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JosVicente Pl Juan (IES Sant Vicent Ferrer- Algemes)


Toda frase en estilo indirecto debe contener un verbo introductorio, una
partcula de enlace y la frase que se cita.
Ej: He said, "I walk a lot"
He said (that) he walked a lot
Verbo introductorio part. Enlace oracin indirecta

Verbos introductorios.

El verbo introductorio depende del tipo de frase que queramos reproducir en
estilo indirecto. Diferenciamos dos tipos de frases:

1.- Enunciativas: afirmativas o negativas: said, told, seguidos de los
pronombres complemento, etc.
2.- Interrogativas: asked, wanted to know, wondered, inquired, etc.

Cambios morfolgicos.

1.- Pronominales
Cambian segn el punto de vista del hablante.
Ej: "I'll send you a card, Sue" (palabras textuales de Ann)
a) Ann told Sue (that) she would send her a card (dicho por alguien ms)
b) Ann said / told me (that) she would send me a card (dicho por Sue)
c) I told Sue (that) I would send her a card. (dicho por Ann)

2.- Tiempos Verbales.
NOTA: No debers cambiar el tiempo verbal de la frase subordinada cuando
el verbo introductorio est en presente, pretrito perfecto o futuro.
Ej: Jim says / tells me, "He has read Tony's book and doesn't understand it."
Jim says / tells me (that) he has read Tony's book and doesn't understand it.

Sin embargo, cuando el verbo introductorio vaya en pasado, como suele
ocurrir, el tiempo verbal cambia:
- simple present ............................. simple past
- present progressive ............................. past progressive
- simple past ............................ past perfect (o simple past)
- past progressive ............................. past perfect progressive
- present perfect ............................... past perfect
- present perfect progressive............................... past perfect progressive
- past perfect progressive .............................. no cambia
- past perfect ....................................... no cambia
- must ....................................... had to
- shall ....................................... should
- will ....................................... would
- can ....................................... could
- may ....................................... might

- Los modales en pasado o condicionales (could, might, would, ought to,
etc) no cambian.
- Los modales perfectos (must have, could have, ought to have, etc...) no

3.- De adverbios / expresiones adverbiales.
Now ........................................ immediately / then
Ago ........................................ before / earlier
Today ........................................ that day
Tonight....................................... that night
Tomorrow .................................. the next / the following day
Yesterday................................... the previous day / the day before
Last night .................................. the previous night / the night before
Next Monday ............................ the following Monday
This week ................................. that week, the same week
This afternoon ......................... that afternoon, the same afternoon
The day before yesterday ........ two days before
The day after tomorrow ........... in two days' time

Otros cambios

Cambios de lugar
Here ............................................................ there
This (como pronombre demostrativo)....... that
(como adjetivo) ................................. the
(como pronombre personal complemento... it, them
these ............................................................ those

Cambios de verbos
Come ..................... go
Bring ...................... take

JosVicente Pl Juan (IES Sant Vicent Ferrer- Algemes)

1.- Frases enunciativas: afirmativas o negativas.
Primero se pone el verbo introductorio, con THAT (estilo formal) o sin THAT
(estilo informal), luego los cambios pronominales, de tiempos verbales, de
tiempo y de lugar.
Ej: He said, "I'm going home." He said (that) he was gong home
"I don't like tea", he told me. He told me (that) he didn't like tea.

Verbos introductorios son: say, tell (+ objeto), explain, suggest, insist (on)
promise, warn, admit, agree, remind, claim, complain, reply.

2.- Frases interrogativas.
a) Las que empiecen por WH- (what, where, who, how, whose y sus
compuestos) Primero se pone el verbo introductorio,(nombre o
pronombre complemento), la partcula interrogativa correspondiente y
luego como en las frases enunciativas.

Ej: She asked (us), "When did you go there?"
She asked (us) when we had gone there.

b) Las que no empiecen por WH- (verbos auxiliares: be, have, do/does/did y
modales) Primero se pone el verbo introductorio, (nombre o pronombre
complemento), IF / WHETHER, y luego como en las frases enunciativas.

Ej: She asked (me), Are you hungry?
She asked (me) if / whether I was hungry.
Have you seen John recently?
She wanted to know if / whether I had seen John recently.
Did you study for the exam?, she wondered.
She wondered if/whether I had studied for the exam.

3.- rdenes.
En el estilo directo utilizamos siempre el imperativo para indicar una
orden. En el estilo indirecto, empleamos la siguiente estructura:
Sujeto + verbo introductorio + objeto + To + infinitivo.
Ej: He said to Jack, Open the door, please.
He told Jack to open the door.
He said to me, Dont talk. ------ He told me not to talk.

Verbos introductorios son: tell, ask, advise, warn, order, command, etc.
4.- Oraciones mixtas (oraciones afirmativas / negativas; preguntas +
ordenes; ordenes +oraciones afirm./neg, o todas juntas.)
a) Cada una requiere su verbo introductorio propio.
Ej: I dont know the way. Do you?, he asked.
He asked he didnt know the way and asked her if she did / if
she knew it.
Someones coming, he said. Get behind the screen.
He said that someone was coming and told me to get behind
the screen.

b) A veces, cuando la ltima oracin es una frase afirmativa o negativa
que ayuda a explicar la primera, podemos usar AS en lugar de un
segundo verbo introductorio.
Ej: Youd better wear a coat. Its very cold out, he said.
You advised me to wear a coat as it was very cold out.

c) A veces, el segundo verbo introductorio puede ser un participio.
Ej: Please, dont drink too much! Remember that youll
have to drive home, she said.
She begged him not to drink too much, reminding him
that hed have to drive home.

5.- Exclamaciones y YES/NO.
a) Las exclamaciones normalmente se convierten en frases afirmativas o
negativas en estilo indirecto. El signo de exclamacin desaparece.

a.1.- Exclamaciones que empiezan por:
What (a) .... o How ....... van a pasar a expresiones del tipo
explain / say that
Ej: He said, What a dreadful idea! / How dreadful idea!
He exclaimed / he said that it was a dreadful idea.

a.2.- Give an exclamation of delight,disgust, horror, relief, surprise, etc.

a.3.- With an exclamation of delight, disgust, horror, relief, surprise, etc, + he,
she, etc. + verbo.

a.4.- Otros tipos de exclamacin, tales como Good!, Marvellous!, Heavens!
Oh! Ugh!, se pasan como en el apartado a.2 y a.3 de arriba.
Ej: Good! he exclaimed.
He gave an exclamation of pleasure.
JosVicente Pl Juan (IES Sant Vicent Ferrer- Algemes)
a.5.- Fjate tambin en:
Ej: He said, Thank you! He thanked me.
He said, Curse this fog! He cursed the fog.
He said, Good luck! He wished me luck.
He said, Liar! He called me a liar.
He said, Damn! He swore

b) YES and NO se expresan en estilo indirecto con el sujeto + el verbo
auxiliar apropiado.
Ej: He said, Can you swim? and I said No.
He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I couldnt.
He said, Will you have time to do it, and I said Yes.
He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.

6.- otras formas de expresar el lenguaje indirecto.

El estilo indirecto normalmente ocurre en prrafos contnuos de
lenguaje indirecto, no en frases sueltas. Para unirlas, usamos frases como:
She went on to say, he continued, he added that, etc. Tambin usamos
verbos que introducen estilo indirecto como: they invited, she remarked, etc.
No debemos aplicar las reglas mecnicamente cuando pasamos a
estilo indirecto; tenemos que interpretar lo que omos o leemos, as que a
menudo usamos verbos como exclaim, insist, suggest, etc.
Las contestaciones de SI/NO y los adverbios como WELL
desaparecen cuando los pasamos a estilo indirecto.
Lo daremos en forma de estructuras para que resulte ms fcil para
el estudiante.
a) Verb + object + (not) + to.
Advise, ask, command, demand, invite, order, remind, request, tell, warn, etc.
Ej: He advised me to go to bed early.
He ordered me not to smoke in there.

b) Verb + (not) + to.
Agree, promise, offer, refuse, threaten, etc.
Ej: She agreed to come with me.
She promised not to tell anyone.

c) Verb + (nombre o pronombre complemento)
Greet, interrupt, introduce, thank, welcome, etc.
Ej: She introduced me to her friends.
d) Verb + (THAT) + verb in the past.
Add, answer, ask, exclaim, state, etc.
Ej: They added (that) they bought it in England.

e) Verb + gerund.
Apologise for, insist on, suggest, etc.
Ej: John apologised for being so rude.

f) Verb + THAT + subject + SHOULD + infinitive.
Should debe usarse cuando queremos expresar la idea de que algo debe ser
hecho, o es importante. Va con verbos como:
Advise, ask, demand, insit, order, etc.
Ej: She advised that I should work harder this term.

Enunciativas (afirmativas y negativas).

1.- Im very tired, Carmen said.

2.- My husband hasnt cleaned the room, Mrs Smith said.

3.- You dont look well, my friend told me.

4.- Ill see you tomorrow, said Graham.

5.- Im leaving this afternoon, Ron, said Tim.

6.- I lost my lighter last night, Michael, said Chris.

7.- The Times is not a Government newspaper, the writer said.

8.- My husband said, John was appointed chairman at Christmas.

9.- The doctor will prescribe tablets if your head aches, she said

10.- John said to me, These flowers are beautiful.

11.- Helen to Jane, I bought you this car today.

JosVicente Pl Juan (IES Sant Vicent Ferrer- Algemes)
12.- It will probably snow later in the day, the forecast said.

13.- I didnt see the car in front, the man said.

14.- Were hungry, they said.

15.- I dont really want to play tennis, Danny told me.

16.- "Michelle is working in her room," Mrs Black said.

17.- "Brenda has gone to the theatre," Mick told Bill

18.- "I'll see you later," Larry told Mary.

19.- "I can't take a message right now," the secretary said.

20.- I took three hours to get here because the roads are flooded," he told me


1.- ' I'll see you tomorrow, ' she said.

2.- 'I saw her today,' he said.

3.- ' I don't like this film,' she said.

4.- He said, ' We went swimming today.'

5.- ' I met her about three months ago,' he said.

6.- ' Pete and Sue are getting married tomorrow,' she said.

7.- 'I haven't read these books yet,' he said.

8.- ' I was driving my car yesterday,' she said.

9.- 'I can see you tomorrow,' he said yesterday.

10.- ' I didn't drive home after the party, I was too drunk,' she said.

11.- 'I have something to show you', I said to her.
12.- ' Nothing grows in my garden. It never gets any sun,' she said.

13.- ' I'm going away tomorrow, mother,' he said.

14.- ' I've been in London for a month but so far I haven't had time to visit the
Tower,' said Rupert.

15.- ' It isn't so foggy today as it was yesterday,' I remarked.

16.- ' The new underpass is being officially opened the day after tomorrow,'
said the BBC announcer.

17.- ' We have moved into our new flat. We don't like nearly so much as our
last one,' said my aunt.

18.- ' We have a lift but very often it doesn't work,' they said.

19.- ' From one of the windows of my flat I can see the Eiffel Tower,' said my

1.- 'Do you like Marlon Brando ?,' she asked.

2.- 'Are you enjoying yourself ?,' he asked.

3.- 'Does your father work here ?,' she asked her.

4.- 'Are you a foreigner ?,' he asked me.

5.- 'Have you finished your exams ?, they asked us.

6.- 'Did you invite Pete and Judith?,' I asked him.

7.- 'Did they tell you when they were leaving ?,' she asked.

8.- 'Can you come to my party ?,' he asked her.

9.- 'Were you playing with my computer ?,' she asked us.

10.-' Is my father living in London?,' she asked my mother.

JosVicente Pl Juan (IES Sant Vicent Ferrer- Algemes)
1.- "Does this car belong to you?" a policeman told me.

2.- "Do you really want to buy this magazine?" her friend asked her.

3.- "Was the train late?" she asked him.

4.- "Is he American or English?" he wanted to know.

5.- "Can you lend me ten pounds?" I asked him.

6.- "May I use your telephone?" she asked him.

7.- Do you like English cheese?" she asked us.

8.- He said, "Is John here?"

9.- She said, "Do you want any dinner or not?

10.- "Did he tell you?, she told him.

11.- "Have you been to England before?" he asked me.

12.- "Are you going to visit Scotland?" he wanted to know.

13.- Susan asked me, "Did you see the film on TV?"

14.- "Have you ever been to the USA?", the man asked Sue.

15.- "Can you help me?" the woman asked Bill.

16.- She asked me, "Does your dog stick his head in cupboards?"

17.- The policeman asked, "Is the dog barking now?"

18.- I asked my mum, "Will I have to clean the hamster's cage tomorrow?"

19.- "Can I use your phone to make a local call?" she asked me.

20.- "Do you know where Angela is living?" he asked me.

1.- 'What's your name ?,' he asked me.

2.- 'How old is your father ?,' my teacher asked him.

3.- 'When does the train leave ?,' I asked.

4.- 'Who did you see at the meeting?,' my mother asked her.

5.- 'Why did you take my wallet?,' she asked me.

6.- 'How did you get to school?,' the boy asked Mary.

7.- 'What time does the plane arrive?,' they asked the manager.

8.- 'Why are you so late?,' my teacher asked me.

9.- 'Where did you go in Japan?,' I asked my father.

10.- 'What are you doing with our books?,' they asked us.

11.- 'Why are you looking through the keyhole?,' I said.

12.- 'Who put salt in my coffee?,' he asked.

13.- 'Which of you knows how to make Irish coffee?,' said the chief cook.

14.- 'Why did you travel first class?,' I asked him.

15.- 'How can I possibly run in these high-heeled shoes?,' she inquired.

16.- 'What is your new house like?,' I asked them.

17.- He said, 'Where am I supposed to go now?.'

18.- 'Whose car did you borrow last night?,' I said to him.

19.- 'What was she wearing when you saw her?,' the policeman asked me.

20.- 'Who owns this revolver?,' said the detective.

JosVicente Pl Juan (IES Sant Vicent Ferrer- Algemes)
1.- He said, 'Get out of my way.'

2.- 'Climb in through the window,' he ordered.

3.- 'Please pay at the desk?,' said the assistant to me.

4.- 'Open your bag, please,' said the store detective to my sister.

5.- 'Don't worry about anything, Mrs Pitt,' said her lawyer.

6.- 'Don't use bent coins in a slot machine,' I advised him.

7.- 'Follow that car,' the detective said to the taxi-driver.

8.- 'Wash it in lukewarm water,' recommended the assistant.

9.- 'Have confidence in me,' said the doctor to me.

10.- 'Take me up to the 33rd floor,' he said to the liftman.

11.- 'Read the notice about life-saving equipment,' advised the airhostess.

12.- 'Always cook with butter,' said her mother, 'never use margarine.'

13.- 'Don't argue with your father,' I said to my boyfriend.

14.- 'Wait for me at the bridge,' said the young man to the lady.

15.- 'Don't eat too much fat,' I advised Peter.

16.- 'Don't say anything to make me angry,' my father said to my brother.

17.- 'Don't forget to feed the fish,' Mary said to her husband.

18.- 'Get your dog a bigger basket,' he said to me.

19.- 'Write to me as much as you can,' Said his wife.

20.- 'Put your pistol on the table,' the policeman said to the girl.

1.- My father said Ive done the shopping and Ill be home at 7.

2.- The sergeant said Dont move from here!.

3.- My mother asked me Are you going to the same school as my daughter?.

4.- She said My sister doesnt know how to discuss with our parents.

5.- The policeman asked me Why were you carrying that bag yesterday?.

6.- The soldier said My friends didnt know where I was.

7.- My sister said Get out of my room, Beth.

8.- They asked us Can you lend us your ball?.

9.- My teacher said Sit down and start the exam, please.

10.- His mother asked her Where have your parents done with my tickets?.

1.- Mary said, This is the most beautiful picture I have in my house.

2.- Why are you laughing?, she said to me.

3.- The General said, Clean your guns!.

4.- The dog has stolen your sandwich, Peter said to Mary.

5.- When is your sister leaving to England?, he said to her.
6.- The instructor said to John, Dont swim too far.

7.- I have no idea what they are talking about, she said.

8.- Have you read this book?, she told me.

9.- The police said to me, Come with me to the police station, please.

10.- My friend paid you $20 for your books, she told him.

11.- Dont speak in the exam!, the teacher said to his students.
JosVicente Pl Juan (IES Sant Vicent Ferrer- Algemes)

12.- We are studying hard for the next weeks test, said the students.

13.- The teacher said, Dont write in your book, Peter.

14.- Is this the book you lent me?, she told me.

15.- Peter said, Come here, please.

16.- I will post this letter for you, said Robert.

17.- Are you going out with my sister?, he told me.

18.- This is the best film I have ever seen, said Jane.

19.- Dont hit my dog!, she said.

20.- Where does your brother live?, she told him.

21.- I visited your mother yesterday, she said to me.

22.- She told her, Write to me as soon as possible.

23.- I don't know what to do with all my papers on my table, she said.

24.- We like working on Sundays because we get double pay, explained the

25.- You've got my umbrella and yours is in your bedroom, I said.

26.- Do you like Marlon Brando ?, she said to Peter.

27.- Are you enjoying yourself ?, he told her.

28.- My father lives in London but now Im staying with my aunt, she said to me.

29.- I have sent the postcards to your friends at last, my daughter said to me.

30.- Dont speak in the exam, the teacher said to the students.

31.- Why didnt you feed the dog yesterday? my mother said.

32.- Be polite to our guests my parents said to me.

33.- Where is your father working? Peter asked Mary.

34.- I cant help you, Anna said.

35.- The Mozart Company has often visited our town, my cousins said to me.

36.- We must pay the telephone bill this month, she said.

37.- Does the U.S.A have a written constitution? he said.

38.- Have they studied Byrons poetry? he said.

39.- I want you to take these books to the library tomorrow, she told her son.

40.- I cant help you, Anna said.

41.- The students have been studying Robert Frosts poetry, she said.

42.- Havent you ever used a word processor before? he wanted to know.

43.- Does the United States have a written constitution? he asked.

44.- Do people still play cricket? we wondered.

45.- Did you hear the news last night? he asked.

46.- Who was playing the piano just now? he asked.
47.- What have you prepared for our meeting? she asked him.

48.- Which hotel do you think is best? she enquired.

49.- Where will you be next Sunday at four oclock? he asked.

50.- Dont worry! I said to her.

51.- Take the books to the library! she said to the pupil.