You are on page 1of 20

Atoms,Molecules,andQuantumMechanics

AvogadrosNumber 6.022x10
23
moleculesinamole
Moles=Grams/MolecularWeight
Group1A AlkaliMetals(+1)
ReactswithhydrogentoformhydridessuchasNaH
Reactsexothermicallywithwatertoproducemetalhydroxideandhydrogengas
Group2A AlkalineEarthMetals(+2)
Harder,denser,andhigherMPthanalkalimetals
Group4A Canform4covalentbondswithnonmetals
AllbutCARBONcanform2additionalbondswithLewisbases(6total)
OnlyCARBONcanformstrongpibondsfordouble/triplebonds
Group5A canform3covalentbonds(NITROGENcanform4
th
covalentbondswithlonepair)
AllbutNITROGENcanform2additionalbondsbyusingdorbitals
1additionalbondcanbeformedwithLewisbases(6total)
NITROGENcanformstrongpibondsfordouble/triplebonds
PHOSPHOROUScanformweakpibondsforonlydoublebonds
Group6A Chalcogens(2)
OXYGEN 2
nd
mostelectronegative/Canformstrongpibondsfordoublebonds
SULFURexistsaspureS8/canformupto6bonds/candoublebond
Group7A Halogens(1)
FLUORINEalwayshasoxidationnumberof1(onlyonebondpossible)
Cl/Br/Icantakeonoxidationstatesashighas+7/formsmorethanonebond
Group8A NobleGases(0)
Inert/nonreactive
SmallAtomsmakeSTRONGPIbonds
LargeAtomsUNABLEtomakeSTRONGPIbonds/havedorbitalsallowingforMOREthan4bonds

PREDICTINGTHEIONCHARGE:
1) Atomsloseelectronsfromthehighestenergyshellfirst.Intransitionmetals,thismeansthatelectronsarelost
fromthessubshellfirst,andthenfromthedsubshell
2) Ionsarelookingforsymmetry.Representativeelementsformnoblegaselectronconfigurationswhenthey
makeions.Transitionmetalstrytoevenouttheirdorbitals,soeachorbitalhasthesamenumberof
electrons
PERIODICTRENDS
GREATER EnergyofIonization
ElectronAffinity
Electronegativity

GREATER AtomicRadius
MetallicCharacter


Mass Kilogram kg
Length Meter m
Time Second s
ElectricCurrent Ampere A
Temperature Kelvin K
LuminousIntensity Candela cd
AmountofSubstance Mole mol

Mega M 10
6

Kilo k 10
3

Deci d 10
1

Centi c 10
2

Milli m 10
3

Micro 10
6

Nano n 10
9

Pico p 10
12

Femto f 10
15

ENERGYISREQUIREDTOBREAKABOND
ENERGYISRELEASEDWHENANEWBONDFORMS
NAMINGINORGANICCOMPOUNDS
CATIONS Transitionmetalcationuseromannumeralsinparenthesesafterelement
Nonmetalcationusesuffixium
ANIONS Monatomic/simplepolyatomicanionsusesuffixide
Complexpolyatomicanions moreoxygenatedspeciesusesatesuffix
Lessoxygenatedspeciesusesitesuffix
IfnecessaryLeastoxygenateduseshypoprefix
Ifnecessarymostoxygenatedusesperprefix
Binarymolecularcompoundscompoundswithonlytwoelements
PhysicalReactionundergoesreactionandmaintainsitsmolecularstructureandidentity
Melting,evaporating,dissolving,rotationofpolarizedlight
ChemicalReactionundergoesreactionandchangesitsmolecularstructuretoformanewcompound
Combustion,metathesis,andredox

ANSWERISALWAYSABALANCEDEQUATIONUNLESSOTHERWISESPECIFIED
PercentYield=ActualYield/Theoreticalyieldx100

FUNDAMENTALREACTIONTYPES
Combination A+B C
Decomposition C A+B
SingleDisplacement A+BC B+AC
DoubleDisplacement AB+CD AD+CB

BONDINGINSOLIDS
Crystalline(individualmoleculescannotbedistinguished)
Ionicpositivelychargesionsheldtogetherbyelectrostaticforces(salts)
NetworkCovalentinfinitenetworkofatomsheldtogetherbypolarandnonpolarbonds(diamonds)
Metallicsinglemetalatomsbondedtogetherbydelocalizedelectrons
Molecularindividualmoleculesheldtogetherbyintermolecularbonds(ice)
Amorphousnocharacteristicshapeandmeltsoveratemperaturerange(glass)
Polymerssolidswithrepeatedstructuralunits
Rapidcoolingofliquidpolymersresultsinamorphoussolid
Slowcoolingofliquidpolymersresultsincrystallinesolids

QUANTUMNUMBERS
Principalquantumnumber(n)designatesshelllevel
Azimuthalquantumnumber(l)designatessubshell
l=n1
l=0=ssubshell l=1=psubshell l=2=dsubshell l=3=fsubshell
Magneticquantumnumber(m)designatesorbital
Rangeofmagneticquantumnumbersfrom(lto+l)
ElectronSpinquantumnumber(m)designatesspin
or

HEISENBERGUNCERTAINTYPRINCIPLE
Themoreknownaboutposition,thelesscanbeknownaboutmomentumandviceversa
AUFBAUPRINCIPLE
Witheachnewprotonaddedtocreateanewelement,anewelectronisaddedaswell
Electronslookforanavailableorbitalwiththelowestenergystatewhenevertheyaddtoanatom
HUNDSRULE
Electronswillnotfillanyorbitalinthesamesubshelluntilallorbitalsinthatsubshellcontainatleastoneelectron
Unpairedelectronswillhaveparallelspins
PLANCKSQUANTUMTHEORY
Electromagneticenergyisquantized
E=h (h=Plancksconstant=6.6x10
34
Js)
PHOTOELECTRICEFFECT
EnergyofphotoelectronsdependsonFREQUENCYoflight,NOTINTENSITY
Whenanelectronfallsfromahigherenergyrungtoalowerenergyrung,
Energyisreleasedfromtheatomintheformofaphoton
ThephotonMUSThaveafrequencywhichcorrespondstothechangeinenergyoftheelectron
Ifthephotondoesnthaveenoughenergytobumptheelectrontothenextrung,
Theelectronwillnotmovefromitspresentrunandthephotonisreflectedaway
KINETICENERGYOFELECTRONSINCREASESONLYWHEN
INTENSITYISINCREASEDBYINCREASINGTHEFREQUENCYOF
EACHPHOTON,THEQUANTITYOFPHOTONSISIRRELEVENT
Gases,Kinetics,andChemicalEquilibrium
StandardTemperatureandPressure(STP) 0degreesCelsius/1atmosphere
ALLGASESAREMISCIBLEWITHEACHOTHER
GIVENTIMEANDLOWTEMPS,HEAVIERGASESTENDTOSETTLEBELOWLIGHTERGASES
IDEALGASES
1) Gasmoleculeshavezerovolume
2) Gasmoleculesexertnoforcesotherthanrepulsiveforcesduetocollisions
3) Gasmoleculesmakecompletelyelasticcollisions
4) AveragekineticenergyofgasmoleculesisDIRECTLYPROPORTIONALtotheTEMPERATUREofthegas
IDEALGASLAW
PV=nRT (R=universalgasconstant=0.08206Latm/Kmol=8.314J/Kmol)
VisproportionaltoTatconstantP
VisinverselyproportionaltoPatconstantT
VisproportionaltonatconstantTandP
CaveatincreasingVcanlowerT,becauseincreasingVrequiresworkwhichneedskineticenergy,loweringT
STANDARDMOLARVOLUME
ANYGASBEHAVINGIDEALLY22.4litersatSTP
PARTIALPRESSURE
P
a
=
a
P
total

DALTONSLAW
P
TOTAL
=P
1
+P
2
+P
3

(eachgasbehaveslikeitisinthecontaineralone,sototalpressureissumofthemall)

AVERAGEKINETICENERGYforanygas
K.E.
AVG
=3/2RT (R=universalgasconstant=0.08206Latm/Kmol=8.314J/Kmol)
GRAHAMSLAW(rmsvelocityvariesaccordingtomass)
AverageSPEEDofmoleculesisINVERSELYPROPORTIONALtosqrt.ofMASSofmolecules
EFFUSIONspreadingofgasfromhighpressuretolowpressurethroughpinhole
DIFFUSIONspreadingofonegasintoanothergasorintoemptyspace
EFFUSIONandDIFFUSIONfollowGRAHAMSLAW

REALGASES
V
REAL
isGREATERthanV
IDEAL

P
REAL
isLESSthanP
IDEAL

COLLISIONMODEL
ThereactingmoleculesMUSTCOLLIDE
1) Relativekineticenergies(duetorelativevelocityonly)ofcollidingmoleculesmustreachathresholdenergy
calledACTIVATIONENERGY
2) Collidingmoleculesmusthavetheproperspatialorientation
RATEOFAREACTIONINCREASESWITHTEMPERATURE
EQUATIONSFORREACTIONRATES
MOLECULARITYthenumberofmoleculescollidingatonetimetomakeareaction
UNIMOLECULAR/BIMOLECULAR/TERMOLECULAR
ELEMENTARYREACTIONS (thequestionhastoinformyouthatareactioniselementary)
Reactionthatoccursinasinglestep
aA+bB cC+dD
Molecularityisgivenby(a+b)
Coefficienttellsyouhowmanymoleculesparticipateinareactionproducingcollisions

INTERMEDIATESSpeciesthatareproductsofonereactionandreactantsofalaterreactioninareactionchain

RATELAWFORFORWARDREACTIONS
rate
FORWARD
=k
f
[A]

[B]


andaretheorderofeachrespectivereactant
+istheoverallorderofthereaction
SLOWSTEP=ratedeterminingstep
Catalystcreatesanewreactionpathwaywhichtypicallyincludesanintermediate
Increasestherateofareactionwithoutbeingconsumedorpermanentlyaltered
Lowersenergyofactivation&DOESNOTchangeequilibrium

CHEMICALEQUILIBRIUM
TheRATEatEQUILIBRIUMiszero(anetreactionrate) Forwardrate=Reverserate
AtEquilibrium,thereisnochangeintheconcentrationoftheproductsorreactants
EQUILIBRIUMisthepointofGREATESTENTROPY

kf/kr=products/reactants
k
f
/k
r
=EQUILIBRIUMCONSTANTK
LAWOFMASSACTION
K=[C]
c
[D]
d
/[A]
a
[B]
b
=products
coeff.

/reactants
coeff.

EQUILIBRIUMCONSTANTDEPENDSUPONTEMPERATUREONLY
DONTUSESOLIDSORPURELIQUIDS(water)INTHELAWOFMASSACTION

NONEQUILIBRIUMREACTIONQUOTIENTS
Q=Productscoeff./Reactantscoeff.
QisNOTaconstant&ALWAYSchangesTOWARDK;canbeusedtopredictthedirectionofthereaction
Q/KCOMPARISONS
IFQ=K reactionisatequilibrium
IFQ>K TooManyPRODUCTSwillshifttotheLEFT
IFQ<K TooManyREACTANTSwillshifttotheRIGHT

LECHATELIERSPRINCIPLE
Whenasystematequilibriumisstressed,
Thereactionwillshiftinadirectionthatwillreducethatstress
1) Additionorremovalofproductorreactant
2) Changingthepressureofthesystem
3) Heatingorcoolingthesystem

Thermodynamics
ThreeTypesofSystemsandtheirinteractionswiththeirSurroundings
ExchangingEnergywithsurroundings ExchangingMasswithsurroundings
OpenSystem Yes Yes
ClosedSystem Yes No
IsolatedSystem No No

STATEFUNCTIONS
Statephysicalconditionofasystemdescribedbyaspecificsetofthermodynamicpropertyvalues
EXTENSIVEPROPERTIESproportionaltothesizeofthesystem(ex.Volume&Moles)
INTENSIVEPROPERTIESindependentofthesizeofthesystem(ex.Pressure&Temperature)

STATEFUNCTIONSVALUEFORWARDISSAMEASVALUEREVERSED(regardingreactiondirection)
Pathwayindependent
Changeinastatepropertyisthesameregardlessoftheprocessviawhichthesystemwaschanged
3StateProperties(1extensive)describeasystemunambiguously

HEAT
MovementofenergyviaCONDUCTION,CONVECTION,orRADIATION

RateofHeatFlowislikeVolumeFlowRateorElectricCurrent(Resistancealwaysexists)
Thickerconduitsallowforgreaterflow
Longerconduitsimpedeflow
Flowratedependsonthedifferenceinapropertyofthereservoirsateitherendoftheconduit

CONDUCTIONthermalenergytransferviamolecularcollisions
CONVECTIONthermalenergytransferviafluidmovements
RADIATIONthermalenergytransferviaelectromagneticwaves

PVworkconstantpressure/volumechanges
Work=PV(constantpressure)(IFvolumeisconstant,noPVWORKisdone)

0
th
LawofThermodynamics
Temperatureexistsasastatefunction
1
st
LawofThermodynamics
EnergyofthesystemandsurroundingsisALWAYSconserved
Anyenergychangetoasystemmustequaltheheatflowintothesystemplustheworkdoneonthesystem
E=q+w
2
nd
LawofThermodynamics
Totalentropyofanisolatedsystemtendstoincreaseovertime
Heatcannotbechangedcompletelyintoworkinacyclicalprocess(someheatenergyisalwayslost)
3
rd
LawofThermodynamics
AssignsZEROentropyvaluetoanypuresubstanceatabsolutezeroandininternalequilibrium
ABSOLUTEZEROISUNATTAINABLE

THERMODYNAMICFUNCTIONS
InternalEnergy U Temperature T
Pressure P Volume V
Enthalpy H Entropy S
Gibbsenergy G

INTERNALENERGYallthepossibleformsofenergyimaginableonamolecularscale
Inaclosedsystematrest,theonlyenergychangewillbeininternalenergyU=q+w
ForareactioninsuchasystemwithNOCHANGEINVOLUME,thereisnoworkU=q

Temperatureismeasurementofhowfastthemoleculesaremovingorvibrating,assubstancegetshotter,itisbecause
theirmoleculesmovefaster
TheaveragekineticenergyofasinglemoleculeinafluidisK.E.AVG=3/2kT

VIRTUALLYALLPHYSICALPROPERTIESCHANGEWITHTEMPERATURE

THEGREATERTHERANDOMTRANSLATIONALKINETICENERGYOFGAS
MOLECULESPERVOLUME,THEGREATERTHEPRESSURE

ENTHALPYpropertythataccountsfortheextracapacityofasubstancetodoPVwork
H=U+PV
H=U+PV
Measuredat25degreesCelsiusand1atmosphere

STANDARDENTHALPYOFFORMATIONH
Changeinenthalpyforareactionthatcreates1molofacompoundfromitsrawelementsintheirstandardstate
IFNOCHANGEINPRESSURE(essentiallynogasinreaction),thenH=q
HREACTION=HPRODUCTSHREACTANTS

WHENYOUADDREACTIONS,YOUCANADDTHEIRENTHALPIES

EXOTHERMIC(H)releaseheat,makingreactionsystemhot
ENDOTHERMIC(+H)absorbheatmakingreactionsystemcold

ActivationEnergy
TransitionStatepeakofthehillwhereoldbondsbreakandnewbondsform
Intermediatesproductsofthefirststepinatwostepreaction(introughbetweentwohills)

Catalyst
Lowersactivationenergyforbothforwardandreversereactions
EQUILIBRIUM/ENTHALPYCHANGEISUNAFFECTEDBYCATALYSTS
RATEISAFFECTEDBYCATALYSTS

ENTROPY(S)measureofasystemsdisorder,Naturelikestospreadenergyevenlybetweensystems
Naturestendencytocreatethemostprobablesituationthatcanoccurwithinasystem
ToDECREASEentropy,WORKisREQUIRED

SSYSTEM+SSURROUNDINGS=SUNIVERSE0

Entropy(notenergy)dictatesthedirectionofareaction/Entropyincreaseswithnumber,volume,andtemperature

REACTIONSATEQUILIBRIUMHAVEACHIEVEDMAXIMUMUNIVERSALENTROPY

GIBBSFREEENERGY(G)
G=HTS NEGATIVEGindicatesaSPONTANEOUSREACTION

G H S
+ +
+
+/
+/ + +

Solutions
Solutionhomogeneousmixtureof2+compoundsinasinglephase
Solventindicatespredominantcompoundinasolution
Solutethecompoundthatislessconcentrated

IDEALSOLUTIONS
Solutionsmadefromcompoundsthathavesimilarproperties
IDEALLYDILUTESOLUTIONS
Solutemoleculesarecompletelyseparatedbysolventmoleculessotheyhavenointeractionwitheachother
MOLEFRACTIONofSOLVENTisapproximatelyONE
NONIDEALSOLUTIONS
Violatethetwoconditionsabove

COLLOIDS
Likeasolution,onlythesoluteparticlesarelarger
Toosmalltofilter,butlargeenoughtobeseparatedbyasemipermeablemembrane

LIKEDISSOLVESLIKE
Nonpolardissolvesnonpolar
Polardissolvespolar

LONDONDISPERSIONFORCES
Weakintermolecularbondsresultingfrominstantaneousdipolemoments

SOLVATION
Whenioniccompoundsdissociateintotheircationsandanions
TheyareSURROUNDEDbytheoppositelychargedendsofthepolarsolvent

HYDRATION
Solvationinwater
Whenseveralwatermoleculesattachtoonesideofanioniccompound,theycanovercomethestrongionicbond

AQUEOUSPHASEsomethingthatishydratedisinthisphase

ELECTROLYTEcompoundwhichformsionsinaqueoussolutions

WATERISAPOORCONDUCTOROFELECTRICITYUNLESSITCONTAINS
ELECROLYTES

MOLARITY
M=molesofSOLUTE/volumeofTOTALSOLUTION

MOLALITY
m=molesofSOLUTE/kilogramsofSOLVENT

MOLEFRACTION
=molesofSOLUTE/totalmolesofALLSOLUTESandSOLVENT

MASSPERCENTAGE
mass%=massofSOLUTE/massofTOTALSOLUTIONx100

PARTSPERMILLION
ppm=massofSOLUTE/massofTOTALSOLUTIONx1000000

NORMALITYmeasureofthenumberofdissociatedprotonsinacid/basesolution
H2SO4isa2normalsolutionbecause2protonscanbedonatedforeachsinglemolecule

SOLUTIONFORMATION
1) Thebreakingoftheintermolecularbondsbetweensolutemolecules(ENDOTHERMIC)
2) Thebreakingoftheintermolecularbondsbetweensolventmolecules(ENDOTHERMIC)
3) Theformationofintermolecularbondsbetweenthesolventandthesolutemolecules
(EXOTHERMIC)

ENERGYISREQUIREDTOBREAKABOND

HEATOFSOLUTION
H
SOL
=H
1
+H
2
+H
3

NEGATIVEHEATOFSOLUTIONresultsinSTRONGERintermolecularbonds/LOWERvaporpressure
POSITIVEHEATOFSOLUTIONresultsinWEAKERintermolecularbonds/HIGHERvaporpressure

WHENSOLUTIONSFORM,ENTROPYINCREASES

VAPORPRESSURE
Somesurfacemoleculescanbreaktheforcesholdingtheminliquidandlaunchoutintoopenspace
Whenrateofmoleculesleavingandenteringliquidsolutionisequal,equilibriumisestablished
Atthispoint,thepressurecreatedbythemoleculesintheopenspaceistheVAPORPRESSUREoftheLIQUID

VAPORPRESSUREINCREASESWITHTEMPERATURE

BOILINGOCCURSWHENVAPORPRESSUREOFALIQUIDEQUALSTHE
ATMOSPHERICPRESSURE

MELTINGOCCURSWHENVAPORPRESSUREOFASOLIDEQUALSVAPOR
PRESSUREOFTHELIQUID

NONVOLATILESOLUTES(havenovaporpressureoftheirown)
RAOULTSLAW P
SOLUTION
=
a
P
LIQUID


VOLATILESOLUTES(havevaporpressureoftheirown)
RAOULTSLAW P
SOLUTION
=
a
P
a
+
b
P
b

SOLUBILITYsolutestendencytodissolveinasolvent
EX. SaltsdissolveinwaterinFORWARDDIRECTION
DissolvedSaltsPRECIPITATEintheREVERSEDIRECTION(slowerthanforward)

WhenratesofDISSOLUTIONandPRECIPITATIONareequal,thesolutionisSATURATED

SOLUBILITYPRODUCTK
sp

Usejustlikeanyotherequilibriumconstant(excludingsolidsandpureliquids)
SETKspEQUALTOPRODUCTSoverREACTANTSraisedtothePOWEROFTHEIRCOEFFICIENTS

Ifratiois1:1:1(regardingcoefficientsofsolidANDdissolvedspecies)
Solubility=square_root(Ksp)

Ifratiois1:2:1(regardingcoefficientsofsolidANDdissolvedspecies)
Solubility=cube_root(Ksp/4)

Solubilityproductaconstantfoundinabook
Solubilitymaximumnumberofmolesofthesolutethatcandissolveinsolution

SOLUBILITYPRODUCTCHANGESONLYWITHTEMPERATURE
SOLUBILITYDEPENDSUPONTEMPERATUREandIONSINSOLUTION

COMMONIONSADDEDTOASATURATEDSOLUTIONWILLSHIFTthe
EQUILIBRIUM(DOESNOTAFFECTKsp)

COMMONIONSADDEDTONONSATURATEDSOLUTIONWILLNOTSHIFT
EQUILIBRIUMBECAUSENOEQUILIBRIUMEXISTS

ASTHETEMPERATUREINCREASES,THESOLUBILITYOFSALTSINCREASES
ASTHETEMPERATUREINCREASES,THESOLUBILITYOFGASESDECREASES

HeatCapacity,PhaseChange,andColligativeProperties
REMEMBERphasesarenotjustSOLID/LIQUID/GAS
Therecanbemultiplesolidphasesofthesameelement(rhombicsulfurvs.monoclinicsulfur)

HeatCapacity
Measureoftheenergychangeneededtochangethetemperatureofasubstance
Thinkofitastheinternalenergycapacity

IFNOPVWORKISDONEBYASYSTEMATREST,
ALLHEATENERGYGOESINTOINCREASINGTEMPERATURE

WHENSYSTEMISHEATEDATCONSTANTVOLUME,
NOPVWORKISDONE,
andTEMPINCREASESALOT

WHENSYSTEMEXPANDSATCONSTANTPRESSURE,
PVWORKISDONE,
andTEMPINCREASEALITTLEBIT

HEATCAPACITYistheamountofenergyasubstancecanabsorbperunitoftemperaturechange

FORHEATCAPACITIESOFENTIRESYSTEMS
q=CT
FORSPECIFICHEATCAPACITIES(dividedbymass)
q=mcT

TYPESOFPHASECHANGES:
Meltingfreezing
Vaporizationcondensation
Sublimationdeposition

EachPhaseofasubstancehasitsownspecificheat

CONSTANTPRESSUREMEANSNOPVWORKISDONE,andq=H

BOILING
Vaporpressureofaliquidequalstheatmosphericpressureabovetheliquid

EVAPORATION
Whenthepartialpressureabovealiquidislessthantheliquidsvaporpressure,buttheatmosphericpressureisgreater
thanthevaporpressure

PhaseDiagram
Indicatesthephasesofasubstanceatdifferentpressuresandtemperatures

TriplePoint
Whereasubstancecanexistinequilibriumasasolid,liquid,andgas

CriticalPoint
Thecriticaltemperatureandthecriticalpressure

ENERGYentersasubstanceasHEATorPVWORK

DuringaPHASECHANGE,
ENERGYbreaksBONDS
anddoesNOTCHANGETEMPERATURE

WhenthePHASEISNOTCHANGING,
energyINCREASESMOLECULARMOVEMENT,
increasingTEMPERATURE

COLLIGATIVEPROPERTIESDEPENDONNUMBER,notkind
1) Vaporpressure
a. Addingnonvolatilesoluteswilllowervaporpressureofthesolutioninproportiontothe#of
particles
2) Boilingpoint
a. BoilingpointRISESwithadditionofnonvolatilesolutes
3) Freezingpoint
a. FreezingpointDECREASESwithadditionofnonvolatilesolutes
4) Osmoticpressure
a. Measureofthetendencyofwatertomoveintoasolutionviaosmosis
b. INCREASEDOSMOTICPRESSUREontheSOLUTIONSIDEOFTHEwatersolution
divisionbyanonpermeablemembranepurewaterenterssolutionsidetotrytoequalize
concentrations

AcidsandBases
ArrheniusAcidanyspeciesthatproducesHYDROGENIONSinaqueoussolutions
ArrheniusBaseanyspeciesthatproducesHYDROXIDEIONSinaqueoussolutions

Bronsted&LowryAcidanyspeciesthatDONATESaPROTON
Bronsted&LowryBaseanyspeciesthatACCEPTSaPROTON

LewisAcidanyspeciesthatACCEPTSanELECTRONPAIR
LewisBaseanyspeciesthatDONATESanELECTRONPAIR

ACIDICSOLUTIONcontainsmoreH+thanOH
BASICSOLUTIONcontainsmoreOHthanH+

pH=log[H+]

THESTRONGERTHEACID,theWEAKERTHECONJUGATEBASE
THESTRONGERTHEBASE,theWEAKERTHECONJUGATEACID

AMPHOTERICasubstancethatcanactaseitheranACIDoraBASE

3=log[10
3
] OR 3=log[.003] VERYACIDIC

10=log[10
10
] OR 10=log[.0000000001] VERYBASIC

HYDRONIUMION(H3O+)

STRONGACIDS(strongerthanH3O+) STRONGBASES(strongerthanOH)
Hydroiodicacid HI
Hydrobromicacid HBr
Hydrochloricacid HCl
NitricAcid HNO
3

PerchloricAcid HClO
4

ChloricAcid HClO
3

SulfuricAcid H
2
SO
4

SodiumHydroxide NaOH
PotassiumHydroxide KOH
AmideIon NH
2

HydrideIon H
CalciumHydroxide Ca(OH)
2

SodiumOxide Na
2
O
CalciumOxide CaO

ACIDDISSOCIATIONDECREASESasACIDCONCENTRATIONINCREASES

ACIDSTRENGTHINCREASESasACIDCONCENTRATIONINCREASES

INCREASINGPOLARITY/BONDSTRENGTH=DECREASINGACIDITY

HIisSTRONGERthanHF

InaseriesofOXYACIDS,MOREOXYGENSisaSTRONGERACID

HYPOCHLOROUSacid<CHLOROUSacid<CHLORICacid<PERCHLORICacid

EQUILIBRIUMFORAUTOIONIZATIONOFWATERACIDBASEREACTIONS
Kwistheequilibriumconstantforthisreaction
K
w
=[H+][OH]=10
14

pH+pOH=pK
w

ForAqueousSolutionat25degreesCelsius
pH+pOH=14

ACIDDISSOCIATIONCONSTANTKa
HA+H
2
O>H
3
O++A
K
a
=[H+][A]/[HA]

EQUILIBRIUMFORCONJUGATEBASE
A+H
2
O>OH+HA

K
b
=[OH][HA]/[A]
(K
a
)(K
b
)=K
w

pK
a
+pK
b
=pK
w

pK
a
+pK
b
=14
pK
a
=pHlog([A]/[HA])

IfpH>pK
a,
thenmoleculewillLOSEPROTON(chargeoverall)
IfpH=pK
a,
thenmoleculehas50%CHANCEofLOSINGPROTON
IfpH<pK
a,
thenmoleculewillprobablyGAINAPROTON(+chargeoverall)

STRONGACIDhasKa>1ORApKa<0

FORSTRONGACIDS/BASES
Theentireconcentrationdissociates,so[H+]or[OH]isthesameastheoriginalconcentrationoftheacid/base
So0.1MHCLhas0.1M[H+]

TITRATION
dropbydropmixingofanacidandabase
PerformedtofindtheconcentrationofsomeunknownbycomparingitwiththeconcentrationoftheTITRANT

EQUIVALENCEPOINT/STOICHIOMETRICPOINTthemidpointofthegraphlinethatisalmostvertical

IftheBASEandtheACIDareequivalentinstrength,theequivalencepointisprobablypH7,unlessonespeciesis
diprotic

IftheBASEisSTRONGERthantheACID,thepointwillbeabovepH7

IftheACIDisSTRONGERthantheBASE,thepointwillbebelowpH7

HALFEQUIVALENCEPOINTpointwhereoftheacidhasbeenneutralizedbythebase
Theconcentrationoftheacidisequaltotheconcentrationofitsconjugatebase
Thispointshowsthepointinthetitrationwherethesolutionisthemostwellbuffered

HENDERSONHASSELBALCHEQUATIONthepHofthesolutionisequaltothepKaoftheacid

THEENDPOINTiswheretheINDICATORCHANGESCOLOR(ENDICATOR)

Electrochemistry
OxidationReduction
TheTRANSFERofelectronsfromoneatomtoanother
OXIDATIONISLOSINGELECTRONS;REDUCTIONISGAININGELECTRONS

OXIDATIONSTATES
PossibleCHARGEVALUESthatanatommayholdwithinamolecule

OxidationState Atom
0 Atomsintheirelementalform
1 Fluorine
+1 Hydrogen(exceptwhenbondedtoametal:then1)
2 Oxygen(exceptwhenitisinaperoxidelikeH2O2)

OxidationState GrouponPeriodicTable
+1 Group1Elements(alkalimetals)
+2 Group2Elements(alkalineearthmetals)
3 Group15Elements(nitrogenfamily)
2 Group16Elements(oxygenfamily)
1 Group17Elements(halogens)

TheReducingAgentisOXIDIZED
TheOxidizingAgentisREDUCED
Potentials
ThereisanELECTRICPOTENTIALEassociatedwithanyredoxreaction
EachcomponentisaHALFREACTION
REDUCTIONPOTENTIALEmustbePOSITIVEforittooccur.
TakeEofsubstanceBEINGREDUCED,subtractEforthesubstanceBEINGOXIDIZED
E
SUBSTANCEBEINGREDUCED
E
SUBSTANCEBEINGOXIDIZED
>0
HalfreactionthatoccursatastandardHYDROGENELECTRODEisarbitrarilyassignedasZEROVOLTS

TheGALVANICCELL(a.k.a.VOLTAICCELL)
ChemicalEnergyINTOElectricalEnergy
MultiphaseSeriesofcomponentswithnocomponentoccurringinmorethanonephase
Allphasesmustconductelectricity
AtleastONEPHASEmustbeIMPERMEABLETOELECTRONS
IONICCONDUCTORisusedtocarrycurrentinformofIONS
ThisIONICCONDUCTORisusuallyaSALTBRIDGE

Terminal
1
Electrode
1
IonicconductorElectrode
2
Terminal
2

TheemfistheELECTRICPOTENTIALDIFFERENCEbetweenTerminal
1
&Terminal
2

AnodeNEGATIVE CathodePOSITIVE(thinkcation)

REDCAT;ANOX
Reductioncathode;anodeoxidation
IUPACConventionExample
Pt(s)|Zn(s)|Zn
2+
(aq)||Cu
2+
(aq)|Cu(s)|Pt(s)

FREEENERGY&ChemicalEnergy
G=nFE
MAX

G=G+RTln(Q)
G=RTln(K)
IfK=1;thenG=0 IfK>1;thenG<0 IfK<1;thenG>0
TheCONCENTRATIONCELL
Limitedformofagalvaniccellwithareductionhalfreactiontakingplaceinonehalfcellandtheexactreverseof
thathalfreactiontakingplaceintheotherhalf
Ifconcentrationsonbothsidesareequal,thenE=0
Onesidemusthaveahigherconcentrationofthereactantsthantheothersideforthistowork
TheELECTROLYTICCELL
PutaPOWERSOURCEacrossagalvaniccellsresistanceandforceittorunBACKWARDS

GalvanicCell ElectrolyticCell
PositiveCATHODE NegativeCathode
NegativeAnode PositiveANODE
POSITIVEEMFPOTENTIAL NEGATIVEEMFPOTENTIAL
ElectronsflowtowardCATHODE ElectronsflowtowardANODE