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At the end of the class students gain adequate knowledge regarding performance appraisal and
apply this knowledge in day to day practice with a positive attitude
At the end of the class students will be able to
Define performance appraisal
List down the objectives of performance appraisal
Identify the characteristics of performance appraisal
Explain purposes of performance appraisal
Identify the benefits of performance appraisal
Explain the principles of performance appraisal
Assess the obstacles of performance appraisal
Describe the criteria for performance appraisal
Identify the approaches for performance appraisal
Explain the performance appraisal process
Enumerate various methods for performance appraisal
Discuss legal issues associated with performance appraisal

Performance appraisal has been an important activity of the managerial staffing. It is a major
key to managing itself. The other name of performance appraisal is evaluation. Evaluation is very
important in any sphere of life, in education, in administration. As organization structure form the
anatomy, the management is described as the physiology and evaluation is the key Heel Achilles of
the management, a very important organ of the management. It is also called soul. It is considered as
the major key for planning. Hence it is the integral part of the system.
Employees appraisal techniques are said to have been used for the first time during the First
World War, when at that time US army adopted man to man rating system for evaluating military
The history of performance appraisal roots in the early 20
century can be traced to Taylors
pioneering Time and the motion studies.
During the period of 1920-1930, industrial units adopted relational wage structures for hourly
paid workers which continued up to mid fifties. It is described as performance appraisal, merit rating,
behavioral assessment, employees evaluation, personnel review, progress report, staff assessment,
service rating, etc. But widely used terms are performance appraisal or evaluation.
It is the process of deciding how nurse employees do their job. Performance refers to the degree
of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individuals job and indicates how well a nursing
personnel is fulfilling the job requirements.
Performance appraisal means the systematic evaluation of the performance of an expert or his
immediate superior.
Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot,
normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. Performance here
refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual's job. It indicates how
well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Often the term is confused with effort, but
performance is always measured in terms of results and not efforts.
The performance appraisal process includes day-to-day manager-employee interactions
(coaching, counseling, dealing with policy/procedure violations, and disciplining); written
documentation (making notes about an employee's behavior, completing the performance appraisal
form); the formal appraisal interview; and follow-up sessions that may involve coaching and/or
discipline when needed.
Appraisal means estimate the value or quality of Oxford English Dictionary
Personnel appraisal is a comparatively formal, systematic programme of individual employee
evaluation. [Yoder Dale]
Performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employees
excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job. [Flippo]
It is the process of evaluating the relative worth or ability of an individual employee against
predetermined job related performance standard usually set by job descriptions.
It is the method of evaluating the behavior of the employees in the workplace, including both
quantitative aspects of job performance. [Cleveland J etal]
Performance appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the individual with regard to his or her
performance on the job and his or her potential for development. [Beach DS]
Performance appraisal is the process of evaluating the performance and qualifications of the
employees in terms of requirements of the job for which he/ she is employed, for the purposes of
administration including placement, selection for promotion, providing financial rewards and other
actions which require differential treatment among the members of a group as distinguished from
actions affecting all members equally. [Heyel C]
Performance appraisal is the systematic description of an employees job relevant strengths and
weaknesses. [Cascio Wayne]
It is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of
an employee. Performance is the individual ability to carry out a specified task. Individual ability
focuses on to total behavior of the individual; the individual knowledge, her skill to perform the
activities and her attitudes and interaction with other people. Hence performance appraisal in the
context of administration, is judging the ability of the individual employee. So it is the procedure, way
or method by individual employee. So it is the procedure, way or method by which the abilities are
judged. It is also act as yard stick to control.
To provide an opportunity for reflection and feedback on work performance and the work
environment for a given period of time between an employee and supervisor
To acknowledge and encourage appropriate and above standard performance
To identify and remove distracters, dissatisfiers and obstacles as well as ineffective behaviours
To identify areas of growth for employees and organizations (Rowland and Rowland, 1984)
The main characteristics of performance appraisal are:
It is a formal systematic procedure involving usually three steps: setting work standards, assessing
employees actual performance against set standards, and provide feedback to the employees to
improve deficiencies
It is to find out how well the employee is performing the job
Employee knows that they are being evaluated
The focus of the performance appraisal is measuring and improving the actual performance of the
employee and also the future potential of the employee
Performance appraisal is not job evaluation
It is a future oriented activity as it aims on employee development
It is both formal or informal; but formal is more objective as well systematic
Performance appraisal has various purposes:

For Employees: Individual based
It is one of the Criteria of Promotion based on competencies and performance
As already has been mentioned that it is one of the yardstick which can be used as controlling
method because the performance reports are considered at the time of promotion especially when
the promotion is through seniority basis.
Job Performance Measurement
Of course the foremost objective of performance appraisal to measure what an employee does or to
review the performance of the employees over a given period of time. So she or he will come to
know its strengths and weakness and where they stand. And thereby helps to judge the gap
between the actual and the desired performance.
Job Improvement
When the employees come to know their shortcomings and merits and the management ask them
to improve on those points, hence it is through performance appraisal they get the opportunity to
improve upon weak points
Helps to identify Training Needs and Planning for Training Programmes
This is important in case of staff development. By diagnosing the strengths and weaknesses of the
individuals helps to identify helps to identify the training and development needs of the future and
accordingly the training programmes can be planned by the employers.
Important Tool for Motivational Force to the Employees
At the time of evaluation, the administration come to know about employees strengths and
weaknesses and at the same time, employee come to know about their strong and weak points. So
it becomes motivational force for them to become more efficient and also develop competition
attitude among team members.
Basis for Counseling
Performance appraisal provides a base for counseling if required.
Organization Control
It helps the management in exercising organizational control and strengthens the relationship and
communication between superior- subordinates and management- employees
Feedback to Employees
It is through performance appraisal that provides feedback to the employees regarding their past
Periodic Review of Progress
It helps to have periodical review of progress by identifying individual employees potentials.
Self Examination
It affords an opportunity to the employees for the self examination and self evaluation.
For Organization: Institutional based
Measurement of Organizational Objectives
Since the efficiency of an organization is based on the achievement of goals and the appraisal will
help to measure and know which objectives are fulfilled and which needs attraction.
Measurement of Work Standards
Firstly the work standards are set and the methods are selected to measure those standards. Later
the analysis has been done after measuring actual performance based on work standards.
Information Generation
Provide information to assist the other personal decisions in the organization.
Reduces Grievances of the Employee
Since or performance appraisal clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to
be performed by the employees is made and that reduces the grievance of the employee.
Helps for Manpower
Since the performance appraisal methods are based on job analysis; the results of job analysis can
be used for planning the number of persons required for a particular job planning and judges the
effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment,
selection, training and development.
Specific Uses
Promotion Decisions
It serves as a useful basis for transfers, promotion, demotion or job change.
Training and Development Programmes
It can serve as a guide for formulating suitable training and development programmes.
Evaluation of Supervisors and Managers
It provides a measure of the effectiveness of the supervisors and managers in developing the team
members who work under their direction.
Compensation Decisions
It serves as a basis for wage and salary adjustment. Under the merit system, the employee receives
the raises based on performance.
Performance Feedback
It enables the employee to know how well she is doing on the job. Proper performance feedback
can improve the employees future performance. It also gives them satisfaction and motivation.
Personal Development
The supervisors help the subordinates by guiding and counseling to do better and thus help them to
improve upon.
To provide backup data for management decisions concerning salary standards, merit increases,
selection of qualified individuals for hiring, promotion, or transfer and demotion or termination of
unsatisfactory employees
To serve as a check on hiring and recruiting practices and as validation of employment tests
To motivate employees by providing feedback about their work
To discover the aspirations of employees and to reconcile them with the goals of the organization
To provide employees with recognition for accomplishments
To help supervisors observe their subordinates more closely to do a better coaching job, and to
give supervisors a stronger part to play in personnel management and employee development
To establish standards of job performance
To improve organizational development by identifying training and development needs to
employees and designing objectives for training programmes based on those needs
To earmark candidates for supervisory and management developments
To help the organization determine if it is meeting its goals

Performance appraisal must be based on objectives and behaviorally oriented performance
standards for the position she is holding
The objectives should be in behavioral term.
The criteria should be well defined and should be known to staff who will be appraised.
The methods used for appraisal based on the objectives, standards and criteria framed for appraisal.
It should be documented and discussed with the employee.
In nursing, certain principles must be followed to evaluate subordinates job performance accurately
and fairly as given below
Assess performance in relation to behaviorally stated work goals. The employees evaluation should
be based on behaviorally stated performance standards for the position occupied. Eg: keep job
descriptions of nursing personnel
Observe representative sample of employees total work activities. An adequate representative
sample of the nurses job behavior should be observed to provide a basis for evaluation
Compare supervisors evaluation with employees self evaluation. The nurse should be given a copy
of her or his job description, performance standards, and performance evaluation form to review
before the evaluation conference (so that supervisor and nurse can approach their discussion from
the same frame and reference)
Cite specific examples of satisfactory and unsatisfactory performance while documenting nurses
performance appraisal. The manager/ supervisor should cite specific instances of satisfactory and
unsatisfactory behavior to substantiate evaluative statement.
Indicate which job areas have highest priority for improvements
Purpose of evaluation is to improve work performance and job satisfaction

The principal obstacles to effective performance appraisal are:
1. Lack of support from top management.
2. Resistance on the part of evaluators because:
a. Performance appraisal demands too much of supervisors efforts in terms of time, paperwork, and
periodic observation of subordinates performance.
b. Supervisors are reluctant to play god by judging others.
c. Supervisors do not fully understand the purpose and procedures of performance appraisal.
d. Supervisors lack skills in appraisal techniques.
e. Performance appraisal is not perceived as being productive.
3. Evaluation biases and rating errors, which result in unreliable and invalid ratings.
4. Lack of clear, objective standards of performance.
5. Failure to communicate purposes and results of performance appraisal to employees.
6. Lack of a suitable appraisal tool.
7. Failure to police the appraisal procedure effectively.
As it is necessary to rely on judgments and opinions, procedures have been developed
for more objective methods of obtaining and recording these judgments.
Determine What is to be Appraised?
Generally the content o be appraised is determined based on job analysis that consists of a set of
tasks and responsibilities and conditions of specific job. It may be quantity wise or quality. Quality
of performance consists of quality of work, mental quality: ability to learn, adaptability, reasoning
power, supervisory qualities: leadership, organizing capabilities, cooperation; personal traits in terms
of personal characteristics observable in employees job activities, honesty, self control, initiation,
appearance, attitude towards work, and fellow employees, capability for further development.
Who are going to be Appraised and by Whom?
The nursing personnel of different levels are apprised by their immediate supervisors and their
superiors. The appraiser should have thorough knowledge about the job content, contents to be
appraised, criteria for appraising while performing job. The appraisal should also know what is more
important and what is relatively less important. She should prepare the reports and make judgment
without bias.
Why to Appraise?
The appraiser should be aware of the purposes of the appraisal. In governmental sector, it is usually
done annually termed as annual confidential report and considered at the time of promotion. It may
be for other purposes as mentioned under purposes section of this chapter.

When to Appraise?
Informal appraisal can be conducted whenever the supervisor feels it is necessary. However,
systematic appraisals are conducted on regular basis, e.g. annually. But more frequent feedbacks
correlate positively with improved performance that also depends on the specific purpose of the
How to Appraise?
It is decided what methods/tools should be used for evaluation.
Basically two types of approaches to performance appraisal are mentioned in the
literature: traditional and modern.
Traditional Approach
The traditional approach is based on the past performance. The main purpose is to
determine and justify the salary and perks of the employees and not considered for the development
purposes. This is to judge the organizational performance as a whole by the past performances of its
Modern Approach
The purposes of performance appraisal has now been taken for the development
purposes, for taking the corrective actions timely so that the organizational goals can be achieved
within the time frame and also help in re-planning. It is more formal and structured, so that training
needs can be identified and accordingly the training programmes can be planned. Hence the modern
approach is future oriented.
Performance Appraisal is the process of assessing the performance of an employee
within a given time period by a supervisor. It helps in measuring the exact performance of the
employee, her strengths and weaknesses and the required improvements. It is planned, developed and
implemented through a series of steps. It includes following steps as detailed below:-

1) Establish Performance Standards
The first step in the process of performance appraisal is the setting up of the standards
which serve as benchmark against which the performance is measured. It is used as the base to
compare the actual performance of the employees. It should focus on to the desired results of each job.
Hence the criteria are framed to judge the performance of the employees as successful or unsuccessful
and the degrees of their contribution to the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. The
standards set should be clear, easily understandable and in measurable terms.
2) Communicate the Standards
Performance appraisal process involves appraiser and appraise whose performance is to
be evaluated. Appraiser should be thorough with the job description that will help the appraiser to set
the goals and targets and objectively analyze the results. The appraise should be informed and the
standards should be clearly explained to her because she should be very clear about what she is doing
and why she is doing it. The standards should also be communicated to the appraisers or the evaluators
and if required, the standards can also be modified at this stage itself according to the relevant
feedback from the appraise or the evaluators.

Establishing performance standards
Communicating standards and
Measuring the actual performance
Comparing with standards
Discussing results(providing feedback)
Decision making- taking corrective
3) Measure Actual Performance
After the standards are framed, accepted, communicated, the actual performance is
measured. It requires the use of selected methods and ratings to evaluate the performance. This is the
most difficult task in the performance appraisal process
4) Compare Actual Performance against Standards and Discuss the Results
During this stage, the actual performance is compared with the set standard performance.
Whatever the results, are communicated and discussed with the appraise.
5) Taking Corrective Action, if required
The last step of this process is to take corrective action, if necessary. Immediate actions
are to set the things right back on track. The corrective steps seek to find out how and why
performance deviates.
The performance appraisal methods may be classified as:
Individual evaluation methods,
Multiple person evaluation methods
Other methods.

Confidential Reports
This method is mostly used in government organizations. This is one of the old and
traditional methods of evaluating the employees. A confidential report is a descriptive report about the
employee and generally prepared at the end of every year by the immediate superior. It contains
information about the employees strengths, weakness, major failure and achievements. It also
contains information about the employees personality traits (qualities) and about his/her behavior.
Essay Appraisal Method
This is the simplest method of rating an employee. Under this method the rater expresses
in detail, the employees strong and weak points. She also gives suggestions for improvement. This
method is highly subjective and not free from bias.
Critical Incidence Technique
Under this method the appraise rates the employee on the basis of critical events or takes
a snapshot of the incidence and writes a brief report about the incidence. It includes both negative and
positive points. This method provides an objective basis for conducting a discussion of the
performance but some supervisors may also be biased while recording the incidents.
Checklists and Weighted Checklists
A checklist is a set of descriptive statements about the employee and her behavior. The
rater has to tick mark Yes or No for each statement. This method is very simple, convenient, less
time consuming and more economical. But it requires time to prepare structured statements.
Graphic Rating Scales
These are widely used performance appraisal techniques. The appraise indicates along a
continuum quality and quantity of work of the employee being assessed. It indicates different degrees
of a particular trait. The continuum has anchors as outstanding, good, fair and unacceptable to
help in the rating process. The factors taken into consideration include both the personal
characteristics and characteristics related to the on the job performance of the employees. This
method is easy to understand and simple t use, but it also not free from bias.
Behaviorally Anchored rating Scales
Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) is relatively a new method. BARS are
systematically developed checklists using critical incidents in combination with graphic rating scales.
It consists of predetermined critical areas of job performance or sets of behavioral statements
describing important job performance qualities as good as bad. These statements are developed from
critical incidents. They are time consuming and costly to construct. The scales need validation to be
Forced Choice Method
This method is developed to reduce the bias. This method makes use of several sets of
pair phrases, two negative and appraise is asked to indicates which of four phrases is most and least
descriptive of a particular employee, and thereby increasing the objectivity in evaluation of the
employees performance.
Management by Objective Method
MBO is participative goal setting, choosing course of actions and decision making
process. The employees and the superiors sit together, identify common organizational goals, and set
their goals to be achieved, the standards to be taken as the criteria for measurement of their
performance and decide the course of action to be followed. The actual performance of the employee
is measured and compared with the standards set and feedback is provided to rectify the mistakes and
plans are modified. The appraise should record directly and immediately observed job related
In these methods, one employee is compared to another. These are: ranking, paired
comparison and forced distribution method.
Ranking Method
This is one of the oldest, simple, quick and the most convenient methods of appraisal in
which an employee is ranked against others on the basis of their relative levels of performance. The
evaluation is asked to evaluate the employees from highest to lowest on certain overall criterion. The
relative position of each employee is expressed in terms of her numerical rank. The employee scoring
the highest is first and then selects the next highest and so on. This method has limited value for
performance as it is not easily determinable and differences in ranks do not indicate absolute or equal
differences among the employees.
Paired Comparison
In this method one employee is compared with all other employees in the group for only
one trait at a time. The evaluator is asked to put a tick mark against an employee to whom she
considers the better of two and final ranking is done by the number of times he employee is judged
better than others. This can be calculated by a formula N (N-1) / 2 where N is total number of
employees to be compared.
Forced Distribution Method
In this method the appraisee is forced to evaluate the staff according to predetermined
distribution scale. Usually two criteria are taken for rating and on five points scale and employees are
placed between two extremes. This method is more objective but difficult to construct a set of
Assessment Centres
This is a system or organization, where assessment of many employees is done by
various experts using various techniques. The methods included are role playing, simulation exercises,
transactional analysis etc. The appraiser ranks the performance of each employee in order of merit.
The appraisal is done for promotion, training and development.
Group Appraisal Method
In this method the appraisal rating is done by a number of appraisers including
immediate supervisors. The group uses multiple techniques to evaluate the employee. The actual
performance is compared with the standards, finds the gap, discusses and suggests improvement. This
method eliminates the personnel bias but it is time consuming.
Field Review Method
Under this method, the employee is evaluated by another person, not by her immediate
supervisor. The appraiser prepares a report based on records of output and information that she gets
from her immediate supervisor. She also conducts interview of the employee. The ratings are done on
standardized forms.
360-degree Feedback Appraisal
This system is also known as multi-rater feedback. It is the most comprehensive method
of appraisal. The feedback comes from multiple sources about the employees performance. The
evaluation feedback is taken from the superior, subordinates, peer groups or team members, clients
and self appraisal.
Self appraisal is the corner stone of this method; it gives a chance to the employee to
look at her strengths and weaknesses. The actual performance is rated by superiors, subordinates can
evaluate on certain variables like communication and motivating abilities, superiors ability to
delegate the work, leadership qualities etc. a team will evaluate on cooperation and other attitudes of
the employee. A 360- degree appraisal is generally found more suitable for the nurse managers as it
helps to assess their leadership and managing styles. This technique is being effectively used across
the globe for performance appraisals.

It is the supervisors responsibility to ensure the
Performance Appraisal accurately reflects the performance of the employee. Rating employees
on their performance alone is not easy. Most raters (even the best) make many common mistakes
If you are going to have an effective rating system, you must avoid making any of the
following rating errors:
1) Halo/Horn - allowing perceptions of performance on one rating dimension to affect the rating of all
performance dimensions. An employee who has difficulty working with others may rate very high in
dependability or job knowledge.
2) Leniency/Severity - Rating easy or harsh regardless of performance. This is usually done with
employees we especially like or employees we may not like so much. Be sure to rate the performance,
not how we feel personally about the person.
3) Central Tendency - Rating everyone average regardless of performance. This takes a lot of
responsibility off the supervisors shoulders as it is difficult for anyone to complain since no one got
either a very good or a very bad rating. It could also mean rating the same employee average in all
behaviors or job elements.
4) Contrast Effect - comparing employees with one another. Remember that you rate each
employees performance against the job description not how they compare with other employees, or
how they compare with the last employee in that job
5) Primacy/Recency - First impression and memory errors. We remember best what we see either
first or last. This is a good reason to keep an event record/log. Using this method should eliminate this
error along with several others mentioned above.
6) Escalation of Commitment - as familiarity increases commitment increases. Once we have made
up our mind about an employee good or bad it is difficult to change our opinion. We look for good
behavior in good employees and we look for bad behavior in bad employees. We continue to look for
and only see behavior that supports our opinion.
7) Self-fulfilling Prophecy - managers who hire employees usually want them to succeed. It is a good
reflection on the good manager. At the same time, managers may not expect success from an
employee that someone else selected. It is also easy to put too much credence in what others have told
you about this employee. We look for performance that supports our beliefs and disregard
performance that is contrary to our beliefs. This is also called the Pygmalian Effect.
8) Bias - value systems affects opinions. For example, it may be difficult to consider someone of a
different religion or ethnic group as being a good person, and so it may be difficult to rate them as a
good employee.
9) Stereotyping If we consider a certain group of people as hard working then we may tend to rate
anyone in that group as being highly productive even if they are not.
10) Glass Ceiling Effect The supervisor may sometimes decide when an employee has reached their
peak performance and stop challenging the employee to continue to improve.
Performance appraisal system should be effective as number of decisions are being taken on the
basis of ratings of the employee.
The appraisal system should possess the following characteristics
It should provide consistent, reliable and valid information
The appraisal techniques should be based on job analysis and job descriptions
The appraisal forms, procedure, techniques, tools should be standardized
The tools should be practicable
The appraisers should be thorough and should be trained for evaluation, should be friendly and
good listener
She should begin with positive comments and always reinforce the positive points
The employee must know before the evaluation on which parameters they are going to be
evaluated, why and when and they should get feedback on continuing basis
The appraiser must document the expected standards for nursing practice and job
responsibilities, past performance, performance to be developed and recommendations for future
(1) SWOT Analysis:
Performance Appraisal gives a complete idea of the employee's strength, weaknesses and based on
that their opportunities and threats.
(2) Career Planning:
On the basis of one's own SWOT analysis, an employee can have his career plans.
(3) Suitable Placement:
Performance appraisal enables a company to give suitable placement to an employee based on their
talents and skills.
(4) Self-Development:
Performance Appraisal is very much a positive activity which enables an employee to know his own
weaknesses and also enables him to remove their weaknesses and lead to self-development.

(5) Effective Training Programme:
Training programmes can be drawn out on the basis of the needs of employees to remove their
(6) Sound Personnel Policies:
Personnel policies for promotions, transfer must be sound and objective. Performance Appraisal
provides valuable information and reliable data for such decisions.
Performance appraisal system is a common target of legal disputes by employees involving
charges of unfairness and bias. An employee may seek the legal recourse to obtain relief from
discriminatory performance appraisal. There are several recommendations to assist employees on
conducting fair performance appraisal and avoid legal suits. Gleaned from case laws, these
recommendations are intended to be perspective measures that employers should take to develop fair
and legally defensible performance appraisal systems.
All personal decisions should be based on a formal standardized appraisal system.
Any performance appraisal process should be uniform for all employees within a job group, and
decisions based on those performance appraisals should be monitored for differences according to
race, sex, national origin, religion or age of the employees. While obtained differences as a
function of any of these variables are not necessarily illegal, an organization will have more
difficulty defending an appraisal system with ratings related to these variables.
All specific performance standards should be formally communicated to employees
All employees should be able to review their appraisal results
There should be a formal appeal process for the rate to rebut rater judgments
All raters should be provided with written instructions and training on how to conduct appraisals
properly to facilitate systematic unbiased appraisals
All personal decision makers should be well informed of antidiscrimination laws
Any performance appraisal content should be based on job analysis
Appraisals based on traits should be avoided
Objectively verifiable performance data (eg: sales, productivity, not ratings) should be used
whenever possible
Constraints on an employees performance that are beyond the employees control should be
prevented from influencing the appraisal to ensure that the employee has an equal opportunity to
achieve any given performance level
Specific job related performance dimensions should be used rather than global measures or single
overall measures
The performance dimensions should be assigned weights to reflect their relative importance in
calculating the composite performance score
A thoroughly written record of evidence leading to termination decisions should be maintained (eg:
performance appraisals and performance counseling to advise employees of performance deficit,
and to assist poor performance in making needed improvements)
Written documentation (eg: specific behavioural examples) for extreme ratings should be required
and they must be consistent with the numerical ratings
Documentation requirements should be consistent among the raters
The raters should be trained in how to use an appraisal system
The raters must have the opportunity to observe the rate first hand or to review important rate
performance products
Use of more than one rater is desirable in order to lessen the amount of influence of any one rater
and to reduce the effects of biases. Peers, subordinates, customers, and clients are possible sources.

A continual and troublesome question facing nurse managers today is why some employees
perform better than others. Making decisions about who performs what tasks in a particular manner
without first considering individual behavior can lead to irreversible long term problems. Each
employee is different in many respects. A manager needs to ask how such differences influence the
behavior and performance of the job requirements. Ideally, the manager performs this assessment
when the new employee is hired. In reality, however, many employees are placed in positions without
the managers having adequate knowledge of their abilities and / or interests. This often results in
problems with employee performance, as well as conflict between employees and managers.