnan warmodgenilni, rogorc isini sinamd-
vileSi arian, ise rom moqmed pirebSi SeiZlebodes Cveni sazogadoebis da-
naxva. Tu wesebi amas xels uwyobs, xom kargi, Tu ara da maSin maT yuradRe-
bas nu miaqcevT~ _ es iyo molieris komediebis mTavari principi.
safrangeTSi klasicizmis komedias miznad dausaxes, `gamovasworoT si-
ciliT zne-Cveuleba~ da namdvili komediac xom mTeli Tavisi siuJetebiTa
da mxatvruli saxeebiT sazogadoebrivi cxovrebasTan aris dakavSirebuli,
romelic miznad isaxavs sagnebi da movlenebi asaxos ise, rogoradac ar-
seboben sinamdvileSi. es ki relizmis ZiriTadi principia. erisTavis kome-
diebic am principzea agebuli. ,,igi kritikulad Sexvda Tavis Tanamedrove
sazogadoebas,socialur yofas da mogvca am yofis Seulamazebeli sura-
Tebi~ (gamezardaSvili 1957: 154).
im evropel dramaturgTa Soris, romelTac gamorCeuli roli Seasru-
les qarTuli komediuri Janrebis ganviTarebaSi, gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia
molieri. sakmarisia iTqvas, rom giorgi erisTavis dramaturgia upirvele-
sad davalebulia molierisagan da rom axali qarTuli Teatris daarsebis
meore welsve (1852) mis repertuarSi molieris piesam _ `Zalad eqimi~ _
daikava adgili.
molieris komediebis Temebi, satira, xalxuroba, realuri sinamdvilis
asaxva, da sazogadoebis mankieri mxareebis mxileba axlos iyo qarTuli
realisturi mwerlobis mizanTan.
molieris Semoqmedebis gacnoba da gaTaviseba, XIX saukunis qarTul-
frangul literaturul urTierTobaTa erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani
movlenaa. qarTvelobaSi arc erT ucxo mwerali ise cnobili ar aris,
rogorc molieri aRniSnavda aleqsandre sarajiSvilis (sarajiSvilis xe-
lnaweri: 372-g-1:1).
molieris piesebis Targmna XIX s.-is 50-ian wlebSi iwyeba. frangi ko-
mediografis piesebs Targmnidnen: dimitri yifiani, giorgi TumaniSvili,
akaki wereTeli, ivane maCabeli, kote mesxi, elene lorTqifaniZe da sxv.
,,kriJangi~ /L avare/ 1668 wels molierma dadga Tavis TeatrSi. komedia
`Zunwi~ qarTulad iTargmna peterburgis universitetis studentTa jgufis
mier 1879 w. ivane maCablis redaqciiT. studentTa am jgufidan cnobilia
vasil maCabeli. Targmani ar aris srulyofili. bevri adgili gamotovebu-
lia. enobrivadac Wrelia, rac, savaraudod, gamowveuli unda iyos Targman-
marine germisaSvili
218
ze ramdenime piris muSaobiT. gamotovebuli adgilebi Targmnilia ir. qavJa-
raZis mier. Jurnal `iveriaSi~ gamoqveynebul am Targmans axlavs minaweri _
,,es komedia gadaTargmnil iqmna franciulis enidam peterburgis qarTveli
studentobisgan (iveria 1884:); gamoqveynebulia ,,arvicaSvilis anonimuri
xelmoweriT, 1897 wlis 18 dekembers, TbilisSi, artist gedevanovis saben-
efisod~ (iveria 1897:).
`Zunwi~. komedia ,,Zunwipirvelad warmoadgines TbilisSi e.w. TamamSe-
vis TeatrSi. 1852 wlis 18 \ 30 - ianvars, Tavad avtoris xelmZRvanelobiT.
am komediis avtografi, ar aris daculi. igi pirvelad calke wignad ga-
mosca TviT giorgi erisTavma da 1852 wels dabeWda sakuTar stambaSi. gamo-
cemis gare ydaze vkiTxulobT: ,,Zunwi~, komedia 2-s moqmedebaSi, Txzuleba
T. giorg. erisTavisa. stambasa Sina T.g.eri~.
1879 wlis 5/17 dekembers dadges g. erisTavis komedia `Zunwi~
1880 wlis 14/26 marts imave komedias kvlav gamoexmaura `droeba~ da
recenziaSi vkiTxulobT: `v. abaSiZe Zunwis (karapetas) rolSi iseTive niWi-
eri da xelovnuri iyo Tu ukeTesi ara, rogorc adre. es Cinebuli moTamaSe
srulebiT samasxarod da sasacilod ar warmoadgens Zunws. siZunwe TiTqo
avadmyofobad, Zvalsa da rbilSi vnebad gardaqcevia da amis gamo imis xa-
siaTSi v. abaSiZis TamaSiT sasacilo mxareebi ki ara, ufro dasafiqrebeli
mxareebi ixateba~(droeba 1880: #61).
piesis msvlelobisas mayurebeli yovelTvis daZabuli iyo, radgan mnaxveli
zizRiT Sehyurebda siZunwis mankiT daavadebul adamians, da Tu gaicinebda, es
iyo ara mxiaruli, udardeli sicili, aramed mwuxarebis amomnTxevi, is, raze-
dac akaki wereTelma Tqva: `vin ra icis rom sicili zogjer cremlze mwareao~
(gersamia 1943: 43). vaso abaSiZeze wignis Semqmneli agrZelebs: `Zunwis Tema ar
aris erTi romelime mwerlis kuTvnileba. Zunwoba Zveli, saerTaSoriso da
maradiuli Temaa. am Temaze mravalma mweralma Seqmna nawarmoebi: plavti, Seq-
spiri, molieri, larivei buaroberi, bualo, puSkini, gogoli, balzaki, gi de
mopasani,saSa gitri,rober buassi,fernan reino, eJeni Saveti da bevri sxvani. <
... > Zunwoba es adamianis udidesi socialuri mankia. Zunwi adamiani sulierad
daavadebuls mogagonebT, mis cxovrebasa da moqmedebaSi bevri ram aris sasaci-
lo, Zunwi adamiani saerTod aravis ebraleba. amas yovelives Zunwi TviTonac
kargad grZnobs, magram am seniT Sepyrobils Tavis gankurna ar SeuZlia...
amnairad Zunwoba adamianisaTvis tragediaa. da mwerlebi Tu maT sulier
ganwyobilebas umTavresad tragikomediul formebSi xsnian, es imisaTvis,
rom dacinvis saSualebiT ufro advilia am senis mxileba da gakilva.
Zunwebi <... > yvela epoqaSi iyvnen. isini Tavis saerTo xasiaTiT _
siZunwiT yvelani erTmaneTs gvanan, magram vinaidan yoveli maTgani Tavi-
si qveynis da konkretuli epoqis Svilia, ama Tu im qveynis ekonomikuri
qarTuli komediis sawyisebi
219
da politikur pirobebSi aRzrdili, amitom calkeuli maTganis moqmede-
bas Tavis qveynis Tavisebureba, zne-Cveuleba axasiaTebs, radgan mis wiaRSi
uxdeba cxovreba-moqmedeba~ (gersamia 1943: 46, 47).
siZunwis Temaze antikur saberZneTSic werdnen komediebs. maT Cvenamde
ar mouRwevia, Tumca cnobilia Zveli berZnuli Tqmuleba `Zunwis~ Sesaxeb:
Zunwi dRe da Rame RmerTs evedreboda, bevri oqro moeca. RmerTma Seusru-
la survili. Zunwi rasac xels Seaxebda, TviT saWmelsac ki, yvelaferi
oqrod iqceoda. sabolood Zunwi SimSiliT mokvda.
evklioni, harpagoni, Zunwi baroni, Seiloki, gobseki _ siZunwis si-
nonimebia. Zunwis mxatvrul damuSavebaSi pirveloba ekuTvnis Zvel berZen
mwerals Teofrastes, xolo romaeli plavtusis komediis ,,Ulularias~ siu-
JetiT TviT moliermac isargebla.
rogorc yoveli Zunwi, plavtusis evklionic Civis Tavis siRaribes. mo-
samsaxure strobili ambobs, rom evklionis saxli `savsea sicarieliT da
obobas qseliT~. rogorc Raribi, daxmarebasac ki Rebulobs sazogadoe-
brivi saSualebebidan. igi imdenad Zunwia, rom dalaqis mier moWrili fr-
Cxilebic ki Sin moaqvs, msaxurebs sayvedurobs, rom anTebuli Rumelidan
boli gareT gadis da ikargeba, enaneba piris dabanisas daRvrili wyali da
RamiT saxeze ifarebs, rom amonasunTqi haeric ar daekargos.
evklions ganZi ki miwaSi aqvs dafluli. dRe da Ram masze fiqrobs, eWvi
klavs da eCveneba rom mamalic ki, miwis gaCxrekisas, mis ganZsa Txris. mdi-
dar mezobel megadorsac Raribi hgonia evklioni. mas surs evklionis qa-
liSvilis _ fedras, colad SerTva. evklioni, rodesac rwmundeba, rom
mziTevs ar mosTxoven, Tanxmdeba megadorisaTvis qaliSvilis miTxovebas.
iwyeba saqorwino mzadeba da am dros megadoris moxerxebuli msaxuris _
strobilis droc dgeba, romelic ganZs hparavs evklions...
iwyeba Zunwis tanjva:
me davikarge! me daviRupe! me mkvdari var! ox, sad
gaviqce da sad ar gaviqce? gaCerdi, daiWire!
vin? vis! me ar vici, ver vxedav, me brma var,
magram sad wavide? sad var me! vin var me!
ar maqvs gagebis unari! momexmareT, gevedrebiT!
maCveneT is, vinc is moitaca!
ra Tqvi Sen, me mzad var Tqven dagijeroT.
saxeze getyobaT, kargi adamiani xarT!
es ra aris? Tqven iciT! Tqven yvelas gicnobT.
ar meeWveba, rom umravlesi TqvenTagani qurdia...
(gaCeCilaZe 1957: )
marine germisaSvili
220
komediis bolo nawili dakargulia. mkvlevarTa azriT, piesa ase unda
sruldebodes: ganZi ubrundeba Zunws. gaxarebuli evklioni Tavis qaliS-
vils mis sasurvel likonids miaTxovebs, ganZs, romelmac aseTi satanjv-
elSi Caagdo, mziTvad atans fedras.
plavtusma didi gavlena moaxdina evropis komediografiis ganviTare-
baze. misi gavleniT Seiqmna komedia `Dell arte~ (`niRbebis komedia~), romel-
mac Seqmna trabaxa meomrisa da moxerxebuli msaxuris niRbebi.
ra aqvT saerTo plavtusisa da erisTavis komediebs? ruseTSi plavtusiT
daintereseba XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi daiwyo. am dros Targmnili
iyo misi mxolod erTi komedia `tyveebi~. SesaZlebelia giorgi erisTavi
ar icnobda am komedias. yovel SemTxvevaSi, plavtusis gavlenaze SesaZloa
gaWirdes saubari da Tu komediebi _ `ganZi~ da `Zunwi~ _ moqmedebaTa
zogierT situaciaSi erTmaneTs hgavs, savaraudod imitom, rom molieris
komedia `Zunwi~, romlis gavleniTac dawera g. erisTavma Tavisi komedia,
Seqmnilia plavtusis `ganZis~ mibaZviT.
sagulisxmoa, rom siZunwe _ plavtusma, molierma da erisTavma kome-
diis JanriT gadmogvces, puSkinma ki _ tragediis. puSkinis `Zunwi raindi~
tragediaa. nawarmoebis mTavari gmiri baronis siZunwis raindia. alberi ase
gadmogvcems Tavisi mamis baronis siZunwes:
ara! mamaCems arc megobrad da arc msaxurad
ar miaCnia igi,misTvis kerpia fuli.
emsaxureba mas TviTonve,da mere rogor?
rogorc uxamsi mona,rogorc jaWvze dabmuli
nagazi. aki zamTar-zafxul Tavis xuxulas
ara Sordeba.xmel purze da wyalze gadadis.
Tvals ar xuWavs mTeli Rame.yefs da wrialebs.
zandukebSi ki udrtvinvelad sZinavT oqroebs...
(puSkini : 522)
Tavad baronis damokidebuleba ganZisadmi amgvaria:
viT qarafSuta axalgazrda elis paemans
memruSe qalTan, an cru sityviT dabmul diacTan,
da suli misdis, egreve mec sulmouTmenlad
am wuTs velodi mTeli kvira, sanam idumal
Cems saganZurSi am zandukebs ar movakiTxe.
sviani dRe maqvs...
(puSkini : 525)
qarTuli komediis sawyisebi
221
amave monologSi baroni Cumad loculobs oqroTi savse skivrTan. aseTi
scena ar aris arc plavtusis `ganZSi~ da arc molieris `ZunwSi~, erisTavis
Zunw-karapetas monologi skivrSi Camalul oqroebTan hgavs puSkiniseuli
Zunw-baronis aRniSnul monologs. es ori Txzulebac mxolod amiT hgavs
erTmaneTs.
puSkinis ,,Zunwi raindi~ leqsad dawerili tragediaa, g. erisTavis `Zu-
nwi~ ki _ komedia. pirvelis mTavari personaJi _ baroni raindia, meorisa
_ mevaxSe vaWari. g. erisTavis `Zunwi~, molieris imave saxeldebis komediis
gavleniTa Cans Seqmnili ise da imgvaradve, rogorc molierma SeTxza Tavisi
`Zunwi~ plavtusis `ganZis~ zegavleniT. xolod eg aris, rom plavtusis
`ganZis~ gavlena ufro Zlieria molieriseul `Zunwze~, radgan `ganZidan~
moliers nasesxebi aqvs Tema, tipaJi, da zogierTi adgilic ki.
harpagonis siZunwiT aRSfoTebuli mzareul Jakis naTqvamSi TvalnaTli-
vaa warmoCenili harpagonis seni: ,,erTs mougonia, rom Tqven TviTon Semopa-
rulxarT erT Rames Tqvensave TavlaSi, Tqvenve Tqvenisave cxenisTvis qeris
moparva gdomebiaT, magram mejinibes mouswvrixarT bnelaSi da imdeni ur-
tyams, rom sul zurgidan tyavi auZvria, magram sircxviliT xma ver amogi-
RiaT. meores mougonia, viTom Tqven biWebs gangeb ujavrdebiT da eCxubebiT
vadis gasvlis dros, rom jamagiri Tqven SegrCeT. mesame ambobs, rom Tqveni
mezoblis kataze saCivari SegitaniaT, cxvris dumis nagleji momparao; raRa
bevri gavagrZeloT, batono, erTi sityviT, yvelgan Tqveni lanZRva ismis. yvela
Tqven yofilxarT: Zunwi, wuwkic, qecianic, laCaric...~ (molieri 1937: 164)
plavtusis komediisdarad, aqac gamoyvanilia moxerxebuli msaxuris tipi.
es aris Seyvarebulebis gansacdelisagan gamomxsneli lafleSi (frang. isa-
ri), romelic miwaSi didi simdidris gadammalav Zunw harpagons oqroTi sa-
vse skivrs hparavs. Zunwi itanjeba da Tavzardacemuli gahyviris: `daviRupe!
gamcarcves, yeli gamomWres! vin iqneboda? rogor movnaxo? saiT wavide, saiT
ara? aq xom ar iqneba? vin icis, iqneb aqvea! dadeq, dadeq! (waivlebs xels
mklavze) fulebi, Cemi fulebi damibrune meTqi! vaime! es xom me var! Wkua ame-
ria. ar vici, sad var, vina var, ras vSvrebi? vai, Cemo sayvarelo fulebo! vai,
Cemo erTgulo megobaro! wamarTves Seni Tavi! (molieri 1937: 519)
harpagonisave monologis gavleniT unda iyos Seqmnili karapetas moTq-
mis scena: `vai, miSveleT! yaraul! qurdebi! policmeister! Cestis aficer!
sad aris Cemi qurdi, vin mompareT?! geTayva, miTxariT... Tavs davixrCob,
wyalSi gadavvardebi! ara... ho, movklav Cemi qurdi~ (erisTavi : 210). amasve
gvidasturebs kritikosis sityvebi: ,,es qarTul sinamdvilesTan Sefardebu-
li harpagonis monologia, qarTul realobasTan Sezavebuli da Sesisxor-
cebuli. TviT harpagonis monologi ki plavtusis evkilionis monologis
gavleniT aris Seqmnili~ (gaCeCilaZe : 265).
marine germisaSvili
222
erisTaviseuli `Zunwis~ siuJeti, molierisagan gansxvavebiT, martivia.
mevaxSe karapetas qaliSvili xamfera uyvars Tavad arCil Raznels, mas
surs xamferas colad SerTva. karapeta ar aZlevs SeuRlebis nebas im mo-
sazrebiT, rom `maT fuli ara aqvs~. paralelurad, Zalze mkrTalad, pie-
saSi mocemulia mosamsaxure imereli biWis ivanikas da mosamsaxure gogo
monavardisas siyvaruli. ivanikas rCeviT karapetas mohparaven oqroTi saves
yuTs da manamde ar ubruneben, vidre karapeta arCilisa da xamferas qorwi-
nebas ar daTanxmdeba.
molieris `Zunwis~ siuJeturi ganviTareba ufro rTulia, vidre eris-
Tavisa. mxolod sailustraciod vityviT, rom pirveli _ xuTi moqmede-
bisagan Sedgeba, meore ki _ ori; pirvelSi 15 moqmedi piria, meoreSi _
7. cnobilia, rom me-17 _ 18 ss. -Si saqarTveloSi yuradReba gaamaxviles
upirvelesad klasicistur nimuSze. XIX s. -is I naxevarSi iTargmna volte-
ri, korneli, rasini, ruso, lafontenis igav-arakebi da sxv. Tumca arcerTi
ar yofila warmodgenili erisTavis TeatrSi; savaraudoa, rom klasicistu-
ri tragediebi ar iyo srul TanxmierebaSi erisTavis realisturi Teatris
esTetikasTan. molieri werda: `komediis amocanaa _ gamoxatos adamianuri
mankierebani saerTod da umTavresad Cveni Tanamedroveobis mankierebani~.
swored amitom unda yofiliyo, rom giorgi erisTavma qarTuli sinamdvi-
lis srulfasovnad warmosaCenad komediis Janrs mimarTa; da radgan komedia
ucxo xili iyo qarTuli kulturuli cxovrebisaTvis, ukeT aRqmis mizniT,
qarTvelma komediografma rTuli kompozicia, intrigebi da moqmed gmirTa
raodenobac ki _ gaamartiva.
jer kidev Zvel saberZneTSi, aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- kidev Zvel saberZneTSi, aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- kidev Zvel saberZneTSi, aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- Zvel saberZneTSi, aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- Zvel saberZneTSi, aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- saberZneTSi, aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- saberZneTSi, aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- , aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- aristofanes komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- komediebSi, gvxvdeba msaxu- , gvxvdeba msaxu- gvxvdeba msaxu- msaxu- msaxu-
ris niRabi. menandres komediaSi monebi ukve batonebis samijnuro saqmeebs
akvaraxWineben. romaul komediaSi, saxeldobr plavtiusis ,,ganZSi~, mona,
batonis ganZis qurdi _ strobili, ukve komediis intrigis mTavari Rer-
Zia; Sua saukuneebis farsSi ki ukve gaiZvera msaxurad gardaisaxa da aseTia
igi, Tundac ariostos ,,skivris komediasa~ da makiavelis `mandragoraSi~.
es udevs safuZvlad msaxuris yvelaze srulyofil saxeebs _ arlekins,
brigelas, servetas da sxva; swored isini qmnian intrigsac da misi dama-
gvirgvinebelnic isini arian. molieris wyalobiT msaxuris mniSvneloba
ufro gaizarda da moralurad batonebze maRlac ki aRmoCnda. molieris
lafleSi, skapeni, kovieli da sganareli da bomarSes figaro am niRbis
ukvdavi tipebi arian, romelTa mibaZviT mravali eris literatura gamdi-
drda msgavsi saxeebiT.
rac Seexeba qarTuli ,,msaxuris~ niRabs erisTavisave komediebSi, pirve-
lad igi imereli ivanikas saxiT Semovida.
ise rogorc molieris lafleSi, ivanikac yvelaze moxerxebulia. Zunwi
qarTuli komediis sawyisebi
223
karapetas modreka mxolod ivanikam SeZlo. eSmakobiT Tavisi Canafiqric
ganaxorciela da, karapetas winaaRmdegobisda miuxedavad, arCili da xam- da, karapetas winaaRmdegobisda miuxedavad, arCili da xam- da, karapetas winaaRmdegobisda miuxedavad, arCili da xam- , karapetas winaaRmdegobisda miuxedavad, arCili da xam- karapetas winaaRmdegobisda miuxedavad, arCili da xam- arCili da xam- arCili da xam- da xam- da xam- xam- xam-
fera daaqorwina. ivanika, gamocdilebiTa da fantaziis mravalferovnebiT,
molieris `cuRlutebis mefes~ _ skapens ver Seedreba, magram eSmakobiT
maT namdvilad ar Camouvardeba.
moliersa da erisTavs aqvT saerTo siuJeturi adgilebic, orive
komediaSi mosamsaxureni _ lafleSi da imereli ivanika, TavianT pa-
tronebs oqroTi savse yuTs hparaven da swored es aris orive komediis
intrigis sayrdeni. es kombinacia aZlevs Seyvarebulebs SeuRlebis sa-
Sualebas. molieris kidev erTi scenis msgavsia, saca imereli ,,skapeni~
_ ivanika, uxsnis arCils Tu rogor unda daumalon karapetas fuli da
rogor unda mohgvaron `axundi~ kenWebis Sesalocad. giorgi erisTa-
vis `Zunwis~ msgavsebas molieris `ZunwTan~ ganapirobebs is rom, orive
nawarmoebis mTavari moqmedi gmiri siZunwis gamo erTnairad `damwvar
dadagulni arian~. maTi es Tviseba sxvadasxvanairi interpretaciiTaa
gaSlili.
harpagoni ambobs: `fuli Cemi sisxl-xorci Cemi gulRviZliao~. mas Tavis
ojaxSi sastiki, autaneli reJimi aqvs damyarebuli da yvelas gamudmebiT
CasCiCinebs: `aveji bevri ar xexoT, gacvdeba~, `nuravis daalevinebT Rvinos,
sanam ramdenjerme ar moiTxovs~, `axal tansacmels xSirad nu CaicvamT,
gafuWdeba~, `nasufralze Tvali geWiroT, ar waxdes ra~ da a.S. harpagonis
misalmebac ki mis suliskveTebas avlens, _ salami misesxebiao! sakuTari
etlis SesakeTebladac ver imetebs fuls; cxenebs aSimSilebs, RamiT, lapa-
rakisas sanTels aqrobs, radgan laparaki sibneleSiac SeiZleba da xarjic
naklebi iqneba da sxva.
giorgi erisTavis karapetac pirwavardnili Zunwia. ZonZebiT daiareba,
saRamos mSieri wveba, saSinlad puradZviria. karapeta gaiZaxis: `vaxSami
modnaT aRar aris~, ojaxs SimSiliT hklavs, siciviT xocavs, sanTels ar
anTebinebs da qaliSvilis _ xamferas gaTxovebasac mxolod mas Semdeg ga-
dawyvets, roca Seityobs, rom qaliSvili da mosamsaxure gogo weliwadSi
TxuTmeti Tumani ujdeba.
karapeta uswavleli da gaunaTlebelia, magram fulis yadri kargad icis
da sakuTar siZes Jangiani xmliT asaCuqrebs.
qarTveli Tavadaznaurobis siamaye _ xmali da mklavi, karapetas mxolod
sicilsa gvris. mama-papuri xmlis danaxvisas arCils didebuli warsuli
axsendeba, raic karapetasvis sruliad ucxoa da mxolod ironias hgvris:
`xedamT, Jangian rkinazed rasa bodams! Cemi oqroebs Tvali ar uyura~.
karapetam ar icis, ra aris an risTvisaa cxovrebaSi saWiro dambaCa, ro-
melic mas erTma Tavadis msaxurma miutana:
marine germisaSvili
224
karapeta jer miTxar, tambaCa raad minda?
msaxuri erT tyveda Rirs: naxe, inglisia!
karapeta me gana leki var, tyve viyido ... inglisi maTlafa
gamigonia. ar minda, xels ar momcems!
msaxuri hei, drov! iaraRi Calis fasad aRar gadis! aRav, Zalian
saWiro aris rac ginda, is mome.
karapeta es vercxli ahyare, aq iqneba asi misxali: xuTi maneTi mogce.
erTi kvira vadiT, es rkina ukan waiRe.
karapeta dambaCas ise uyurebs, rogorc ubralo rkinas. msaxuris mier
dasagiraveblad mitanil dambaCidan mxolod vercxli xiblavs, radgan kar-
gad uwyis, rom cxovrebaSi warmmarTveli Zala istoriul iaraRs ki ara, ver-
cxlsa da oqros ekuTvnis. karapeta darwmunebulia, rom samoTxeSi mxolod
fulia, rom misive wyalobiT ,,dva raza bluRodorni~ gaxdeba. oqro kerpad
uqcevia da hgonia, ro fuli cxovrebaSi yvelaferia da sxva arc araferi
arsebobs: `Cemi coli Sena xar! Cemi Svili Sena xar. ase gagifrTxilde,
Tu Tqven erTmaneTs mogakloT, Rori gavxde~; anda aseTi frazaebi: ,,bednieri
klite! ax netavi me viyo klite, eSmaki ver gamaRebda~; `erTbaSad rom da-
vinaxav ar wamivides guli < ... > Cemi muzika es aris! dee, vinc unda ici-
nos~. Rogorc kritikosebi aRniSnaven, _ `karapeta dabaRovis saxiT eris-
Tavi gvixatavs pirveli damgroveblis tips, romelic Zunwis WeSmariti gan-
saxierebaa. Zunwis tipi ... axali movlena ar yofila lit-risaTvis, magram
erisTaviseuli Zunwi araa adre Seqmnili saxeebis ubralo gameoreba. igi im
droindeli Tbiliseli vaWris gansaxierebaa~ (gamezardaSvili 1957: 158).
giorgi erisTavi yuradRebiT epyroba komediis dasasruls. aq avtori
erTgvari Semfaseblis rolSi gvevlineba. komediebs (`gayra~, `dava~) amTa-
vrebs mayureblisadmi mimarTviT, sadac mwerali Seafasebs momxdars da gan-
vlils. aseTi xerxi damaxasiaTebeli iyo rogorc klasicizmis, ise adrin-
deli burJuaziis dramaturgiisaTvis.
msgavsi mimarTva XVIII saukunis meore naxevris qarTvel dramaturgs g.
avaliSvilsac aqvs, romelic rus dramaturgs sumarokovs baZavda.
rac Seexeba `Zunwis~ dasasruls, igi sxvagvaria. komediaSi kuplets,
romliTac karapeta (avtori) mimarTavs mayurebels, araviTari didaqti-
kuri Sinaarsi ara aqvs:
Tu gindaT, rom mxiarulad
gaataroT am TeatrSi,
nu dagvagdebT gulnaklulad,
yvelam dagvikariT taSi.
(`Zunwi~ 1937: 215)
qarTuli komediis sawyisebi
225
am SemTxvevaSi g. erisTavi iseTsave xerxs mimarTavs, rogorsac molieri
`gaaznaurebul mdabioSi~. komedias molieri ase amTavrebs:
vaSa aseT warmodgenas,
vaSa aseT drostarebas,
RmerTebsac ar ganucdiaT
ufro tkbili netareba...
(molieri 1937: 27).
am mcire mimioxilviT kidev erTxel dasturdeba, rom originaluri
qarTuli dramaturgia komediiT iwyeba, romelmac safuZvelmdebi roli
iTamaSa giorgi erisTavis Teatris SeqmnaSi. komedia ar aris mxolod usa-
gno sicili, igi, akakisdakvalad, cremlnarev sicils badebs da gonierTaT-
vis Wkuis saswavlebelia. msoflio komediografnic am xerxs mimarTavdnen
da maTeuli sicili zneTswavlulebis ukvdav magaliTad rCeba.
damowmebani:
gamezardaSvili 1957: gamezardaSvili d. narkvevebi qarTuli realizmis storiidan.
w. II. Tb. gamomcemloba `ganaTleba~, 1957.
gaCeCilaZe 1945: gaCeCilaZe a. g. erisTavis dramaturgia. Tb.: `sablitgami~, 1945.
gaCeCilaZe 1957: gaCeCilaZe a. narkvevebi. Tb.: Ggamomcemloba `xelovneba~, 1957.
gersamia 1943: gersamia g. v. abaSiZe. Tb.: 1943.
gersamia 1950: gersamia s. g. erisTavis Teatri. Tb.: `saxelgami~, 1950.
gunia 1889: gunia v. qarTuli Teatri. qarTuli Teatris moRvaweni sasceno xelo-
vnebis Sesaxeb. Tb.: `saxelgami~, 1889.
droeba 1979-1980: J. droeba 1879; 1880 # 61.
iveria 1984: J. iveria. 1984 # 7/12.
mesxi 1953: mesxi s. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. t.III. Tb.: 1953.
meunargia 1954: meunargia i. qarTveli mwerlebi (g. erisTavi). Tb.: 1954.
molieri 1937: molieri Jan-batist. komediebis krebuli. qarTveli da ucxoeli
mwerlebi. wigni II. Tb.: gamomcemloba `sorapani~, 1937.
puSkini 1937: puSkini al. rCeuli nawerebi. qarTuli Targmani. t. II. Tb.: `saxel-
gami~, 1937.
puSkini 1975: puSkini al. Zunwi raindi (Tamaz Cxenkelis Targamini). rCeuli Txzu-
lebani. Tb.: gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1975.
sarajiSvilis xelnaweri: sarajiSvilis a. xelnaweri. xelnawerTa instituti, 372-g-1:1.
qarTyli mwerloba: tomi 10. giorgi erisTavi Zunwi. nakaduli, Tbilisi 1995.
marine germisaSvili
226
Marine Germisashvili
Bases of Georgian Dramaturgy
Summary
Original Georgian dramaturgy starts with comedy genre. The aim of comedy is not sim-
ple, groundless laughter; but it is often mixed with tears, is useful and didactic. Laughter
should not be transformed into chatting. Shortcomings are more productively disclosed in
the form of comedy
Best Comedy writers Menander, Plautus and Moliere made emphasis on the short-
comings of mankind. Getting acquainted with Molieres works is one of the most essential
events of XIX century Georgian-French relations. No foreign writer is as famous among
Georgians as Moliere was mentioned in Aleksadre Sarajishvilis manuscript (A. Sarajish-
vilis manuscript: Institute of Manuscripts, 372- 1:1). Moliere should be pointed out among
European dramaturges, playing the most important role not only in the development of
Georgian translational history of literature, but also in the evolution of comedy genre for
Georgian theatre. It is enough to say that Giorgi Eristavis dramaturgy owes much to Mo-
liere and on the second year after the foundation of Georgian theatre (1852) Molieres play
The Physician in Spite of Himself occupied its place in the repertoire of a theatre.
The aim of comedy is to improve people with the help of laughter and not mockery.
Laughter is one of the strongest tools for revealing shortcomings of mankind. This genre is
especially close to the audience and raises no less important social issues than tragedy. G.
Eristavis theatre follows this genre.
Themes of Molieres comedy, satire, folklore, refection of reality and revealing soci-
etys shortcomings were close to the aim of Georgian realistic writing.
Moliere expressed XVII century French society, Giorgi Eristavi - XIX century Geor-
gian society. Shortcomings of Georgian nation are refected in the plots of his comedies:
clumsiness, sitting around, boasting, laziness and others.
If society watches comedy only for laughing and not studying, then it is of no use for
such society. (S. Meskhi. complete collection of works volume III. 1953: 120)
Moliere and G. Eristavi have done great service; against the background of comic situ-
ation they created specimen in typical environments. In their comedies, laughter, as a form
of satire, is good means for humans moral upbringing. The Miser /Lavare, Moliere
showed this play in his theater in 1668, in Georgian it was translated as krizhangi (The
Miser) in 1879, the translation was done by Petersburg University group of students , under
the edition of Ivane Machabeli.
Journal Iveria 1884 7/12 under Arvitsashvilis anonymous signature they staged
Eristavis comedy The Miser in 1879, December 5/17 (Droeba 254 1879).
Comedy The Miser was frst played in Tbilisi, in 1852, January 18/30, by the su-
qarTuli komediis sawyisebi
227
pervision of the author himself. The signature of this comedy is not reserved. It was frst
published as a separate book by G.Eristavi.
The topic of meanness is not a property of one concrete author. Meanness is an old, in-
ternational and eternal theme. A lot of authors created works on this topic: Plautus, Shake-
speare, Moliere, Larivie Buarober, Bualo, Pushkin, Gogol, Balzak, Gi de Maupassant, Sa-
sha Gitre, Rober Buass, Fernand Reino, and many others.
Meanness is a huge social fallaciousness of a human. They all resemble each other by
their general characteristic stinginess, but as each of them is the son of their epoch, there-
fore the act of each of them is characterized by the characteristics, habits that are peculiar
for their country and epoch.
Plautus, Moliere and G. Eristavi expressed meanness with the help of comedy, Pushkin-
with tragedy. G. Eristavis plot of The Miser is simple in comparison with Molieres.
The plot development of The Miser is more complicated, than Eristavis The Miser.
The frst consists of fve acts, the second of two. In the frst play there are 15 characters, in
the second 7. G. Eristavis adroit servant, Imereli boy Ivanika is created by the infuence
of Moliers servant. Ivanika cannot be compared with Molieres king of slackers Scapin.
Ivanika is inexperienced, but is as clever as they are. The explanation for this simplicity
is that the society of those times was not ready for complicated plots, diffcult interreges
and for new genre comedy. In the works of both authors meanness is expressed, as social
cruelty: negative impact of money on human, family, moral, social relations.
228
memoria
emzar kvitaiSvili
mudam siamovnebiT vigoneb
1985 wlis 1 Tebervals, rodesac rva wlis gardacvlil nodar alanias
dabadebidan samoci weli unda Sesruleboda, `literaturul saqarTve-
loSi~ masze gamovaqveyne mcire mogoneba. es keTil samaxsovrod darCaT
nodaris meuRles, gamomcemloba `nakadulis~ amagdar redaqtors, daxvewi-
li gemovnebiT literators lili gogoxias (erTi welic ar gasula, rac
igi amqveynad aRaraa) da mis yvela sikeTiT Semkul, yuradRebian qailSvils
nanas. amjeradac, roca nodaris mSobliurma literaturis institutma ga-
dawyvita Jurnal `sjanSi~ misi TvalsaCino Rvawlis gaxseneba, nana alaniam
survili gamoTqva, me is Zveli mogoneba momeZebna. sajaro biblioTekaSi
gulisxmieri adamianebi damexmarnen da gazeTis Zveli nomeri mapovnines.
ganvlili wlebis manZilze, Cems TvalSiac bevri ram Zireulad Seicvala da
gadafasda (es aramcdaaramc ar exeba wminda zneobis kacs, nodar alanias,
romlis mimarT siyvaruli da pativiscema arasodes gamineldeba), magram
adre gamoqveynebulSi erTi sityvac ar Semicvlia. Zalze sasixaruloa, rom
dRevandel, axal Taobas axsovs winamorbedTa damsaxureba, xolo nodar
alania swored is kacia, visac saqarTvelo iolad ver daiviwyebs.
mudam siamovnebiT vigoneb mis gverdiT gatarebul wlebs. masTan saubari
arasodes mogwyindeboda, alesili goneba da maxvili ena hqonda. erT
pirovnebaze ar iyo kargi azrisa da miTxra magis daxasiaTebas me ar Se-
vudgebi, dros aRar davkargav, namdvili uri hipiao. maxsovs, institutSi
dagvianebasa da samsaxuridan adre wasvlaze simkacre daaweses. cota zed-
metad aqtiurobda institutis swavluli mdivani guram SaraZe (misma mx-
ecurad mokvlam Zalian damwyvita guli, bevr sasargeblo saqmes akeTebda),
vinac Cvenma maSindelma direqtorma, batonma aleqsandre baramiZem ganusaz-
Rvreli uflebebiT aRWurva. igi bevr ufros kolegasTan da akademiis xe-
lmZRvanelebTanac erTob daaxloebuli iyo, rogorRac exerxeboda es am-
bavi. institutis gaRizianebul TanamSromelTa erTma nawilma masTan Sebr-
Zoleba ganizraxa (metwilad qalebi iyvnen gamwarebuli). me ganyofilebaSi
Cavilaparake tyuilad nu mocdebian, guram SaraZe TiTqmis yovel saRamos
akademiis prezidentis, evgeni xaraZis stumaria, mis Cais WiqaSi mTvarisxe-
la limonis naWeri dacuravs aRma-daRma da Zveleburi, mominanqrebuli ver-
mudam siamovnebiT vigoneb
229
cxlis kovzis wkriali ismis-meTqi. araferi didi xumroba ar iyo, magram
nodaris fantaziam gacilebiT meti warmoidgina, sicilisagan kinaRam gada-
fiCinda, im veeba limonis naWers saxelurian brolis WiqaSi ukve vxedav, es
ram gaTqmevinao. ufro Tamam raRaceebsac vambobdiT, verTobodiT, iq myofi
guram asaTiani da mirian abulaZec mxars gvibamdnen. guldasawyvetia, rom
dRevandeli axalgazrdebi maT ver moeswrnen.
winamdebare mogonebaSi `Tanamdebobis piri qali~ figurirebs. igi cekas
ideologiuri ganyofilebis mdivani, mSvenieri qalbatoni viqtoria sir-
aZe gaxldaT da aq dasamalic araferia. vercxlis pawia, lamazi viruka
ki, nodar alanias mkerdze rom hqonda dabneuli (es mogvianebiT gavige),
mis axlobels, didebul vaJkacs, zaur bolqvaZis qvisls, murman xoferias
gaekeTebina. mas mec kargad vicnobdi, saukeTeso stomatologi da Tavisi
arsebiT namdvili xelovani, iuveliri iyo, rogorc ityvian, xelidan yve-
laferi gamosdioda. is samkerde nakeToba oqrosgan surda Camoesxa; sul
sami grami daWirdeba, SenTvis ar menanebao, uTqvams, magram nodari uarze
damdgara. Tu Zma xar, nu izam magas, oqros viri nametani iqneba, viRacas
mdidari vegonebio. zauris colisda, brwyinvale eqimi da yovlad uangaro
adamiani, qalbatoni nunu darCia da nodar alania baTumSi Turme erT sko-
laSi swavlobdnen da mere ojaxebiTac megobrobdnen.
nodar alaniaze bevri sxva ramis gaxsenebac SeiZleboda, magram es al-
baT sxva droisTvis unda gadavdo. amasobaSi imdeni xani gavida (ras vi-
fiqrebdi!), me TviTonac veteranTa ricxvSi aRmoCndi da siberisken sakmaod
var midrekili, magram jer kidev bevri maqvs mosawrebi da Tu gangebam ineba,
Sevecdebi, warsulis fergadasuli furclebi Cemeburad gavacocxlo. nod-
ari sami wlis gardacvlili iyo, roca, misi nasaxsovari saferflis gamo,
wasulis xsovnas, lamazi sicocxlis bolo dReebs, erTi leqsi mivuZRveni.
barem imasac aqve davurTav.
emzar kvitaiSvili
230
egvipturi flosti
(saferfle nodar alanias naCuqari)
ra meTqmis meti, uvlia navsad,
auzneqia TiTberis Wvinti,
Waobze mimdgars magonebs navsac,
man unda gaWras samaris bindi.
xan meCveneba: priala, brtyeli
muceli misi uTos Ziria,
amoudagavs gul-RviZli, yeli
sawyalis, uRvTod gauwiria.
basr kideebze, Savad rom bzinavs,
tuSi, patronis xeliT navlebi,
maniSnebs Savi migelis bina,
metyvis Senc ase miinavlebi.
damdnarma xelma moxata, Reba,
is mazRvevinebs bolomde sazRavs,
damskdar filtvebis Camesmis yefa
da Wiris ofli saxeze masxams.
dgas faraoni. etli mardia,
versad wauva nadiri tyisa,
faraons mSvildi moumarTia,
vai, vis ferdsac aZgerebs isars.
gacurda tbaze wiTeli sxivi...
mzes, laJvardidan oqrod dadenils,
dadevnebia, qariviT wivis,
Sriala frTebSi xvevs Sevardeni.
ver dagemale, lando myefaro,
Sen ar gWirdeba arxi da xidi...
viTom Cemia, sul me mebaros,
yovel nabijze sicocxles vyidi.
mudam siamovnebiT vigoneb
231
Rimilis da leqsis kaci
ramdenadac ioli da sasiamovno iyo nodar alanias gverdiT cxovreba,
imdenadve Znelad Sesaguebeli, gulismomkvleli gaxda misi am qveyanasTan,
silamazesTan, leqsTan ganSoreba. uleqsod mas erTi dRec ar ucxovria da
arc isaa SemTxveviTi, Tavisi arsebobis ukanaskneli wamebi leqsis damTavre-
bad rom CaTvala.
qarTul mwerlobas bevr ar hyolia masaviT erTguli, TavSewiruli
msaxuri. me minaxavs igi radioSi uecrad gamoZaxebuli, daZabulobisgan
saxeaWrelebuli. saaTiani saubari unda Caewera saswrafod Tanamedrove
qarTul poeziaze. yvelaferi mozoma da gansazRvra, yvelas Tavisi miago
da daTqmul droSic gasaocari sizustiT Caetia. aseT rames, ra Tqma unda,
mxolod gansakuTrebuli unari da didi siyvaruli SegaZlebinebs.
literaturis institutSi nodarTan erTad vmuSaobdi ganyofilebaSi.
Cveni gamge dauviwyari guram asaTiani, erTTavad nodars Txovda wliuri
saangariSo moxsenebebis wakiTxvas. Sen kargad gamogdiso, Cveuli iumoriT
eubneboda. nodaric RimiliTve Tanxmdeboda; miseburi keTilsindisierebiT,
piruTvnelad mimoixilavda yovel naSroms, CanawerSi iSviaTad Tu Caixe-
davda. ase vyavdiT yvelani ganebivrebuli.
miuxedavad xaTrianobisa, saocrad mTliani, daurRveveli pirovneba iyo.
Zmoba da gatana, iman rom icoda, iseTi unda, magram roca vinmes siglaxesa
da borotebas Seatyobda, imisas aRarafers iwamebda.
saucxoo mTxrobeli iyo. erTxel nodari mogviyva erT sasacilo am-
bavs. Salva nucubiZesTan rom SemTxveoda. guldasmiT waekiTxa batoni
Salvas axladgamosuli wigni. erTgan miTiTebul literaturas daeinter-
esebina da wyaro moeZebna, sadac msgavsi ram saerTod ar werebula. no-
dars patara, mokrZalebuli baraTi Seedgina; avtors SemCneul uzusto-
bas atyobinebda da iqve keTil rCevasac aZlevda, Semdgom gamocemaSi es
lafsusi gaesworebina. baraTi iqve, institutis gverdiT, batoni Salvas
saxlis safosto yuTSi Caegdo. amis mere daaxloebiT weliwads gaevlo
da Salva nucubiZe raRac saqmeze institutSi misuliyo. mis garSemo maS-
inve TayvanismcemelTa wre Sekrula da sja-baasi gamarTula. karga xnis
mere baton Salvas ukiTxavs alania aq romeliao; nodars morcxvad upa-
suxia, me gaxlavarTo. baton Salvas ganze gaxmia da yurSi uTqvams: mere,
biWo, saqme dagelia, sxvis nawerSi rom iCiCqnebio. amaze orTaves guli-
anad uciniaT.
yvelam vicodiT nodaris erTi lamazi axireba: didyura da gamrje piru-
tyvisadmi gansakuTrebuli siyvaruli. ramden nivTsa Tu nakeTobas, ranair
suraTsa Tu samkauls ar naxavdiT mis samuSao oTaxSi da yvelaferze viri
emzar kvitaiSvili
232
iyo gamosaxuli; abaJurzec kudaprexili CoCori konwialobda. am emble-
maSi igi, etyoba, bevrad met azrs debda, vidre erTi SexedviT Cans.
TvalsaCino adgilas hqonda gamodebuli raJden gvetaZis `virebis me-
sia~. mis biblioTekaSi, ra Tqma unda, gamorCeuli adgili eWira apuleusis
`oqros virs~. didad gaixara, roca qarTul enaze waikiTxa givi gegeWkoris
mier Targmnili fransis Jamis leqsi `locva, rom samoTxeSi virebTan er-
Tad Sevide~.
erTxel nodars romeliRac qalaqSi mivlinebiT agzavnidnen dromoWmul
Cveulebebze leqciebis wasakiTxad (rogorc TviTon yveboda, sakmaod maRa-
li done iyo). Tanamdebobis pirma qalma, vinc uSualod aZlevda am davale-
bas, moulodnelad pijakze daxeda da gaocebisagan Tvalebi gaufarTovda.
koxta, oTxkuTxa samkerde niSanze (ranairad iSovna, dResac ar vici) nod-
aris sayvareli arsebis yurebaqaCuli saxedris Tavi iyo aRbeWdili. amis
damnaxvels bolos gascinebia; TqmiT nodarisTvis araferi uTqvams.
arasodes damaviwydeba zamTris saocrad lamazi dRe. tariel Wanturia da
me erTi leqsis anTologias (`viT margaliTi oboli~) vadgendiT (am patara
wignis gamosvlam SemdgomSi bevri usiamovneba mogvayena). vicodiT, nodar
alanias araerTi iSviaTi gamocema moeZeveboda Tavis wignsacavSi da masze uke-
Tes damxmares am saqmeSi Znelad viSovidiT. gveloda da miseburi sixarulic
gamoxata Cvens gamoCenaze. karga xans visaubreT. davasaxelebdiT romelime
Zvel wignsa Tu Jurnals, da umal saocari simardiT gamoaZvrenda Taroebad
qceuli kedlis xan erTi, xan meore kuTxidan. bevri sasargeblo ram gvirCia
im dRes. bolos dagvitrialda da Tavis meuRlesTan, qalbaton lilisTan
erTad sanaqebo maspinZloba gagviwia. saucxoo kaxur RvinosTan erTad bro-
lis grafiniT aseve mSvenieri `izabela~ Semodga sufraze gurulebi xarT
da egeba es isurvoTo. Zvirfasi franguli koniakis gaxsnac daapira, magram
xelSi veciT, ar davanebeT, meti mogvividoda. misi saTqmeli qarTul leqss,
qarTul mwerlobas, samSoblos dastrialebda. arigebda da ar eleoda siy-
varuli. erTi gansakuTrebuli sadRegrZelo leningradel eqims miuZRvna,
ubrwyinvalesi vaJkacia, saocrad ganaTlebuli da keTili, axla erTmaneT-
Tan didi miwer-mowera da megobroba gvaqvs, sikvdilisgan iman mixsnao, _
gviTxra. wamosvlis win agvixirda, gindaT Tu ara, TiTo rame unda gaCuqoT,
Cemgan samaxsovrod dagrCeToh me egvipturi TiTberis patara saferfle Cam-
Cara jibeSi, brtyelZiriani, baidis moyvanilobis flosti, Zveleburi sim-
boloebiT moxatuli. ar minda, papiross ar vewevi-meTqi, magram ar momeSva
rom ar gamomarTva wawydebio (es misi sayvareli gamoTqma iyo). tariels
miniaturul morze darWobil aseTsave miniaturul culs aZalebda, mar-
Tlac lamaz suvenirs, magram verasgziT ver daiyolia, is Cemze principuli
aRmoCnda, amas, Zmao, ver waviReb, aqaurobas ufro uxdebao.
mudam siamovnebiT vigoneb
233
bindi iwva, gareT rom gamoviSaleT. saxuravebi, xeTa SiSveli totebi
spetak, fumfula Tovls mtkavelze Seefifqa. ca da miwa unazes, notio, civ
siTeTreSi iyo gaxveuli.
mogvianebiT dagvnanebia da gviTqvams me da tariels, rom im Cvens Sed-
genil, bevri miTqma-moTqmis gamomwvev wignSi nodar alanias wvlili, misi
alali Tanadgoma aRuniSvneli dagvrCa.
maxsendeba 1976 wlis avadmosagonari zafxulic. institutis TanamSrom-
lebi leningradis matarebelze vacilebdiT saeWvod gamxdar, ukiduresad
dauZlurebul, filtvebdazianebul nodars, romelsac sunTqva uWirda. di-
agnozi ar iyo sabolood dadgenili, magram sasikeTo piri rom ar uCanda
saqmes, vxedavdiT. mas isev Tavisi leningradeli eqimis (anatoli kuriginis)
imedi hqonda. kaxuri nabdis quli exura da gaRimebuli (ramdenadac See-
Zlo) galeul, sanTeliviT moRvenTil marjvenas gviqnevda vagonis fanjri-
dan. axloblebTan erTad, gverdiT Tavisi siyrmis megobari cotne kikviZe
idga, isic mihyveboda. vai, rom amjerad uiRblo gamodga es mgzavroba da,
ukan dabrunebuls didi dRe aRar ewera. 20 nombers (52 wlis Sesrulebas
zustad erTi kvira aklda) nodar alanias Suqdaklebul Tvalebs samuda-
mod daeSrita mzis naTeli.
xSirad mifiqria ra moxdeboda, sawyali nodarisTvis ase rom ar emux-
Tla beds-meTqi da pasuxic mudam mzad mqonia. bevri araferi daetyoboda
mis xasiaTsa da garegnobas; ise ise msubuqad amoivlida institutis kibeebs,
yvelas Tavisi ganumeorebeli RimiliT, xelaweuli miesalmeboda, SemoaReb-
da meore sarTulze dermatingadakrul did kars, ganuyrel Sav saqaRaldes
(didi portfeli mis xelSi ar maxsovs) da axali gazeTebs magidaze dayrida
da kiTxvas Seudgeboda.
axla samoci wlisa iqneboda igi. araviTar xmaurs ar atexda, kaciS-
vils ar etyoda, Cemi iubilea da gulTbilad momesalmeTo. ormocdaaTis
msgavsad, am Tavis samoc welsac mcxeTis `maranSi~ gadaixdida, axlobeli
adamianebiT garSemortymuli. xalisianad aswevda Wiqas, sakuTar Rvawl-
sa da damsaxurebaze laparaks aravis daaclida, qarTuli miwis, qarTuli
leqsis sadidebels ityoda.
netamc ase yofiliyo.

1985 weli.
nodar alania
234
nodar alania
`Cangi gikurTxos zenama...~
*

(wignidan `naTeli siyvarulisa~)
madlobeli var guliTa,
SoTais sulis lxenama,
samSoblos samsaxurisTvis,
Cangi gikurTxos zenama.
vaJa fSavela
akaki daewafa da Caeqsova mSobeli xalxis ukvdavebas. igi saqarTvelom
aRiara erT-erT pirvel da usayvarles poetad da xalxis siyvaruli Tan
sdevda yovel nabijze. poeti fxizlad exmaureboda yovel movlenas da faqts,
Tu ki igi mis samSoblosa da ers odnav mainc Seexeboda. xalxi mouTmenlad
eloda mis yovel axal nawarmoebs, aitacebda da Tavis sakuTrebad aqcevda.
poeti iTrTvileboda WaRariT, mZimdeboda nabiji, fermkrTaldeboda
TvalTa elvareba, guli ki ubereblad rCeboda da igi Wabukurad omaxianad
ambobda:
ara, ayvavdes imedi,
guls ver gamitexs WaRara,
gmirebs uZaxis... uyivis
Cemi dafi da naRara.
samSoblos ubedureba guls useravda, magram `dRiur sicxadiT gul-
daCagruli~ mainc gamamxnevebeli sityviT mimarTavda xalxs, aRagznebda
miferflil kocons da swamda, rom:
rkinas cecxli afoladebs,
adamians gansacdeli;
erTi wava da sxva mova...
ase gviwers es sofeli.
da maS Wiri dRevandeli
nu gaSinebs, nurc gikvirsa...
`Wirsa Sigan gamagreba
ise unda, viT qviTkirsa~...
* Jurnalis redaqcia avtoriseul teqstTan erTad ucvlelad unarCunebs citirebis avtoriseul
versias.
`Cangi gikurTxos zenama...~
235
mxcovan mgosans yvelgan usazRvro pativiscemiTa da mokrZalebiT xvde-
bodnen, CurCuliTa da sasoebiT axsenebdnen mis saxels, gars exveodnen aRt-
acebuli SeZaxilebiT, masze zrunavdnen da fiqrobdnen.
saintereso detali:
1908 wlis 25 maiss akaki leqcias kiTxulobs SoTa rusTavelze. darbazi
ver itevs xalxs.
poeti amTavrebs leqcias da madlierebiT kiTxulobs Tavis axal leqss
`amirani~.
taSi, ovaciebi, aRfrTovaneba da ai, naavadmyofar, daRlil mgosans `fexi
gausxta da kinaRam waiqca...~
gazeTebs ar gamorCeniaT es ambavi. ufro meti, igi simbolurad miiCnies.
valerian gunias Jurnali am faqts uZRvnis specialur werils da epigra-
fad umZRvarebs:
Cemo samSoblov! Seni dacema
ara, ar aris sabediswero...
avtori akakis mTel cxovrebas saqarTvelos istorias adarebs da, roca
am ukanasknel SemTxvevaze Cerdeba, alegoriulad wers: `...moiRala, moiqan-
ca saqarTvelo, sisuste Seepara muxlsa da mklavSi, magram eg droebiTi
movlenaa: Seisvenebs da kvlav ganagrZobs Tavis winamsvlelobas aboboqre-
bul cxovrebis zRvaze...
ra vuyoT, rom aTasSi erTxel fexs wahkravs mterTa da SinaurTa mier win
gaxirul dabrkolebas. dabarbacdeba, Seiryeva, magram arasdros ar wai-
qceva...
droebiT dauZlurebuls, dasustebuls saqarTvelos darajad udgas
misi RviZli Svilni Wirisufalni... RvTiuris cecxliT aRenTeba maTi
gulebi... mxned da rwmeniT wamoeqomagebian isini dabarbacebuls mSobels
mamas, naTelis WaRariT gabadrulsa da mxrebSi amoudgebian yavarjenad... da
wamodgeba, welSi gaimarTeba bevri Wir-varamis mnaxveli moxuci da... kvlav
ganagrZobs Tavis saqmes, Tavis istorias~.
*
ai, kidev damaxasiaTebeli epizodi xalxis siyvarulisa; ivane ioseliani
igonebs SemTxvevas rkinigzis sadgurze:
`...modis daRlili nabijiT.
icnes... da sayvareli saxeli CurCuliT gavrcelda xalxSi. mokrZalebiT gza-
suTmoben, Sori-axlos mohyvebian... erTma gabeda da vagonze amavals xeli miaSvela.
TiTqos amas ucdidnen, xalxi daiZra adgilebidan da is... zeviT aitaces.
am dros zarsac Semohkres da matarebeli daiZra.
* `niSaduri~, 1938, # 47.
nodar alania
236
or-sam wuTSi Cveni kupe alyaSemortymuli iyo. ver gaWra viRac samxedro
piris dezebis Cxrialma da rixianma brZanebam. mgzavrebi ieriSiT modiodnen
mesame klasis vagonebidan, ukana rigebSi mdgomni weroebiviT igrZelebdnen
kisrebs, rom erTi Tvali mainc moekraT sayvareli adamianisaTvis.
cxeli haeriT SexuTul kupeSi fanjara Zirs davuSviT da mxolod maSin
mivxvdiT, rom mTeli matarebeli akakis leqsebs mReroda.
`sanam viyav axalgazrda...~
`daigvianes, jer arsad sCanan...~
*
axlovdeboda ormocdaaTi weli im bednieri dRidan, roca akakim pirveli
leqsi gagzavna ivane kereseliZis `ciskarSi~, qarTveli xalxi Seudga akakis
iubilesaTvis mzadebas. amiT mas undoda gamoexata siyvaruli da pativis-
cema didi poetisadmi.
TbilisSi Seiqmna mTavari saiubileo komisia iakob gogebaSvilisa da
giorgi yazbegis TavmjdomareobiT, sofrom mgalobliSvilisa da samson
fircxalavas mdivnobiT. komisiis wevrebi iyvnen: ivane gomarTeli, valer-
ian gunia, nikoloz erisTavi, ioseb merkvilaZe, pavle TumaniSvili,- mariam
orbeliani da parmen WiWinaZe.
saqarTvelos yvela Jurnal-gazeTi Tvalyurs adevnebda saiubileo
mzadebas, aqveynebda masalebs did mgosanze da sazogadoebas drodadro Se-
axsenebda: `wels Semodgomaze Sesrulda ormocdaaTi weliwadi, rac poeti
moRvaweobs erovnuli mwerlobis asparezze. ueWvelia qarTveloba Sesaf-
erisi elferiT da didebiT gadixdis Tavis vals bumberazi mgosnis winaSe.
yvela Cveni erovnuli dawesebulebani, romelTa daarsebaSi urevia mgosnis
madliani xeli, erTad Seikribebian, raTa pativi scen poetis SesaniSnav da
samagaliTo Rvawls, qarTveli erisa da qveynis sakeTildReod gaweuls~.
**
mTavarma saiubileo komisiam dagzavna mowodeba, romelSiac mokled
daaxasiaTa mgosnis ganusazRvreli Rvawli samSoblo qveynis winaSe, misi po-
eziis Rirseba da iTxova Semdgariyo adgilobrivi komitetebi. komitetebs
unda exelmZRvanelaT komisiis mier Sedgenili saiubileo programiT da
Sesaferi monawileoba mieRoT saerTo dResaswaulSi.
mozardi Taobis didma moamagem, iakob gogebaSvilma patarebic ar daivi-
wya da imedi gamoTqva, rom `am dResaswaulSi mxurvale monawileobas miiRe-
ben ara marto didni, aramed norCi qarTvelebic, romelTaTvis sasiqadulo
iubilarma Seqmna bevrad meti saucxoo leqsebi da moTxrobebi, vidre sxva
Cveneburma mgosnebma...~
* `literaturuli gazeTi~, 1935, # 7.
** `niSaduri~, 1938, # 43.
`Cangi gikurTxos zenama...~
237
iubile dainiSna 1908 wlis 7 dekembers.
gaTenda nanatri dila. sazeimod morTul dedaqalaqs silamazes mateb-
da zamTrisaTvis uCveulo mzis naTeli. zRva xalxi gamofeniliyo quCebSi.
im dRis yvela Jurnal-gazeTi, garda mTavrobis oficiozis `kavkazisa~ da
reaqciuli `golos kavkazisa~ mTlianad akakis mieZRvna. iyideboda sagange-
bod am dRisTvis dabeWdili poetis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebisadmi miZRv-
nili krebulebi da broSurebi, poetis suraTebi.
vakidan (sadac am dros akaki cxovrobda), sionis taZramde quCebis orive
mxare gaWedilia da xalxis am cocxal kedlebs Sua nela moemarTeba lan-
do. landoSi saiubileo komitetis TavmjdomaresTan erTad zis daTovlili
olimpieli. TeTri Tma-wveriT Semosili lamazi saxe gansakuTrebuli na-
TeliT moCans Savi tansacmlis fonze.
sazeimo msvleloba miemarTeba sionis taZrisaken. paraklisi mTavrdeba
da taZridan gamosul poets qudmoxdili zRva xalxi taSiTa da `vaSas~
ZaxiliT egebeba. nela miiwevs win TeTr cxenebSebmuli lando, romelsac
sapatio eqskorti mihyveba. gamoCnda Teatri, sadac unda Catardes iubile.
kvlav `vaSa~ da taSi.
12 saaTze aixada farda. gaisma zaqaria faliaSvilis mier sagangebod am
dRisTvis dawerili `mravalJamieri~ da ivane faliaSvilis diriJorobiT
orkestris mier Sesrulebuli sadResaswaulo himni. mquxare taSis gri-
alSi mgosani avida yvavilebiT savse estradaze.
iakob gogebaSvilis Sesavali sityviT daiwyo xalxTa Zmobis da mego-
brobis dResaswauli. scenaze erTmaneTs cvlian saqarTvelos yvela kuTxis
warmomadgenlebi, kulturul dawesebulebaTa delegatebi, qarTvelebi da
rusebi, azerbaijanelebi da somxebi, ukrainelebi da polonelebi.
darbazi zanzarebs aRtacebiT da moulodnelad gaismis omaxiani xma:
mSobeli qveynis mozarev,
unda gimRero mTurada;
imav WiriT var sneuli,
rac Sen gatyvia wylulada...
mec amatira bevrjela
Sens Tvalze cremlis denama.
netavi bevri gazardos
SenisTanebi dedama!
es, Carglidan sagangebod Camosuli vaJa fSavela esalmeba Tavis did
Tanamokalmes. ovaciebSi iZireba ukanaskneli striqonebi da scenisaken fe-
nodar alania
238
rad-feradi yvavilebi mofrinaven.
moxuc mgosans margalitebad auelvarda Tvalebze cremli, roca scenaze
savanelma glexebma misi akvani Semoitanes.
gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliT uyvarda akakis patarebi. ukve sikvdilis
pirad mdgari poeti 1913 wlis 29 ivliss gazeT `TemSi~ igonebda Tavisi
xangrZlivi cxovrebidan im oTx SemTxvevas, romelTa gaxsenebac yovelT-
vis siamis Jruantels hgvrida, agrZnobinebda ganuzomel sixarulsa da
netarebas. maTgan ori patarebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. movusminoT TviTon
poets: `freilinis quCaze (dRevandeli sulxan-saba orbelianis quCa, _
n.a.) mivdiodi. trotuarze win Semxvda viRac gamdeli; xel-Cakidebuli
mohyavda amayad fexadgmuli bavSvi. patara Zlivs mobajbajebda. daminaxa
Tu ara im bavSvma, Semomcina, gaabzika TiTi da Zliv CailuRluRa `ei, aka-
ki!~. me gavSterdi, gamdelma bodiSi moixada: ama da am kacis Svilia, Tqven
piradad ar gicnoben, magram Tqveni suraTi ukidiaT oTaxSi da am bavSvmac
miTi gicnoTo!.. Cem dReSi ar gamomecada da maSin gamovscade siamovnebis
ofli. sazogadoebis TanagrZnobis uCveuli ara var, vin mosTvlis ramdeni
taSi momismenia, ramdeni `vaSa~ gamigonia! ramdeni sasiamovno ram minaxavs?
magram arc erTxel is ar migrZvnia, rac im patara bavSvis TiTma da na-
titinebma magrbZnobia...
...moRrublulSi golovinis (axlandeli rusTavelis n.a.) prospeqtze
gamovedi, uecrad wvimam dauSva. me, radganac upaltood viyavi, gaveCqare
Sinisaken. ukanidam xma momesma: `batono akaki, moicadeT!~ SevCerdi, mi-
vixede da CemTan moiWra qolgiT xelSi viRac Tormet-cameti wlis gogona
da SemomTavaza qolga: ai miirTviT, da mere miboZeT!
_ mere Tqven?
_ me ara miWirs ra, rom davsevlde, da Tqven vai Tu gawyinosT. _ rom
aRar momeSva, gadavswyviteT, rom orive im erT qolgas SevfarebodiT da
ise mivsuliyaviT Cem sadguramdi. sastumros karebs rom mivadeqi, sadac
Sevdeqi, gamomeTxova da Tavis qolgianad gaudga gzas. dResac ar vici misi
saxeli da gvari, magram imisi umanko, bavSvuri saxe ki yovelTvis Tvalwin
midgas!..
xandaxan rom davfiqrdebi warsulze da warmovidgen Cems uTvalav tan-
jvebs- yvela imaT Sevuwoni xolme am SemTxvevebs da saswori amaTken ixre-
bao~, _ igonebda igi.
akaki yovelTvis siamovnebiT atarebda dros norCebTan, mouTxrobda
saintereso ambebs, eTamaSeboda da erToboda maTTan erTad.
maTTvis yovelTvis, yovelgan,
Ria maqvs gulis karebi.
`Cangi gikurTxos zenama...~
239
ambobda igi mozardebze.
gulwrfeli sixaruliT Seegeba poeti mis iubileze misalocad mosul
Jurnal `nakadulis~ patara mkiTxvelebs. scenaze Semovida qulajaSi, Cox-
asa da gurul CaquraSi gamowyobili sami ymawvili da qarTuli kabebiT
Semosili ori gogona. xelT eWiraT dafnis foTlebisagan dawnuli asoebi:
akaki. yvela aso erTi meoreze gadabmuli iyo milocvis teqstiani abre-
Sumis lentiT. patara deputatebi mwyobrad warudgnen mgosans da misa-
loci leqsiT mimarTa amJamad saqarTvelos sssr skolis damsaxurebulma
maswavlebelma, ssr kavSiris sportis damsaxurebulma ostatma giorgi
merkvilaZem. `nakadulis~ saxeliT adresi waikiTxa nino nakaSiZem.
usazRvrod nasiamovnebma poetma sapasuxo sityvaSi ase mimarTa norCebs:
`Cemo patara megobrebo! sxvaTa Soris erTi didi naklica maqvs. musikis ara
gamegeba ra, mxolod ki vgrZnob. am nakls yovelTvis mivsebda axalTaobis
tiktiki. ai, axlac, Tqveni sityva musikasaviT mwvdeba gulis siRrmemdis
da dids madlobasac gwiravT. gTxovT, rom ar daiviwyoT dRevandeli dRe,
imitom ki ara, rom Cemis mizeziT aris gamowveuli, ara, ufro sxva mizniT!
ai, xom xedavT, xalxSi aRZrula erovnuli grZnoba da mas unda, rom hyavdes
namdvili moRvawe da gmiri da ara CemsaviT moCvenebuli. da es gmiri Tqven-
ma Taobam unda warmoSos. es mxolod maSin SeiZleba, Tu mudam erovnul
niadagze gedgmebaT fexi; vinc Tavis gvartomobas uarhyofs, is veRarc sxvas
gamoadgeba. igi uvargisi iqneba Sinac da gareTac. giyvardeT Tqveni qarT-
veloba, magram Sovinisturi grZnobiT ki ara, e. i. sxvisi daklebiT rame
SesZinoT Tqvens erovnebas. ara! im siyvaruliT, romelsac sarCulad unda
edvas Zmobis, erTobis da siyvarulis survili! gadaeciT es Tqvens patara
amxanagebs!~
4 saaTze dasrulda dilis zeimi da imave saRamos kvlav gagrZelda. isev
milocvebi, deputaciebi, yvavilebi, taSi da aRfrTovaneba...
uamravi depeSa mosula iubilaris saxelze. Tavis yofil students
ulocavs peterburgis saimperatoro universitetis aRmosavluri enebis
fakulteti, salams uTvlian samxatvro Teatris mesveurni stanislavski
da nemiroviC-danCenko, Jurnal `russkoe bogatstvos~ redaqciis saxeliT
mwerali korolenko, peterburgis saliteraturo sazogadoebidan mwer-
ali anenski, moskovis saliteraturo da samxatvro wris davalebiT al.
sumbaTaSvil-iuJini, moskovis universitetis profesori sakulini, aR-
mosavlur enaTa lazarevis institutis profesorTa sabWos saxeliT insti-
tutis direqtori mileri da mdivani aleqsandre xaxanaSvili, ingliseli
mwerali qali marjori uordropi da sxvani da sxvani.
`politikuri gadasaxlebuli qarTvelebi, _ iwerebodnen arxangelskis
guberniis qalaq kemidan, _ uerTdebian qarTvelTa saerTo zeims xalxis
nodar alania
240
sayvareli, Tavisuflebis momRerali, damonebulTa sevdis gamomTqmeli,
samSoblos sasiqadulo Svilis akaki wereTlis iubiles gamo~.
qalaq xolmogoridan ityobinebodnen, rom `qarTveli politikuri gad-
asaxlebulebi uerTeben Tavis xma qarTvelTa zeimis saerTo hangs xalxis
sayvareli, Tavisuflebis momRerali, zeSTagonebuli poetis, politikurad
damonebuli xalxis mwuxarebis amsaxvelis, Tavisi samSoblos sasiqadulo
Svilis akaki wereTlis iubiles gamo~.
saRamos dasasruls iubilarma sityviTa da leqsiT mimarTa Tavis sayva-
rel samSoblosa da xalxs.
akaki wereTlis iubile gadaiqca erovnul dResaswaulad, xalxis siy-
varulis mCqefare gamovlinebad. man gadalaxa dedaqalaqi da uricxv mdina-
reebad ganefina rogorc saqarTvelos soflebsa da qalaqebSi, ise mis saz-
Rvrebs gareTac.
241
gamoxmaureba, recenzia
venera kavTiaSvili
literaturis Teoria _ XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodolo-
giuri koncefciebi da mimdinareobebi
(recenzia)
qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi 2008 wels momxdar mniSvnelovan
movlenaTa Soris, Cemis azriT, umniSvnelovanesia SoTa rusTavelis qarTu-
li literaturis institutis mier gamocemuli wigni `literaturis Teo-
ria. XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi da mimarTule-
bebi~. Tu ratom, amas erTgvarad TviT saTauric gansazRvravs da kidev Sem-
degi: XX saukunis udidesi nawili (70 welze meti) Cvenma qveyanam sabWoTa
totalitaruli reJimis pirobebSi ganvlo, roca yoveli siaxle, Tu igi
am reJimis ideologiis CarCoebSi ar jdeboda, sastikad ikrZaleboda da
Tu vinmes sityva an kalami mainc `daukrefavSi~ gaeqceoda, Sesabamisi gaT-
valiswinebuli Tu gauTvaliswinebeli Sedegic mohyveboda. aman gamoiwvia
Cveni literaturisa da xelovnebis im procesebisagan mowyveta, rac sab-
WoTa rkinis fardis iqiT, anu dasavlur samyaroSi mimdinareobda. kerZod,
CavrCiT e. w. realizmis da sruliad gaugebari `socialisturi realizmis~
WurSi. arada rkinis fardis iqeT literatura, cxovrebasTan erTad, duRda
da gadmoduRda: iqmneboda sruliad axali mimarTulebebi Tavisi poziti-
uri Tu negatiuri mxareebiT. siaxlisaken swrafva cxovrebis yoveldRi-
urobas warmoadgenda. amas ki moklebuli iyo rogorc zogadad sabWoTa,
ise mis SemadgenlobaSi myofi saqarTvelos sulieri cxovreba. Tumca, aq
isic uTuod aRsaniSnia, rom Cveni literaturisa da kulturis moRvaweni
SeniRbviT mainc axerxebdnen am siaxleebze Tavisebur reagirebas, magram es
iyo calkeul uniWieres adamianTa Tavganwirvis tolfasi uiSviaTesi gamov-
lineba. mas Semdeg ki, rac Tavi davaRwieT am viTarebas, aRmoCnda, rom CavrCe-
nilvarT sadRac me-19 saukuneSi. TviT cxovrebam moiTxova, daCqarebuli
tempiT agvenazRaurebina is danaklisi Tu CamorCena, rac am xnis manZilze
sulieri cxovrebis sferoSi ganvicadeT. swored am mizniT literaturis
instituti Tavisi maRalprofesiuli TanamSromlebis ZalisxmeviT Seecada
danaklisis Sevsebas da gamosca dasaxelebuli wigni, romelSic dasavluri
literaturul-Teoriuli mimdinareobebis uprecendento siuxvidan gamo-
arCia mTavari xazi da warmoaCina im skolebis naRvawi da naazrevi, romlebic
venera kavTiaSvili
242
seriozulad iyvnen dainteresebuli mxatvruli teqstis mecnieruli ana-
lizis problemiT da monaTesave humanitarul disciplinebTan (filoso-
fia, esTetika, lingvistika, fsiqologia) misi mimarTebebis garkveviT. amas
udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan interdisciplinaruli skolebi gzas ux-
snian teqstis kvlevis mravalplaniani modelebis damkvidrebas. am wignis
mniSvnelobasa da saWiroebaze mianiSnebs Tundac is, rom misi pirveli gamo-
cema umokles droSi bibliografiul iSviaTobad iqca. Tanac saanalizo
krebuli pirveli gamocemis ubralo gameorebas ki ar warmoadgens, aramed
Sevsebulia axali masaliT da rac uaRresad mniSvnelovania, darTuli aqvs
soliduri moculobis leqsikoni, romelic ganmartavs SromebSi gamoyen-
ebul uamrav ucxo sityvas da gamoTqmas, razec seriozuli Sroma gaswies v.
kavTiaSvilma da r. canavam.
wignis umTavresi Rirseba da praqtikuli daniSnuleba isaa, rom igi gam-
oiyeneba rogorc filologiuri, ise, zogadad, humanitaruli profilis
studentebis (bakalavriati, magistratura, doqtorantura) swavlebisaT-
vis saxelmZRvanelod. barem aqve imasac davsZen, rom saWiro gaxdeba Sem-
dgomi metad mZime da Sromatevadi samuSaos Catareba, raTa meore wignis
saxiT gamoices praqtikuli xasiaTis krebulic, sadac saanalizo krebulSi
mocemuli Teoriebis mixedviT gaanalizdeba qarTvel mweralTa Semoqmede-
ba, riTac, erTi mxriv, qarTuli mwerlobac Caewereba msoflio litera-
turul procesebSi, meore mxriv ki praqtikuli analizi studentebsa Tu
dainteresebul mkiTxvels gauadvilebs pirvel wignSi mocemuli rTuli
Teoriuli msjelobebis aRqmas.
ramdenadac wigni kompilaciur xasiaTs atarebs da mTlianad sxvadasx-
va mimdinareobis warmomadgenelTa da TvalsaCino TeoretikosTa naazrevis
interpretacias warmoadgens, Cemi recenziis mizanic, Sesabamisad, wignSi
Sesuli gamokvlevebis mTavari saTqmelis warmoCeniTa da zogadi SefasebiT
ganvsazRvre.
wignSi warmodgenili Tematika istoriuli qronologiiT aris dalage-
buli da mkiTxvels xels uwyobs saerTo procesisaTvis ara marto Tanmim-
devrulad Tvalis gadevnebaSi, aramed calkeuli skolebis Tu mimarTule-
bebis erTmaneTisagan gamomdinareobis, msgavseba-gansxvavebis da a. S. dadge-
naSic.
wigni iwyeba Tamar lomiZis mier rusuli formalisturi skolis war-
momadgenelTa naRvawis ganxilviT da es ar aris SemTxveviTi, radgan, jer
erTi, swored maTi naazrevi daedo safuZvlad SemdegSi ase momravlebul
formalistur mimdinareobebs da meorec, am skolis (masSi Sediodnen: `po-
eturi enis SemswavlelTa sazogadoeba~, moskovis lingvisturi wre da len-
ingradis xelovnebis istoriis institutis TanamSromelTa erTi jgufi)
literaturis Teoria _ XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi
243
warmomadgenelTa (up. yovlisa, m. baxtinis) praqtikuli kvlevis meTodebma
da Sedegebma bevrad gansazRvres struqturuli poetikis, semiotikis, in-
formaciis Teoriisa da manqanuri Targmnis ganviTareba. SromaSi gaanali-
zebulia rusuli formalizmis iseTi Teoriuli konstruqtebi, rogori-
caa: gaucnaureba, formisa da Sinaarsis klasikuri diqotomiis gadaazreba,
fabula da siuJeti, zRapris struqturis analizi, poeturi teqstis ana-
lizi. T. lomiZis kvlevis paTosi mimarTulia im tendenciebis saCveneblad,
romlebmac rusul formalizmSi gareTeoriuli meTodebis gamoyenebisa da
codnis SidaTeoriuli dafuZnebis mcdelobebi gamokveTa. am orma urT-
ierTdakavSirebulma tendenciam ki Semdgomi ganviTareba pova semiotikisa
da struqturalizmis Teoriul koncefciebSi, romlebic formalizmis ms-
gavsad, literaturaTmcodneobis zust, sistemur mecnierebad qcevas isax-
avdnen miznad.
meore statiaSi (`struqturalizmi~) T. lomiZe struqturalizms ganix-
ilavs, rogorc rusuli formalizmis memkvidres. mimoixilavs misi Camoy-
alibebis istoriasa da gavlenis farglebs; am sferos iseTi TvalsaCino
warmomadgenlebis Teoriul koncefciebs, rogorebic levi-strosi, miSel
fuko, Jak lakani da rolan barti arian. ramdenadac struqturalizmi ar
Camoyalibebula erTian Teoriul skolad, aramed igi aisaxa humanitarul
dargTa sxvadasxva sferoebSi Catarebul calkeul gamokvlevebSi, dasaxele-
buli Teoretikosebis, rogorc sxvadasxva sferoTa warmomadgenlebis, kon-
cefciebis sayrdeni punqtebic sxvadasxva aRmoCnda (Tu mxedvelobaSi ar
miviRebT imas, rom isini erTnairad ganicdidnen sosiuris lingvisturi
Teoriisa da rusuli formalizmis zegavlenas). kerZod, Tu levi-strosis,
rogorc eTnologis, mizans eTnografiuli kvlevis miznebis, amocanebis da
principebis xorcSesxma warmoadgenda (inteleqtualuri racionalizmi,
lingvisturi meTodologia, bunebisa da kulturis SemaerTebeli `xid-
is~, `socialuri nulovani xarisxis~ Zieba), frangi fsiqoanalitikosisa
da filosofosis Jak lakanisaTvis mTavari froidis triadis id, ego,
superegos warmosaxuliT, simboluriT da realuriT Senacvleba aRmoC-
nda. rolan barti ki, rogorc literaturaTmcodne, dainteresda termin
`werilobiTiT~ (criture) da originalurad gadaiazra igi. yvela es sakiTxi
mokled, naTlad da amomwuravad gaaSuqa T. lomiZem.
irma ratiani krebulSi warmodgenilia oTxi gamokvleviT. igi exeba iseT
mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs, rogoricaa: `baxtinis Teoriuli koncefcia. dia-
loguri kritika~, `fenomenologiuri kritika~, `hermenevtika~, `ameri-
kuli `axali kritika~. sakiTxebi moicavs me-20 saukunis 20-70-ian wlebs.
es aris, zogadad dasavlur kulturul sivrceSi warmarTuli rTuli so-
cialur-politikuri kataklizmebiT savse sxvadasxva filosofiur-esTe-
venera kavTiaSvili
244
tikuri azris sinqronuli Tu diaqronuli ganviTarebis procesebisaTvis
Tvalis gadevnebisa da kritikuli analizis SesaniSnavi nimuSi. m. baxtin-
Tan dakavSirebul SromaSi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia `kantis seminaris~
saqmianobaze, romelic mokle droSi `nevelis filosofiur skolad~ Camoy-
alibda da didi roli Seasrula rogorc Tavad baxtinis filosofiur-
esTetikuri naazrevis xasiaTis gansazRvraSi, ise me-20 saukunis literatu-
rul-Teoriul sivrceSi dasmul iseT problemebze, rogoric iyo: litera-
turuli Janris gansazRvra, dialoguri kritikis Camoyalibeba, sicilisa
da karnavalis filosofiis SemuSaveba, droisa da sivrcis kategoriebis
filosofiuri gaazreba da misi gadatana konkretul mxatvrul teqstebze.
Sromis ZiriTadi nawili eTmoba swored aRniSnuli sakiTxebis baxtiniseul
damuSavebas; im siaxleebs, rasac Teoretikosi Tavis SromaSi gvTavazobs.
kerZod, romanis Janris specifikisa da genezisis definicias; diskursis
tipologiis dadgenas; heteroglosiis, rogorc `avtoris xmisa~ da `sx-
visi xmis~, statusisa da urTierTmimarTebis gansazRvrisaTvis orxmiani
diskursis definicias; dialoguri principis, rogorc polifoniuri ro-
manis Camoyalibebis aucilebeli winapirobis gansazRvras; menipeas Jan-
ris gansazRvras; karnavalizaciis istoriul-ontologiur gaazrebas da
qronotopis, rogorc literaturisaTvis principulad mniSvnelovani kat-
egoriebis definicias. sakiTxTa es CamonaTvalic ki naTelyofs, Tu ra mniS-
vnelovani sakiTxebia ratianis SromaSi gaanalizebuli da specialistebi-
saTvis SemoTavazebuli.
`fenomenologiur kritikaSi~ i. ratiani mimoixilavs germaneli filo-
sofosis edmund huserlis fenomenologiur moZRvrebas, romelic sa-
fuZvlad daedo sxvadasxva mimarTulebebis Camoyalibebas. kerZod, egzis-
tencializms, germanul realontologias, inglisur neorealizms, filo-
sofiur anTropologiasa da sxva. i. ratiani jer axdens cneba `fenome-
nologiis~ huserliseuli gaazrebis Cvenebas, radgan misi konceptualuri
datvirTva winamavali filosofosebisagan sruliad gansxvavebulia, Semdeg
ki mimoixilavs fenomenologiuri meTodis gavlenis masStabebs (roman in-
gardeni, moris merlo-ponti, martin haidegeri) da daaskvnis: `litera-
turaTmcodneobam warmatebiT moirgo fenomenologiuri moZRvrebis zog-
adi modeli da zedmiwevniT kargad miusadaga misi calkeuli terminebi da
cnebebi literaturuli teqstis specifikas~.
gamokvlevaSi `hermenevtika~ i. ratiani aanalizebs sxvadasxva avtorTa
Sexedulebebs (fr. Slaimaxeri, v. dilTai, m. haidegeri, h. g. gadameri, e. d.
hirSi, p. rikiori) da iziarebs mosazrebas, rom `hermenevtikul interpret-
aciaSi mTavari araa mxolod literaturuli teqstis rekonstruqcia, arc
literaturuli nawarmoebis konteqstisa da Cveni istoriuli konteqctis
literaturis Teoria _ XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi
245
Tanmimdevruli urTierTganviTareba. interpretaciis mizania mkiTxvelis
ganswavlulobis aris gafarToeba da mis mier sakuTari Tavis ukeT Sec-
noba~.
gamokvlevaSi `amerikuli axali kritika~ ganxilulia Tomas eliotis,
riCardsis da livisis Teoriebi, romlebmac, rogorc i. ratiani wers,
`programis saxe miiRo~ da `romelic met-naklebi prioritetulobiT
ganxorcielda amerikuli `axali kritikis~ farglebSi~. amas mohyveba mis
ZiriTad tendenciebsa da Tanamedrove literaturis TeoriasTan maT mi-
marTebaze msjeloba; kritikis im niaRvris gaSuqeba, rac `axal kritikas~
70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi daatyda, bolos ki daskvnis saxiT naTqvamia, rom
`marTalia, `axali kritika~ 70-iani wlebidan kritikis obieqtad iqca, ma-
gram mainc igi im skolad rCeba, romelsac mudmivad unda gaewios angariSi
litmcodneobis istoriaSi.
gaga lomiZe krebulSi warmodgenilia oTxi gamokvleviT (`praRis sko-
la~, `miTologiuri kritika~, `marqsistuli kritika dasavleTSi~ da `ax-
ali istorizmi~). cnobilia, rom `praRis skolis~ gareSe me-20 saukunis
struqturalizmis saerTo saxis warmodgena SeuZlebelia rogorc isto-
riuli, aseve Teoriuli TvalsazrisiT, radgan swored am skolam SeimuSava
esTetikisa da poetikis amocanebi da meTodebi da poststruqturaliste-
bze adre ganaviTara misTvis damaxasiaTebeli epistemologiuri Sexedule-
bebi. g. lomiZe amomwuravad ganixilavs am skolisaTvis damaxasiaTebel
iseT meTodebs, rogoricaa: interdisciplinaruloba, literaturul da
Cveulebriv enebs Soris gansxvavebuloba. aqve farTodaa ganxiluli praRis
skolis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebis (muraJkovski, iakobsoni, vodiCka)
naSromebi. `praRis skolis~ poeturi enis koncefciaze udidesi gavlena
rusulma formalizmma moaxdina da swored amiTaa ganpirobebuli is, rom
aRniSnuli gamokvleva saanalizo krebulSi `rusuli formalizmis~ Semde-
gaa moTavsebuli.
`miTologiur kritikaSi` g. lomiZe yuradRebas amaxvilebs iseT sakiTx-
ebze, rogoricaa: miTologiuri kritika praqtikaSi; anTropologia da misi
wvlili; iungis fsiqologia da arqetipis miseuli gageba. rac Seexeba `mar-
qsistul kritikas dasavleTSi~, igi eZRvneba gviandeli xanis marqsisti
kritikosebis Rwvas, gamijnodnen `vulgarul~ marqsizms da gaerkviaT, Tu
ra mimarTebebi arsebobs literaturasa da ekonomikur formaciebs Soris.
aRniSnuli naSromic swored am `gviandeli marqsistebis~ SexedulebaTa aR-
nusxvisa da warmoCenis sayuradRebo cdaa. statiaSi ki `axali istorizmi~
g. lomiZe cdilobs warmoaCinos, Tu rogor daupirispirdnen `axali is-
torizmis~ mimdevrebi amerikuli `axali kritikisa~ da mis Semdgom ganvi-
Tarebul dekonstruqciul midgomebs. maT mier SemuSavebuli siaxle isaa,
venera kavTiaSvili
246
rom igi Slis sazRvrebs `literaturasa~ da `istorias~, `teqstsa da kon-
teqsts~ Soris. amasTan dakavSirebiT ganxilulia `axali istorizmis~ iseT
warmomadgenelTa Sexedulebebi, rogorebic stiven grinblati da adroian
montrouzi arian.
levan bregaZe krebulSi warmodgenilia ori gamokvleviT (`fsiqoanalizi
da mxatvruli Semoqmedeba~ da `recefciuli esTetika~). aqedan pirveli,
cxadia, zigmund froids da mis fsiqoanalitikur meTods ukavSirdeba,
magram l. bregaZes yuradReba gadaaqvs karl gustav iungis Sexeduleba-
Ta analizze, romelmac froidis moZRvreba `koleqtiuri aracnobieris~
cnebis SemotaniT ganaviTara. bregaZe vrclad mimoixilavs `koleqtiuri
aracnobieris~ bunebas, upirispirebs (iungis mixedviT) pirovnul aracno-
biers da yvelaze Rrma, dafarul Sred warmoadgens mas, romelic mnemoni-
kuri (mexsierebiTi) xatebis saxiT SemorCa tvinis anatomiur struqturas,
anu is, rasac arqetipebs vuwodebT.
`recefciul esTetikaSi~ l. bregaZe yuradRebas amaxvilebs imaze, Tu
ra gavlena moaxdina mxatvruli teqstis recefciuli esTetikis Tval-
sazrisiT ganxilvam literaturis Semswavleli mecnierebis ganviTarebaze;
literaturuli Janrebis srulyofaze; mxatvruli gamomsaxvelobis xerx-
Ta evoluciis Sinagan mizezebsa da motivebze.
solomon tabucaZe krebulSi warmodgenilia gamokvleviT `gavlenis
Teoria~, romelSic amerikeli literaturaTmcodnis _ harold blumis
(`ielis kritikosTa~ jgufis warmomadgeneli) literaturuli urTier-
Tobebis Teoriaa ganxiluli. kerZod, _ `gavlenis SiSis~ Tu blumiseuli
`antiTeturi kritikis~ saxeliT cnobili koncefciis analizi. amisaTvis
s. tabucaZe blumis oTx naSromsa (`gavlenis SiSi: poeziis Teoria~, `gad-
akiTxvis ruqa~, `kabala da kritika~, `poezia da represia: revizionizmi
bleikidan stivensonamde~) da maT Sesaxeb gamoTqmul mosazrebebze dayrd-
nobiT axdens am Teoriis arsisa da raobis ganmartebas: `literatura Tavisi
Sinagani bunebiT antagonisturia, rac vlindeba imiT, rom yoveli avtori
Tavis winamorbed Semoqmeds ejibreba da ebrZvis. `Zlieri~ poeti axdens
winamorbedTa teqstebis radikalur transformacias, rasac blumi `aras-
wor wakiTxvas~ uwodebs da rac, Tavis mxriv, ganpirobebulia `gavlenis
SiSiT~. es SiSi, ritorikasTan nazavi Taviseburi tropebis anu `gavlenis
SiSis~ tropebis saxiTaa Casaxlebuli axal teqstSi. amitom winamorbed
teqstebTan WidilSi Seqmnil axal nawarmoebSi yovelTvis ritorikulad
aris Cawerili SiSi, SfoTi da egzistencialuri kaeSani~. amasTan dakav-
SirebiT igi gvTavazobs amerikeli literaturaTmcodne sara pratis mosaz-
rebas, romlis Tanaxmadac, blumma ori mTavari miznidan (1. unda moxdes
Camoyalibebuli warmodgenebis deidealizacia imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor uw-
literaturis Teoria _ XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi
247
yobs xels erTi poeti meore poetis formirebas; 2. imgvari poetikis Seqmna,
romelic literaturuli kritikis ganviTarebas Seuwyobs xels) pirvelSi
marTlac miaRwia mizans, xolo meoreSi sruli kraxi ganicada da `miuxe-
davad imisa, rom literaturis TeoretikosTa Soris blumis Teoria didi
aJiotaJisa da gansjis sagnad iqca, misi praqtikuli gamoyeneba mxolod
`gavlenis SiSis~ xsenebiT amoiwura~. s. tabucaZe mokled, magram damajere-
blad ganixilavs im wyaroebs, romlebmac gadamwyveti zemoqmedeba iqonies
blumis Teoriaze. eseni arian fr. nicSe da z. froidi. nicSem Tavisi `mor-
alis genialogiiT~, xolo froidma _ `oidiposis kompleqsisa~ da `ojax-
uri romanis~ TeoriebiT. isic aRsaniSnia, rom blumma kritikulad Seafasa
maTi naazrevi da ar mouxdenia ubralo gadamuSaveba Tu Canacvleba. blumi
gavlenis koncefcias froidis struqturis saxiT warmoidgens, magram sxva
SinaarsiT avsebs. `Tu froidis mTavari saidumlo aRniSnavs s. tabucaZe
libidoa, blumisaTvis igi droSi moiazreba da... froidis mier gamokv-
leuli meqanizmebi da maTi ambivalenturi funqcionireba gvevlineba... re-
viziuli mimarTebebis TvalsaCino analogebad, romlebic warmarTaven po-
etTaSoris kavSirebs~ da warmoadgens amgvari mimarTebebis eqvs saxeobas,
romelTa mokle da amomwurav ganmartebas gvTavazobs igi. esenia:
1. klinameni anu poeturi gadakiTxva, gadaxra;
2. tesera anu gansruleba da antiTeza;
3. kenozisi anu gameoreba da memkvidreobiTobis wyveta.
4 daimonizacia anu amaRlebulis sapirispiro, _ personalizebuli kon-
tramaRlebuli.
5. askeza anu ganwmenda da solipsizmi (idealuri subieqtivizmi); mizan-
mimarTuli qmedeba martoobis mdgomareobis misaRwevad.
6. apofradesi anu micvalebulTa dabruneba.
malxaz xarbediac ori naSromiT aris krebulSi warmodgenili: `post-
struqturalizmi da dekonstruqcia~ da `naratologia~. orive naSromSi
aRniSnuli cnebebisa da maT qveS moazrebuli Teoriebis axsna-gaanalizebaa
warmodgenili; enis semiologiuri kvlevis sakiTxebs eZRvneba m. kvaWanti-
raZis gamokvleva, xolo bela wifuria metad sainteresod ganmartavs post-
modernis raobas (rasakvirvelia, iseT TeoretikosTa naazrevze dayrdno-
biT, rogorebic ihab hasani, Jan bodreari, frederik jeimsoni, bari luisi,
jozef qonTi da sxvebi arian), romelic arc raimes uSualo ganmeorebaa,
arc raimes ubralo asli, aramed igi aris asli, originalis gareSe anu
simulakra (fenomeni, zematerialuri ideis, pirvlsaxis gareSe; uarso
movlenebis kvlavwarmoeba). igi axdens aqamde arsebuli gamomsaxvelobiTi
formebis moxmarebas, gadamuSavebas da gadawerasac ki. Sromis avtori aseve
yuradRebas amaxvilebs romanze, rogorc postmodernistuli mwerlobis
venera kavTiaSvili
248
mTavar formaze; ironiaze, rogorc postmodernistuli xelovnebis Ziri-
Tad emociur fonze da paranoiaze, rogorc postmodernistuli mgrZno-
belobis erT-erT niSanze, rasac xSirad siuJeturi struqturis asagebad
mimarTaven; ormag kodirebaze, rogorc teqstis ZiriTad maxasiaTebelze
(Tumca ara yvela postmodenistuli teqstisaTvis) da a. S.
dasasrul minda kidev erTxel xazi gavusva warmodgenili wignis did
mniSvnelobas ara marto literaturaTmcodneobis, aramed mecnierebis mo-
mijnave dargebiTvisac.
Venera Kavtiashvili
The Review of the Book Literary Theory Basic Concepts and Methodological
Tendencies of XX Century
Summary
The publishing of the book Literary Theory Basic Concepts and Methodological
Tendencies of XX Century by Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature should be
mentioned among the most essential events that has taken place in Georgian literary criti-
cism in 2008. This is a serious attempt to eradicate the spiritual shortage and drawbacks,
from which Georgian culture has suffered during the Soviet period.
The book that is under analysis points out the main line from Western literary-theoret-
ical tendencies and the thoughts of the schools which were interested in scientifc analysis
of artistic texts and tried to identify their relation towards relative disciplines of humanities
(philosophy, aesthetics, linguistics, psychology), which paves the path towards the estab-
lishment of multidimensional models of text research.
The themes that are presented in the book are arranged chronologically and aid the
reader not only to look through the general processes, but also to identify the deduction,
similarity-difference and others between schools and tendencies.
The book starts with the analysis of the works of Russian formalists, which is com-
pletely natural, because they later formed bases for formalistic directions that have sprung
up. Moreover, the methods and results of the practical research made by them, have de-
fned the development of structural poetics, semiotics, informational theory and machine
translation. It is naturally followed by discussion of issues like: Theoretical Conception
of Bakhtin. Dialogue Criticism; Phenomenological Criticism; Hermeneutics; New
American Criticism; These issues cover 20-70s of the XX century and represent a sample
for following the processes of synchronic and diachronic development of tough social-
political thinking and critical analysis.
It is acknowledged, that portraying the general picture of structuralism without Prague
School is impossible, from historical as well as from theoretical point of view. This school
literaturis Teoria _ XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi
249
was the frst to work out the tasks and methods of aesthetics and poetics and developed its
characteristic epistemological viewpoints before post-structuralism. The book covers the
methods that are peculiar for that school, such as: inter-disciplinarity, difference between
literary and spoken language.
The essential researches, like: Mythological Criticism in Practice, Jungs Psychol-
ogy and his Understanding of Archetype, Psychoanalysis and Artistic Works, connected
with Sigmund Freud and his psychoanalytical method are also displayed in the book, but in
this case emphases are made on the analysis of Carl Gustav Jungs viewpoints, who devel-
oped Freuds doctrine by coining the concept of Collective Unconscious.
The analysis of Harold Blooms theory of literary relations, to be more exact Anxiety
of Infuence or the concept known as Blooms Antithetic Criticism is also represented
in the book in an interesting way. In addition, the essence of the concepts and theories
implemented in them are also discussed, such as: post-structuralism, deconstruction, nar-
ratology, and the essence of postmodernism is defned on the basis of the thoughts of such
theoreticians as: Ihab Hassan, Jean Bodrear, Friedrich Jameson, Barry Louise, Joseph Kont
and others.
The incomplete list of the works presented in the book points to the importance of this
book not only from the point of literary criticism but from related sciences as well.
250
nana gonjilaSvili
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
(recenzia)
wels b-ma revaz siraZem kulturis sakiTxebiT dainteresebul special-
istebsa da farTo mkiTxvels warudgina Tavisi axali wigni _ kultura
da saxismetyveleba, romelic aerTianebs konkretuli sakiTxebisadmi miZ-
Rvnil narkvevebs. b-ni revazi (rogorc yovelTvis) gvTavazobs kulturis
sakiTxebis metad mniSvnelovan kvlevas, romelic Tavis mxriv ukavSirdeba
mwerlobisa da mxatvrobis saxismetyvelebasa da istoriulsa da Taname-
drove cnebaTa metyvelebas. wignis winaTqmaSi avtori aRniSnavs da amasTa-
nave ganmartavs, rom narkvevebi exmianeba yofierebis saxeobriv TvalTaxedvas,
romlis mixedviT, saxe mTel yofiT sinamdvileSia da ara oden xelovnebis
qmnilebaSi. yofierebis saxeobrivi koncefciis wanamZRvrebi warmoCenilia
b-ni revazis specialur narkvevSi _ `saxismetyveleba~ (1976), Camoyalibe-
buli da fundamenturad Seswavlilia missave wignebSi _ qarTuli esTeti-
kuri azris istoriidan (1978), qarTuli kulturis safuZvlebi (2000).
axali wigni _ kultura da saxismetyveleba (2008) gagrZelebaa aRniSnu-
li naSromebisa da gaazrebaTa pluralurobis gaTvaliswinebiT, calkeuli
sakiTxebis dRevandel problemebsa da safiqralTan dakavSirebas isaxavs
miznad.
wigni aerTianebs Teqvsmet narkvevs, romlebSic saxismetyvelebiTi kv-
leva-Ziebisa da Tanamedrove cnebaTmetyvelebis safuZvelze, tradiciul
SexedulebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT calkeul sakiTxTa axleburi wakiTxva-gaaz-
rebaa warmoCenili.
wignis pirveli narkvevi _ istoria `mkiTxelis fenomenisa~ da saxisme-
tyvelebiTi periodizacia _ exeba literaturis periodizacias, romelic
nawarmoebis ukeT gagebas unda emsaxurebodes. b-ni revazi Zveli qarTuli
literaturis istoriis periodizaciisTvis mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs e.w.
aRmosavlur-qristianuli kulturul-istoriuli regionis raobas, masSi
Semaval mwerlobaTa Soris ki umTavress _ bizantiur-berZnul litera-
turas gamohyofs. avtori mimoixilavs k.kekeliZis mier qarTuli litera-
turis istoriis I tomSi warmodgenil Zveli qarTuli literaturis pe-
riodizaciis safuZvlebsa da struqturas. Tavis mxriv, mecnier-mkvlevari
qarTuli literaturis periodizaciisaTvis aRmosavlur-qristianuli
kulturul-istoriuli regionidan gamohyofs da ganmartavs Semdeg niS-
nebs:
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
251
1. biblia da masze dafuZnebuli liturgikuli wesi azrovnebisa, romel-
sac ukavSirdeba drois veqtorul da ciklur gagebaTa erTianoba;
2. yofierebis saxeobrivi koncefcia, romlis mixedviT, saxe da saxeTa
sistemebi miemarTeba universaliebs, es ukanasknelni ki sazriss aZleven
saxeebs (`Sebrunebuli perspeqtiva~);
3. hermenevtikuli (ganmartebiTi) wesi azrovnebisa, romlis mixedviT,
mTavaria maradiul problemaTa mudmivi `Targmaneba~;
4. `ganviTarebis~ pirobiToba literaturis da saerTod, xelovnebis is-
toriis mimarT, radgan maTSi siaxlenia saZiebeli da ara `ganviTareba~;
5. yvelafris ganmsazRvrelia moZRvreba adamianze, iqmneba `nimuSis esTe-
tika~, amave dros icvleba adamianTmcodneoba.
narkvevis vrceli monakveTi eTmoba `teqstis~, rogorc zogad-kultur-
ologiuri kategoriis ganxilvas, rac niSnavs imas, rom yvelaferi SesaZle-
belia ganixilebodes, rogorc `teqsti~ (istoria, samyaro, TviT adamiani
da sxv.). r. siraZe teqstis ganzomilebaze msjelobisas emyareba r. ingar-
dens, amasTanave amjobinebs horizontaluri (teqstis sityvaTa struqtu-
ruli Tanamimdevroba) da vertikaluri (teqstis sulieri Sinaarsi) veq-
torebis gamoyofas, raTa nebismieri teqsti gaiazrebodes jvarsaxovnebiT
(amqveyniuri da sulieri SinaarsiT, romelic jvris vertikals Seesabam-
eba). aRniSnulia, rom droSi xdeba teqstis horizontaluri mdinareba,
xolo myisieri SeiZleba iyos sulieri vertikalis SegrZneba. r.siraZis
azriT, sasurvelia `jvarsaxovneba~ damkvidrdes literaturul esTetikur
sferoSic, garkveuli pirobiTobiT, saero nawarmoebSic SesaZlebelia misi
danaxva. `jvarsaxovnebaze~ msjelobisas narkvevSi gamoikveTeba mkiTxvelis
fenomeni, romlisTvisac iwereba nawarmoebi da romelic mudmivad qmnis
nawarmoebs da literaturul epoqasac. am mimarTebiT, narkvevSi moxmobilia
umberto ekosa da piter kornelis Txzulebani, miSel fukos wigni _ `si-
tyvebi da sagnebi~; dasaxelebulia mkiTxvelis problemisadmi miZRvnili
qarTvel mecnierTa gamokvlevebi. r.siraZe teqstTa istoriisa da avtorTa
gamonaTqvamebis mixedviT warmogvidgens `mkiTxvelis fenomenis~ istorias.
am mizniT moxmobilia `wm.ninos cxovrebis~, SuSanikisa da abos `wamebaTa~,
ioane zedaznelisa da ilarion qarTvelis `cxovrebaTa~, `vefxistyaosnis~,
`daviTianis~ teqstebidan Sesabamisi epizodebi, romelTa meSveobiT warmoC-
ndeba mkiTxvelis fenomenis raoba.
narkvevis qveTavi _ saxismetyvelebiTi periodizaciisaTvis _ erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani da sayuradRebo cdaa Zveli qarTuli literaturis peri-
odizaciis gansazRvrisaTvis. r. siraZis azriT, literaturis istoriisaT-
vis Sidaliteraturuli faqtorebia amosavali da ara epoqaTa xasiaTi.
amisdakvalad, avtori mizanSewonilad Tvlis, gamoiyos oTxi periodi:
nana gonjilaSvili
252
1. eideturi anu miTosuri saxismetyvelebis periodi (winaqristianuli
xana), romelic ZiriTadad miTosur xanas moicavs, Tavs iCens agiografiaSic
(qristianobis xanaSi dagmobili an desakralizebulia). eidetur saxisme-
tyvelebaSi saxis Sina arsi srulad vlindeba missave formaSi;
2. eikonuri (anu xatisebri) gansaxovnebis xana (IV-XI ss. _ agiogra-
fia, himnografia, homiliebi). aq gareforma mianiSnebs mis Sinaarssa da Sina
arss, rac miRmuria da suliT SesagrZnobi. r.siraZis azriT, eikonuri sax-
ismetyveleba Tavs iCens Semdegdroindel qarTul mwerlobaSic (moxmobil-
ia d. guramiSvilis, n. baraTaSvilis, a. wereTlis, g. tabiZis, a. kalandaZis
poeziidan Sesabamisi nawyvetebi);
3. mesame periodad miCneulia XII- XIII saukuneebi. mxatvruli saxisme-
tyvelebaa am periodis ganmsazRvreli, radgan, rogorc b-ni revazi SeniS-
navs, saxeTa safuZveli oden esTetikuria, ar emorCileba arc eikonurobas
da arc miToss. am TvalsazrisiT, ganxilulia `amirandarejanianis~, `ab-
dulmesianis~, `Tamarianis~ saxismetyveleba, romelic cxadyofs, rom `es-
Tetikuri TvalTaxedvis dominirebam safuZveli Seqmna dasavlur-qristian-
uli, antikuri da aRmosavluri (ufro-sparsuli) da miTosuri saxisme-
tyvelebiTi tradiciebis sinTezisa~ (r.siraZe, kultura da saxismetyvele-
ba, Tb., 2008, gv.18);
4. dacemis xana (XIV-XVss.) _ miuxedavad imisa, rom es periodi arc
originaluri qarTul nawarmoebTa simravliT da arc saxismetyvelebiTi
siaxleebiT ar gamoirCeva, r.siraZis azriT, am dros gansakuTrebiT iCens
Tavs sakiTxi _ `fsiqologiuri memkvidreoba~ (Taobidan Taobas gadace-
muli fsiqologiuri zegavlena), romelic qmnis `mkiTxvelis istorias~,
erovnuli xasiaTis SenarCunebas uwyobs xels. enobrivi msoflxedva gansaz-
Rvravs literaturis saxismetyvelebas.
r. siraZe V periods (XVI-XVIII ss.) e.w. `aRorZinebis xanas~ (romlis
saxeldebis uvargisoba karga xania aRiniSneba) ganixilavs yovlismomcveli
mravalferovnebis TvalsazrisiT, kerZod, sparsofilobis amsaxveli da
antisparsofiluri narativi, `marTlis Tqmis~ principTa Semcveli sax-
ismetyvelebiTi nakadi (arCili, feSangi, ioseb saakaZe, d.guramiSvili),
sparsofiluri saxismetyveleba (Teimuraz I da misi skola), religiur
simbolikaze damyarebuli lirika (d.guramiSvili, vaxtang VI), erovnuli
saxismetyvelebis kvalobaze arakTa damuSaveba (s.-s.orbeliani). am peri-
odSi Tavs iCens mTargmnelobiTi saqmianoba (sparsuli, rusuli, dasavlur-
evropuli literaturisa).
b-ni revazi e.w. `gardamaval xanas~ (XVIII s-is bolo da XIX s-is dasaw-
yisi) ganakuTvnebs axal qarTul mwerlobas.
r. siraZis mier SemoTavazebuli saxismetyvelebiTi periodizacia bevri-
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
253
saTvis SesaZloa, sakamaToc iyos, magram ucilobelia, rom narkvevSi xan-
grZlivi mecnieruli kvlevis safuZvelze Camoyalibebuli axali Tvalsaz-
risi, meTodologiuri midgoma gamoikveTeba, erTob sayuradRebo da gasaT-
valiswinebeli.
wignis momdevno narkvevSi _ dro da Jami _ ganxilulia: dro Jamieri
(warmavlobisa) da dro maradiuli (i.petriwis naazrevze dayrdnobiT), maTi
urTierTmimarTeba (Jamieri drois sawyisi maradiuli droa), Jamieri dro
da misi bunebis arsi(dro cvalebadia, ucvlelia _ misi buneba, romelic
maradiulobis xatia), dro-sivrcis (qronotopis) cneba da adamiani, siuJe-
turi dros arsi (igia saxe da xati maradiulobisa), ena da zedrouloba.
r. siraZe gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs: samyaros saxeobriv Se-
mecnebas, qarTuli naazrevisaTvis fundamenturi mniSvnelobis fenomens
(movlena samyaroSi CarTulia rogorc saxe), saxeobrivi gagebis princips
(saxeobrivadaa SesagrZnobi drois arseboba, saxeobrioba cvalebadobaa,
maradiuloba igiveobriobaa. maradiuloba warmoSobs saxeobriobas, magram
igi maradiulobas ver swvdeba). yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare
mkvlevari askvnis, rom `gansaxovnebis Teoria SeiZleba drois Teoriad
iqces~ (gv. 29).
specialistTa da kulturiT dainteresebul mkiTxvelTa yuradRebas
uTuod miipyrobs narkvevis is nawili, romelic drois bibliur-qristian-
uli koncefciis ganxilvas eTmoba (wm. ioane damaskelis naazrevis moxmo-
biT _ dro ganxilulia adamianis arsebobis sazrisiT, kacobriobis arse-
bobis sazrisi ki ganmartebulia esqatologiuri drois mixedviT, manamde
istoriuli an egzistencialuri droa). r.siraZe gamoyofs drois gagebis
mTavar mimarTebebs: dro da sikeTe (sikeTea drois saxeobrivi bunebis ganm-
sazRvreli, misi mizani da Sinaarsi), dro da ricxvi (orive wmindaa da
sagnebSi sulis msgavsadaa ganfenili, sagnobriobaSi ar iTqvifeba, ricxvi
gansazRvravs dros), ricxvTa simbolikis ganxilva ki warmoCens azrs, rom
adamianma unda icxovros RvTiuri droiT.
mkvlevari Seiswavlis i.petriwis `ganmartebidan~ drois aRricxvasa da
droul ganzomilebas (arsebobs raodenobrivi gazomva droisa, amasTanave
ganizomeba drois Tviseba, xarisxi, sazrisi), arsiTa da moqmedebiT Jam-
iseuls, Jameuli drois samobas (iyo, aris da iqneba, rasac enaSi gramati-
kuli droc amtkicebs. yovelive sam droSi myofobs), droisa da movlenis
bunebis urTierTmimarTebas (movlenis gvareobiTi raobisa da sakuTari
bunebis SenarCunebas). b-ni revazi sagangebod gamohyofs i. petriwis filo-
sofiuri msoflxedvis safuZvels _ `erTs~ (yvelafris miRmuri `erTi~ da
warmoqmnili, pirvelwarmomqmneli `erTi~; `erTidan~ momdinareobs dro)
da or binarul mimarTebas Soris arsebiT kavSirs (maraduloba da dro,
nana gonjilaSvili
254
erTi da simravle); drois zecnebiTi aspeqtebis TvalTaxedviT gaazrebu-
lia `martivis~ raoba (simartive umaRlesi erTisa da simartive nivTTa),
romelic gansaxovnebis qronotopisaTvisaa sayuradRebo. sanimuSod mox-
mobilia wm.dionise areopagelis msjelobani RvTaebis antinomiurad gaaz-
rebisaTvis (antinomiurad gasaazrebelia RvTaeba da antinomiuri bunebisaa
dro).
narkvevSi eortalogiuri dro (dro saqristiano dResaswaulebisa)
agiografiis Seswavlis safuZvelze ganxilulia drois saxismetyvelebi-
Ti gaazrebebi (moxmobilia `wm.ninos cxovreba~, `abos wameba~). r.siraZe
qarTul agiografiaSi gamoyofs kompoziciis sam tips (nawarmoebebi _ uw-
yveti teleologiuri siuJetiT, triptiquli tipis da centralur-cik-
luri kompoziciiT) da mas ukavSirebs siuJeturi drois problemas ag-
iografiaSi (am mimarTebiT ganxilulia ``SuSanikis wameba~, `abos wameba~
da `grigol xanZTelis cxovreba). yuradRebulia ZvelqarTul saistorio
mwerlobaSi JanrTa (`cxovreba~, istoria da JamTaaRmwerloba) droisadmi
samnairi midgoma, TariRTa simcire (rac r.siraZis azriT, imiT aixsneba,
rom molenebi mowodebulia zedrouli igavurobiT da ara drouli konk-
retizirebiT).
r. siraZe sagangebod msjelobs saxeobriv sistemebze dafuZnebul yov-
lismTlianobis ideaze, yovlismomcveli simbolizmis filosofiaze (v.
soloviovis Tvalsazrisis mixedviT) da sxvadasxva saazrovno nakadis sin-
Tezirebis kvalobaze ganixilavs i.petriwis azrovnebisaTvis wamyvans _ iga-
vur cnobierebas (samyaroSi nebismieri movlena saxeobrivia, saRvTo saz-
risi msWvalavs da aerTianebs yvelafers). `samyaro saxeTa sistemaa, xolo
samyaros Secnoba saxeTa Sinaarsis amocnobis gziT xdeba~ (gv. 48).
narkvevis dasasruls r.siraZe aRniSnavs, rom sikeTea drois sazrisis
ganmsazRvreli, misi mizanica da Sinaarsic, drois saxeobrivi buneba ki sam-
yaros saxeobrivi agebulebisa da saxismetyvelebiTi koncefciis erT-erTi
mTavari safuZvelia.
SevniSnavT, rom wignis zemoganxiluli narkvevi (dro da Jami) Zalze
mniSvnelovan cnebebs, ideebsa da movlenebs aerTianebs, mraval sakiTxsa
da safiqrals aRZravs, romlebic istoriulsa da Tanamedrove cnebaTme-
tyvelebas ukavSirdeba. b-ni revazi cdilobs, aRniSnuli sakiTxi saxeobrivi
Semecnebis TvalsazrisiT warmogviCinos da umTavresze gagvamaxvilebinos
yuradReba. am TvalTaxedviT, imdenad yovlismomcveli da tevadia narkvevi,
rom yoveli sityva da fraza mkiTxvelisagan did yuradRebas, dakvirve-
basa da analizs moiTxovs, Zneldeba misi erTianobaSi aRqma. magram mx-
olod fiqris aRmZvreli sityvaa faseuli, romlisTvisac Rirs yovelgvari
sirTulis daZleva.
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
255
wignis momdevno narkvevSi _ `sveti-cxoveli~ _ sazrisi qarTvelTa su-
lieri cxovrebisa _ aRniSnulia, rom istoriis sazrisi (Teologiuri is-
toriosofiis mixedviT) `sveticxovelia~, romelic jvarsaxovnebas aniWebs
drosa da garemos. r.siraZe qarTul istoriosofias (qristianul kul-
turologias), romelic mwyobrad ar gamovlenila, etapobrivad mimoixi-
lavs _ qristianuli religiis dafuZnebas, romelmac `axali cxovreba~
da Sesabamisad miznobrivi dro daamkvidra (`mravalTavebi~, naTargmni da
originaluri agiografia, eortalogiuri kalendari da a.S.), `moqceva
qarTlisas~ e.w. qronikuli nawilis Janrobriv nakadebs, maT mTlianobas.
avtori ioane sabanisZis istoriosofiidan oTx niSans gamoyofs, istoriis
RvTismetyvelebas nikoloz gulaberisZis `sakiTxavis~ mixedviT warmoaCens,
`qarTvelTa bunebis~ kritikis maCveneblad `daviT aRmaSeneblis cxovre-
bas~ miiCnevs. narkvevSi saubaria _ anton bagrationis `wyobilsityvao-
baze~ (saqarTvelos `klasikuri warsulis~ suraTi istoriuli pirovnebe-
biTaa Seqmnili), gr.orbelianis `sadRegrZeloze~ (mkvidrdeba koncefcia
_ qarTvelTa erTianobis gacnobierebis dawyebisa saxelmwifoebriobis
Camoyalibebisa da erTiani mwignobrobis Seqmnis droidan), erTiani saqarT-
velos ideis mudmiv arsebobaze (gansakuTrebiT vaxuSti batoniSvilisa da
d.guramiSvilis istoriosofiaSi), axali qarTuli filosofiis dasawyisze
(ilia WavWavaze). r.siraZe yuradRebas amaxvilebs qristianul adamianTm-
codneobaze, romelSic mJRavndeba qarTuli istoriosofiuli Sexedule-
bani. am mimarTebiT, mkvlevari ganixilavs saistorio TxzulebaTa saxelde-
bebs, `wminda mxedris~ ideals, romelic safuZvlad edeba qarTul-renesan-
sul kulturas, Tamaris IV hipostazis ideas, tolerantobas (sparsuli,
laTinuri kulturisadmi), enis bunebasa da Sina-arss eris cnobierebasa da
yofierebaSi. dasasruls aRniSnulia, rom qarTvelTa sulier cxovrebas
aSinaarsebs `sveti-cxoveli~.
unda aRiniSnos, rom r.siraZis mier qarTuli qristianuli kultur-
ologiisaTvis `sveti-cxovlis~ sazrisad warmodgena erTob sayuradRebo
azria da siaxlis damamkvidrebeli qarTul cnobierebaSi, rac masStaburi
xedvisaken warmarTavs Cvens gulisyurs.
narkvevSi _ sioni da qarTuli eklesiologia _ r.siraZis azriT, ar-
sebiTia pasuxis gacema Semdeg kiTxvebze: saqarTveloSi ratom iyo popou-
laruli eklesiaTa saxelwodebad `sioni~? ratom ar iyo saqarTveloSi
`sofiis~ saxelobis eklesiebi? am mizniT, narkvevSi warmoCenilia sionis
raoba, misi kulturul-religiuri Sinaarsi (bibliur-evangeluri, sofi-
ologiuri da eklesiologiuri mniSvneloba). r.siraZis azriT, `sioni~, vi-
Tarca saxe-idea, SeiZleba gamoxatavdes Semdeg saxe-ideebs: RvTismSobeli,
wm. sofia (zesTasibrZne), zeciuri `qalaqi~ da eklesia. `sionis~ person-
nana gonjilaSvili
256
ificireba xdeba qalis saxeSi. ierusalimi sionis asulia~ (gv.58). sionTan
mimarTebiT, qarTul wyaroTagan upirvelesad moxmobilia `moqceva qar-
Tlisas~ WeliSuri varianti, sadac `sioni~ `kaTolike eklesiis~ Ziri-
Tad saxelwodebad moiazreba (Tavdapirveli saxeldebaa `wmidaTa wmida~,
SemdegSi _ `sioni~ da `sveticxoveli~); `sionis~ konteqsti warmoCenilia
`Siosa da evagres cxovrebisa~ da `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis~, juanSer-
is Txzulebis, `klarjuli mravalTavis~ ioane bolneliseuli sakiTxavis
mixedviT. aRniSnulia, rom sveticxovlis taZari solomonis taZarsaa Sems-
gavsebuli da sibrZnis adgilad miiCneoda iseve, rogorc `sioni~ (`sioni~
aia-sofias, wminda sibrZnis simbolocaa).
narkvevis bolos r.siraZe ajamebs kvlevis Sedegebs Semdegi saxiT: 1.
saqarTveloSi sionis saxeldebiT eklesiaTa farTo gavrceleba RvTismSob-
lisadmi wilxvdomilobis ideiT, qarTuli eklesiis ierusalimuri warmo-
SobiT aixsneba; 2. ierusalimis sioni (konstantinepolis aia-sofias gaT-
valiswinebiT) SesaZloa yofiliyo zogadi nimuSi Tavdapirveli qarTuli
qristianuli taZrisaTvis.; 3. saqarTveloSi wm.sofiis idea daukavSires
RvTismSoblis eklesiebs _ sions da amiT unda aixsnas CvenSi wm.sofiis
saxelobis eklesiaTa ararseboba.
davZenT, rom narkvevSi wamoWrili sakiTxebi, romlebic samecniero
literaturaSi metnaklebadaa yuradRebuli, erTiani TvalTaxedviTaa gaaz-
rebuli da Sefasebuli, amomwuravad da mkafiod warmoaCens saTqmels, sa-
zogadoebaSi arsebul bevr kiTxvas scems pasuxs da savaraudo safiqrals
naTels hfens.
narkvevi _ sveticxoveli, aia-sofia da sioni (simboloTa gaazrebisaT-
vis) _ erTgvari gagrZelebaa winare kvlevisa. r.siraZis varaudiTiT, pavle
mociqulis epistole (romelic eklesias exeba) unda yofiliyo sveticxov-
lis saxeldebis uSualo safuZveli (`sveti WeSmaritebisa~ qarTul sinamd-
vileSi Senacvlebulia `sveti cxoveliT~, qristes qarTuli saxeldebis _
`macxovris~ kvalobaze). amdenad, mkvlevris azriT, `sveti-cxoveli~ saRvTo
WeSmaritebas, wminda sibrZnes (`aia-sofias~) gulisxmobs, rasac bibliuri
safuZveli aqvs. amasTanave `sveti-cxoveli~ ganicdeboda `Zalad RvTisa~.
narkvevSi (erT-erT bizantiur traqtatsa da `wm.ninos cxovrebaze~ dayrd-
nobiT) warmoCenilia imperator konstantines droindeli aia-sofiasa da
sveticxovlis (romelic `moqceva qarTlisas~ mixedviT, `sionad~ iwode-
ba) urTierTmimarTeba (aia-sofia sveticxovlis winasaxe unda yofiliyo).
b-ni revazi Tvlis, rom sveticxovlis pirvelnimuSad solomonis `sibrZnis
taZarTan~ erTad qristes saflavi da sioni unda qceuliyo (sveticxovelSi
Cadgmuli mcire eklesia qristes saflavis taZris analogiuria, `sioni~
ki saqarTveloSi RvTismSoblis taZrebs ewodeba). narkvevSi warmoCenili
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
257
mosazrebani emyareba bibliur wignebs, bizantiur traqtats _ `uwyeba da
Txroba aRSenebisaTvis taZrisa eklesiisa...~, andria kritelis _ `So-
bisaTvis RvTismSoblisa~, efrem mciris Teologiur leqsikons, `moqceva
qarTlisas~, n.gulaberisZis `sakiTxavsa~ da `galobans~.
unda aRiniSnos, rom r.siraZis wignis ori narkvevi _ sioni da qarTuli
eklesiologia da sveticxoveli, aia-sofia da sioni _ erT mTlianobadaa
gasaazrebeli da aRsaqmeli. es ori gamokvleva garkveulwilad safuZvels
umzadebs winmswreb Tavs _ `sveticxoveli~ _ sazrisi qarTvelTa sulieri
cxovrebisa. erTianobaSi ki mkiTxveli srulad gaisigrZeganebs, miadevnebs
Tvals da gulisyuriT gaacnobierebs qarTvelTa sulieri cxovrebisaTvis
esoden mniSvnelovani sazrisis _ `sveticxovlisa~ da sveticxovlis Si-
naarss.
wignis erT-erTi narkvevi _ toponimi `gareja~ da misi eklesiolo-
giuri Sinaarsi _ miznad isixavs samecniero literaturaSi araerTgzis
yuradRebuli sakiTxis garkvevas, romelic dRemde sakamaToa da kvla-
vac _ fiqrisa da gansjis aRmZvreli. zogadi mimoxilvis Semdeg, r. sir-
aZe gamokveTs qarTvelTaTvis `aTcamet mamaTa~ damsaxurebasa da Rvawls,
romelic wm.ninos mociqulebrivi Rvawlis kvalobaze warimarTeboda. mkvl-
evari toponim `garesjis~ eklesiologiuri Sinaarss ganixilavs qristian-
uli `qarTlis~ sivrcul SinaarsTan mimarTebiT da aRniSnavs, rom `qar-
Tli~ (`moqceva qarTlisas~ arsebobis droidan) qarTlTan erTad kaxeT-
sac gulisxmobs. b-ni revazi `daviT garejelis cxovrebis~ erTi monakveTis
mixedviT mimoixilavs `udabnos~ mniSvnelobas da am SemTxvevaSi dausax-
lebel garemoSi, garejaSi samonastro sulierebis damkvidrebad miiCnevs.
misi azriT, kompoziti `gare-sja~ Tavdapirvelad adgilis saxeldebad, e. i.
toponimad ki ar warmoqmnila, aramed samonazvno qmedebis, monazvnis mier
tanjvisa da SeWirvebis aRsaniSnavad...~ (gv. 78). mkvlevari `garesjis~ Secv-
las forma `garejiT~, Tavdapirvel saxeldebaSi eklesiologiuri Sinaar-
sis dakargvis SegrZnebiT xsnis.
Cveni azriT, savsebiT marTebulia fiqri imasa, rom `garesja~ ar gulisx-
mobs `gare-gansjas~ (`gare-msjelobas~), aramed, _ rogorc b-ni revazi gan-
martavs, _ monazvnis mier tanjvas, asketur `TviT dasjas~, rasac mama da-
viTi qarTlis mimarT `gare~ regionSi, udabnoSi aRasrulebda.
narkvevSi _ bodi-bodbe da soji dedofali _ gamoyofilia wm.ninos
dros bodbis gaqristianebis sakiTxi (`moqceva qarTlisas~ monacemTa
mixedviT). aRniSnulia is gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba, rac mieniWa bod-
bes da mTel kaxeTs wm.ninos iq dakrZalviT. r.siraZis azriT, wm.ninos sa-
flavs bodbeSi ramdenime momenti gansazRvravs, kerZod, strabonis cnobiT,
swored aq unda mdgariyo TeTri qalRmerTis (levkoTeas) taZari, `moqceva
nana gonjilaSvili
258
qarTlisas~ mixedviT ki _ miriani SesaZleblad Tvlis wm.ninos armazis
asulad miCnevas. mkvlevari varaudobs, rom wm.ninos kultma daZlia qal-
RvTaebaTa kulti. bodbes mniSvnelobas, b-ni revazis azriT, ganadidebs
soji dedoflis pirovnebac, romlis moRvaweoba warmoaCens `didi kaxeTis~
qarTul saqristianosTan gamTlianebas. narkvevSi gamoTqmulia varaudi,
rom `moqceva qarTlisas~ teqstSi soji dedofalTan dakavSirebuli Ca-
narTi, SesaZloa, bodbis eklesiis uZvelesi `sakiTxavi~ iyos. b-n revazi
amis maCveneblad Tvlis soji dedoflis mcxeTaSi misvlis didmniSvnelovan
faqts, romelic TxzulebaSi sagangebodaa aRwerili, Tavad wm. ninosa da
samefo karis mieraa gansakuTrebiT yuradRebuli.
da bolos, r.siraZe `moqceva qarTlisas~ mixedviT gamokveTs qalTa
Rvawls qarTlis moqcevaSi. qalTa saxeebisa da maTi damsaxurebis mTeli
sisruliT warmoCena did STabeWdilebas axdens da erTgvar gakvirvebasac
ki iwvevs. nawarmoebis kiTxvisas es fenomeni aseTi masStaburobiT nakleb
aRiqmeba; am SemTxvevaSi ki (erTianobaSi warmoCenisas) _ mkiTxvelisaTvis
sacnauri xdeba, rom qalTa Rvawli fasdaudebelia, igi qarTlis moqcevis
mTel gzas moicavs da saerTod, Txzulebas uwyvet xazad gasdevs.
narkvevSi _ ioane petriwis saxismetyveleba _ Seswavlilia saxeobriobis
adgili da mniSvnelovneba movlenaTa simravlis petriwiseul warmodgenaSi.
am mizniT, r.siraZe ioane petriwis `ganmartebidan~ gamoyofs da ganixilavs
Semdeg sakiTxebs: `pirvelmizezis~ mravalmxriv ganmartebas, saxeTa warmoqm-
nasa da msgavsebas, ierarqiuli wyobis mimarTebasa (zemodan qvemoT da piru-
ku) da ierarqiuli wyobis esTetikur princips, samyaros esTetikuri gaazre-
bis koncefcias, berZnuli miTologiisadmi mimarTebas, moZRvrebas drosa da
sivrceze, `erTisa~ da `simravlis~ urTierkavSirs da sxv.
r. siraZis azriT, `pirvelmizezis~ petriwiseul ganmartebaTa Soris
`dambadebloba-warmoqmnis~ Tvalsazrisia umTavresi (mxedvelobaSia saxeTa
warmoqmna, am warmoqmnisas msgavsebis sakiTxi), gansaxovneba da trfialeba
(ierarqiul wyobaSi qvemodan zemoT moZraobis gamomwvevi) ukavSirdeba mS-
venierebas. mkvlevari aq gamokveTs erT moments, rom esTetikurobisadmia
damorCilebuli (an dakavSirebuli) RmerTis raobaTa gaazrebisaTvis mox-
mobili sxvadasxva aspeqti. `pirvelmizezis~ mravalmxriv ganmartebaTa So-
ris b-ni revazi gamoyofs `mzes~ da aRniSnavs, rom petriwis naazrevSi `mze~
pirvelmizezis simboloa (mze araa `zesT arsi~), misi mSvenierebis yvelaze
ukeT warmomCeni (rac mravalgzis meordeba). amisdakvalad, mkvlevrisaTvis
miuRebelia mzis RmerTobis kvalis arseboba petriwis naazrevSi. sakiTxis
ganxilvis Sedegad irkveva Semdegi: petriwis `ganmartebis~ mixedviT, sam-
yaros Seqmna mSvenierebis gamovlinebaa _ arsebobiTac da Tavisi Sinaarsi-
Tac arsebulni mSvenierni arian.
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
259
r. siraZe petriwis msoflgagebaSi esTetikis didi mniSvnelovnebis war-
mosaCenad ganixilavs samyaros ierarqiul wyobas da masSi esTetikuri sa-
fuZvelis gamovlenas cdilobs. ganmartebaTa mixedviT, mkvlevari samyaros
ierarqias (zeaRmavali wyobiT) Semdegi rigiT warmogvidgens: 1. sxeuli, 2.
4 elementi, 3. ca, 4. buneba, 5. suli, 6. goni (`gonieri arsi~), 7. namd-
vil myofi, 8. erTni, 9. erTi. am sistemaSi umTavresi, arsis ganmsazRvreli
yofila `pirveli goneba~ (`namdvil myofi~). b-ni revazi am ganmartebidan
gamokveTs arsebiTs, rom `pirveli goneba~, romelic yoveli myofisa da
arsisaTvis dasabamia, mSvenierebis saTave yofila. petriwis naazrevSi mkv-
levris gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs imis warmoCena, rom `siraTa~
mimarTeba, rogorc amqveynad, iseve zesTasofelSi, saxeobrivia, e.i. mTeli
samyaro warmodgenilia saxeTa sistemaSi. samyaro iwyeba da mTavrdeba sax-
eebiT~ (gv.93).
r. siraZe sagangebod msjelobs im faqtze (romelic specialurad yura-
dRebuli ar yofila), rom petriwTan terminebi _ `saxieri~, `saxiereba~
ar ixmareba. maT nacvlad gamoiyeneba _ `keTili~, `keTiloba~. mkvlevr-
is azriT, amgvar Canacvlebas SeiZleba moeZebnos axsna _ petriwi `saxes~
`gansaxovnebis~ gamosaxatavad iyenebda, gansaxovnebas sikeTesTan erTad mS-
venierebac mohqonda; termini `saxieri~ ki _ qarTul mwerlobaSi keTils
aRniSnavda da amdenad iqmneboda STabeWdileba, rom gansaxovnebasTan mx-
olod sikeTe dakavSirebuliyo. narkvevSi yuradRebulia kidev erTi aspeqti
_ samyaros esTetikuri gaazrebis koncefcia _ saxis gaazrebadaa miCneuli
samyaros Semecneba, rac siamovnebas gvaniWebs. swored amas aRniSnavs es-
Tetikuri termini `samusikeloTa rTva~ (mxatvruli morTvis, mokazmvis
gza). r.siraZis varaudiT, petriwiseuli Semecnebis ornairi tipidan _ az-
rTan safexurebrivi miaxlovebisa da uSualo miaxlovebidan _ mxatvruli
Semecneba meore tipad CaiTvleboda.
r. siraZe ar eTanxmeba petriwis naazrevSi galobis samxmianobasTan
dakavSirebiT e.metrevelis Sexedulebas (sami registris erTi bgeris er-
Tianobas) da aRniSnavs, rom aq swored sami gansxvavebuli xmis erTianobaze,
harmoniazea saubari da es mxolod musikas ar exeba. mkvlevris azriT, es
zogadesTetikuri principia da samyaros zogad kanonzomierebaTa gamoxat-
ulebadaa miCneuli.
narkvevSi ganxilulia petriwis mimarTeba berZnuli miTologiisad-
mi, rac, r.siraZis azriT, literaturuli saxismetyvelebisaTvis Zalze
sayuradReboa. sakiTxis ganxilvis Sedegad irkveva, rom petriwma antikuri
memkvidreoba qristianobis safuZvelze `moaqcia~.
dro-sivrcis petriwiseul filosofiasTan dakavSirebiT ki _ aRniS-
nulia, rom igi emyareba yofierebis saxeobriobas, maTi sazrisia sikeTe.
nana gonjilaSvili
260
petriwis naazrevidan narkvevSi saubaria `erTisa~ da `simravlis~ mimarTe-
bazec (yoveli qmnileba gulisxmobs mis Semoqmeds, magram umaRles erTs
ver swvdeba mTeli samyaros gaazrebebi). r.siraZe amisdakvalad gamoTqvams
varauds, rom mxatvruli nawarmoebi misi Semoqmedis bunebas warmoaCens,
yvelaferi ki usasrulod miemarTeba Cveni gonebisaTvis miuwvdomel uze-
naes erTs.
narkvevis dasasruls, zemoaRniSnul SexedulebaTa ganxilvis Sedegad
r.siraZe aRniSnavs, rom qarTul neoplatonizmSi saxis buneba mravalmxrivaa
Secnobili, rom am naazrevSi esTetikuri Sinaarsis mikuTvnebiT xiluli
samyaros faseuloba maRldeboda, soflisa da zeSTasoflis morigebas es-
Tetika axdenda, samyaros esTetikuri faseulobis aRiarebas ki didi mniS-
vneloba hqonda.
aRniSnuli narkvevi mniSvnelovani da sayuradReboa ioane petriwis sax-
ismetyvelebis Sesamecneblad. SesaZlebloba gveZleva, am urTules filo-
sofiur naazrevSi sxvadasxva SexedulebaTa (RmerTze, samyaroze, mis ierarq-
iul wyobaze da a.S) meSveobiT amovikiTxoT filosofosis mier mravalmxriv
Secnobili da Camoyalibebuli gansaxovnebis Taviseburebani, ganvsazRvroT
saxeobriobis adgili da mniSvnelovneba movlenaTa simravlis petriwiseul
warmodgenaSi, romelsac msWvalavs esTetikuri Tvalsazrisi. r.siraZis
mier ganxiluli urTulesi sakiTxebi mkiTxvels uadvilebs petriwiseuli
msoflgagebis aRqmas da gansaxovnebis principebTan dakavSirebiT bevr axal
Tvalsazriss awvdis.
wignis Semdegi narkvevi _ rusTavelis esTetikuri TvalTaxedva (Teo-
riuli Sexedulebani) _ warmoaCens rusTavelis literaturul-esTetikur
principebs, romlebic Tavad poetis mier Teoriuli saxiTaa gadmocemuli.
sakiTxTa uSualo kvlevamde, r.siraZe mimoixilavs rusTavelis esTetikis
Seswavlis istorias da aRniSnavs, rom mxolod uaxles samecniero lit-
eraturaSi iZebneba specialuri gamokvlevebi rusTavelis literaturul-
esTetikuri Sexedulebebisa da mxatvruli samyaros Sesaxeb.
narkvevSi `vefxistyaosnis~ SesavalSi gamoTqmuli sxvadasxva Teoriuli
mosazrebidan gamoyofilia Semdegi sakiTxebi: 1. poeturi STagonebis wyaro,
2. poeturi Semoqmedebis elementebi, 3. poeturi Semoqmedebis sagani, 4.
mijnuris esTetikuri kvalifikacia.
r. siraze aRniSnavs, rom rusTavelisTvis poeturi STagonebis pirvel-
saTave RvTaebaa, rac SemoqmedebiT proceSi siyvaruliT gamsWvalvas gu-
lisxmobs. amdenad, SemoqmedebiTi STagonebis pirvelwyarod mkvlevari siy-
varuls miiCnevs, romelsac (RvTaebriv siyvaruls) mSveniereba moaqvs. da
radgan rusTaveli amqveynad RvTaebrivi siyvarulis gamovlinebas Tamaris
saxeSi xedavs, r. siraZe Semdegnairad gaiazrebs siyvarulis rusTvelur
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
261
warmodgenas _ RvTaeba, siyvaruli, Tamari. yuradsaRebia mkvlevris Sexed-
uleba, rom rusTvelisaTvis `mijnurTa surviliT~ gamsWvalvis gareSe
pirovneba mxatvrul SemoqmedebiT unarsacaa moklebuli. es azri samec-
niero literaturaSi sagangebod araa yuradRebuli da amdenad poeturi
STagonebis rusTavelur gagebaSi erT mniSvnelovan aspeqts warmoaCens.
r. siraZe rusTavelis naazrevidan gamoyofs poeturi Semoqmedebis 4 ele-
ments (ena, guli, xelovaneba, goneba), romlebic poeturi gamoTqmis sila-
mazis (`turfad xsenebis~) misaRwevadaa aucilebeli; poezias ki qmnis am
elementTa gamamTlianebeli, poeturi mizandasaxulobis mqone da Semoq-
medebiTad STagonebuli pirovneba.
narkvevSi ganxilulia RvTaebrivi da adamianuri siyvarulis mimarTeba,
dazustebulia rusTvelur sityvaxmarebaSi terminis _ `baZvis~ mniSvnelo-
ba, rom igi mimsgavsebasTan erTad `gansaxovnebasac~ gulisxmobs. daskvna
aseTia: `amqveyniuri, amaRlebuli adamianuri siyvaruli SeiZleba zeciurs
ganasaxovnebdes~ (gv. 114). idealuri mijnuris saxeze msjeloba gamokveTs
azrs, rom idealur mijnurSi (romelic adamianis zogadi idealia) RvTae-
brivi idealebia Tavmoyrili. rusTveliseuli koncefciis amgvari wakiTxva
da gaazreba mxolod erTiani xedviTaa SesaZlebeli, rac r. siraZis kvlevis
mudmivi maxasiaTebelia.
Sairobis ganmartebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic yvelaze metadaa yura-
dRebuli samecniero literaturaSi, b-ni revazi warmoaCens gansxvavebul
Tvalsazriss, rom rusTavelisTvis yovelgvari sibrZne RvTaebrivia, saRv-
Toc da saeroc, rom poemaSi gvar-saxeobrivadaa ganmartebuli `sibrZnis
dargad~, `saRvTod~ gamocxadebuli Sairoba, rac saero poeziis mniS-
vnelobas amaRlebda.
Sairobis Janrobriv sakiTxebze msjelobisas mkvlevari yuradRebas
amaxvilebs imaze, rom rusTaveli poetur nawarmoebTa gamoyofasTan er-
Tad sxvadasxva SesaZleblobis poetTa klasifikacias axdens. aqve gan-
martebulia, rom `grZeli leqsis~ Tqma poetisagan did gamocdilebasa
da Sromas iTxovs. r.siraZe rusTvelis poetur RirsebaTa ZiriTad krite-
riumebad `grZlad Tqmasa~ da `naTlad Tqmas~ miiCnevs, rac, Cveni azriT,
gasaTvaliswinebeli SeniSvnaa. mkvlevari sagangebod msjelobs araerTxel
yuradRebul striqonze: `Sairoba pirveladve sibrZnisaa erTi dargi~ da
aRniSnavs, rom aq azrovnebis sxva formaTa Soris Sairobis adgilis gan-
sazRvrazea saubari. aRniSnuli strofis gasaazreblad b-ni revazi ganixi-
lavs p.ingoroyvas, g.nadiraZis, m.gogiberiZis Sexedulebebs, ar eTanxmeba
im azrs, rom `Sairoba~ saerTod xelovnebas da arc mis erT mxares niS-
navs, radgan rusTavelTan `xelovneba~ ar ixmareba dRevandeli mniSvnelo-
biT, xolo `esTetika~ im droisaTvis saerTod ar arsebobda dRevandeli
nana gonjilaSvili
262
gagebiT. mkvlevari ganmartebis konkretuli Sinaarsis amosacnobad uci-
loblad miiCnevs, gaviTvaliswinoT moZRvreba orgvari sibrZnis Sesaxeb.
narkvevSi gamokveTilia azri, rom rusTaveli mihyveba areopagitul moZ-
Rvrebas zogadi TvalsazrisiT da axleburi gaazrebani Semoaqvs _ poemis
mixedviT, `sibrZneSi~ ar igulisxmeba mxolod saRvTismetyvelo sibrZne,
arc sibrZneTa saxeebia dapirispirebuli, mxolod umecrebaa RvTaebriobis
antipodi. rusTavelTan `Sairoba~ sibrZnis rigis movlenaa, misi erT-erTi
qvesaxea, xolo `xelovaneba~ aRniSnavs ostatobas da ara xelovnebas.
narkvevSi r.siraZe rusTavelis esTetikur naazrevTan dakavSirebiT samec-
niero literaturaSi wamoWril mraval sakiTxs sayuradRebo axsnas uZeb-
nis da Sua saukuneebis Teoriul-literaturul principebze dayrdnobiT
gvisabuTebs sakuTar Sexedulebebs, romelnic siaxleTa warmomCenelia da
WeSmaritebis wvdomis gzaTa Ziebisken gvibiZgebs.
`casa caTasa~ (Tamar mefis iambiko) _ ase ewodeba narkvevs, romelSic
ganxilulia `istoriani da azmani SaravandedTanis~ teqstSi CarTuli Tamar
mefis `iambiko xuTeuli~. nawarmoebis gasaazreblad r.siraZe mimoixilavs
istoriul viTarebas, dakavSirebuls Samqoris brZolasTan, romelic Tama-
ris `iambikos~ Seqmnis sababi gamxdara. mkvlevari SeniSnavs, rom `iambiko~,
romlis mizani RvTis maradiulobis gamoxatvaa, RvTaebrivi sinamdvilis
warmodgeniT iwyeba da amqveyniuri sinamdviliT sruldeba, rac `Sebruneb-
uli perspeqtivis~ principis erTgvari gamovlenaa. b-ni revazis azriT,
Tamaris sityvebi _ `casa caTasa~ bibliur-patristikul moZRvrebas em-
yareba da caTagan gansakuTrebuls gulisxmobs, romlis `damwyebia RmerT-
mTavroba~. ioane damaskelisa da ioane petriwis naazrevis moxmobiT, mkv-
levari daaskvnis, rom `caTa ca~ yofierebis pirvelsaTavea, RvTis adgili,
umaRlesi caa, sadac `RmerTmTavroba~ (areopagituli wignebis mixedviT
_ RvTaebrivi pirvelsawyisi) da `mRvdelT-mTavrobaa~ (wminda sawyisi).
narkvevSi ganxilulia `iambikos~ striqonebi, romlebSic warmoCndeba Ses-
aqmis gaazreba, adamianis pirvelarsi. r.siraZis azriT, miuxedavad imisa,
rom aq aqcentirebulia Ze RvTisa, mimarTva mainc RvTismSoblisadmia. bib-
liasa da patristikaze dayrdnobiT mkvlevars gamoaqvs daskvna, rom caTa
ca RvTismSobelia, saRvTo usazRvroebis damtevi, romlis mimarTac Tamari
madlierebis vedrebas aRavlens.
r. siraZe aRniSnul narkvevSi mniSvnelovan dakvirvebebs gamokveTs da
sayuradRebo Tvalsazriss gamoTqvams, romlebic saximetyvelebis meSveo-
biT aixsneba da gaiazreba. sakiTxis amgvari kvleva, `iambikoSi~ gansaxovne-
baTa Zieba-warmoCena kvlavac cxadyofs `RmrTivganbrZobili~ Tamar mefis
sulier simaRlesa da swrafvans, mkiTxvelisaTvis ametyvelebul ucnob
samyaros.
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
263
friad saintereso da mravalmxrivi gansaxovnebis, sulis urTulesi
Sreebis wvdomis warmomaCenelia narkvevi _ galaktionis `lurja cxenebi~
da v.kandinskis `lurji mxedari~ (interteqstualuri wakiTxvisaTvis).
r. siraZe mimoixilavs galaktionis winare periodis leqsebs (1915 wlis
CaTvliT) da gamokveTs im Taviseburebebs, romlebic TavCenilia `lurja
cxenebSi~ (1916w.); esenia _ teqstSi azrobrivze metad sityvebis emociuri
urTierTkavSiri, saxeTa Sinaarsis mdinarebaSi (da ara statikur formeb-
Si) ganamdvileba, mdinarebis Seqmna sityvaTa metalogikuri miniSnebiT da
ara logikuri kavSiriT. mkvlevris dakvirvebiT, nawarmoebSi arasagno-
brivi sinamdvile iqmneba sityvaTa sagnobrivi Sinaarsidan abstraqciiT.
b-ni revazi `lurja cxenebis~ gaazrebisas warmoaCens im abstraqciaqmnil
sivrces, romelic ufro `namdvili~ sinamdvilea, vidre konkretuli ga-
remo. rogorc mkvlevari SeniSnavs, am sivrceSi, romelic qaosic-ki aRaraa,
yofnisa da aryofnis gverdiT raRac mesamed aRiqmeba `napiri~ (`elvarebda
napiri samudamo mxareSi~). mniSvnelovania aRniSvna imisa, rom leqsSi mi-
marTva _`Sen~ Seicavs `mes~ Sinaarss Taviseburi gaucxoebiT, rac poeturi
igiveobaa, `depersonaluri Sinaarsis personalizeba~. rogorc mkvlevari
SeniSnavs, pirovnulis danaxvis SesaZleblobas aq qmnis SemoqmedebiT pro-
cesTan dakavSirebuli impulsebis warmoCena.
r. siraZe `lurja cxenebis~ urTulesi Sreebis wvdomisaTvis (romel-
nic bolomde miuwvdomelia) moixmobs galaktionis leqsebs, Soreuli
reminiscenciebisTvis iTvaliswinebs miToss, antikur samyaros kulturas,
qristianul ikonografias, qarTul poezias; gansakuTrebiT galaktionis
Canawerebia yuradRebuli da poetis azrs, rom maRal poeziaSi `sinamd-
vileze meti sinamdvilea~, b-ni revazi abstraqcionistul eqspresionizmis
principad aRiarebs. mkvlevari `lurja cxenebis~ interteqstualuri gaaz-
rebisaTvis sruliad gansakuTrebulad miiCnevs vasil kandinskis (1866-1944)
`lurj mxedars~ (mis grafikul, ferwerul da sxva variaciebs). narkvevSi
mimoxilulia v.kandinskisa da f.markis TaosnobiT (redaqtorobiTa da av-
torobiT) gamosuli almanaxi `lurji mxedari~ (1912 w.), masSi warmod-
genili avtorebi (almanaxis ydazea v.kandinskis graviura _ `lurji mxe-
dari~), gamokveTilia v.kandinskis Semoqmedebasa da `lurji mxedris~ cik-
lis nawarmoebTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi. r. siraZe aRniSnavs, rom kan-
dinskis mxatvroba aramimeturia da arasagnobrivi (am mizniT moxmobilia
nawarmoebebi, ganxilulia _ `apokalifsis mxedari~). mkvlevari sagangebod
msjelobs kandinskis `lurj mxedarze~, romlis Sinaarsi yofna-aryofnis
miRmuria. galaktionis `lurja cxenebis~ darad, aqac danaxulia e.w. `me-
same gamoricxuli~, areopagituli antinomiis kvalobaze gasaazrebeli.
narkvevSi daZebnili da gamovlenilia `lurja cxenebisa~ da `lurji mx-
nana gonjilaSvili
264
edris~ saerTo Tavisiseburebani _ sulieri yofiereba (avtori Tavis Tavs
gamoxatavs), gansaxovnebis arasagnobrioba da ganyenebuloba; feris, form-
isa, xazis (kandinskisTan) da sityvis (galaktionTan) TavisTavadi raobiT
(da ara raimesi) warmoCena, daSlili samyaro da danawevrebuli sinamdvile,
gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebaTa siuxve (saTqmelis saboloo miuRwevlobis
mizniT), SemoqmedebiTi procesebis Tanamdevi impulsebi, ikonografiuli
gansaxovneba (Sinaarsi xiluli realobis miRma).
narkvevSi imdenad siRrmiseulad da yovlismomcveli xedviTaa gaazre-
buli galaktionis `lurja cxenebisa~ da v. kandinskis `lurji mxedris~
Sina-arsi, rom saTqmelsac TiTqos aRar tovebs, igi fiqrisken da dumilSi
gancdisken mimarTavs mkiTxvels. sakiTxTa interteqstualuri kvleva, remin-
scenciebisa Tu saxismetyvelebis warmoCena nawarmoebTa sulieri Sinaarsis
amocnoba-wakiTxvaSi gvexmareba, `sinamdvileze met sinamdviles~ _ teqs-
tismiRmur sinamdviles migvaaxlebs, usaxo da usazRvro sinamdviles re-
alurad SegvagrZnobinebs, sityvier gamomsaxvel saSualebaTa siuxve ki mi-
uRwevlobis SegrZnebas, `verTqmas~ sakuTar gulisTqmad gviqcevs. r.siraZe
erTianobaSi gvawvdis avtorTa SemoqmedebiTi procesis Tanamdev impulsebs,
sulier yofierebasa Tu poetur filosofosobas, daSlil samyarosa da
nawarmoebis daSlil sinamdviles, zesinamdvilisken rom iswrafvis; ima-
vdroulad eqspresiiT SevyavarT SemoqmedTa abstraqtuli eqspresionizmis
samyaroSi, formas daSorebuli Sinaarsisken Cvenc, mkiTxvelTac gagviyo-
liebs da erTgvari TanaSemoqmedebisa Tu Tanagancdis grZnobas aRgviZravs.
gadaWarbebuli ar iqneba imis Tqma (albaT mkiTxvelic dameTanxmeba), rom am
narkvevis (iseve, rogorc sxva naSromTa) gacnobisas b-n revazTan mimarTebiT
movixmoT galaktionis sityvebi _`me vxedav sizmrebs araTqveneburs~.
wignis Semdeg narkvevSi _ apokalifsi wignisa. apokalifsuri xilvani
`wm.ninos cxovrebaSi~ _ ganxilulia wminda wignis apokalifsuri tipis
xilva, romelic, r. siraZis SexedulebiT, exmianeba wm.ioanes gamocxade-
bas. wignTa urTierTmimarTebis Seswavlis Sedegad gamoikveTeba azri, rom
`gamocxadeba~ ubralo wyaro ki aRar aris, anda marginaluri `sqolio~,
aramed is `Sedis~ `cxovrebis~ teqstSi da garkveulwilad erT mTlianobas
qmnis~ (gv.157). amgvari dasvna teqstTa Semxvedri adgilebisa da gansaxovne-
baTa msgavsebis warmoCeniTaa gamotanili, kerZod, RvTis xilva angelozuri
kacis saxiT, `dabeWduli~ (saidumlo sibrZnis Semcveli) wigni, romlis
mTavari funqcia misionerulia, sveti-cxoveli, Tvali-patiosani. `wm.ni-
nos cxovrebis~ `wm.ioanes gamocxadebaze~ damokidebulebis maCveneblad
r.siraZe miiCnevs `Satberdis krebuls~. aq Setanilia ipolite romaelis
`aRsasrulisaTvis JamTasa~, romelSic dasaxelebulia ioane RvTisme-
tyveli da moyvanilia misi citata `gamocxadebidan~. mkvlevari swored
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
265
am nawvetsa da ipolite romaelis ganmartebas (gamocxadebis~ dedakacis
Sesaxeb, romelic simboloa eklesiisa) ukavSirebs `wm.ninos cxovrebaSi~
`eklesiis sulis~ simbolos _ jvars. narkvevSi saubaria wignis apokalif-
sis mniSvnelobaze (wignis `aTi sityva~ miemarTeba moses `aT mcnebas~) da
wm.ninos wigni rjulis dafebis axal iersaxed, axal aRTqmaze damyarebul,
axal apokalifsur wignadaa miCneuli.
unda aRiniSnos, rom r. siraZis es narkvevi Cvenebaa imisa, Tu raoden
didi mniSvnelovnebis, siRrmiseuli Sina-arsis Semcvelia `wm.ninos cxov-
rebis~ teqsti, paradigmuli saxismetyvelebis da gansaxovnebaTa amouwura-
vi saunje, interteqstualizmiT aRsaqmeli da gasaazrebeli.
narkvevSi _ `idgnen da elodnen~, `dganan da elian~ _ r. siraZis mi-
zania, `interteqstualuri~ wakiTxvis gziT warmoaCinos `mTani maRalnis~
ori wyaro: 1. evsevi aleqsandrielis (Vs.) `kviriakis~ sakiTxavi da 2. go-
eTes mTaTa bunebis gaazreba `mogzaurobidan italiaSi~. unda aRiniSnos,
rom es Txzulebebi pirvelad swored am narkvevSia dasaxelebuli `mTani
maRalnis~ (saerTod, vaJas nawarmoebTa) wyarod. mkvlevars evsevi aleqsan-
drielis sakiTxavidan mohyavs nawyvetebi, romlebSic Svidjeraa warmoCeni-
li am tipis frazebi: `dganan da elian~ da `idgnen da elodnen~, vaJasTan ki
_ samjeraa am tipis Sesityveba. r. siraZis azriT, orive nawarmoebSi saRvTo
imeds ukavSirdeba molodinis gancda, romelic qristianul sasoebas _
imeds gulisxmobs. mkvlevari goeTes mTaTa bunebis gaazrebis warmosaCenad,
ZiriTadad, eyrdnoba m. baxtinis Targmans, iTvaliswinebs rusul Targmansa
da germanul dedansac. narkvevSi goeTes nawarmoebidan _ `mogzaurobidan
italiaSi~ moxmobilia nawyveti, romlis mixedviT, mTis cxovelmyofeli
Sinagani pulsirebaa, misive Semogarenis cvalebadobis ganmsazRvreli. yove-
live amas miemarTeba vaJas mTaTa gulSi `cecxlis duRili~, idea, grZnoba,
ocneba, `usazRvro zRvad~ Camdgari molodini.
r. siraZis mier miTiTebuli wyaroebi dro-sivrculi mimarTebiT xsnian
da msWvalaven vaJas mTaTa molodinisa da macocxlebeli bunebis arss, maT
axali TvalsawieriT msWvalaven.
zevsis saxecvlileba _ aseTi saxelwodebisaa narkvevi, romelSic
r.siraZe warmoaCens petriwis `ganmartebaSi~ zevsis raobas. Tadapirve-
lad mkvlevari gamokveTs i. petriwis damokidebulebas miTologiisadmi
_ rwmenis safuZvelSia qriste, miTologiidan aRbuli saxelebi (prome-
Te, hermesi, aTena) ki _ adamianuri fenomenis simbolur saxelwodebebadaa
gamoyenebuli. mkvlevari cdilobs gaarkvios, Tu raa saxeldebuli zevsad
petriwis naazrevSi. `ganmartebis~ me-60 Tavidan moyvanil nawyvetze dayrd-
nobiT, r.siraZe aRniSnavs, rom petriwi samyaros ierarqiuli wyobis erT-
erT safexurs (sagnobrivi cnobierebis sferos) uwodebs `zevss~, romelic
nana gonjilaSvili
266
kerpTa, samyaros zemdgomi Zalis saxelwodebaa. diois anu zevsis sfero
hbaZavs umaRles RvTiur realobas _ `namdvil-myofs~, `erTi~ yvelaze
maRla dgas, zevsi ki warmavlobaSi monawileobs. amitomac ar SeiZleba
igi uzenaes RvTaebad miviCnioT. r. siraZis msjelobidan gamomdinare, pe-
triwTan antikuri warmodgenebi desakralizebulia, axlebur mniSvnelobas
iZens. amdenad, zevsi dabali safexuria umaRles RvTaebriv sinamdvilesTan
mimarTebiT. igi uzenaesi RmerTisganaa Seqmnili.
narkvevi _ `suli saqmiT metyveli~ _ ilia WavWavaZis poemis _ `aCrdi-
lis~ problematikisa da gansaxovnebaTa Taviseburebebis warmoCena-gaazre-
bas exeba. r.siraZe poemis mraval mniSvnelovan sakiTxTa Soris ramdenimeze
aCerebs yuradRebas. erT-erTi maTgani `aCrdilis~ mizandasaxulobis gamo-
kveTasa da garkvevas isaxavs miznad. mkvlevari eikonuri saxismetyvelebiT
movlenil xilvad miiCnevs aCrdils, romlis xilvisaTvis poemis III TavSi
poetis cnobierebis Semzadebaa mocemuli. r. siraZe ganixilavs aCrdilis
saxis raobas da aRniSnavs, rom igi kacsaxovani sulia, adamianSi arsebuli
angelosuri suli, romelic TviT ilias sulieri zeswrafvis simbolod
warmodgeba. narkvevSi poemis mizandasaxulobad, saqarTvelosTan dakavSi-
rebul konkretul problemasTan erTad, aCrdiliseburi amaRlebuli cno-
bierebisken swrafvaa miCneuli. r.siraZe ganixilavs poemis yovel TavSi war-
moCenil qristianul msoflxedvis sakiTxs, romelic zogjer problemis
saxiT, xan ki _ specifikuri qristologiuri sityvaxmarebiTaa mowodebu-
li (kerZod, cisa da miwis urTierTmimarTebis idea, galobani erovnuli si-
nanulisani, optimizmi, idea `dakarguli samoTxisa~). mkvlevari gamoTqvams
varauds, rom aCrdilis iliaseuli xilvis erT-erTi STamagonebeli Se-
saZloa iyos n. gulaberisZis `sveticxovlis sakiTxavi~ _ daviT aRmaSene-
bels sveticxovlis taZris Tavze eCveneba RvTaeba spetaki moxucis saxiT.
am Tvalsazrisis gamoTqmis safuZvels, b-ni revazis azriT, iZleva poemis
adreuli radaqciis daTariReba _ 26 ianvari (daviT aRmaSeneblis xsenebis
dRe).
narkvevSi calke sakiTxadaa gamoyofili `aCrdilis~ XVII Tavi, rome-
lic, r.siraZis SexedulebiT, mcxeTis awmyosa da warsuls saRvTismetyvelo
saxismetyvelebiT warmoaCens. aRniSnulia ilias saxismetyvelebis mimar-
Teba `wm.ninos cxovrebasTan~, romlis Seswavla gamokveTs Semdeg azrs _
qarTlis gulidan aRmocenebuli `xe cxovrebisa~, romelsac aqvs `Ziri
Tavisuflebis~, unda gulisxmobdes `sveti-cxovels~, Tavisuflebis simbo-
lod `xe cxovrebisas~ gaazreba ki uTanabrdeba `xes cnobadisa keTilisa da
borotisa~. r.siraZis TvalTaxedviT, mcxeTas (simbolurad saqarTvelos)
ukavSirdeba idea `dakarguli samoTxisa~, romelic potenciurad `samoT-
xis dabrunebis~ ideas Seicavs, rasac poemis optimisturi dasasruli unda
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
267
gulisxmobdes. mkvlevari gamoTqvams azrs, rom poemaSi warmoCenili azrov-
nebis sxvadasxva formebi aCrdilis cnobierebaSia gamTlianebuli, rac sa-
zogadoebaSi arsebuli urTierTgaucxoebis daZlevis mcdelobas unda niS-
navdes.
aRniSnuli narkvevi iseve, rogorc r.siraZis yoveli naSromi, `aCrdi-
lis~ axlebur wakiTxvas gvTavazobs, gansxvavebulsa da sayuradRebos poemis
Sesaxeb samecniero literaturaSi arsebul mravalricxovan gamokvlevaTa
Soris. aCrdilis saxis, da saerTod poemis amgvari gaazreba da sakiTxTa
dasma ilias Semoqmedebisa da msoflxedvis siRrmiseul wvdomas, masTan mi-
axlebis SesaZleblobas uqmnis qarTuli mwerlobiT dainteresebul mkiTx-
vels.
erTob mniSvnelovani da mravalmxriv gasaTvaliswinebelia narkvevi _
qarTuli paradigmuli saxismetyvelebisaTvis _ romliTac sruldeba
r.siraZis wigni. narkvevi ramdenime qveTavisgan Sedgeba da erTi rigis, ur-
TierTganmsazRvrel (urTierTgamWol) sakiTxebs mTlianobaSi warmogvid-
gens. pirveli sakiTxi _ Teoriuli wanamZRvrebi _ saxismetyvelebis rao-
bis gansazRvrasa da mniSvnelovnebas warmoaCens, gansaxovnebisa, romlis
erovnuli raoba enis bunebas emyareba. aRniSnulia, rom qarTuli litera-
turis saxismetyvelebiTi istoriis gaazreba paradigmul saxeTa Seswavlis
gareSe warmoudgenelia; r.siraZe miznad isaxavs enis Sinaformebze damya-
rebuli literaturuli saxismetyvelebis Seswavla-gamokveTas. mkvlevris
azriT, aq arsebiT sakiTxad warmodgeba qarTuli enis indoevropul enebTan
mimarTeba, radgan T.gamyreliZisa da v.ivanovis monografiaSi (`indoevropu-
li ena da indoevropelebi~) indoevropul enaTa monacemebze warmodgenili
`saganTa samyaros~ klasebis enobrivi movlenebi qarTuli paradigmuli sa-
xismetyvelebis tipTa dadgenis safuZvelni xdebian.
narkvevis qveTavi _ paradigmuli saxismetyveleba da enis Sinaforma _
miznad isaxavs ori problemis _ a) rogor saxeebSi vlindeba erovnuli es-
Tetikuri msoflaRqmis specifika da b) rogor vlindeba enaSi paradigmuli
saxismetyvelebis safuZvlebi _ d. uznaZis ganwyobis Teoriis safuZvelze
kvlevas. r. siraZe SeniSnavs, rom saxeqmnadoba aracnobieri (anu subieqtis
ganwyobis) procesia, gansaxovnebis qvecnobieri safuZveli ki _ enis Si-
naforma (gareformis safuZveli, mis miRma sagulisxmo). mkvlevari nawar-
moebTa teqstis istorias aniWebs did mniSvnelobas enobrivi msoflaRqmis
cvalebadobisa da mTlianobis TvalsazrisiT. aqve aRniSnulia mxatvruli
sityvis saxisqmnadobiTi potencia (mxatvruli sityva sWarbobs asasaxav
sagans), romelSic warmoCindeba enobrivi msoflxedvis xasiaTi.
qveTavi _ saxismetyvelebis zesocialuri safuZvlebis Sesaxeb _ war-
moaCens saxismetyvelebis Sesaswavlisas bunebasTan erovnuli mimarTe-
nana gonjilaSvili
268
bis sakiTxs, radgan bunebasTan mimarTebiT vlindeba `erovnuli ganwyoba~
(moxmobilia l.gumiliovisa da v.vernadskis Teoriebi). r.siraZe ganixilavs
adamianis mimarTebas biosferosa da noosferosTan (orive Cans enaSi cno-
bieradac da aracnobieradac). aRniSnulia, rom noosfero, ena da gansaxov-
neba zeklasobrivi raoba-fenomeni-movlenebia. mkvlevari ganixilavs ra
v.vernadskis debulebebs, rom kosmiuri mTlianobis nawili _ adamiani
Tavisi suliT noosferos nawilia, aRniSnavs am principis platonur-ne-
oplatonistur moZRvrebidan momdinareobas (mxedvelobaSia `soflisa~
da `zesTasoflis~ urTierTmimarTeba). yovelive zemoaRniSnuli gamokveTs
gaazrebas, rom biosferoze maRlamdgomia pnevmasfero, romelic xelovne-
baSi warmoCndeba; gansaxovneba swvdeba `pnevmosferos~, e. i. noosferos. r.
siraZe dasZens, rom `gansaxovnebis bunebis Semofargvla socialuri faq-
torebiT iseve SeuZlebelia, rogorc enis bunebisa~ (gv. 186).
`mSveniereba viTarca esTetikuri WeSmariteba~ _ narkvevis qveTavSi si-
tyvis Sinaformis wvdomisaTvis ganxilulia S. nucubiZis aleTologiuri
esTetika (sityvaSi arsebiTi, zecnebiTis Zieba), romlis ZiriTadi debule-
baa _ mSveniereba esTetikuri WeSmaritebaa. aqedan gamomdinare, r.siraZe
SeniSnavs, rom mSveniereba sityvis semantikis miRmur sferoSia, sadac es-
Tetikuri da logikuri erTmaneTs hkveTs. mkvlevari qarTuli saazrovno
tradiciebis istoriaSi yvelaze mniSvnelovan adgils `saxeze~ SemuSave-
bul mosazrebebs aniWebs, kerZod, S. nucubiZiseul Sexedulebas (rome-
lic agrZelebs areopagitikisa da petriwis saazrovno tradiciebs), rom
WeSmariteba yovelgvar dapirispirebulobaze maRlamdgomia. mas adamiani
`sibrZniT~ swvdeba. r. siraZe `orgvari sibrZnis~ moZRvrebis safuZvelze
gamoyofs sityvis semantikis or mxares: konkretulsa da zogads, romelTa
urTierTmimarTebis xasiaTSi (binarulobaSi) SesaZleblad Tvlis enobrivi
msoflxedvis zogad TaviseburebaTa danaxvas. swored am mizniT, narkvevSi
gamoyofilia qveTavi _ sakiTxTa Seswavlis istoriidan, romelic bizanti-
ursa da qarTul esTetikaSi `saxis~ kategorias warmoCens (gansazRvrulia
saxis orplanianoba), aRniSnulia mTavari _ sityvaTa `ziareba~ sayovelTao
universaliebTan, rac r. siraZis azriT, arsebiTia qarTul sityvaSi orpla-
nianobis ragvarobis gasaazreblad. qristianul xelovnebaSi sityva ganixi-
leba viTarca xati, radgan konkretulidan universaliebisken svlas iTva-
liswinebs. mkvlevari SeniSnavs, rom gansaxovnebis Seswavlisas konkretul
saxeTa analizisTvis saxeTqmnadobis zogad principebTan erTad enis bune-
bis gaTvaliswinebaa aucilebeli, `sityvis semantikuri velis ierarqiis
Sreebis gasaazreblad mniSvneloba aqvs ara mxolod TviT enobriv monace-
mebs, aramed saxviTi xelovnebis saxeTa paradigmulobasac~ (190).
narkvevis qveTavi _ qarTuli paradigmatikis Seswavlis istoriidan _
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
269
r. siraZe aRniSnavs k.kekeliZis naSromebSi fundamenturi qristologiuri
principebis erovnuli adaptaciis Seswavlis mniSvnelovnebas qarTuli pa-
radigmuli saxismetyvelebis kvleva-ZiebisaTvis. mkvlevari gamoyofs agio-
grafiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli paradigmuli kompoziciuri modelebis sam
saxes: 1. centralur-cikluri struqturis mqone kompoziciebs (`grigol
xanZTelis cxovreba~, aTonelTa `cxovrebani~, wm.giorgis xatebi); 2. trip-
tiquli struqtura (`abos wameba~, samkaredi xatebi); 3. uwyvet qrono-
logiur Tanamimdevrobaze agebuli kompoziciebi (`SuSanikis wameba). aqvea
warmoCenili himnografiasa da qarTul saero mwerlobaSi paradigmulobis
ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi, miniSnebulia sparsuli mwerlobis gaTvalis-
winebis aucileblobac.
narkvevis mniSvnelovan qveTavs warmoadgens _ qarTuli paradigmuli sa-
xismetyveleba da qarTuli ena. r.siraZe aRniSnavs, rom enaSi erovnulTan
erTad mJRavndeba isic, Tu ra aris SeTavsebuli da SeTvisebuli erovnuli
kulturis mier, amdenad aucilebelia enisa da kulturis mTlianobaSi
gaazreba (rasac iTvaliswinebs `kulturis lingvisturi paleontolo-
gia~). gamokveTilia azri, rom paradigmul saxismetyvelebaSi uciloblad
iCens Tavs samyaros struqturis saukuneebis manZilze SemuSavebuli mode-
lebi, `Tu rogoraa fiqsirebuli enaSi adamianis yofasTan dakavSirebul
yvelaze mniSvnelovan movlenaTa urTierTmimarTebani~ (gv. 194). mniSvnelo-
vania imis aRniSvna, rom enaSi fiqsirebuli movlenebis urTierTmimarTe-
baTa principebi saxisqmnadobebis erovnul bunebas gansazRvravs. molenaTa
Sepirispirebis struqturis gansazRvrisas gasaTvaliswinebelia msgavseba-
gansxvavebebi, opoziciisa da polarizaciis Taviseburebani. yovelive amis
naTelsayofad r.siraZe enobrivad fiqsirebuli modelis kvalobaze warmoa-
Cens `sulis~ mimarTebaTa sistemas: suli mcenareTa, cxovelTa da adamia-
nis `sicocxliTi~ suli (samSvineli), `sityvieri~ suli kacisa (`xati da
msgavsi RvTisa~), angelozis suli (`meore naTeli~) da suli wmida (`dam-
badebeli~). mniSvnelovnebaTa simravlis miuxedavad, mkvlevari gamokveTs
`sulis~ semantikur opozicias: `suli~ amqveyniuri da `suli~ zeciuri.
moxmobili nimuSis kvalobaze r.siraZe aRniSnavs qarTul enaSi binaluri
semantikuri polarulobis arsebobas, riTac qarTuli enobrive msoflxed-
va emsgavseba da kidevac gansxvavdeba (qarTulSi sxvadasxva cnebani erTi
sityvieri formiT gamoixateba) indoevropulisgan.
r. siraZe qarTuli paradigmuli saxismetyvelebis Sesaswavlad enobrivi
msoflxedvis safuZvelze yuradRebas amaxvilebs qarTuli enis Tavisebu-
rebaze _ yofiTi movlenebisa da sulier sferos fenomenTa erTi da imave
sityviT gamoxatvis unarze. amgvari semantikuri binaruloba mkvlevars er-
ovnuli msoflxedvis gamomxatvelad esaxeba (semantikuri binaruloba ar
nana gonjilaSvili
270
gulisxmobs omonimebs, romlebic mxolod erT mniSvnelobas gamokveTen).
b-ni revazi aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT ganixilavs ramodenime sityvas
(`sityva~ _ leqsikuri erTeuli da logosi; `saxe~ _ pirisaxe da arso;
`erTi~ _ ricxviTi saxeli da RvTiuri yovlismTlianoba; `sofeli~ _
sacxovrebeli mxaris erTeuli da cxovreba; `qveyana~ _ miwa da samyaro;
`qalaqi~ _ dasaxleba da mowesrigebuli cxovreba; `xelovneba~ _ osta-
toba da mxatvruli Semoqmedeba, `guli~ _ organo da centri; `mze~ _
eideturi da eikonuri), romlebic yvelaze metad gamoxataven adamianTa
warmodgenebs yofiTsa da sulier samyaroze.
aucilebelia aRniSvna imisa, rom narkvevis qveTavSi _ qarTuli para-
digmatikis Seswavlis istoriidan _ r. siraZe wamoWris iseT mniSvnelovan
sakiTxebs da kvlevas iseTi axleburi TvalTaxedviT warmarTavs, samecni-
ero literaturaSi aqamde rom ar yofila yuradRebuli da gaTvaliwine-
buli. qarTul saxismetyvelebaSi paradigmadqceuli sityvebis (romelnic
cxovrebisa da samyarosadmi adamianTa mniSvnelovan sferoebs gamoxataven)
amgvari meTodiT Seswavla saSualebas iZleva ara mxolod zogierTi ganzo-
gadebisaTvis, Semdgom kvleva-Ziebas uxsnis gzas, SegvagrZnobinebs sityvis
saxismetyvelebis potencias da sityvis binaruli mniSvnelobis gziT mxat-
vruli saxis Sinaarsis amocnobaSi gvexmareba.
aRniSnuli narkvevi, Cveni azriT, erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi da gamor-
Ceulia r. siraZis mravalricxovan naSromTagan da saerTod, qarTuli kul-
turis Semswavlel samecniero kvleva-ZiebaTa Soris. misi mniSvnelovneba
ganisazRvreba rogorc literaturis Teoriis, aseve _ zogadmecnieruli
TvalsazrisiT. rac mTavaria, kvlevis meTodebis mravalmxrivoba da siRr-
miseuli analizi (azrTa pluralizmis gamomwvevi pirobiTobis Semcveli
_ rogorc amas b-ni revazi Tavad aRniSnavs da Cvenc amisaken mogviwodebs-
xolme) ganapirobebs siaxleTa, axleburi xedvis warmoCena-damkvidrebas
(am SemTxvevaSi, sityvis semantikuri binaruloba) qarTul cnobierebaSi. es
Sefaseba ara mxolod am narkvevs, mTel wigns Seesatyviseba. r.siraZis mo-
nografia _ qarTuli kultura da saxismetyveleba _ SesaZleblobas gvaZ-
levs, Tvali gavadevnoT qarTuli literaturis saxismetyvelebiT isto-
rias, literaturis mxatvrul-esTetikuri Tu saerTo-kulturologiuri
TvalsazrisiT Seswavlas, qarTuli mwerlobis paradigmuli saxismetyve-
lebis kvleva-Ziebas, qarTul saazrovno tradiciebs, erovnul esTetikur
msoflaRqmas, enobrivi msoflxedvis cvalebadobas, yofierebis saxeobriv
koncefcias, kulturis sakiTxebis kavSirs istoriulsa da Tanamedrove
cnebaTmetyvelebasTan da a.S. amdenad, zemoaRniSnuli wigni qarTuli kul-
turis sakiTxebiT dainteresebul specialistebsa da mkiTxvels axleburi
kuTxiT warmouCens erTi SexedviT nacnob-ucnob sityvas, azrs, ideasa Tu
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
271
movlenas da axal sulier samyaros gadauSlis, romelic sulierebiTvea
SesagrZnobi.
dasasruls, gvinda SevniSnoT, rom wigni _ qarTuli kultura da sa-
xismetyveleba _ yvelaferTan erTad da upirveles yovlisa, warmogviCens
Tavad avtors _ b-n revaz siraZis pirovnebas, miwyiv maZiebels, suliTa
da gonebiT Seucnobadis wvdomisaken mswrafs, mkiTxvelisaTvis dafarulis
xilva-Cvenebis mosurnes, xedvis Tvalsawieris gamxsnels, sikeTis damnaxavi
da mayurebeli TvaliT macqerals, pluralizmis mosurnesa da damfase-
bels.
Nana Gonjilashvili
Revaz Siradze Culture and Imagology
Summary
This year Revaz Siradze presented his new book Culture and Imagology to those
interested in culture. Prof. Siradze offers a decisive research of cultural issues, connected
with imagology of literature and art, and historical and modern conceptology. The book
unites six researches, which represent the new reading-realization of concrete questions, on
the basis of researches of imagology and modern conceptology, by taking into considera-
tion traditional opinions.
Imagological periodization introduced by R. Siradze (which joins four periods), maybe
arguable for a lot of people, but it is worth mentioning that a new viewpoint, methodologi-
cal approach will be distinguished on the basis of prolonged scientifc research.
Essay Time and Period unites essential concepts, ideas and events connected with
historical and contemporary conceptology. Prof. Siradze tries to represent the above men-
tioned issue by means of image perception.
It should be noted that two essays of Siradzes book Sioni and Georgian Churchology
and Svetitskhoveli, Aia-Sopia and Sioni should be analysed and perceived as a whole.
These two researches form the basis for the preceding chapter Sveti-Tskhoveli Essence
for Georgians Spiritual Life. In general, the reader will get acquainted and will realize the sig-
nifcance of Georgians spiritual life inner-essence of Sveti Tskhoveli and Svetitskhoveli.
One of the essays of the book Toponymy Gareja and its ecclesiastic content
aims at clearing the debatable issues of scientifc literature which are still disputable and
cause discussions.
In the essay Bodi-Bodbre and Soji Queen is singled out the issue of Bodbe baptiz-
ing during St. Nino (on the basis of Moqtsevai Qartlisai). There is also mentioned the
special importance of Bodbe and entire Kakheti acquiring after St. Ninos burring there.
R. Siradze considers that the personality of Soji Queen also plays an important role in the
nana gonjilaSvili
272
importance of Bodbe, whose public life represents Big Kakhetis union with Georgian
Christen world.
The work Ioane Petritses Imagology is crucial for the perception of Ioane
Petridzes imagology. We have an opportunity, in this complicated philosophical thinking,
with the help of different viewpoints, to recognize the peculiarities of imaging being per-
ceived and formed by the philosopher. We can defne the place and importance of image in
Petritses opinion about varieties of events.
In the essay Rustavelis aesthetical viewpoint - R. Siradze fnds interesting explana-
tions to the problems raised in scientifc literature concerning Rustavelis aesthetical think-
ing and proves his viewpoints on the basis of theoretical-literary principles of middle ages,
which represent the novelty and leads us towards the way of truth fnding.
In Siradzes work - tsasa tsatasa (Queen Tamars Iambic) R. Siradze singles out
essential observations and expresses a signifcant opinion, which can be explained and
considered with the help ofmagology.
In the essay Galaktions Blue Horses and V. Kandinskys Blue Hosreman
(towards inter-textual reading) inter-textual analysis of the problems, representation of
reminiscences and aesthetics helps us to guess and read the inner(spiritual) content of the
creative works. R. Siradze shows us in wholeness the accompanying impulses of creative
processes of the writers, spiritual being or poetic philosophy.
R. Siradzes research Apocalypse of Book. Apocalyptic Contemplate In St. Ninos
Life shows the importance, deep content of the text of St Ninos Life. It is a treasure
of paradigmatic imagology, to be perceived and analyzed with the help of inter-textuality.
In the essay They Stood and Waited, They Stand and Wait R. Siradzes aim
is to represent two sources of High Mountains by means of inter-textual reading: !. Ev-
sevi Aleksandrielys Kviriaki and 2. Goethes understanding of the nature of mountains
in From Voyage in Italy. It should be noted that these works are frst mentioned as source
of High Mountains in this research.
The essay A Soul Speaking with Action concerns the representation-consider-
ation of Ilia Chavchavadzes Shadows problematic. The mentioned research offers re-
reading of Shadow in a new way. Interpreting Shadows image and the whole poem in
this way enables the reader to take a deep insight into Ilia Chavchavadzes works and his
view point.
The essay Towards Georgian Paradigmatic Imagology - ends R. Siradzes book. It
consists of several subheadings and represents inter-defning issues as a whole. The above
mentioned research is one of the decisive and distinguishable between his numerous works
and in general among Georgian scientifc researches. Its essence is defned as from the
point of view of literary theory, as well as general science.
R. Siradzes monograph Georgian Culture and Imagology enables us, to look at
the history of imagology of Georgian literature, artistic-aesthetic or general-artistic study
revaz siraZe _ `kultura da saxismetyveleba~
273
of literature, research-study of paradigmatic imagology of Georgian literature, Georgian
thinking traditions, national aesthetic world perception, change of language perception,
connection of cultural issues with historic and contemporary conceptology and others.
Therefore, the above mentioned book shows new-old words, ideas and events and opens a
new spiritual world to the specialists and readers interested in Georgian culture.
274
axali wignebi
revaz siraZe
kultura da saxismetyveleba
gamomcemloba: inteleqti
2008
es wigni revaz siraZis winare naSromebis _ `qarTuli esTetikuri azris
istoriidan~, `qarTuli kulturis safuZvlebi~ da sxvaTa _ gagrZele-
baa. am naSromSic kulturis sakiTxebi ukavSirdeba saxismetyvelebas mw-
erlobasa da mxatvrobaSi, agreTve istoriulsa da Tanamedrove cnebaTme-
tyvelebas. avtoris TqmiT, `kultura saxea adamianisa, saxea pirovnuladac,
erovnuladac da zogadadamianuradac. amitom kulturologia, SeiZleba,
saxismetyvelebiTi iyos~.
Tamar barbaqaZe
soneti saqarTveloSi
gamomcemloba: universali
2008
wignSi monografiulad aris Seswavlili sonetis istoriis etapebi
qarTul mwerlobaSi. naSromSi naCvenebia, rom soneti erovnuli poeziis
istoriis sxvadasxva etapze gavrcelebul myar saleqso formaTagan dRes
yvelaze ufro popularulia. monografiaSi sonetis istoriis da Teoriis
sakiTxebi urTierTkavSirSia ganxiluli. ZiriTadi versifikaciuli param-
etrebis Seswavlis safuZvelze, gaanalizebulia qarTvel poetTa sonetebi.
literaturis Teoria: XX saukunis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri kon-
cefciebi da mimdinareobebi
avtorTa koleqtivi (meore Sevsebuli gamocema)
Teimuraz doiaSvili (redaqtori), irma ratiani (redaqtori)
gamomcemloba: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba
2008
winamdebare krebuli aris wignis _ `literaturis Teoria. XX sauku-
nis ZiriTadi meTodologiuri koncefciebi da mimdinareobebi~ _ meore,
Sevsebuli da gadamuSavebuli gamocema. igi eTmoba me-20 saukunis ZiriTadi
literaturul-Teoriuli meTodologiuri koncefciebisa da mimdinareobe-
bis analizs. avtorTa koleqtivis naSromi gansazRvrulia literaturisa
da literaturaTmcodneobis problemebiT dainteresebuli farTo mkiTx-
velisTvis. misi gamoyeneba mizanSewonilia rogorc filologiuri, ise,
275
zogadad, humanitaruli profiles studentebTan. axal, Sevsebul gamocemas
Tan erTvis pirTa saZiebeli da terminTa leqsikoni, romelic venera kavTiaS-
vilma da rusudan canavam moamzades. sxvadasxva Teoriuli mimdinareobisadmi
miZRvnili statiebs, aseve, daemata statia gavlenis Teoriis Sesaxeb.
levan bregaZe
moTxrobebi literaturaze.
gamomcemloba: bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba
2008
levan bregaZis am wignSi Tavmoyrilia kritikosis mier bolo wlebSi
dawerili saukeTeso werilebi. mkiTxveli aq kvlav gaecnoba avtoris mosaz-
rebebs, isev eqneba saSualeba isiamovnos levan bregaZisTvis damaxasiaTe-
beli, teqstebis uCveulo kuTxiT kiTxvis maneriT Tu interteqstualuri
paralelebis siuxviT. aq gansakuTrebuli isaa, rom am wigniT avtori cdi-
lobs TviTon mogvevlinos mTxrobelad da mxatvruli literaturis Ses-
axeb gviambos; an rogorc TviT avtori acxadebs wignis dasawyisSi: `mTxz-
velTa ostatobis Sesaxeb Txroba aravis tovebs gulgrils, risi mizezic
is unda iyos, rom yvela Cvengani, metad Tu naklebad, mTxzvelia~.
saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia `ilia WavWavaZe da misi epoqa~
(masalebi)
gamomcemloba: SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti
irma ratiani (redaqtori)
2008
krebulSi Tavmoyrilia 2007 wels Catarebuli konferenciis masalebi.
rogorc aRiarebulia, klasikuri Txzulebis upiratesoba aris is, rom igi
yvela epoqaSi sxvadasxvagvarad wakiTxvis saSualebas iZleva da amitomac
r kargavs aqtualobas. igive SeiZleba iTqvas ilia WavWavaZis mxatvrul
teqstebsa da publicistur memkvidreobaze. krebuli aerTianebs rogorc
sakuTriv ilias nawarmoebebis mravalferovan interpretaciebs, aseve mis
mier sxvadasxva dros ama Tu im sakiTxze gamoTqmuli azris analizs. aq
aris rogorc recefciis, ise mwerlis winamorbedi Tu momdevno xanis av-
torebis saSualebiT misi Semoqmedebis interpretaciis nimuSebi, Teoriu-
li kvlevebic da teqstologiuri naSromebic, komparativistuli analizic
da folkloristikuli kvlevac. krebulSi Sesulia rogorc qarTveli, ise
ucxoeli avtorebis naSromebi.
Mapping World Literature: International Canonization and Transnational Litera-
tures Continuum Literary Studies
276
by Mads Rosendahl Thomsen
meds rozendal Tomseni
msoflio literaturis adgili: saerTaSoriso kanonizacia da transna-
cionaluri literaturebi
gamomcemloba: Continuum
2008
Tomsenis wigns, sadac warmodgenilia gabeduli da profesionaluri ana-
lizi msoflio literaturis konceptis Sesaxeb mimdinare kamaTSi sicxadis
Setanis TvalsazrisiT Zalian mniSvnelovani naSromia. avtori gvexmareba,
rom ukeT gavigoT Cvens Tanamedrove globalistur samyaroSi literatu-
ruli teqstebis Seqmnis da gavrcelebis Taviseburebebi. Tavis mosazrebebs
avtori literaturis Tanavarskvlavedebis cnebis saSualebiT ayalibebs.
Tomseni Tavis naSromSi TvalsaCino magaliTebis saSualebiT ganixilavs
msoflio literaturis cnebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxs da amdenad, mniS-
vnelovania rogorc komparativistikis studentebisTvis, ise pedagogebi-
sTvisac. Tomsenis wigni msoflio literaturis sxvadasxva fenomenebisa
da semantikuri fenebis sistemuri analizis SesaniSnavi nimuSia.
Authority Matters: Rethinking the Theory and Practice of Authorship
by Stephen Donovan (Editor), Danuta Fjellestad (Editor), Rolf Lundn (Editor)
sTiven donovani (redaqtori), danuta fielestadi (redaqtori), rolf
lundeni (redaqtori)
avtorobis sakiTxi: avtorobis Teoriis da praqtikis xelaxali gaaz-
reba
gamomcemloba: Rodopi
2008
eseebis am vrcel krebulSi 11 mkvlevris da mwerlis naSromebi erTian-
deba, sadac isini avtorobasa da ZalauflebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze
msjeloben. isini am problemas kulturis teqstebis warmoebasa da maT
recefciasTan mimarTebaSi ganixilaven. sanalizo dro moicavs periods re-
nesansidan cifruli gamocemebis xanis CaTvliT. am eseebSi aris mcdeloba,
rom xelaxla gaviazroT rolan bartis, miSel fukos da pier burdies gav-
leniani Teoriebi da gansxvavebuli kuTxiT wavikiTxoT iseTi avtorebis mx-
atvruli teqstebi, rogorebicaa filip sidnei, Tomas hardi, ieitsi, ger-
trud staini da sxvebi.
Theories of Narrative
by T. Hawkes
T. houqsi
277
narativis Teoriebi
gamomcemloba: Routledge
2008
es samtomeuli 42-nawiliani seriis _ `axali aqcentebis~ nawilia. am
seriis pirveli wigni 1977 wels gamovida da maSinve Secvala literatu-
raTmcodneobis saxe.
Writing and Filming the Painting: Ekphrasis in Literature and Film
by Laura M. Sager Eidt (Author)
lora m. zager aidti
naxatis Sesaxeb wera da kinogadaReba: ekfrasisi literaturasa da
kinoSi
gamomcemloba: Rodopi
2008
am inovaciur interdisciplinur kvlevaSi erTmaneTTan Sedarebulia
ferweris gamoyeneba literaturul teqstebsa da filmebSi. oTxi tipis ek-
frasisis gansazRvrisas, avtori miuTiTebs ekfrasisis cnebis gafarToebaze
da iseT filmebs ganixilavs, romlebic vizualur xelovnebaze an, zogadad,
xelovanebze mogviTxrobs. am TvalsazrisiT aanalizebs goias, rembrandtis
da vermeeris xelovnebas da maT ekfrasisul gamoyenebas sxvadasxva teqstsa
da filmSi. wignSi avtori naTelyofs, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania ekfra-
sisi literaturul teqstebsa da filmebSi esTetikuri da ideologiuri
sakiTxebis gamosavlenad. wignSi Teoriuli sakiTxebi ganxilulia me-20
saukunis evropuli literaturisa da kinos wamyvani warmomadgenlebis
Semoqmedebis fonze.
Feminine Discourse in Roman Comedy: On Echoes and Voices
by Dorota M. Dutsch (Author)
doroTa m. daTSi
feminuri diskursi romaul komediaSi: eqoebisa da xmebis Sesaxeb
2008
laTinur enaze dawerili literatura qal avtorebs TiTqmis ar icnobs.
amitomac isRa dagvrCenia, rom im periodSi qalebis msoflmxedvelobis
Sesaxeb warmodgena mamakaci avtorebis saSualebiT SevityoT. plavtusis
(Zv. w. III-II saukuneebi) da terenciusis (Zv. w. II s.) nawerebSi vlindeba,
rom maTi qali personaJebis metyveleba gansakuTrebuli enobrivi Tavisebu-
rebebiT xasiaTdeba: saalerso sityvebiT da uamrav wvrilman problemaze
yuradRebis gamaxvilebiT.
278
Dialogism and Lyric Self-Fashioning: Bakhtin and the Voices of a Genre
by Jacob Blevins (Editor)
dialogizmi da lirikuli `me~-s formireba: baxtini da Janris saxeobebi
jeiqob blevinsi (redaqtori)
gamomcemloba: Susquehanna University Press
2008
mixail baxtiniseuli dialogurobis Teoriis amosaval wertilad dasax-
viT, am wignSi ganxilulia lirikuli poeturi tradiciis farglebSi da-
pirispirebul xmaTa gamovlinebebi. lirikuli subieqtis TviTSegneba weris/
metyvelebis aqtis msvlelobisas, sxvadasxva doneze, udavod, dakavSirebulia
sxvaTa aSkara Tu Sefarul xmebTan. wignSi Tavmoyrilia klasikuri, Suasauku-
neebis, adreuli modernizmisa da modernizmis xanis lirikuli nawarmoebebis
Sesaxeb dawerili eseebi, sadac dialogurobis sxvadasxva elementi gvxvdeba,
iqneba es mamrobiTi Tu mdedrobiTi, sajaro Tu piraduli diskursebi, in-
terteqstualoba da warsulis xmebi, dialogebi literaturasa da xelovne-
bas Soris da, rac mTavaria, dialogi lirikul `me~-sa da mkiTxvels Soris.
In Defense of Reading
by Daniel R. Schwarz
deniel r. Svarci
wakiTxvis dasacavad
gamomcemloba: Wiley-Blackwell
2008
gavleniani da araerTi premiis mflobeli kritikosis, deniel Svarcis
mier dawerili naSromi `wakiTxvis dasacavad: rogor vaswavloT litera-
tura 21-e saukuneSi~ wakiTxvis aqtiT mogvrili siamovnebis gulmxurvale
dacvis nimuSia. wignSi dasmulia iseTi problemuri sakiTxi, rogoricaa:
ratom da rogor vkiTxulobT teqstebs. aseve dasmulia Tanamedrove uni-
versitetebSi literaturis swavlebis problemac. Svarcis Tanaxmad, kargi
kritikosisTvis Tanabrad mniSvnelovania teqstic da konteqstic. masSi av-
tori ganixilavs iseTi avtorebis teqstebs, rogorebicaa joisi, vulfi,
konradi, forsteri, gordimeri da Spigelmani.
Dream Notes
by Theodor W. Adorno
Teodor adorno
sizmris Canawerebi
gamomcemloba: Polity
2008
279
adornos aocebda sakuTari sizmrebi da mTeli cxovrebis manZilze iwer-
da maT. sicocxleSi mxolod ramdenime sizmari gamoqveynda. wignSi Sesulia
adornos Canawerebi sizmrebis Sesaxeb, romelic misi sicocxlis ukanasknel
25 weliwads moicavs. mas, vinc adornosgan maRalfardovan msjelobas elo-
deba filosofiuri sakiTxebis, musikisa da kulturis Sesaxeb, imedi gaucru-
vdeba da mxolod adornos gulaxdili refleqsiebi daxvdeba. masSi igrZnoba
avtoris Sinagani survilebi, danaSaulis SegrZneba Tu mRelvareba. sizmrebi
warmodgenilia pirdapir, Seulamazeblad. arc maTi analizia aq Catarebuli.
Cndeba kiTxva: es yvelaferi gamonagonia, avtobiografiaa Tu cnobierebis win-
areracionaluri, kvazimiTosuri mdgomareobis moxelTebis mcdelobaa?
. . :

e. kovtuni
mxatvruli gamonagoni XX saukunis literaturaSi: saxelmZRvanelo
gamomcemloba:
2008
wignSi me-20 saukunis fantastikuri literatura ganxilulia mxatvru-
li gamonagonis sxva tipebis ganviTarebis konteqstSi, rac saerTo jamSi,
uCveulos Sesaxeb Txrobis saxesxvaobaTa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebul erTian
sistemas qmnis. wignSi konkretuli magaliTebis moxmobiT, aRdgeba origi-
naluri mxatvruli struqturebi _ modelebi, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia
fantastikisTvis, utopiisTvis, jadosnuri zRaprebisa Tu miTebisTvis.
--. . .

xose ortega-i-gaseti. dafantuli sulis anatomia


pio baroxa. xe cnobadisa
gamomcemloba:
2008
wignSi Sesulia me-20 saukunis ori espaneli klasikosis _ filosofos
xose ortega-i-gasetis da mweral pio baroxas Txzulebebi. am SemTxvevaSi
erTdrouladaa warmodgenili gamokvevac (ortega-i-gasetis) da saanalizo
teqstic (baroxas romani). me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- (baroxas romani). me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- baroxas romani). me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- romani). me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- romani). me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- ). me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- -19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- me-20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- -20 saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- saukuneebis mijnis evropuli kul- mijnis evropuli kul- mijnis evropuli kul- evropuli kul- evropuli kul- kul- kul-
turis konteqstSi maTi dialogis wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- konteqstSi maTi dialogis wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- konteqstSi maTi dialogis wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- maTi dialogis wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- maTi dialogis wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- dialogis wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- dialogis wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- wyalobiT, mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- , mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- mkiTxveli filosofiuri re- filosofiuri re- filosofiuri re- re- re-
fleqsiebis velSi aRmoCndeba. espaneli filosofosis es naSromi pirve- velSi aRmoCndeba. espaneli filosofosis es naSromi pirve- velSi aRmoCndeba. espaneli filosofosis es naSromi pirve- aRmoCndeba. espaneli filosofosis es naSromi pirve- aRmoCndeba. espaneli filosofosis es naSromi pirve- . espaneli filosofosis es naSromi pirve- espaneli filosofosis es naSromi pirve- filosofosis es naSromi pirve- filosofosis es naSromi pirve- es naSromi pirve- es naSromi pirve- naSromi pirve- naSromi pirve- pirve- pirve-
lad iTargmna rusul enaze, romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- iTargmna rusul enaze, romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- iTargmna rusul enaze, romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- rusul enaze, romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- rusul enaze, romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- enaze, romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- enaze, romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- , romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- romanis teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- teqstis ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- ki gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- gadamuSavebuli redaqcii- redaqcii- redaqcii-
Taa warmodgenili. gamocemis samecniero aparati moicavs Sesaval werils,
orive nawarmoebis komentarebs da saxelTa saZiebels.
280
SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis samecniero
publikaciebis stili
literaturis institutis periodul gamocemebSi ibeWdeba naSromebi, romlebic moicavs 1.
Tanamedrove literaturaT mcod neobisaTvis aqtualur Temebsa da problemebs, mniSvnelo-
van gamokvlevaTa jer gamouqveynebel Sedegebs.
naSromi warmodgenili unda iyos or calad (eleqtronuli versiiT, disketze _ 2. foppy A:)
da Tan axldes:
Tavfurceli, romelSic miTiTebuli iqneba avtoris saxeli, gvari, statusi da sakon-
taqto koordinatebi;
anotacia qarTul enaze (1 nabeWdi gverdi).
damowmebani (damowmebuli literaturis nusxa) statias unda erTvodes boloSi. 3.
naSromi moculobiT unda iyos kompiuterze nabeWdi ara umetes 4. TxuTmeti da aranakleb
xuTi gverdisa.
naSromi dabeWdili da gaformebuli unda iyos 5. A4 formatis TeTr qaRaldze Semdegnairad:
a) naSromis saTauri (iwereba SuaSi);
b) naSromis teqsti;
g) damowmebani (damowmebuli literaturis nusxa);
d) anotacia;
e) oTxive mxriv datovebuli mindori 25 mm;
v) nabeWdi teqstis Srifti Lit.Nusx 11, intervali _ 1;
JurnalSi miRebulia evropuli standartebis Sesabamisad SemuSavebuli citirebisa da mi- 6.
TiTebis wesi `literaturis institutis stili~ (list).
misi moTxovnebia:
a) motanili citata ZiriTadi teqstisgan gamoiyofa brWyalebiT (` ~). citirebis dasas-
ruls, mrgval frCxilebSi, daismis indeqsi, romelSic aRniSnulia citirebuli teqs-
tis avtoris gvari, teqstis gamoqveynebis weli, Semdeg _ orwertili da gverdi.
magaliTad: (abaSiZe 1970:25). (ix. danarTSi warmodgenili nimuSi).
b) saleqso strofis (da ara striqonis) citirebis SemTxvevaSi, motanili citata gamoi-
yofa teqstisagan da citatis fontis (Sriftis) zoma mcirdeba erTi intervaliT (mag.:
Tu teqstis fontis zomaa Lit.Nusx 11, maSin citatis zoma iqneba Lit.Nusx 10).
g) me-6 punqtis moTxovna ar exeba rubrikebs `gamoxmaureba, recenzia~ da `axali wignebi~,
sadac Sriftis zomebia:
ZiriTadi teqsti Lit.Nusx 10,
ganmarteba-SeniSvnebi (sqolioSi CataniT) _ Lit.Nusx 9.
damowmebani (damowmebuli literaturis nusxa) unda dalagdes indeqsis mixedviT, anbanuri 7.
rigiT da daibeWdos garkveuli wesiT (dawvrilebiT ix. danarTis cxrili).
a) statiis avtoris vrceli ganmartebani inomreba da inacvlebs 8.
teqstis bolos anotaciis win;
b) statiis avtoris mcire SeniSvnebi aRiniSneba varskvlaviT da Caitaneba gverdis bolos,
sqolioSi.
avtori pasuxismgebelia dasabeWdad warmodgenili naSromis literaturul stilsa da 9.
marTlweraze.
Semosuli statia sarecenziod gadaecema anonimur eqsperts. 10.
Semosuli masalebis ganxilvis Semdeg, damatebiTi miTiTebebisaTvis, redaqcia daukavSird- 11.
eba dasabeWdad SerCeul naSromTa avtorebs.
avtors, gansazRvruli vadiT (ara umetes sami dRisa), koreqturisaTvis eZleva ukve dakaba- 12.
donebuli naSromi. Tu dadgenil vadaSi statia ar iqneba dabrunebuli, redaqcia uflebas
itovebs SeaCeros igi an dabeWdos avtoris vizis gareSe.
281
danarTi
citirebis, miTiTebisa da bibliografiis formis nimuSi
.
nimuSi:
Jenetis amocanaa prustis mxatvruli maneris TaviseburebaTa gamokv-
leva da imis dasabuTeba, rom `metafora da metonimia SeuTavsebeli an-
tagonistebi rodi arian. isini ganamtkiceben da msWvalaven urTierTs,
meore maTganis jerovani Sefaseba sulac ar niSnavs metonimiaTa erTg-
vari nusxis (romelic konkurencias gauwevs metaforaTa nusxas) Sed-
genas, aramed imis gamovlenas, Tu rogor monawileoben da funqcion-
ireben analogiis mimarTebaTa farglebSi `Tanaarsebobis~ mimarTebebi.
amgvarad, unda gamoaSkaravdes metonimiis roli metaforaSi~ (Jeneti
1998: 37). ratom SearCia Jenetma analizis sagnad swored prustis Semo-
qmedeba? imitom, aRniSnavs mecnieri, rom TviT prustis esTetikur Teo-
riaSi, iseve, rogorc praqtikaSi, metaforul (analogiaze damyarebul)
mimarTebebs Zalze arsebiTi roli ganekuTvneba, imdenad arsebiTi, rom
maTi mniSvneloba da roli, sxva semantikur mimarTebebTan SedarebiT,
Zalze gazviadebulia.
cxrili
monacemis tipi damowmebuli literaturis nusxis
(damowmebani-s) forma indeqsis mixedviT
Bibliography Form
wigni,
erTi avtori
Book, one authors
abaSiZe 1970: abaSiZe k. etiudebi XIX s.-is qarTuli
literaturis Sesaxeb. Tbilisi:
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vaisi 1962: Weiss, Daniel A. Oedipus in Nottingham: D.H.
Lawrence. Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 1962.
wigni,
ori, an meti avtori
Book, two authors
kekeliZe ... 1975: kekeliZe k., baramiZe a. Zveli qarTuli
literaturis istoria. Tbilisi:
gamomcemloba `mecniereba~, 1975.
naTaZe ... 1994: naTaZe k., petriaSvili v., nakaSiZe b. qarTul-
rusuli literaturuli urTierTobis
istoriidan. quTaisi: gamomcemloba
`ganTiadi~, 1994.
hiutoni ... 1959: Houghton, Walter E. and G. Robert Strange.
Victorian Poetry and Poetics. Cambridge:
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yovelTviuri
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tipis perioduli
gamocemis statia
Article in a journal or
magazine published
monthly
aleqsiZe 1992: aleqsiZe z. `qarTvel ebraelTa~ saRmrTo
misia saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis
TvalTaxedviT. J. iveria. qarTul-evropuli
institutis Jurnali, 1, 1992.
someri 1988: Sommer, Robert. The Personality of Vegetables:
Botanical Metaphors for Human Characteristics.
Journal of Personality 56, no. 4 (December)
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wigni, avtoris gareSe
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sabiblioTeko ... 1989: sabiblioTeko saqmis organizacia da
marTva. baTumi: gamomcemloba `aWara~, 1989.
cxovrebis ... 1976: New Life Options: The Working Womens
Resource Book. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.
dawesebuleba,
asociacia da
misTanani, avtoris
poziciiT
Institution, association, or
the like, as author
amerikis ... 1995: amerikis biblioTekaTa asociacia.
organizaciis saxelmZRvanelo cnobari da
1995/1996 wlis wevrTa cnobari. Cikago:
amerikis biblioTekaTa asociacia, 1995.
amerikis ... 1995: American Library Association. ALA Handbook
of Organization and 1995/1996 Membership
Directory. Chicago: American Library
Association, 1995.
redaqtori, an
kompilatori, avtoris
poziciiT
Editor or compiler as
author
duduCava 1975: duduCava m. (redaqtori). literaturis
Teoriis mcire leqsikoni. Tb.:
gamomcemloba `nakaduli~, 1975.
hendersoni 1950: Henderson, J.N.D. (editor). The Worlds Religions.
London: Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1950.
eleqtronuli
dokumenti
internetidan
Electronic document:
From Internet
mitCeli 1995: mitCeli, uiliam j. bitebis qalaqi: sivrce,
adgili da sainformacio nakadi [on-lain
wigni] (kembriji: gamomc.: MIT Press, 1995,
ganTavsebulia 29 seqtembridan, 1995); mis.:
http://www-mitpress.mit.edu:80/ City_of_Bits/
Pulling_Glass/ index.html; Internet.
mitCeli 1995: Mitchell, William J. City of Bits: Space, Place, and
the Infobahn [book on- line]. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 1995, accessed 29 September 1995;
available from http://www-mitpress. mit.edu:80/
City_of_Bits/Pulling_Glass/ index.html; Internet.
enciklopedia,
leqsikoni
Encyclopedia,
Dictionary
vebsteri 1961: vebsteris axali sauniversiteto leqsikoni.
springfildi: MA: G. C. Merriam, 1961
vebsteri 1961: Websters New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfeld:
MA: G. & C. Merriam, 1961.
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interviu
(gamouqveynebeli)
saavtoro xelnaweri
Interview (unpublished)
by writer of paper
morganisi 1996: morganisi, nensi d. interviu avtorTan, 16
ivlisi 1996, fol riviera, masaCusetsi,
Canaweri
morganisi 1996: Morganis, Nancy D. Interview by author, 16 July
1996, Fall River, MA. Tape recording.
sagazeTo statia
Newspaper article
niu iork taimsi 1990: `mariotis korporaciis profili~, gaz.
niu iork taimsi, 21 ianvari 1990, Can. III, gv. 5.
niu iork taimsi 1990: Profle of Marriott Corp. New York Times,
21 January 1990, sec. III, p. 5.
yovelkvireuli
Jurnalis statia
Article in a magazine
publis hed weekly (or of
general interest)
naiTi 1990: naiTi r. poloneTis Sinaomebi. J. aSS-is siaxleni
da msoflios cnobebi, 10-17 seqtemberi,
1990.
naiTi 1990: Knight R. Polands Feud in the Family. U.S. News and
World Report, 10-17 September, 1990.
Tezisebi, an
sadisertacio
naSromis daskvnebi
(debulebebi)
Thesis or dissertation
filipsi 1962: filipsi o. ovidiusis zegavlena lucianis
zepur sazogadoebaze. sadoqtoro
disertacia, Cikagos universiteti, 1962.
filipsi 1962: Phillips, O. The Infuence of Ovid on Lucans Bellum
Civile. Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1962.
*erTsa da imave wels gamocemuli ramdenime naSromi (calke an TanaavtorobiT) an
erTi da igive naSromi (gagrZelebebiT) ramdenime nomerSi mieTiTeba anbanuri rigiT.
magaliTad:
(abaSiZe 1987a: 21), (abaSiZe 1987b: 87).