28 views

Uploaded by Prya Suthan Sathiananthan

chapter 1 of engineering thermodynamic

chapter 1 of engineering thermodynamic

© All Rights Reserved

- Dossat Principles Of Refrigeration
- 7 Thermodynamics and Heat
- Performance Evaluation of Small Hydro Power Plants
- BR_ProductPortfolio_en_co_6434.pdf
- BME2303 Tutorial 2
- Lecture Notes on Statistical Physics by peter Johansson
- g3_thermodynamics_experiments
- Saso Bs en 837-2-2016-e(للتوزيع (1)
- UNIT-1-FME1202
- Tutorial 1 2014
- SIEMENS Sitrans p DsIII Dp Man Umsitrpds3 1r10 2010 11
- RS-1084 Pressure Sensor Datasheet
- 07 Thermodynamic Driving Forces
- DM-1000
- DS_A2G_10_en_us_15951
- IPC.docx
- Engineering Thermodynamics
- Pump
- Cfs Dpcv Iom
- CHAP02 Munson

You are on page 1of 40

BASIC CONCEPTS OF

THERMODYNAMICS

LEARNING OUTCOMES OF CHAPTER 1

Students should have those

understandings of:

Applications of thermodynamics.

Basic consepts of system, energy,

properties, state, process and cycles.

Units and dimensions in SI (System

International).

2 important thermodynamic properties:

temperature (T) and pressure (P) and

how to measure them.

THERMODYNAMICS & ENERGY

Definition of thermodynamics (Greek

word):

The ability to convert heat to power.

All aspects of energy and energy transfer

including power production / generation,

refrigeration and property relation of

substances.

therme

(heat)

dynamics

(power)

BASIC LAWS OF

THERMODYNAMICS

1

st

Law of

Thermodynamics

(=Conservation of

Energy Principles)

2

nd

Law of

Thermodynamics

Energy can change from

one form to another

form with the amount

of the energy kept

constant

Energy has its quality

and quantity: a real

process occurs in the

decreasing quality of

energy.

APPLICATIONS AREAS OF

THERMODYNAMICS

Power plants

The human body

Air-conditioning

systems

Airplanes

Car radiators

Refrigeration systems

Power plants

The human body

Air-conditioning

systems

Airplanes

Car radiators

Refrigeration systems

Human

body

Air conditioner

/ heater

Car

radiator

Power Plants

Refrigeration

system

Airplanes

DIMENSIONS & UNITS

DIMENSIONS

(= measure of

physical quatity)

FUNDAMENTAL

/ PRIMARY

DIMENSIONS

DERIVED /

SECONDARY

DIMENSIONS

*

Mass (m), Length (L),

Time (t), Temperature

(T), Current (I) &

Amount of matter (mol)

Velocity (v), Energy (E),

Volume (V), Force (F),

Power (P), etc.

* Derived dimensions = combination of a few primary

dimensions. Eg: Velocity = Distance/Time = L/t

UNITS

(= magnitudes assigned

to the dimensions)

UNIT ASAS /

PRIMER

DERIVED /

SECONDARY

UNITS*

-accompany primary

dimensions

-accompany derived

dimensions

2 types of unit systems widely used:

i) English System / United States Customary

Systems (USCS)

ii) Metric System, SI (International System)

FUNDAMENTA

L / PRIMARY

UNITS

Differences of Unit Systems

Fundamnetal /

Derived Dimensions

SI Unit ES Unit

Mass (m) kg lbm, oz

Length (L) m ft, in

Time (t) s s

Temperature (T) K

o

C,

o

F, R

Ammount of

matter (mol)

kmol lb mol

Velocity (v) ms

-1

ft s

-1

Energy (E) J (Joule) Btu, cal

Volume (V) m

3

gal

Force (F) N (Newton) lbf

Power (P) W (Watt) hp

Pressure N/m

2

(Pascal) psia, psig

Standard prefixes in SI units

Prefix Multiple

tera, T 10

12

giga, G 10

9

mega, M 10

6

kilo, k 10

3

deci, d 10

-1

centi, c 10

-2

milli, m 10

-3

macro, 10

-6

nano, n 10

-9

pico, p 10

-12

Differences between SI and ES

1) Force (F) = Mass x acceleration

F = ma (kgms

-2

)

SI unit: newton (N). 1 N = force required to accelerate 1 kg

mass at a rate of 1 m/s

2

.

ES unit : pound-force (lbf). 1 lbf = force required to accelerate

32.174 lbm (pound-mass) at a rate of 1 ft/s

2

.

1 N = 1 kgms

-2

; 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm. ft/s

2

2) Weight (W) = a type of force W=mg (N)

Weight (W) = Mass (m)

(derived) (fundamental)

Mass of a body is constant, but its weight can change depending

on gravitational acceleration (g) that varies with the placement

of the body.

3) Work (W) = a form of energy = Force x Distance

1 N.m = 1 J SI unit

ES unit: Btu (British Thermal Unit). 1 Btu = energy required to

increase the temperature of 1 lbm of water at 68

o

F by 1

o

F.

Other unit : calorie (cal). 1 cal = energy required to increase

the temperature of 1 kg of water at 15

o

C by 1

o

C.

1 cal = 4.1868 J ; 1 Btu = 1.055 kJ

Dimensional Homogeneity

In engineering world, all equations must be dimensionally

homogeneous every term in an equation must have the

same unit.

1) Addition, Subtraction & Equality Operations

Eg : 4 s + 1.9 s \ - direct

1 kg + 2 lb \ - have to change to the same

2 m + 1.5 ft \ unit

10.6 N + 1.4 kgms

-2

?

2) Multiplication & Division Operations

Eg : N X m

2

= Nm

2

kg x m

2

= m

2

s

N x 1 ?

m

SYSTEMS

System = a quantity of matter or a region in

space chosen for study. It consists of:

Surroundings = mass or region outside the system.

Boundary = real or imaginary surface that separates

the system from its surroundings fixed or movable.

2 types of systems:

Closed systems / control mass

Open systems/ control volumes

CLOSED SYSTEMS

Also known as control mass.

Characteristics of closed systems:

Contains a fixed amount of mass and no mass

can cross its boundary.

Energy in the form of heat or work can cross

the boundary.

Volume of closed systems does not have to

be fixed.

In special case, when energy is not

allowed to cross the boundary of closed

systems isolated system.

2 common examples of closed systems:

Closed/rigid tank

Piston-cylinder device

CLOSED SYSTEMS

Mass cannot cross the

boundaries of a closed

system, but energy can

An example of closed system with

a moving boundary piston-

cylinder device

OPEN SYSTEMS

Also known as control volumes.

Characteristics of control volumes:

Both mass and energy can cross its boundary called as

boundary surface.

Its volume always fixed but its mass not necessarily

fixed.

Examples of control volumes:

Pumps, compressor, valves, heat exchangers, turbines.

Both mass and energy

can cross the

boundaries of control

volume

ENERGY

Exist in variable forms : heat, mechanical, kinetic,

potential, electric, magnetic, chemical and nuclear.

Definition: Energy = Force x Distance (Unit = N.m = J)

Total energy, E = amount of all forms of energies that

exist in a system.

Total energy based on a unit mass, e (kJ/kg):

Total energy can be divided into 2 groups:

1) Macroscopic energies related to motion and the influence

of some external effects such as gravity, magnetism,

electricity, surface tension, kinetic and potential energies.

2) Microscopic energies related to the molecular structure of

a system. Eg : chemical, nuclear, latent heat, sensible heat.

The sum of microscopic energies internal energy, U.

m

E

e

Microscopic Energy

The sum of microscopic energies internal

energy, U.

- Phase change of a system such as

liquid phase changes to gas phase.

- Atom bonding in a molecule in

chemical reactions.

- Strong bonds within the nucleus of

atoms.

Macroscopic Energy

2 main forms of macroscopic energies:

1) Kinetic energy a system possesses as a result of its

motion relative to some reference frame:

(kJ)

or, on a unit mass basis,

(kJ kg

-1

)

with, V = velocity of the system relative to a fixed

reference frame.

2) Potential energy a system possesses as a result of its

elevation in a gravitational field.

(kJ)

with, g = gravitational acceleration, z = elevation of the

gravity centre of a system.

Other forms of macroscopic energies:

gravity, magnetism, electricity, surface tension.

2

2

KE

mV

=

2

2

ke

V

=

mgz = PE

Total Energy

By ignoring the effects of gravity, magnetism,

electricity and surface tension, hence the total

energy is the sum of kinetic enery, potential

energy and internal energy:

(kJ)

or, on a unit mass basis,

(kJ kg

-1

)

Almost all closed systems remain stationary

(KE=PE=0) during a process (unless stated)

stationary systems. Hence, the change in total

energy of a stationary system is equal to the

change of its internal energy:

mgz U U E

mV

+ + = + + =

2

2

PE KE

gz u u e

V

+ + = + + =

2

2

pe ke

U E A A =

Summary of Total Energy

ENERGY TOTAL

E=U+KE+PE

Microscopic

energy

Macroscopic

energy

Internal energy

U

Kinetic energy, KE

Potential energy, PE

Summary of Systems

SYSTEMS

CLOSED

SYSTEMS

CONTROL

VOLUMES

Isolated systems

AE=0

Stationary systems

AKE=APE=0

PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM

Any characteristic of a system property.

Eg of properties: pressure P, temperature T, volume V,

mass m, viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal

expansion coefficient, elevation etc.

PROPERTY

Intensive

Property

Extensive

Property

-independent of the

mass of a system

Eg: Temperature T

Pressure P

Density

-depend on the size

of a system

Eg: Mass m

Volume V

Total Energy E

Definations of few properties

Density, = mass per unit volume.

(kgm

-3

)

Reciprocal of density specific volume, v (=volume per unit mass)

Relative density,

s

or specific gravity (SG) = ratio of the density

of a substance to the density of some standard substance at a

specified temperature (usually water at 4

o

C,

H2O

= 1000 kg/m

3)

.

All extensive properties per unit mass specific properties Eg:

Specific volume v=V/m

Specific total energy e=E/m

Specific internal energy u=U/m

V

m

=

O

2

H

s

SG = =

m

V

v = =

1

STATE & EQUILIBRIUM

For a system not undergoing any change, at this point

all the properties can be measured or calculated

throughout the entire system a set of properties

that completely describes the condition the state of

the system.

At a given state, all the properties of a system have

fixed values. If the value of even one property changes,

the state will change to a different state.

m = 2 kg

T

1

= 20

o

C

V

1

= 1.5 m

3

m = 2 kg

T

2

= 20

o

C

V

2

= 2.5 m

3

State 1 State 2

State

Equilibrium

The word equilibrium implies a state of balance. In an

equilibrium state there are no unbalanced potentials (or

driving forces) within the system experiences no

changes when it is isolated from its surroundings.

Types of equilibrium states:

thermal equilibrium if the temperature is the same

throughout the entire system.

Mechanical equilibrium if there is no change in pressure

at any point of the system with time.

Phase equilibrium when the mass of each phase reaches

an equilibrium level and stays there such as water and ice

inequilibrium.

chemical equilibrium if its chemical composition does not

change with time, that is, no chemical reactions occur.

A closed system achieves thermal equilibrium

Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium

state to another process, and the series of states

through which a system passes during a process the

process path.

When a process proceeds in an equilibrium state at all

times, it is called a quasi-equilibrium process can be

viewed as a sufficiently slow process that allows the

system to adjust itself internally so that properties in

one part of the system do not change any faster than

those at other parts.

PROCESS & CYCLES

Process

A compression process in a piston-cylinder device:

Processes in which one thermodynamic property is kept

constant:

Process Constant property

Isobaric pressure

Isothermal temperature

Isochoric/isometric volume

Isentropic entropy

Example of Process

Cycles

A system is said to have undergone a cycle if

it returns to its initial state at the end of

the process for a cycle the initial and

final states are identical.

Process A

Process B

1

2

P

V

PRESSURE

Pressure = normal force exerted by a

fluid per unit area.

Pressure only deals with gas or liquid.

Pressure in solids normal stress.

Unit SI : Pascal (Pa) = Nm

-2

English System : psi = lbf/in

2

(pound-

force per square inch), psia, psig. Other

units: bar, standard atmosphere (atm).

A

F

P =

=

Area

Force

Pressure

P

1

P

a

P

b

P

c

P

2

P

3

P

1

=P

2

=P

3

P

a

=P

b

=P

c

Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same in all

directions.

Pressure varies in vertical directions due to gravity

effects but does not vary in the horizontal directions.

Absolute pressure, Gage pressure

& Vacuum pressure

The actual pressure at a given position absolute pressure -

measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.e., absolute zero

pressure).

Most pressure-measuring devices are calibrated to read zero in

the atmosphere, and so they indicate the difference between the

absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure gage

pressure.

Gage pressure = Absolute pressure Atmospheric pressure

Pressures below atmospheric pressure vacuum pressures -

measured by vacuum gages that indicate the difference between

the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure:

Vacuum pressure = Atmospheric pressure Absolute pressure

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures are all positive quantities.

Must use absolute pressures in thermodynamic problems.

In ES unit, gage pressure and absolute pressure are

differentiated by their respective units:

psig (pounds force per square inch gage) and

psia (pounds force per square inch absolute),

but SI unit gives identical units.

Relation between absolute pressure,

gage pressure & vacuum pressure

P

vac

= P

atm

P

abs

(for P<P

atm

)

P

gage

= P

abs

P

atm

(for P>P

atm

)

Pressure-measuring devices

Manometer

Barometer

Bourdon Tube

Manometer

Consists of a glass or plastic U-tube containing one or

more fluids such as mercury, water, alcohol, or oil.

Measures small and moderate pressure differences.

The height of the fluid in the tube represents the

pressure difference between the system and the

surroundings of the manometer which is equal to the gage

pressure:

P

atm

gh P P P

atm 1

= = A

. m/s 9.8 on accelerati nal gravitatio g

tube, - U in the points o between tw fluid of height the

tube, manometer in the fluid the of density

tank, in the pressure gas

pressure, c atmospheri

2

1

atm

= =

=

=

=

=

h

P

P

gh P P

gh P P P

atm gas

atm 2 1

+ =

+ = =

Barometer

Measures atmospheric pressure,

hence atmospheric pressure also

known as barometric pressure.

Consists of a mercury-filled tube

inverted into a mercury container

that is open to the atmosphere.

Referring to Figure 1:

The height and cross-sectioanal

area of the tube does not affect

the height of the liquid in the

barometer tube (Figure 2).

tube. barometer in height mercury

, on accelerati nal gravitatio

density, mercury

tube, barometer of area sectional - cross A with,

atm

atm

atm

atm

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

h

g

gh P

A P ghA

A P W

P

Merkuri

A

1

A

2

A

3

Figure 2

Merkuri

A

C

B

h

h

P

at

m

W=ghA

Figure 1

Bourdon Tubes

Another type of commonly used

mechanical pressure

measurement device.

Consists of a hollow metal tube

bent like a hook whose end is

closed and connected to a dial

indicator needle.

Calibrated to read zero, so it

measures gage pressure.

Modern pressure sensors

pressure transducers - convert

the pressure effect to an

electrical effect such as a

change in voltage, resistance,

or capacitance.

smaller and faster, and they

can be more sensitive,

reliable, and precise

Types of Bourdon Tubes

TEMPERATURE

Temperature is one of the thermodynamic

properties - a measure of hotness or

coldness or the energy content of a body.

When heat is transferred to a body, E|

T|.

The temperature difference causes the heat

transfer from a hot body (with higher

temperature) to another cold body (with a

lower temperature).

Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium when

both of the bodies achieve similar

temperature.

Similar to pressure, temperature applied in

thermodynamic problems must be in absolute

units. Absolute temperature scale in SI unit is

Kelvin and Rankine in unit ES.

Temperature scales

Unit

Property

SI ES

Temperature

scale

o

C

o

F

Absolute

temperature scale

K R

Melting point 0

o

C 32

o

F

Boiling point 100

o

C 212

o

C

Relation between temperature scales:

T(

o

F) = 1.8T(

o

C) + 32 (

o

C to

o

F)

T(K) = T(

o

C) + 273.15 (

o

C to K)

T(R) = T(

o

F) + 459.67 (

o

F to R)

T(R) = 1.8T(K) (K to R)

Kelvin and Celcius

Magnitude for each part of

1 K and 1C is similar, the

same case with 1 R and 1F

(Figure 1).

And also,

Figure 1

A

A

T K T T

T T

T

= ( C + 273.15) - ( C + 273.15)

= C - C

= C

2 1

2 1

A A T R T F =

SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING

Complicated thermodynamic problems can be solved by a systematic

approach.

The followings are the systematic steps that can be taken to solve

thermodynamic problems:

1. Read and understand the requirement of the problem.

2. Draw a realistic sketch of the physical system involved, and list the

relevant information on the figure. Indicate any energy and mass

interactions with the surroundings. List the given information on the

sketch. Also, check for properties that remain constant during a

process (such as temperature during an isothermal process), and

indicate them on the sketch.

3. State any appropriate assumptions and approximations made to

simplify the problem to make it possible to obtain a solution. Assume

reasonable values for missing quantities that are necessary. For

example, in the absence of specific data for atmospheric pressure, it

can be taken to be 1 atm.

4. Determine the unknown properties at known states necessary to solve

the problem from property relations or tables, and hence the phase

of the substance can be determined.

5. Determine the process and sketch the process on property figures

such as P-v or T-v.

6. Apply all the relevant basic physical laws and principles (such as the

conservation of mass), and reduce them to their simplest form by

utilizing the assumptions made.

7. Substitute the known quantities into the simplified relations and

perform the calculations to determine the unknowns.

8. Reasoning, verification and discussion: Check to make sure that the

results obtained are reasonable and intuitive, and verify the validity

of the questionable assumptions.

- Dossat Principles Of RefrigerationUploaded byJunaid Ameer
- 7 Thermodynamics and HeatUploaded byProf.Dr.Mohamed Fahmy Mohamed Hussein
- Performance Evaluation of Small Hydro Power PlantsUploaded bysiva7448163
- BR_ProductPortfolio_en_co_6434.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 4MwmDaNb
- BME2303 Tutorial 2Uploaded byZarif Izzat
- Lecture Notes on Statistical Physics by peter JohanssonUploaded byhumejias
- g3_thermodynamics_experimentsUploaded byarda Максим
- Saso Bs en 837-2-2016-e(للتوزيع (1)Uploaded byMimi Miranti
- UNIT-1-FME1202Uploaded byMuthuvel M
- Tutorial 1 2014Uploaded bysotde
- SIEMENS Sitrans p DsIII Dp Man Umsitrpds3 1r10 2010 11Uploaded bytirutkk
- RS-1084 Pressure Sensor DatasheetUploaded byErwin Ardias
- 07 Thermodynamic Driving ForcesUploaded byjvcmap
- DM-1000Uploaded byHumberto Contreras
- DS_A2G_10_en_us_15951Uploaded bybehnamatg
- IPC.docxUploaded byMakhdoom Ibad Hashmi
- Engineering ThermodynamicsUploaded byShiba Narayan Sahu
- PumpUploaded bydhineshp
- Cfs Dpcv IomUploaded byfghabboon
- CHAP02 MunsonUploaded byVincentius Vicky
- FMUploaded byRuby Smith
- ece john.pdfUploaded byMarhmello Padrique
- B-Report of IR-M0417N19 - LT-1403 MalfunctionUploaded byArdvark
- mechanical measurement devices - BE MechUploaded byrohan
- Lecture 1- State of a System, 0th Law, Equation of StateUploaded byLuis Follegatti
- Pengukuran6_TekananUploaded byMuhlisRifa'i
- TranslateUploaded byputra sandi
- Instrumentationn lecture.pptxUploaded byZargham Khan
- MPL115A1.pdfUploaded byzhongkai cheng
- DS_PV2407_GB_23282Uploaded bybehnamdaftary2

- CL 1 QuestionsUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Fem1DUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Front and ListUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Airflow TablesUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Heat transfer proformaUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Cidb Green CardUploaded byMuhammad Adzim Azizi
- Tutorial_Ch3 Bd Layers & DragUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Chapter 4 Compressible Flows.pdfUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Chapter 3 Flows Around Submerged BodiesUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Tutorial Potential FlowsUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Tutorial AerodynamicsUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Tensile TestUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Sem 2015 Global Rules Tribology Award Entry FormUploaded byPrya Suthan Sathiananthan
- Differentiation of Exponential FunctionsUploaded byspam8me

- Newtons Third Law Action-reaction WsUploaded byYou donut Care
- CASE ANALYSIS- KENT CHEMICALSUploaded bysampleassignment.com
- what impact has technology had on architecture of the 20th centuryUploaded bysingingman
- The Street Artist as TranslatorUploaded byDaria Moreno Davis
- Dr Joe Dispenza Awakening Pinneal GlandUploaded byEdo Krajinic
- God39s Century Resurgent Religion and Global Politics SparknotesUploaded byScott
- CK-12 Biology Chapter 1 WorksheetsUploaded bySwarnapali Liyanage
- mahatirianismUploaded bydistinct86
- IntroductionUploaded byAdi Paramartha
- Almost 1-4 THESIS.docxUploaded byJohn Paul Bennett
- Attachment in the Early YearsUploaded byelenabudei
- J. Barnes on H.-G. GadamerUploaded byWen-Ti Liao
- MARK CASSON - AN ENTREPRENEURIAL THEORY OF FIRMUploaded byhistoriadors
- Sung Compline BookletUploaded byThomas Beyer
- art04Uploaded byKarem Figueroa Bofill
- Knots and Applications by Louis H. KauffmanUploaded byIsrael Babithor Rojas Valgreen
- Strategic Marketing - Lecture 5 Market Vision, Structure and AnalysisUploaded byKanwal Asghar
- Vision FrameworkUploaded byNikeshKumarSingh
- E-Book of Supreme Master Ching Hai's Secrets to Effortless Spiritual PracticeUploaded bywisdomdisciple
- Chapters 1 & 2Uploaded byAllyth Alqhtani
- Chart PickerUploaded byManol Donev
- Posesiodemonio LibreUploaded byNorthman57
- Peer-Run Crisis RespitesUploaded byJonathan Bates
- Clifford AlgebrasUploaded byrasgrn7112
- Loss Function CGG1Uploaded bycgg1115572
- 379ca3be2a173401e3f2Uploaded byapi-369902105
- 01-Jones-Baumgartner From There to Here Punctuated Equilibrium to TheUploaded byablas97
- Requirements Engineering.pdfUploaded byMuthiani Muoka
- Communication -Advisory for August 9 -2014Uploaded byEJCSDA
- When is Adultery Acceptable in RomanceUploaded bycnkwanga_jolly