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Physics II year Model question paper 2013 2014

Section A
I Very short answer questions 102 =20 M
Answer all questions, each carries two marks.

(1) What are beats?
(2)Can there be electric intensity at a point with zero electric potential? Give example.
(3) define resistivity (or) Specific resistance.
(4)Magnetic lines form continuous closed loops. Why?
(5)State Lenzs law.
(6)What is transformer ratio?
(7)Give two uses of infrared rays.
(8) What is work function?
(9) Draw the circuit symbol for p n p and n - p n transistors.
(10) Define modulation. Why is it necessary?

Section B
II Short Answer questions
(i)Answer any six questions. 64 =24 M
(ii) Each question carries four marks.

(11)What is Doppler Effect? Obtain an expression for the apparent frequency of sound guard when the source
is in motion with respect to an observer at rest.
(12)Explain polarization by refraction.
(13)State Gausss law in electrostatics and explain its importance.
(14)Derive an expression for the equivalent capacity when capacitors are connected in series.
(15)State Kirchhoffs law for an electrical network. Using these laws deduce the condition for balance in wheat
stone bridge.
(16)Derive an expression for the magnetic induction at a point on the equatorial line of a bar magnet.
(17)Discuss Bohrs theory of the spectrum of hydrogen atom.
(18)What is rectification? Explain the working of a Full wave rectifier.

Section C
III Long answer4 questions 28 =16 M
(i) Answer any two questions (ii) Each question carries eight marks
(19) Define Snells law. Using a neat labeled diagram derive an expression for the refractive index of the
material of an equilateral prism.
(b)A ray of light, after passing through a medium, meets the surface separating the medium from air at an
angle of 45and is just not refracted. What is the refractive index of the medium?
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(20)Obtain an expression for the torque on a current carrying loop placed in a uniform magnetic field.
Describe the construction and working of a moving coil galvanometer.
(21)Explain the principle and woe king of a nuclear reactor with the help of a labeled diagram.


Answers
Section A
(1) When the two waves , travelling the same path and in the same direction, which slight difference in
frequencies, superimpose a periodic change in intensity takes place due to interference in time. This
phenomenon is called beats.
(2) Yes, their can electric intensity at a point where the potential is zero.
Example: - The point at which perpendicular bisector of an electric dipole potential is zero, but intensity is not
zero.

(3)The resistivity (e) of a material is numerically equal to the resistance of a conductor having one meter
length and one square meter area of cross section.
R =
:I
A
(l =lm, A =lm
2
)
R =

(4)Magnetic lines form continuous closed loops because there are no isolated poles any where.
It completes its path inside the magnet where it goes from the South Pole to North Pole and out side
the magnet, it goes from North Pole to South Pole.

(5) Lenzs law: - The direction of induced emf is such as to oppose the change in magnetic flux that produces it.

(6) The ratio of output emf to the input emf of a transfer is called transformer ratio i.e.
L
2
L
1

(or)
The ration of no. of turns in the secondary coil to the no. of turns in the primary coil is called transformer ratio.
i.e.
N
2
N
1


(7)Uses: - (1) In reading the secret writing of ancient walls.
(2) In knowing the molecular structure.
(3) In taking photographs during night and foggy conditions.

(8)The minimum energy required by an electron to escape from the metal surface is called the work function
of the metal.
w
0
(or)
0
= o
0




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E
C
B
E C
B
L
L +V
s
To
V
s
To
V
s

O
S
1

S
2














P n p transistor n- p n transistor



(10) The process of combining audio frequency signal with high frequency signal is called modulation.
Necessity: -
1) Low frequencies cannot be transmitted to long distances. Hence the modulation is necessary.
2) To reduce the size of antenna
3) To avoid mixing up of signals from different transmitters.

Section B

(11)Due to relative motion b/w the source and observer, the frequency received by the observer is different
from that of the source. This phenomenon is known as Doppler Effect.
Ex: - The whistle of the approaching train towards an observer at rest appears to be higher than the
original frequency.
Source in motion Observed at rest: -













Let us consider an observer at O who is stationary in a frame in which the medium is also at rest. Let the
source of sound is initially S
1
and moving away form the observer with a velocity V
s

Let the angular frequency of sound wave be W. Time period be T
0
and speed of sound wave be V.
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Reflected
Transmitted
Plane polarized light
Unpolarized
32.5
When t =0, the source is at S
1
, and the distance of L from the observer and emit a crest. This reaches the
observer at time t
1
=L/V when t =T
0
the source has move a distance V
s
To and is at a points S
2

t
2
= [Io +
L+v
S
1o
v


When t =nT
o
the source emits its (n +1)th crest and this reaches the observer at time
t
n+1
= nI
0
+
L+nv
S
1
0
v

Hence, in a time interval [ nI
0
+
L+nv
S
1
0
v

L
v
the observer receives n crests and the observer record the
period of the wave as T =j nI
0
+
L+nv
S
1
0
v

L
v
[ /n
The inverse of T gives the frequency received by the observer at rest.
1
1
=
1
1
0
[1+
v
S
v

-1
o = o
0
[
1+v
S
v

-1
[ o =
1
1
,o
0
=
1
1
0

By neglecting higher powers the above equation may be approximated.
This gives the frequency received by the stationary observer, when the source is moving away
from the observers with a velocity. If the source is approaching the observer, V
S
is to be replaced by - V
S
, then
the frequency received by the observers is o = o
0
[
1+v
S
v


(12) Pile of plates: - A number of glass plates are arranged parallel to each other. This is known as pile of
plates.













These piles of plates are fixed in a suitable tube with an inclination of 32.5 to the axis of the table.
When unpolarised light is allowed to incident on the first plate at the angle of polarization (57.5) part of the
light reflects and remaining part refracts.
After many refractions, the final refracted rays are free from vibrations parallel to the plane of incidence.
Hence plane polarized light is said to be produced due to refraction.



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s
+
-
C
1
C
2

C
3

+q -q
-q
+q
+q
+q
(13)Gauss law: - Total electric flux through a closed surfaced is equal to
1
c
0
times the total charge enclosed by
the surface.
E.Js =
2
c
0



Where q is the total charge enclosed by the surface e
0
is the permittivity of free space.
Importance: -
1) Gauss theorem is vaid for stationary charges as well as for rapidly moving charge.
2) Gauss theorem holds good for any closed surface of any shape.
3) Gauss law gives the relation between the electric field and the charge.

(14)Condensers in series: - (or) Capacitors in series: -
If number of capacitors is connected in such a way so that the charge on the plates of every one of them is
same, then the condensers are said to be connected in series.
Let three condensers of capacitiesC
1
,C
2
,onJ C
3
are connected in series as shown fig. The
charge on the plates of the capacitors is same but the P.D across the capacitors of capacities C
1
,C
2
,onJ C
3
are
I
1
,I
2
,onJ I
3
respectively. And V be the P.D. across the combination of the capacitors.










I = I
1
+I
2
+I
3
(1)
But I
1
=
q
C
1
, I
2
=
q
C
2
, I
3
=
q
C
3

V =
q
C
,
q
C
=
q
C
1
+
q
C
2
+
q
C
3


1
C
=
1
C
1
+
1
C
2
+
1
C
3
(2)

The reciprocal of the equivalent capacity is equal to the sum of reciprocal values of the capacities of the
combination.

(15)Kirchhoffs first law (or) current law: -
The sum of current flowing into Junction is equal to sum of currents flowing out of same junction.




V
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i
1

i
2

i
3

i
4

i
5


i
1
+i
2
+ i
4
+ = i
3
+ i
5

i
1
+i
2
- i
3
+i
4
- i
5
=0

i =0

i.e. algebraic sum of current meeting at a junction is equal to zero.
Kirchhoffs second law (or) voltage law: -
In any closed circuit, the algebraic sum of all potential difference is zero.
V =0
iR = V
Wheatstone bridge: -
Wheat stone bridge is an electric circuit used to compare resistances or to find the value of unknown
resistance.



It consists of four resistances P, Q, R, S that are connected to form four sides of a quadrilateral.
These four sides are referred as arms of the bridge. Four junctions are formed at A, B, C and D.
A batter y of emf is connected between two junctions A and B.
A galvanometer resistance G ohm is connected between C and D.
Applying Kirchhoffs first law
At junction C
1
i
1
= i
g
+i
3
(1)
At junction
1
i
2
+i
g
=i
4
(2)
Applying Kirchhoffs second law for the loop ACDA
i
1
p- i
g
G+ i
2
R=0 (3)


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R
N
d
Q
E

d
2
+l
2

S
0 l
l
Applying Kirchhoffs second law for the loop CBDC
i
3
Q+ i
4
S+ i
g
G=0 (4)
The values of P, Q, R, and S are suitably adjusted so that no current should pass through galvanometer. Then
wheat stone bridge is said to be balanced. Substituting i
g
=0 in equation (1), (2), (3), and (4) we get
i
1
= i
3
(5) and i
2
= i
4
(6)
i
1
p =i
2
R (7) and i
3
Q =i
4
S (8)
Using equations (5) and (6) and dividing eq (7) by (8) we get

P

=
R
S
this is the principle of Wheat Stone bridge.

(16)Let us consider a bar magnet of pole strength m and length 2l. O be the mid point on the bar magnet.
Line drawn at perpendicular to NS is the equatorial line of the bar magnet. Let E be the point on the
equatorial line and it is at a distance ofd from O.
Now NE =SE =J
2
+ l
2
and the magnetic induction at E due to morth pole is given by BN and is
the direction of NP
B
N
=

0
4n

m
(NL)
2
=

0
4n

m
(d
2
+ I
2
)











Similarly, the magnetic induction at E due to the South Pole is B and is in the direction of ES
B
S
=

0
4

m
(SE)
2
=

0
4

m
(d
2
+l
2
)

B
N
and B
S
are adjacent sides of a parallelogram EPRQ. The ER the diagonal of the parallelogram gives the
resultant field induction BE from similar triangles EPR and NES. We have
LR
NS
=
LP
NL
(Or) ER =
LP
NL
(NS) =
BN2I
d
2
+I
2

ER =

0
4

m
(d
2
+l
2
)

2I
d
2
+I
2

B
L
=

0
4

M
(d
2
+I
2
)
3/ 2
( H =2l m)
The direction of the field induction BE on the equatorial line is always opposite to the direction of the
magnetic moment.

(17)Bohrs theorem of spectrum of hydrogen atom: -
Hydrogen atom has one proton and one electron in the ground state. By the absorption of energy, electron
jumps from the ground state to the higher energy level (n = ) with the absorption of 13.58 ev. An atom
P
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becomes unstable. In order to get the stability the electron should comes back to lower energy level with
mission of energy
While de-excitation of electron, the electron directly comes to the first energy level (or) it may
while de-excitation of electron, the electron directly comes to the first energy levels.
Since many atoms are involved, hence it produces large number of spectral lines in the hydrogen
spectrum. Five series of spectral lines are formed. They are: -










The wave number and wave length of these spectral lines can be calculated by using Rydbergs equation.
o =
1
x
j
1
n
1
2

1
n
2
2
[
R Rydbergs constant =109677 cm
-1


n =7
n =6
n =5 P fond series
n =4 Brackelt series
n =3 Pascher series
n =2 Balmer series
n =1 lyman series (U.V region)



(18)Rectification: - The process of converting an alternating current into a direct current is called rectification.
Full wave rectifier: - A rectifier which rectifier both half cycles of the ac input is called full wave rectifier. A full
wave rectifier can be constructed with two diodes D
1
and D
2
, centre tap transformer load resistance R
2
and
a.c input as in centre tap transformer, the secondary coil is wound into two equal parts.

Name of the series n
1
n
2
Spectral region
1) Lyman series 1 2, 3, 4, 5 ----- UV region
2) Blamer series 2 3, 4, 5, 6 ------- Visible region
3) Paschem series 3 4, 5, 6, 7-------- Near IR
4) Brackett series 4 5, 6, 7 ---------- Middle IR
5) P fund series 5 6, 7, 8, 9--------- Far IR
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During positive half cycled, end A becomes positive and end B becomes ve. This makes diode D
1
forward
bias and diode D
2
reverse bias. Than D
1
conducts and D
2
does not. So o/p voltage is obtained through load
resistance (R
2
) due to diode D
1

During negative half cycle, end A becomes negative and B becomes positive. The diode D
1
reverses bias and
D
2
forward bias. So D
2
conduct and D
1
does not. So output obtained across R
2
is due to D
2

The full wave rectifier 81.2% of a.c is converted into D.C
The efficiency of the full wave rectifier
p =
0.812 RL

]
+ R
2

where r
]
=diode resistance
r
2
=load resistance

Section C

(19) (a) Snells law: - The ratio of the size of the angle of incidence to the size of angle of refraction is constant.
This is constant is known as refractive index of the medium.
p =
sIn
sIn

Where i is the angle of incidence, r is the angle of refraction.
Expression for the refractive index: -
Let us consider an equilateral triangular prism ABC.


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30
40
50
60
70
0
20
40
60
i =e
A
B
C
S
P
Q
R
M
i
e
r
1

r
2

N










A ray PQ is incident on the first surface AB and makes and angle of incidence i with the normal drawn to
AB. It refracts into the prism and makes an angle r called angle of refraction, with the normal drawn to AB.
The light ray travels along QR in the prism and makes angle of incidence r
2
on second surface AC of the prism.
Finally after refracting from prism the light ray with the normal to AC and is called
angle of emergence. The angle b/w the emerged ray RS and the direction of the incident ray PQ is called the
angle of deviation.
The quadrilateral AQNR two of the angle are right angles. Therefore, the sum of the
other angles of the quadrilatera180
A +QNR = 180 (1)
From the triangle QNR, r
1
+r
2
+QNR =180 (2)
Comparing eq (1) and (2) we get r
1
+r
2
=A (3)
The total deviation o is the sum of deviations at the two faces.
o =(i r
1
) +(e r
2
)
i.e. o =i+e - A (4)

A plot between the angle of deviation and angle of incidence










From the graph, it can be under stood that for any given value, of except for i =e, corresponds to two values i
and hence of e. o remains the same if i and e are inter changed.
At minimum deviation D
m
the refracted ray in side the prism becomes parallel to its base.
Then, o =D
m
i =e and r
1
=r
2
equation (3) gives, 2r =A (or) r =A/2
equation (4) gives D
m
=2i A (or) i =(A +D
m
)/2
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0
A
B
C
D
P
B


Y
i
F
1

F
2

F
3

Y P
0
Q
R
B
0
F
3
=Bil
F
1
=Bil
F
1
=Bil
F
2

=Bil cos0 F
3
=Bil F
4

=Bil cos0
the refractive index of the prism p =
sIn
sIn
=
sIn(A+
m
)/ 2
sIn A/ 2


(b)Angle made by the ray with the surface =45
Angle of incidence (or) critical angle =90 45 =45
Angle of refraction r =90
It is just not refracted.
Refractive index p =
1
sIn C
=
1
sIn 45
=
1
1/ 2
= 2=1.414



(20)












Torgue on current loop
Consider a rectangular current loop ABCD having length AB =CD =l and breadth AD =BC =b and carrying
current be suspended a magnetic field of induction (or) flux density B with normal on to its field direction.
There are four forces F
1

F
2

F
3

and F
4

are acting on the four sides AB, BC, CD, and AD of the loop,
magnitude of these forces are


By fleming left hand rule, force F
2
and F
4
acts on sides BC, and AD exactly in opposite direction along same
line. Hence they cancel.
By Flemings left hand rule the two equal forces F
1
and F
2
acts on vertical sides of the loop in opposite
directions at different points on the same loop, if the coil is made to rotate about vertical axis YY
The moment of couple (or) torque,
y = forceperpendicular distance between the two forces
Here, F =F
1
=F
3
=Bil sin0
=F PR
=Bilb sin0 [ sin0 =
PR
P
PR =Psin0 =b sin0
= Bilb sin0
If area of the loop is A =lb, then = BilA sin0
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For a coil of N turns = NBiAsin0 (1)
In vector form,

= H

(2)
M =NiA
If plane of the coil makes an angle with the direction of the magnetic field, then = NBiAcos (3)
Principle, construction and working of a MCG: -
Principle: - When the current carrying coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field, it experiences a torque. Due to
this torque, the coil gets deflected by means of which the electric current fowling through the coil can be
measured.
Construction: -
A moving coil galvanometer consists of a strong horseshoe magnet with concave shaped poles N and S.
A rectangular coil insulated cooper wire wound on a light Aluminum (or) brass frames is suspended between
the magnetic poles by means of a phosphor bronze fiber P from a torsion head T
1

A mirror M is attached to the fiber (or) wire to the measure the deflection of the coil by using lamp and scale
arrangement.




Working: - When the current to be measured i is passed through the coil, the coil experiences a deflecting
torque. Then coil be gains to turn. As the coil turns, the phosphor bronze wire gets twisted. Due to this
restoring couple is developed in the phosphor - bronze wire. Let N be the number of turns in the coil.
A be the coil and B be the magnetic induction field acts on the coil.
The deflecting torque = BiAN (1)
If C is the restoring couple per unit twist and 0 is the deflection of the coil
Restoring torque =C 0 (2)
Deflecting torque =restoring torque
NBiA =C 0
i =
C
BAN
0 (3)
i =K 0 (4)
where K =
C
BAN
=Galvanometer constant
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i 0
Hence the deflection of the coil is directly proportional to the steady current passing through it.

(21) Principle A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear fission can be carried out through a self sustained
and a controlled chain reaction. It is also called an atomic pile.
Neutron multiplication factor (k): - The ratio of the number of neutrons generated in the present stage to the
number of neutrons generated in the previous stage is called as neutron multiplication factor.


Coolant


Refractor
Steam to turbine

Control rods head exchanger


Water from condenser



The essential component of a nuclear reactor is
(1) Fuel (2) Modular (3) control rods (4) Radiation shielding (5) Coolant

(1)Fuel: - The fissionable material used in the reactor is called nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel is taken in the
form of rods and sealed in aluminum cylinders.
Ex: Enriched branium, U
235
enriched plutonium (or) U
233
etc.
(2)Moderator: -Moderator is a substance which slows down the fast moving neutrons produced during the
nuclear fission process. The average energy of neutrons released in the fission process is 2 Mev. They are slow
down to thermal neutrons (0.025ev) by moderator.
Ex: - Heavy water, graphite, Hydrocarbon plastics etc.
(3)Control rods: - The fission rate in the reactor is controlled by using the neutron absorbing materials.
Ex: - Cadmium and Boron rods.
(4) Shielding: - During fission reaction ([) and gama(r) radiation are emitted along with neutrons. Suitanle
shielding such as steel lead and concrete walls are provide.
(5)Coolant: - The heat generated in fuel elements is removed by using a suitable coolant to flow around them.
The coolent used are water at high pressures, molten Sodium etc.
Working: - Uranium fuel rods are placed in the aluminum cylinders which are separated by some distance. The
graphite moderator is placed in between the fuel cylinders.
The control rod is kept in the holes of the graphite block. When a few U 235 nuclei undergo fission, fast
neutrons are liberated.
Core
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published on NET. The guess paper published on net is for the information to the examinees. This does
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been made to make the guess paper available on this website as authentic as possible. Manabadi or any
staff persons will not be responsible for any loss to persons caused by any shortcoming, defect or
inaccuracy in the Guess Papers provided by Manabadi.com website.
These matrons pass through graphite moderator and loose their energies to become thermal neutrons. These
thermal neutrons participate in further fission process.
By proper adjustment of the control rods in the core the fission events are suitably controlled.
The heat generated is used for heating the coolant head is transferred to water and steam is produced.
This steam is used to turn the steam turbine. This steam turbine is used to drive a generator to produce
electricity or to convert into mechanical energy.


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manabadi.com is not responsible for any inadvertent error that may have crept in the guess paper being
published on NET. The guess paper published on net is for the information to the examinees. This does
not constitute to be a Main Question paper and should NOT follow the same. While all efforts have
been made to make the guess paper available on this website as authentic as possible. Manabadi or any
staff persons will not be responsible for any loss to persons caused by any shortcoming, defect or
inaccuracy in the Guess Papers provided by Manabadi.com website.

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