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Module 4

Set Georeference to
Grid

First Derivative

Field Geochemisty
Sampling Survey

May 2014

Eric Bker

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In this module you will learn:

How to Georeference an Image

How to plan a soil sampling survey

Create the first derivative of a Grid (AS)

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How to Georeference an Image

Open the scanned image, an interpretation view of A13-09240
SGH Copper Pathfinder from Dave Sutherlands report 2013.
You can see that, fortunately, the image has a labeled graticule
that we can use in the georeferencing process.
NOTE: At this point, you can cut away any borders with any
http://www.irfanview.com/
After review of all SGH Class maps, the SGH
results from Eiseb project suggests a rating of
5.5 out of a possible 6.0 for the zone within
the dotted blue circle, as the confidence
predicting that a copper target may be
present. [Sutherland,2013]
Our intention is to georeference this interpretation image of SGH
in the real world.

How should we do that??
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How to Georeference an Image

In our case, the coordinates of 4 points will be extracted from the field survey data. Below
the first extreme two coordinates.
We must find at least 4 points with known coordinates to be able to georeference any images.
For more accuracy more points need to be scattered over the image. If the image is obviously
projected, then more points than usual would be needed.
If you don't have a graticule, then you need a table of lat/lon values for known locations, such as
farm gates, farm border junctions, homestead, kraal, borehole etc.
http://www.saga-gis.org/en/index.html
How to Georeference an Image

Lets formalised the process and create a table with the coordinates
extracted from the survey data using in our case 4 points of interest
seen on the image to georeference.
You can use more points for the exercise.
UTM Y UTM X
A 7593442 381631
B 7592606 381672
C 7592400 381675
D 7591430 381719
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How to Georeference an Image

If SAGA is not on yet, start the program and load the saved project of Module 2 or 3.
Then select MODULES > IMPORT/EXPORT IMAGES > IMPORT IMAGE (remember the
different ways to access the modules (see Module 2).
The new grid will appear in the Manager Window under Data/Tree/Grids.
Add this imported image to a New MAP.
You should obtain a similar map as the right
hand one. Observe the Coordinates used by
SAGA, compare them with the one from the
Grids in the Manager Window.

The next stage is to create for SAGA
Georefereced points in order to be able to place
the image correctly in the 2D world.
Try to find out which modules need to be used.
For that use the search for.. possibilities with the
right mouse click on the Modules Libraries.

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How to Georeference an Image
Lets create the reference points to make locations on the image have real-world positions. For that you
need to find the modules Create Reference Points module.
Leave the default setting for reference
points (Origin) = <create> and for
Reference Points (Projection) = <not
set> and click Okay
To be able to position the reference point accurately on the image you must
zoom into the point with known coordinates (see table).
Then select the Action Arrow on top of the work area and left click as
precisely as possible to the exact location of your reference point on the
image.
A new tab will appear for you to
enter x and y position of one
reference point. Repeat this
procedure at least 4 times.
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How to Georeference an Image
Stop the module once all the desired references have been
entered. Select the Modules button of the menu bar. In the
drop down list at the end you will see that the interactive
Module Create reference points is activated. Click on it to
deactivated it. A new tab appear for you to confirm that the
execution of the module shall stop.
Once the Modules is
executed successfully a
new file is created and can
be seen on the Manager
Window under
Data/Tree/Points.
In the Manager Window
right click this new created
file and on the drop down
Attributes/Show.
The table of attributes of the reference points
appears.
Explain the meaning of the different columns
How to Georeference an Image
We need to combine these locations with the image. To do that, select the Module PROJECTION-
GEOREFERENCING > RECTIFY GRID
In the RECTIFY Module make the following settings:
Set the Reference Points(Origin) to the points
shape you just created.
Then set the X and Y POSITION to the right column.
Leave the REFERENCE POINTS (PROJECTION) to
default.
For the Grid System, select the image you want
to rectify. For the SOURCE, select the JPG image
itself.
Select METHOD to be AUTOMATIC
Set for the GRID INTERPOLATION to nearest
neighbour in order to maintain the RGB color
coding of the result rectified image.
And finally select TARGET = USER DEFINED.
Click Okay and Add the Image on the existing
FarmClip shapefile.
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How to Georeference an Image
The colours of the original image are not the same anymore. Once the
Rectified image is selected in the Manager Window, go on the Window
Properties select COLORS > TYPE > RGB (stands for red/green/blue) and
apply those changes.
The colours of the rectified image will appear now like the original scan
one.
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How to plan a soil sampling
survey
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Firstly we must create a map
composed with different needed
available layers for example:
EPL boundaries
Farm boundaries
And finally the AS grid layer

Once done, zoom to the antiform
closure of Fortuna/Fiesta.
What do we exactly want to do?
We want to plan a survey
perpendicular to the target geological
structures based on AS.
For that we need to digitized the
future survey using segment (Shape
lines).
How to plan a soil sampling survey
http://www.saga-gis.org/en/index.html
In order to digitize the survey we need to add a blank (transparent) layer on top of the existing layers
(Road, Farm boundaries, EPL and AS grid). For that in the Manager Window
under the Module tab, select Shapes Tools libraries and double click Create
New Shapes Layer.
The new tab give you 4 level of choices. Choose as Shape Type = LINES.
Leave the rest as default. We can change it later.
Once the Module Create New Shapes Layer is executed successfully (check in
the Message Window), a new shape line appears in the Manager Window
under Shapes-Line with the default name: New Shapes Layer. In order to
activate the new layer, add it Add to Map on the existing Layers. Check the
superposition order of the layers under Manager Window Maps/Tree. Make
sure the New Shapes Layer is on top and AS at the bottom.
How to plan a soil sampling survey
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In order to digitize the field survey lines, make sure that the New Shapes Layer is selected in the Manager
in Window Data/Tree Shape Line.
To digitize the button arrow from the Tool Bar must be active. From this point on, the digitizing process will
only be done by Right and Left click of the mouse.
Left Click = start the digitizing process
Left Click = last point of the line survey
Right Click = Stop the digitizing process
Right Click = Edit the selected Shape
A new tab appears Apply changes = Click Yes
Give a number or comments to the new
Created shape line. Repeat the process
as many time as needed to cover the
area of interest
with survey lines.
You can Delete
Any selected
Shape if not
Happy =Right click

How to plan a soil sampling survey
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At this stage the field survey is designed. We need to convert those survey
lines into survey points. In the Manager Window under Modules/Shapes-
Points Libraries select Convert Lines to Points. Select the Shape files Lines
New Shapes Layer digitalized earlier.
points and select the distance
between the survey points.
Tick the Add Point Order in
attribute with rank number.
Once the Module is Executed, a new Point Shape is created. See in the
Manager Window/Data/Tree. Note that the Point Shapes received by default
the same name as the Line Shapes. Select the Point Shapes and Show its
attributes.
How to plan a soil sampling survey
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Three Attributes of the New created Points Shapes are present in
the table.
ID = Line Survey Number
Pt_ID= Ranking point per Survey Lines
Select The Distance
Measurement Button
in the Tool bar and measure
the Distance Between to
survey points = 25 meters
How to plan a soil sampling survey
http://www.saga-gis.org/en/index.html
To complete our Soil Sampling survey table we need to add for each survey
point the actual UTM Coordinates X and Y. To do so, select in the
Modules/manager Window in the shapes Points Libraries the Add Coordinates
to Points Module.
To complete our Soil Sampling survey table we need to add
for each survey point the actual UTM Coordinates X and Y.
To do so, select in the Modules/manager Window in the
shapes Points Libraries the Add Coordinates to Points
Module. Select the Point Shape New Shapes Layer and in
the dropdown list select <create> for Output. Click Okay
A new points Shapes
was created with the
same original name = be
careful not to get
confused. You are
welcome to give and
save any of those files
with a new name.
Check the Attributes of
this new Points Shape
file X and Y coordinates
How to plan a soil sampling survey
http://www.saga-gis.org/en/index.html
Now that we have for each survey points the exact coordinates, it would be interesting to know how many
survey points we have per farms. This will help you approaching the farmer and discuss how many stations
are concerned on his ground. It also give you strong informations for planning purposes. How many
agreements need to be signed, how many plastic bags need to be bought before you send your team on
site.etc.. In the Manager Window /Module /Shapes-Points libraries select Add Polygons Attributes to
Points Module.
Select the Points Shape File on
which you want the module to
be executed. For Result select
<create> and for
Polygons/Attributes select the
Attributes you are interested to
appear in you Soil sampling
survey table.

A new Shapes Point appear in
the Manager Window with
[FarmsClip]. Check the
attributes of this new Files
How to plan a soil sampling survey
http://www.saga-gis.org/en/index.html
Your attribute table of the Point Shapefile contains now all the needed attributes for the field survey. To
avoid fastidious counting or exporting the attributes table to Excel to count the number of station per farm
select the Module Count Points in Polygon in the Shapes Points libraries.
After running successfully the Module check the new column added to FarmClip Shape polygon.
Select the Farms with the Arrow Button and rick click the first column of the table to sort to selection.
For each selected farm you have the Number of station where soil sample will be taken.

Now write a little report for planning purposes with all the necessary info.
Create the first derivative of a Grid (AS)
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What is the first derivative of a Grid
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of a quantity (a function or
dependent variable) which is determined by another quantity (the independent variable). For example, the
derivative of the position of a moving object with respect to time is the object's velocity: this measures how
quickly the position of the object changes when time is advanced. The derivative measures the
instantaneous rate of change of the function, as distinct from its average rate of change, and is defined as
the limit of the average rate of change in the function as the length of the interval on which the average is
computed tends to zero.
The derivative of a function at a chosen input value describes the best linear approximation of the function
near that input value. In fact, the derivative at a point of a function of a single variable is the slope of the
tangent line to the graph of the function at that point (Wikipedia)
Create the first derivative of a Grid (AS)
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Select the Slope, Aspect,Curvature Module in the Terrain Analysis Morphometry Libraries
Make sure the Right Grid is selected, in our case its the AS grid. Different method of slope calculation can be
used but in our case leave the default one. Select the slope unit you want to work with. You have 3 choices:
Degree, Radian and Percent. Click Okay
Create the first derivative of a Grid (AS)
http://www.saga-gis.org/en/index.html
Two new grids appear in the Manager Window/Data/Tree: Slope and Aspect Grid. Add both to New Map in a
separate window and comment. Split in two your working space and use it in equal proportion to visualise
the Aspect Grid and Slope Grid. Click on the Tool bar Button Synchro and move or zoom in.
As you zoom into one Grid the
other Grid Synchronises itself to
the desired position and scale.