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Authenti ci ty, ef f ortl essness, del l usi on and spontanei ty

i n 7; heAuthenti ci ty of Open Awareness and rel ated texts


Anne C. KLEI N
Ri ce Uhi versi ty
Hbuston
I ntroducti on
I n i ts cul mi nati ng pages, the masterf u1 Dzogchen (rDzogs chen) treati se
known as the Authenti ci ty of Ci pen Awareness, A Col l ecti on oj C the l l l ssenti al
Reasoni ngs i g7; an tshi gs gal mdo ri g pa' i tshad moj , seaml essl y i nterweaves
several of the work' s most cruci al themes, of ten by way of poeti c ci tati on. From
the Pri mordi al l y Compl ete Ceasel essness and Changel essness (g}' 2tngs duung ye
rdeogy, f br exampl e, we read:
As f or mi nd nature, the essenti al Dzogchen i nstructi on,
Al l i s real i zed as the very essenti al nature -
No need, theref bre, to medi tate on mi nd- obj ects
For here i s sameness: no di scardi ng, no uphol di ng:
Medi tati ve stabi l i zati on that never degeneratesi ).
By the ti me thi s passage occurs, we are wel l prepared f or the text' s
j uxtaposi ti on of essenti al i nstructi ons, Onan ngcrg>) essenti al nature 6ogo bo ayi cO
and the unchangi ng character of medi tati ve stabi l i zati on ai ng nge ' dui nj . Fromi ts
openi ng pages the Authenti ci ty consi ders howessenti al i nstructi ons, l i ke certai n
scri ptures, are authenti c methods f br understandi ng the Dzogchen vi ew.
Thi s paper expl ores expl i ci t and i mpl i ci t l i nks among these pri nci pl es of
authenti ci ty, especi al l y the rel ati onshi p between scri ptural authenti ci ty aung gyi
tshad moj and unbounded whol eness ahi g l e ayag gci g? as wel l as the si gni f i cance
of scri pture' s own embodi ment as the ctharmakdya Samantabhadra. Wi thi n thi s
l arger f ramework, we consi der the i nterrel ati onshi p of the Dzogchen pri nci pl es of
ef f brtl essness and spontanei ty, as wel l as the ways i n whi ch Authenti ci ty connects
i ts di scussi on of these wi th i terati ons of del usi on and the non- necessi ty of
medi tati on. I n thi s we drawnot onl y f romthe Authenti ci ty but al so f romworks
cl osel y rel ated to i t, begi nni ng wi th i ts root text, 71he Authenti ci ty oj C Essenti al
i nstructi ons and SZrri pture (7V4an ngag l ung gyi tshad moj , and then movi ng to the
Stages of the Vk?hi cl es (71heg ri op2) and i ts Commentary (Zheg ' greO3), al l attri buted
to sTon- pa gShen- rab. Attenti on i s al so gi ven to the 772ree Reveal ed Cycl es
(Z, sGrags pa skor gsum), whi ch has the same root text as Authenti ci ty i tsel f
Cruci al el ements of Bon Dzogchen perspecti ves (many of whi ch are common
to Buddhi st Dzogchen) are of ten gi ven thei r most succi nct expressi on i n the many
193
194
A. - C. Kl ei n
poeti c ci tati ons that f ormthe core around whi ch Authenti ci ty' s many debates
constel l ate. I n taki ng thi s bi rd' s eye vi ewof howi mportant themes move through
the enti re text, and because i t conveys somethi ng of the Dzogchen spi ri t that prose
does not, our di scussi on of Authenti ci ty of ten f ol l ows that poeti c voi ce4).
1 The scri ptural voi ce of Samantabhadra
A statement earl y i n the Authenti ci ty f breshadows connecti ons i t l ater suggests
among scri ptural authori ty, open awareness, and the three Buddha di mensi ons (sku,
keya).
Through bl essi ngs oP) the Vi ctor Al l - Good Bon di mensi on, ref l exi ve gpen
awareness, a whol eness6) whi ch i s the heart essence of our ancestors"1 i s
understood by the Whi te Shen Dei ty, protector8) of bei ngs. That i tsel the
very essence9) of mi ndheart understandi ng, dawns as open awareness i n the
mi ndheart of the emanati on di mensi on gShen- rab. Lyri cal speechi O), the
musi cal expressi on of thi s [open awareness], i s addressed to f ortunate ones,
the heroi cal l y mi nded Yung Drung Shen- practi ti onersi i ) [Bodhi sattvas]i 2).
Thi s teachi ngi 3), di spl ayed by hi s [gShen- rab Mi - bo' s] great mi ndheart
{49. 2} has three areas of conf i dencei 4) regardi ng exReri ence, expl anati on,
and essenti al i nstructi ons, and i s expl ai ned extensi vel y") f br the wel l bei ng of
those havi ng the karma to meet wi th i ti 6).
Here the text i ntroduces a whol eness whi ch i s al so the ul ti mate progeni tor of
authenti c scri ptures. An unknown annotator of the Authenti ci ty ' s current redacti on
gl osses "ancestor" as "source of conf i dence" tvi d ches pa ' i l ung), wi th "source"
aung) bei ng a termcognate wi th "scri pture, " thus i mpl yi ng a prof ound connecti on
between authenti f yi ng scri ptures and conf i dent real i zati oni 7). By expandi ng on the
text' s unel aborated connecti ons between scri pture, the whol eness whi ch i s real i ty,
and the pri mordi al Buddha, we can access more f u11y i ts vi ewof unbounded
whol eness and structure of authenti cati on.
The areas of conf i dence named i n the passage above are anal ogous to the three
authenti ci ti es the text then enumerates: scri pture aungi , essenti al i nstructi ons (h2an
ngag? and ref l ecti ve open awareness f rang gi ri g ba ' i tshad ma. )i 8). Accordi ng to
the Authenti ci ty, authenti c essenti al i nstructi ons connect the practi ti oner to
authenti c scri ptures, whi ch themsel ves f aci l i tate authenti c open awareness. These
are consi dered "authenti cators of method" ahabs gyi tshad mcV i nsof ar as they are
methods, or causes, f br understandi ng unbounded whol enessi 9).
Thus, the i mportance of scri ptural authori ty i s cl ear f romthe outset. I ni ti al l y i t
i s f ramed si mpl y as a method f or i ni ti ati ng an experi ence of unbounded whol eness;
i ts vi rtual i denti f i cati on wi th the voi ce of real i ty i n the person of Samantabhadra i s
an aspect of the narrati ve whi ch does not f u11y emerge f br another 80 f ol i os. Onl y
gradual l y does the text reveal howi nti matel y ti ed i s scri ptural authori ty to the
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7J be Auther7ti ci ty of (i pen A wai eness and . . .
195
wi tnessi ng open awareness' own authenti ci ty and why, nonethel ess, even real i ty' s
own voi ce cannot descri be i t f u11y.
The Authenti ci ty expl ai ns essenti al i nstructi ons as the cruci al l i nk between
authenti c scri ptures and open awareness. I n maki ng thi s poi nt, the text i s
chal l enged to establ i sh that unbounded whol eness and the open awareness whi ch
knowi ngl y parti ci pates i n i t do exi st and, despi te bei ng i ndescri babl e by
Samantabhadra, and transparent to ordi nary dual i sti c consci ousness, can be known.
Al though i t [unbounded whol eness] i s not an external obj ect, i t i s mani f est
f or open awareness whi ch through the mere i ndi cati on of essenti al
i nstructi ons, knows i t cl earl y, nonconceptual l y, and thi ngl essl y20).
Gradual l y, the real i ty known as unbounded whol eness becomes amal gamated
wi th scri ptural authenti ci ty i tsel Let us bri ef l y trace that traj ectory i n terms of the
l arger f rame of our di scussi on, and i n thi s way prepare to expl ore the text' s key
phi l osophi cal underpi nni ngs, especi al l y the tri umvi rate of perf ectedness,
ef f ortl essness, and spontanei ty.
Havi ng bri ef l y i denti f i ed the three authenti cators, the Authenti ci ty ci tes the
Venerabl e Bon Awareness qf Everythi ng 7bntra (]l un ri g bon gyi ry' e rgyuql ):
I amheart essence of al l bon that i s
'
Bon- nature i s not an obj ect, i s your own mi nd:
Your uncontri ved mi nd i s the Bon Body
Al l ari ses f romme, bon- phenomena l ord.
Knowme and the Al l - Good i s there2i ).
To i denti f y Samantabhadra, l i teral l y "the Al l - Good, " wi th the nature of real i ty
i s common i n both Bon and Buddhi st Dzogchen. And once real i ty i s personi f i ed,
however abstractl y, i t i s natural f br i t to have a voi ce. Hence, perhaps, the l ogi c of
thi s text' s i nterest i n sl owl y f orgi ng a speci al conf l ati on of thi s voi ce, scri ptural
authenti ci ty, and the structure of real i ty i tsel
The text' s next move i s to consi der ordi nary bei ngs' rel ati onshi p to the
"uncontri ved mi nd" of Dzogchen. Ui nbounded n77zol eness, the Ceasel ess,
Changel ess 1i ssenti al Heart i gYtzng deung sayi ngpo ayag gci gy says:
Enl i ghtenment mi nd, root of al l mi nds and Bon- phenomena
The very heart essence (hgo bo sayi ngpoj , mother unbounded whol eness
Wi thi n thi s whol enesses nei ther meeti ng nor separati on ever was, i s, or wi l l
be
Pri mordi al l y undel uded, ori gi nal l y perf ect22).
Because the base i s eternal l y undel uded, al l bei ngs born f rom"rnother
unbounded whol eness" are l i kewi se wi thout error. "Buddhas and senti ent bei ngs
are temporari l y separate, f i nal l y i nseparabl e23). " Thus the case f or ef f brtl essness i s
i ntroduced. Yet, "wi thout essenti al i nstructi ons there i s no benef i t but conti nual
del usi on24), " f or open awareness cannot recogni ze i tsel f as unbounded whol eness
wi thout the i nterveni ng method of essenti al i nstructi ons, whi ch necessi tates thei r
status as authenti cators of such real i zati on. Hence, too, the necessi ty f or the art f u1
196
A. - C. Kl ei n
endeavor that the text di sti ngui shes f romef l brt.
Senti ent bei ngs need essenti al i nstructi ons to recogni ze thei r i nborn
Buddhahood. Onl y ref l exi ve open awareness f rang gi ri gpa ' i tshad mby i s capabl e
of such sel f recogni ti on, and thus even though the text names three
"authenti cators", onl y thi s actual l y i tsel f enacts authenti f i cati on. Onl y i t f ul l y
recogni zes i tsel f as unbounded whol eness ahi g l e ayag gctg). Furthermore, si nce
unbounded whol eness i ncl udes al l of cycl i c exi stence and ni rvana25), no
authenti f yi ng descri pti on, reasoned proo or subj ecti ve percei ver i s external to i t.
Thi s, the sel f Lrecogni ti on of ref l exi ve open awareness, i s what di sti ngui shes
ordi nary senti ent bei ngs f romBuddhas.
The basi s of both Buddhas and senti ent bei ngs i s the great sel f ari sen
pri mordi al wi sdom, enl i ghtenment mi nd26): theref ore, senti ent bei ngs cause
Buddhas and Buddhas cause senti ent bei ngs. Hence one speaks of "The Buddha i n
whi ch cause and ef f ect are one taste27). "
Even though one i s pri mordi al l y a Buddha, one does not real i ze onesel f as
that and theref ore i s del uded. Taki ng f brmas a senti ent bei ng, one i s known
conventi onal l y as Buddha who i s a senti ent bei ng. The very essence of the
base i gzhi yi no bo i ryi ai j 28) does not change at al 129).
Mi dway through the Authenti ci ty, i mportant connecti ons are made between
reasoni ng, scri ptural authenti ci ty and the al ready perf ect compl eteness of one' s
own Buddha nature. For exampl e, the Bl i sEg7i l WZi eel (Z, De ba ' i ' khor l oj says:
I f one understands the very essence, the essenti al nature j ust as i t i s
Medi tati on and i ts af termath are i ndi sti ngui shabl e.
Nor does [thi s nature] depart wi thout medi tati on
Thi s i s the best knowl edge of Buddha30).
Al so, Strri pture oj ethe Bl i sEI f i tl Sbmantabhadra (Ktzn bzang bde ba ' i l ung) says:
I f one real i zes these essenti al i nstructi ons
Unsearched f br, there i s an actual Buddha3i ).
Authenti c recogni ti on of unbounded whol eness can never ari se through
ef f ort.
Toward the Authenti ci ty ' s concl usi on, vari ous poeti c voi ces are put f orward i n
concert to express the uni queness of thi s teachi ng, nowmore cl earl y and
consi stentl y i denti f i ed wi th Samantabhadra and ef f ortl essness. The Great Sky
Beyond ELtf ort (7Vk7mmka ' rtsol ' dos chenpo ' i rgyud) says:
I , great ancestor of al l vehi cl es
Ampri mordi al l y wi thout abandonment, i ncl usi on or yearni ng
Pri mordi al l y beyond the i l l ness of ef f ortf u1 accompl i shment
Pri mordi al l y f ree f romextremes of permanence and anni hi l ati on.
Pri mordi al l y untouched by the l ower vehi cl es.
Al l those desi ri ng me through ef f ortf u1 accompl i shment
Coaj oi n once more wi th the di sease of thi nki ng.
They do not see the def i ni ti ve meani ng, the very essence,
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 775eAuthenti ci ty of (2pen A wai eness and . . . 197
Theref bre [thi s teachi ng] i s not f or the ordi nary everyone32).
Al so, the SZ)ontaneousl y Compl ete Awareness 7bntra (CRi g pa
rgyuop:
EMaHb
Marvel ous
Thi s great Samantabhadra real m
Bei ng pri mordi al l y the heart essence, great bl i ss,
' Ti s a pi ty to make ef f ort now. . .
The l ower vehi cl es are great contri vances:
A f bx, even though maki ng a l i on' s sound
Wi l l never be an actual l i on33).
Carryi ng the poi nt f urther, the Stri pture of the Bl i sshtl Sk7mantabh
Such teachi ngs are not f or the ordi nary everyone.
The great Garuda' s [way of l f l yi ng
I s not common to ordi nary bi rds.
The l i on' s l eapi ng i n snow
I s not common to those wi th ordi nary cl aws or hoof s34).
l hun rdeogs
adea says:
There i s an untoward l ogi c here. Buddhas and senti ent bei ngs, whomwe mi ght
assume to be more di f f erent than senti ent bei ngs are f romeach other, turn out not
to be di f f erent i n any essenti al way. Yet, there are suf f i ci ent di f l }erences among
senti ent bei ngs themsel ves to mandate that these teachi ngs be wi thhel d f romthe
maj ori ty of them. At the same ti me, the teachi ngs bei ng ref erred to, as the text
shortl y makes cl ear, are not merel y descri pti ve or reasoned, f or mi nd nature i s
i ndescri babl e and unknowabl e through reasoni ng. Consequentl y, such acti vi ti es are
associ ated wi th f i ' ui tl ess ef f ort.
71he SZrri pture of the Bl i sEl f i i l Sbmantabhadra says:
As f br persons on the path of ef l i ortf u1 accompl i shment f rtsol sgrubj - -
Though si l ver be mei ted, i ron does not ari se.
Though stone be cl eansed, there i s noj ewel
Though coal be beauti f i ed, there i s no tree.
Though descri pti ve phrases be wri tten, they are i nf eri or to scri pture.
Howcan the meani ng of thi s great compl eteness be understood by others35)?
Al so, the Stri ptural Hk?art of the n77zi te Shen Dei ty (gShen l ha dkar po ' i thugs
dyi l ung)) says:
EMA HO
Marvel ous
Thi s great compl eteness, whol eness whi ch i s mi nd- nature - -
Lesser [persons] cannot understand i t, however much they anal yze:
An ocean cannot be consumed by l adl i ng.
You cannot account f br or number
A mountai ns' grai ns of sand.
198 A. - C. Kl ei n
Nor grab space wi th your hands.
Through reversi ng a ri ver f l owyou cannot send i t back.
Nothi ng can be proved by destroyi ng wi th the sounds of
reasoni ng36).
Thus, essenti al i nstructi ons are i mpl i ci tl y di vorced f romtwo of the central
characteri sti cs of tradi ti onal doctri ne - descri pti on and reasoni ng.
"Destroyi ng wi th the sounds of reasoni ng" evokes the vi a negati va methods
whi ch cl ear away wrong vi ews, l eavi ng onl y a pri sti ne absence (i ned ' gqg?. Thi s i s
not the way of Dzogchen - f br one thi ng, reasoni ng, l i ke any conceptual acti vi ty,
requi res ef f brt; f or another, the real i ty of Dzogchen i s i tsel f mul ti val ent, requi ri ng
an unbounded subj ecti vi ty whi ch i s f i nal l y i naccessi bl e through reasoni ng, f br
reasoni ng necessari l y operates wi thi n the conf i nes of opposi ti onal i ti es and rel i es on
proof statements that, by def i ni ti on, drawci rcl es of excl usi vi ty around what i s
proven and what i s not. Yet, reasoni ng does establ i sh the cl ai mthat unbounded
whol eness i s authenti cated; unbounded whol eness i s what reasoni ng reveal s37).
Even so, we by no means f i nd here the ki nd of unmi ti gated reverence f br the
reasoni ng process that we see, f or exampl e, i n Nagati una or Candraki rti 38), or,
much l ater, i n dGe- l ugs use of mul ti pl e f brms of reasoni ng i n medi tati ve anal ysi s.
Such reasoni ngs as are put f orth i n the Authenti ci ty do not consti tute part of a
medi tati on sessi on. Rather, the reader i s l ed to specul ate about reasoni ngs' f brm,
f uncti on, and of course thei r rel ati onshi p to scri pture.
I f scri ptures and essenti al i nstructi ons are nei ther descri pti ons nor reasoned
proof s, what are they? Thi s i mpl i ci t query si gnal s the begi nni ng of a more open
i denti f i cati on of scri pture, an i denti ty that comes i nto f ocus, however, onl y toward
the very end of the Authenti ci ty.
The conf l uence of Samantabhadra, nature of real i ty, and def i ni ti ve scri ptures
emerges i n the Authenti ci ty' s f i nal secti on, whi ch i nterrogates the category of
scri pture and scri ptural ori gi ns. The questi on i s rai sed as to whether the Buddha
who spoke what we nowcal l scri pture was ever a senti ent bei ng or not. Ei ther
opti on rai ses probl ems that threaten to undermi ne scri ptural authenti ci ty. A teacher
who had never been a senti ent bei ng woul d l ack consci ousness and awareness.
Such a bei ng woul d have nei ther an i ncenti ve f br nor the possi bi l i ty of real i zi ng
mi nd nature and, theref ore, woul d never gi ve i nstructi ons on i t. But i f Buddhas
were once senti ent bei ngs, then Samantabhadra too woul d have had a teacher, and
thus by i mpl i cati on coul d not be i denti f i ed as the ceasel ess, changel ess, essenti al
nature that i s the very real i ty f romwhi ch, as we wi l l see, scri pture deri ves i ts
authori ty. The text responds to the conundrumthi s way:
The heart essence, unadorned ei ther by the f aul ts of cycl i c exi stence or the
good qual i ti es of ni rvana, beyond ei ther pure or del uded appearances, i s the
superb Essenti al Nature Di mensi on. I t, the pri mordi al wi sdomof the
pri mordi al meani ng, bel ongs nei ther to Buddhas nor senti ent bei ngs.
Real i zed and understood by Samantabhadra39), that essence ari si ng f romthe
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7Z!e Authentr' cr' ty of Ci pen A wai tmess and . . . 199
center of Samantabhadra' s mi ndheart ahugy and expl ai ned through the
bl essi ngs [of Samantabhadra], i s the def i ni ti ve authenti c scri pture of the
teacher40).
Samantabhadra' s teachi ngs, i ncl udi ng hi s scri ptures, ari se through bl essi ngs
that emanate f romhi s own mi ndheart. These express the natural dynami smof
reai ty; they occur spontaneousl y, f br no ef f brt whatsoever i s i nvol ved, Unl i ke the
hard- worki ng Creator Dei ty of J udai smand Chri sti ani ty, Samantabhadra takes no
speci al rest on the seventh day or any other ti me. I n tandemwi th bei ng al l - good,
Samantabhadra i s al l ef l brtl ess, al l restf u1.
Moreover, where there i s no ef f brt, there i s natural l y no error. The Essence of
the Preci ous J 7i ew7; antra (CRi n po che ' i l ta ba ' i sayi ngpo ' i rgyuai j says:
The errorl ess, def i ni ti vel y authenti c great scri pture
Comes pri or to ei ther Buddhas or senti ent bei ngs.
The Essenti al Di mensi on (hgo bo ayi d skzO, the great
ancestor
Wordl essl y real i zes the meani ng i n Samantabhadra' s heartmi nd,
Extracts the essence of that heartmi nd' s bl essi ngs4i ).
Af ter bri ngi ng f brth several other ci tati ons i n support of thi s posi ti on, the
segment cul mi nates wi th another quote f romthe SZrri pture of the Bl i ssul
SZ7mantabhadra, the most- ci ted tantra i n the enti re text:
Because of the teacher' s great compassi on
I n extracti ng essence f romthat heart' s center,
Scri pture whi ch expl ai ns by way of bl essi ngs
I s scri pture of knowl edge, ef f ortl ess whol eness - - -
Thi s i s the ki ng of al l scri ptures:
Powerf u11y pi erci ng, l i ke the great Garuda
Leapi ng strongl y l i ke the l i on
Extendi ng everywhere l i ke the sky.
Moi steni ng everythi ng l i ke the ocean42).
Thi s, then i s the text' s response to the i ssue of scri ptural authenti ci ty, whi ch i s
expressed nei ther through reasoni ng nor descri pti on, but because scri pture
"expl ai ns by way of bl essi ngs. " Dynami c di spl ay and the bl essi ngs of ef l i ortl ess
whol eness, are errorl essl y real i zed as one' s own open awareness. The scri ptures
whi ch reveal thi s are themsel ves f ound to ori gi nate wi th the pri mordi al bl essi ngs of
the Buddha Samantabhadra. I t i s pri mari l y on account of thi s eti ol ogy that they are
known as authenti c43). Born of and borne through the mother unbounded whol eness,
authenti c scri ptures are one taste wi th the nature of real i ty i tsel
I ndeed, the Authenti ci ty has f romthe start been subtl y di recti ng attenti on to
j ust such an i denti f i cati on of scri pture, open awareness, and unbounded whol eness.
Thi s becomes cl ear onl y i n hi ndsi ght as the work concl udes wi th numerous poeti c
and phi l osophi cal f l ouri shes that turn on thi s very i denti ty. Bef bre we touch on that
concl usi on here, l et us l ook more cl osel y at key pri nci pl es cruci al to i t. J uxtaposi ng
200
A. - C. Kl ei n
Samantabhadra and the nature of real i ty wi th scri pture suggests an archi tecture of
authenti ci ty whose el ements bear cl oser anal ysi s. The stated necessi ty of essenti al
i nstructi ons i n the f ace of a boundl ess and errorl ess nature i nvi tes ref l ecti on on how
del usi on ari ses and can be l i berated. Thi s i s a starti ng poi nt f or Dzogchen
ref l ecti ons on spontaneous occurrence, open awareness, and the artf u1 endeavor
that di ssol ves del usi on.
2 Del usi on, ef f ortl essness, and the spontaneous nature of thi ngs
To di scuss authenti c awareness i s al so to descri be the del usi on that i nterf eres
wi th i t. But gi ven the premi se of pri mordi al wi sdomand a ubi qui tous
Samantabhadra, howcan del usi on even occur? The Authenti ci ty l s core posi ti on on
del usi on i s set f brth earl y on:
Even though everythi ng i s pri mordi al l y [Buddha], i t i s not
contradi ctory f or del usi ons to ari se si nce unbounded whol eness i tsel f has not
been understood. For exampl e, even though somethi ng i s pri mordi al l y44)
gol den, i t remai ns unseen45) due to bei ng covered by earth46).
Because of not understandi ng and not recogni zi ng the natural state of
the enl i ghtenment mi nd, the mi nd whi ch i s the root of samsara and ni rvana,
there i s error whereby we cycl e i n the three real ms and wander among the
si x types of rebi rth. Moreover, through the power of not real i zi ng f rtogs?,
there i s del usi on due to an i ncrease thrtasy i n the consci ousness
apprehendi ng as that [dual i sti c] what i s not that47).
Al so, the Col l ecti on of l ewel s Sutra, ' Dus pa ri n po che ' i mdoj :
Though the base i s wi thout f undamental del usi on
Mental del usi on modi f i es the base, and so
Not seei ng the very base due to causes and condi ti ons
That very base appears as a bon- phenomenon of samsara48).
I n short, del usi on ari ses when one' s own pri mordi al mi nd goes unrecogni zed49).
Such del usi on i nevi tabl y i nvol ves wrongf ul i deati on that ei ther exaggerates by
pl aci ng overl ays tsgro ' dogs, samaropoj on, or under- esti mates by detracti ng f rom
tskur ' debs, apavdd4) the actual nature of thi ngs. Whether or not one i s l i berated,
the text conti nues, one' s essence i ngo bo) i s the same; both del usi on and
non- del usi on are empty and spontaneousl y ari se f romthe same nature; both
parti ci pate i n unbounded whol eness.
Thi s conversati on sharpens when the Authenti ci ty, i n the context of engagi ng
an opponent i n debate, states that si nce both del usi on and bon- nature occur
adventi ti ousl y and si mul taneousl y. The Dzogchen vi ewencapsul ated i n thi s
statement f al l s nei ther to the extreme of permanence by decl ari ng everythi ng i s j ust
pure, nor to the extreme of ni hi l i smby decl ari ng everythi ng mere del usi on50). I n
thi s way, the al l i ncl usi ve nature of unbounded whol eness i s af l i rmed.
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7Z!e Authenti ci ty of (i pen A w, ai eness and . . .
201
Authenti ci ty' s root text, the Authenti ci ty of El ssenti al i nstructi ons and Strri pture
gi ves f urther i nsi ght i nto earl y Bon Dzogchen epi stemol ogi es of del usi on. Thi s
work takes on a more I ndi an f i avor than Authenti ci ty ever does, even ci ti ng,
wi thout attri buti on, Dharmaki rti ' s f amous characteri zati on of di rect percepti on as
"that whi ch i s f ree f romconceptual i ty and undel uded" (rtog pa ci ang bral zhi ng
ma ' khrul ba), (15. 4) a phrase thi s work never desi gnates as a def i ni ti on nor i n any
way expl i ci tl y connect wi th Dharmaki rti , but ci tes i t occurs when the text
hi ghl i ghts the non- del uded nature of di rect percepti on as compared wi th the
del usi on that attends thought. Sti l l , the root text di f f ers f romcl assi c I ndi c and
rel ated Ti betan di scussi ons of authenti ci ty (Zshad moj i n i ts characteri zati on of
real i ty, and the associ ated construal of howdel usi on (' khrul boj ari ses.
For exampl e, anal yses l i nki ng the l ack of del usi on wi th spontaneous
occurrence are vi rtual l y unknown i n Ti betan sutra- vehi cl e l i terature such as that on
mi nd and awareness (Z, l o ri g>), but i n Authenti ci ty of Essenti al i nstructi ons and
Scri pture, and i n Dzogchen more general l y, non- del usi on occurs spontaneousl y.
(15. 5) Al though, sutra vehi cl e texts woul d agree wi th the Authenti ci ty oj eEssenti al
]hastructi ons and SZrri pture' s statement that del usi on i tsel f i s i l l usory, a di sti nctl y
Dzogchen thread runs through the l atter' s di scussi on. For exampl e, the secti on j ust
noted opens wi th a descri pti on of al l appearances as the pri mordi al Buddha and
observes that si nce these are l i berated i n thei r own pl ace, del usi on does not actual l y
exi st and so, natural l y enough, non- del usi on, rather than resul ti ng f romef f ort,
occurs spontaneousl y.
Does spontaneous del usi on exi st i n the obj ect or i n the mi nd? "Accordi ng to
me" responds the Authenti ci ty of 1i ssenti al i nstructi ons and Strri pture,
. . . appearances are pri mordi al l y Buddha, that very pl ace l i berated i n i ts own
pl ace. Thus, there i s no del usi on regardi ng what i s pri mordi al l y Buddha j ust
as, on an i sl and of gol d [there are no stones. ]. Where i s there del usi on or
non- del usi on? Where there i s utterl y no thought, that i s nonconceptual and
theref ore nondel uded and f ree of thought. Hence, through hol di ng the
meani ng of non- del usi on meeti ng wi th non- del usi on i s sai d to occur
spontaneousl y. Such [ordi nary appearances] and what i s pri mordi al l y
Buddha are not two, we consi der themone. Bei ng nondual , there i s no
conceptual i ty; that [conceptual i ty] i s i tsel f a non- del uded state. "That f or
whi ch an obj ect i s cl ear" i s known as di rect percepti on. You are i mputi ng
dual i ty where there i s none, i mputi ng ul ti mate and conventi onal . That i s
del usi on5i ). I n a compel l i ng vari ati on on the f amous "doubl e moon"
exampl e of sensory error, the text here goes on to expand on the meani ng of
del usi on. Pressi ng your eyes, you may see two moons, I C whi l e gazi ng upon these
moons you are drawn to wonder whi ch i s the actual one, the moon on the ri ght or
the moon on the l ef t, onl y conf usi on resul ts. To percei ve del usi on and non- del usi on
as separate i s, the text concl udes, equal l y del uded.
Thus, l i ke the Authenti ci ty, i ts root text deni es a paradi gmi n whi ch some
202
A. - C. Kl ei n
obj ects are true and others are not. As wi th the moon, i t onl y breeds conf usi on to
ask whi ch of the two truths i s correct, the ul ti mate or conventi onal , or who i s ri ght,
Buddhas or senti ent bei ngs. Si nce everythi ng has the same nature, there i s onl y one
truth, not two as cl assi cal l y put f orward i n sutra systems. Thi s premi se i s i ntegral to
a statement, encl osed i n the quote above, that al so undergi rds the enti re premi se of
the Authenti ci ty: Once there i s no dual i ty, there i s no conceptual i ty; Dual i smi tsel f
i s onl y i mputed, j ust as the categori es of ul ti mate and conventi onal are i mputed,
j ust as the exi stence of two moons i s erroneousl y i mputed. There are nei ther two
moons nor two truths, onl y one. To depart f roma presentati on of two truths i s
common enough i n Dzogchen, but unknown to the ki nds of di scussi ons of
conceptual and perceptual error that are graf ted onto Dzogchen expl i cati on i n the
Authenti ci ty and i ts root text.
The one truth i s that senti ent bei ngs and Buddhas are not di sparate. The same
essenti al nature, present i n Buddhas and nonBuddhas al i ke, i s true and thi s i s what
i s authenti cated52>. Such truth i s known by scri pture, open awareness, and essenti al
l nstructl ons.
Thi s one, al l - i ncl usi ve truth, i s known as unbounded whol eness. As i t al ready
i ncorporates everythi ng, there i s nothi ng to be done, ef f brt i s superf l uous, al l i s
al ready compl ete. I ts compl eteness however does not connote a stati c sense of
bei ng f i ni shed but rather a dynami smcapabl e of catal yzi ng both l i berati on and the
di spl ay of del usi on, toward whi ch artf ul endeavor must be di rected.
Even though del usi on i s f ul l y i ngredi ent i n unbounded whol eness, i t i nterf eres
wi th sel f recogni ti on, the open awareness that i s the sol e experi enti al authenti cator
of such whol eness. For thi s reason del usi on must be deal t wi th. I t i s a speci al
f eature of Dzogchen to partner thi s cl ear cal l to acti on wi th the pri nci pl es of
ef f ortl essness and spontaneous occurrence, two cruci al characteri sti cs of open
awareness:
3. Artf u1 Endeavor and Ef f brtl ess Spontanei ty
Howare we to understand the soteri ol ogi cal and epi stemol ogi cal si gni f i cance
of ef f brtl essness i n the Authenti ci ty and rel ated materi al s? And howi s thi s to be
construed i n the f ace of a cl earl y expressed need to correct the non- real i zati on of
one' s own Buddhahood? Fai l ure of recogni ti on i s i tsel f del usi on; howwi l l i t be
overcome wi thout ef f brt? And what i s so wrong about ef f brt? I s i t si mpl y that, i f
nothi ng f undamental l y changes at Buddhahood, ef l brt i s superf l uous? Or are there
other reasons why ef f ort i s i ncompati bl e wi th open awareness, and thus wi th
real i ty?
There are, of course, other reasons. For one, the nature of real i ty di scussed i n
our texts i s such that ef f brt i s i ntri nsi cal l y at odds wi th i ts most sal i ent
characteri sti cs, especi al l y that of spontanei ty. For thi s reason we drawon l i terature
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7heAuthentr' ci ty of Ci pen A - i ai eness and . , .
203
associ ated wi th the Authenti ci ty i n order to cal l attenti on to spontaneous occurrence
as a cruci al phi l osophi cal pri nci pl e i n Dzogchen. The apparent tensi on between the
need to do somethi ng and the i aj uncti on to do nothi ng i s at the heart of the
Dzogchen vi ew. The doi ng that undoes del usi on and thereby al l ows recogni ti on of
spontaneous open awareness i s gi ven a very parti cul ar f l avor here.
Dzogchen spontanei ty i s i n the Authenti ci ty a way of representi ng the nature of
Buddhahood. The Venerabl e Bon Awareness of Evei ythi ng (Kun ri g bon gyi u' e
rgyudi says:
Si nce they appear as the mi nd' s nature
And because Buddhas and senti ent bei ngF} have one cause
Buddhahood i s natural and spontaneous"J .
Spontaneous occurrence i s al so to be understood as the nature of al l thi ngs, f br
accordi ng to the 5Pontaneousl y Compl ete Ci pen Awareness 7bntra (I Ri g pa l hun
rdeogs rgyuop:
Fromthe Conquerors' mandal a to the gol den mat of cycl i c exi stence
Al l samsara and ni rvana
Are j ust the spontaneous heart essence
I n whose sel f i appearance, whether pure or erroneous,
There i s not even one i ota of movement f romthat (spontaneous essence)54).
The Commentai y on the Stages of the Vehi cl es (772eg l greb, one of the
i mportant background texts of the Authenti ci ty, supports thi s f urther:
Real i zi ngj ust what i s, vi ew, medi tati on, and ef f ect are one.
Whol l y compl ete f romthe begi nni ng, there i s no ef f brt (gzod) 55)
And:
Wi thi n the vi ew, open awareness, there i s nei ther taki ng up nor putti ng
asi de56).
I t must be understood, however, that even wi thout the ef l i ort of "taki ng up or
putti ng asi de, " enormous perseverance i s necessary to real i ze the Dzogchen vi ew.
Soci ol ogi cal l y and soteri ol ogi cal l y, artf ul l y ef f ecti ve endeavor i s central to the
Dzogchen (and other) contempl ati ve tradi ti ons. Yet Dzogchen i tsel C unl i ke what i t
deems the "l ower vehi cl es" i nqui res deepl y i nto the ontol ogi cal i mpl i cati ons of
ef f ort. On the basi s of thi s i nqui ry, ef f brt i s decri ed.
I n thi s regard, the Authenti ci ty ' s di sti ncti on between artf u1 endeavor ( ' badpoj
and ef f brt (rtsol bby i s cri ti cal . Ef l brt (rtsoDi s a great error, but practi ti oners must
def i ni tel y empl oy artf u1 endeavor (' badpoj . Thi s di sti ncti on, though unanal yzed
and unremarked upon, i s consi stent throughout the text. The need f br artf u1
endeavor i s def ended agai nst an opponent who suggests that, gi ven Dzogchen' s
emphasi s on pri mordi al wi sdom, l i berati on can be attai ned wi thout i t. The
necessi ty f or artf u1 endeavor i s expl i ci tl y rel ated wi th the eti ol ogy of del usi on.
Del usi ons are not causel ess del usi ons. There are causes [of del usi on], f or there are
adventi ti ous causes. These can be puri f i ed57); thus, artf u1 endeavor i s meani ngf u158).
204
A. - C. Kl ei n
Somethi ng does happen when one practi ces. Causes of del usi on are puri f i ed.
Sti l l , the i aj uncti on to el i mi nate del usi on must be not conf used wi th a cal l to ef f ort.
When i t comes to the thi ngl ess heart essence of Bodhi ci tta, knowi ng and not
knowi ng are i nseparabl e; hence, there i s no ef f ortf ul (rtsob search f br
wi sdomthrough puri f yi ng obstructi ons or abandoni ng i gnorance59).
The Authenti ci ty of Essenti al bzstructi ons and Scri pture f urther cl ari f i es thi s
di sti ncti on i n the context of a debate wi th an opponent who suggests that i as
Dzogchen seems to cl ai m, the condi ti oned and uncondi ti oned go undi f l i erenti ated,
then l i berati on woul d requi re no ef l i ort whatsoever. Thi s poi nt harkens back to the
Authenti ci ty ' s central and governi ng paradi gmof truth as an al l i ncl usi ve whol e.
I n rhetori c f ami l i ar to I ndi an Buddhi smat l east si nce NagEi j una, thi s text asks,
as does Authenti ci ty: are the condi ti oned and uncondi ti oned the same or di f f erent?
I f the same, woul d i t not absurdl y f bl l owthat one i s automati cal l y l i berated? Thi s
i s unacceptabl e, says the Authenti ci ty, f br wi thout artf u1 endeavor one wi l l si mpl y
bypass the truth wi thout recogni zi ng i t, l i ke passi ng a person to whomyou have not
been i ntroduced and who, f br that reason, you carmot actual l y acknowl edge60).
Thus, artf u1 endeavor i s cruci al . Does reasoni ng have a pl ace wi thi n i t?
The Authenti ci ty' s i nterest i n reasoni ng i s di rectl y rel ated to i ts f ocus on
methods establ i shi ng authenti ci ty, though the two are by no means co- extensi ve.
The Authenti ci ty, i n di scussi ng the three "authenti cators of method, " traces an arc
of transmi ssi on that cul mi nates i n one' s own authenti c ref l exi ve open awareness
f rang gi ri g pa ' i tshad moj . Li ke i ts root text, Authenti ci ty departs f romI ndi an
Buddhi st f brmul ati ons of authenti ci ty (and sounds, at l east on the surf ace, si mi l ar
to Hi ndu and J ai n ones) i n i ncl udi ng scri ptural authori ty i n i ts tri ad of
authenti cators.
The Authenti ci ty of Essenti al ]i nstructi ons and S2ri pture oti f ers a f urther
anal yti cal perspecti ve on the questi on of reasoni ng and i ts rel ati onshi p to the real i ty
of unbounded whol eness. Unl i ke Authenti ci ty6i ), thi s work menti ons the three types
of rel ati onshi ps possi bl e between unbounded whol eness and i ts scri ptural
authenti cator, as wel l as the one type of reason whi ch establ i shes thi s. Al l are
i mputed by the mi nd whi ch posi ts them62). Al so known to sutra exegesi s, these
three rel ati onshi ps are those of : (1) bei ng the same i n nature thci ag ayi d gci g
pa' i ' brel boj (2) one ari si ng f romthe other (Zl e l as byung ba' i ' brel boj and (3)
ari si ng f romcauses and condi ti ons f rgyu dong rkl yen gyi ' brel boj 63).
Unbounded whol eness i s sai d to be establ i shed by reasons one i n nature wi th i t.
The separati ve rati oci nati on that characteri zes reasoni ng more general l y i s, thi s
secti on suggests, i ncapabl e of bri ngi ng the mi nd toward unbounded whol eness.
Moreover, reasoni ng, l i ke al l the dynami c di spl ay of samsara, i tsel f ari ses f rom
unbounded whol eness. Herei n l i es a compl i cati on where the epi stemol ogy seems to
struggl e to hol d to the pri nci pl es of both rDzogs chen and 7: shad ma. We see thi s i n
an Authenti ci ty debate, ci ted bel ow, where the text argues that the rel ati onshi p of
al l exi stents (samsara and ni rvana) to unbounded whol eness i s l i ke that of smoke to
Authenti ci ty, ef f ortl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7heAuthentr' crl y of 6i pen A wareness and . . .
205
f i re. One ari ses f romthe other. At the same ti me, unbounded whol eness can never
be cal l ed the cause of samsara and ni rvana, si nce i t i s changel ess, ceasel ess, and
uncondi ti oned. The cruci al poi nt i s that even "ef f ects" are one i n Buddha nature
wi th thei r causes. I n thi s way, correctl y engaged, reasoni ng does not so much prove
unbounded whol eness as pani ci pate wi th i t and, to some degree by i ts mere
exi stence demonstrate that unbounded whol eness embraces i t.
,
Moreover, once a reason i s consi dered one i n nature wi th what i t establ i shes,
the pri nci pl e of al l - i ncl usi vi ty arguabl y goes unvi ol ated by i t. Thi s same pri nci pl e
makes i t possi bl e to argue that open awareness i tsel not bei ng di f f erent i n nature
f romscri ptural and or i nstructi onal authenti cators, i s not caused by them. Thi s
matter i s al so gi ven consi derati on as Authenti ci ty seeks to establ i sh the mul ti pl e
nature of unbounded whol eness. Thi s mul ti pl i ci ty becomes another f actor maki ng
unbounded whol eness unascertai nabl e by reasoni ng.
Si nce there are many di verse perspecti ves, argues the Authenti ci ty, there i s
necessari l y a whol eness whi ch they consti mte. "Si nce there are many di verse
perspecti ves, i t i s i mpossi bl e that there not be a whol e, al l - suf f usi ng mi nd nature
whi ch i s the basi s64). For exampl e, once there i s smoke, i t i s i mpossi bl e that there
not be f i re65). "
The textual opponent remai ns unconvi nced, and puts f orward a counter
argument:
Not so, because f i re and smoke have a rel ati onshi p of one ari si ng f romthe
other66). I n thi s case there i s no such rel ati onshi p67)68).
The Authenti ci ty responds that there i s i n f act a rel ati onshi p of one ari si ng
f romthe other, because the base whi ch i s the mi nd nature, an al l pervasi ve
whol eness, i s not constrai ned i n any one di recti on. Thi s i s typi cal of the text' s
i ndi rect styl e; i t never argues, as i t cannot, that unbounded whol eness i s a cause,
onl y that i t i s "not constrai ned"; thereby suggesti ng that nothi ng i s prevented f rom
ari si ng f romi t. On thi s basi s i t states that, because of mutual l y anti theti cal sense
percepti ons (l al bangpo mthong snang? ari se, i ncl udi ng the percepti ons of del usi on,
many di scordant appearances al so ari se, j ust as smoke ri ses f romf i re69). As i s i ts
custom, the text supports i ts poi nt by bri ngi ng f orward a poeti c ci tati on, i n thi s case
f romMi rror of Mi nd- Ai ature 7]peasure (I Sl ems ayi d me l ong gi mdeodphug) :
Appearances are di f f erent, di verse, and so
Extend al l through mi nd nature70), samsara and ni rvana;
Because they al ways sel f ari se [f rom] whol eness,
These thi ngs7i ) are rel ated wi th, ri se f rom, real i ty72)73).
The i ssue of the rel ati onshi p between an authenti cator and unbounded
whol eness - or between any subj ect and obj ect - i s di rectl y rel ated to the
rel ati onshi p between sources of ari si ng and that whi ch ari ses f romthem, or
between causes and ef f ects. I t al so di rectl y pertai ns to the rel ati onshi p between
ef l brt and enl i ghtenment, i gnorance and wi sdom. Stri ctl y speaki ng, f roman
ul ti mate perspecti ve, i gnorance ari ses f romwi sdom, and ef f brt f romenl i ghtenment
206
A. - C. Kl ei n
mi nd. Logi c' s l i near, chronol ogi cal movement f romcause to ef f ect, or f rom
i gnorance to wi sdom, i s thus di srupted by Dzogchen epi stemol ogy. Pri mordi al
wi sdomi s where everythi ng begi ns and i n whi ch everythi ng i s resol ved.
Whereas Madhyami ka, i n many i nterpretati ons, mai ntai ns that because
phenomena are empty thei r causal i ty i s merel y a conventi on, the Authenti ci ty goes
f urther, mai ntai ni ng that there i s nei ther comi ng together nor separati on wi thi n
unbounded whol eness. I n that case, howi s causal i ty to be understood? The
Authenti ci ty takes great care not to l evel causal rel ati ons to the poi nt that any si gn
mi ght prove any predi cate. J ust as unbounded whol eness parti ci pates i n everythi ng,
provi di ng a sameness whi ch yet does not vi ti ate di sti ncti ons, a reason can arguabl y
f uncti on i n rel ati on to phenomena si mi l ar i n nature to i tsel f wi thout necessari l y and
f undamental l y di chotomi zi ng cause and ef f ect. Reasoni ng cannot, however, ever
compl etel y uncover or arti cul ate the most subtl e nature through whi ch i t i s
connected wi th i ts obj ect of proo And reasoni ng cannot cause wi sdom.
For exampl e, a syl l ogi smsuch as "i t f bl l ows that the subj ect, sound, i s
i mpermanent, because of bei ng a product l i ke pot" i s sensi bl e i nsof ar as product
and i mpermanence are equal l y characteri zed by the "momentari ness" tskad gci g
moj whi ch def i nes i mpermanence. Thi s too i s a reasoni ng by way of the nature
f rang bzhi n gyi gtan tshi gs). Product and i mpermanence have one nature but are
di f f erent f br thought74). However, i n the Authenti ci ty' s use of the pri nci pl e, the
uni ty i n nature of reason and proof takes a di f f erent turn f rommore wel l known
I ndi an- based Ti betan styl es of debate. I ts poi nt wi th respect to cause and ef f ect i s
that al l ef f ects occur spontaneousl y and thus are not suf f i ci entl y separate i n nature
f romthei r causes to j usti f y sayi ng that a f tui t or ef l i ect i s i n a dual i sti c rel ati onshi p
to causes or ci rcumstances that f aci l i tated i t. Thi s poi nt, whi l e not el aborated i n
rel ati on to products i n general , i s si gni f i cant i n connecti on wi th the ef f ortl ess
nonmovement f romdel usi on to wi sdom.
3. 1 Ef f ort' s i ncompati bi l i ty wi th the Path
Ef f brt cannot be a part of Dzogchen soteri ol ogy f br three di sti nct yet rel ated
reasons: (1) the structure of the path, (2) the nature of real i ty and (3) the character
of open awareness. Most bri ef l y, ef l brt i s extraneous to the path i nsof ar as
Dzogchen practi ce i s al ways compl ete. I n thi s sense, there are no stages to make
ef l brt at traversi ng. Ef f t)rt i s al so untenabl e because the nature of real i ty, repl ete
wi th spontaneous occurrence, pervades everywhere, suf f usi ng ef f ort i tsel f and thus
maki ng untenabl e an ef f brt toward i t. Ef i brt i tsel f needs to be understood as an
i nstance of real i ty' s spontaneous dynami c di spl ay. Thi s nature, present i n everyone,
i s i mmutabl e to change. That whi ch recogni zes i t i s open awareness, a
nonconceptual presence whi ch i tsel f i s i ncompati bl e wi th ef f brt f or two reasons.
Fi rst, not bei ng a consci ousness, i t wi l l not ari se due to any causal f actors that
ef f brt mi ght provoke. Second, ef f brt, i nevi tabl y associ ated wi th purpose, i s al ways
cooj oi ned wi th conceptual thought, whi ch i s absent i n open awareness. We wi l l
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 77be Authenti ci ty of (2pen A vvai eness and . . .
207
consi der each of these i ncompati bi l i ti es, even as we
acti vi ty i s cruci al f br the Dzogchen practi ti oner.
acknowl edge that artf ul
3. 2 Compl etenessof thePath
A cl assi c Bon di scussi on of the Dzogchen path' s compl eteness i s i n 71hree
Reveal ed C)2cl es (bsGrags pa skor gsum), emi cal l y regarded as the ol dest
exposi ti on of Bon Dzogchen and consi dered a cruci al background text f br the
Authenti ci ty. Li ke the Authenti ci ty, thi s work i s regarded as a commentary on the
Authenti ci ty of Essenti al i nstructi ons and Sk ri pture.
77)ree Reveal ed dycl es i s a col l ecti on of 47 di f f erent texts di scovered together
wi th the Ui rmost Peak Great Expanse (l ' bng rtse kl ong chen) behi nd a Vai rocana
g: ai , "s- , hn, f i h?, 6e, pv?. ' e, , o, `, - 5, Eo, - m. t, k' b". g, , `g, kgs, kgr, a, g, l l : }i . gZ- , 4s. d- ztk]. g- N, g. og- f f , u2
di sti ngui shed schol ar and an emanati on of Li - shu stag- ri ng and says that these texts
were hi dden duri ng the wani ng days of Bon by none other than Li - shu stag- ri ng.
77zree Cbvcl es f rames the compl eteness of Dzogchen i n terms of the f i ve paths, ten
grounds, and si x perf ecti ons. These cl assi c categori es of I ndi an Buddhi smare i n
77i ree C vcl es assi mi l ated to Dzogchen thi s way:
Because of the absence of graspi ng and desi re, gi vi ng i s compl ete. Because
nei ther of the two f i rst truths, suf f eri ng nor i ts causes, are present, ethi cs are
i ncl uded [presumabl y a ref erence to the way i n whi ch non- ethi cal acti vi ti es
cause suf l l eri ng]. Because thi s nature has no f eel i ng (7shor ba, vedonj Oof
happi ness of suf l i eri ng, pati ence i s perf ected.
Because the natural state has nei ther l azi ness nor neutral i ty, the qual i ty of
ef f brt i s compl ete. Because concentrati on (bsamgtan, duyanoj i s
unchangi ng, i ts qual i ti es are compl ete. Because there i s no ri sk at al l of
f a11i ng i nto an abyss [of error], the qual i ty of power i s compl ete. Because
there are nei ther af f l i cti ons nor suf l i eri ng, compassi on i s compl ete. Because
thi s nature has nei ther hope nor doubt, the perf ecti on of prayer i s compl ete.
Because the nature i s not bound up wi th any worl dl y condi ti ons, the
perf ecti on of method i s compl ete. Because i t has no del usi on (' khrul ba,
bhrdntOthe perf ecti on of wi sdomi s present.
The f i ve paths are al so perf ected:
The path of accumul ati on, because the natural state i s unceasi ng, ongoi ng,
not dependent on causes; the path of uni on, because the natural state has
nei ther i nternal nor external porti ons, i t i s si mpl y unbounded whol eness76).
Because i t i s beyond sayi ng "thi s i s thi s, " a pure seei ng wi thout any
el aborati ons, the seei ng path i s perf ected. Because there i s no ef f brtf u1
thought of speech, the path of medi tati on i s compl ete. Because there i s
nei ther center nor boundary, the path of l i berati on tuthar pl tyi n pa ' i l an!) i s
compl ete, whi ch means there i s no more l earni ng pmi sl ob l am, as' a- i ksa
mdrgoj 77).
208
A. - C. Kl ei n
Thus, Dzogchen i s not so f ar beyond the paths of sutra that i t does not contai n
them; i ndeed, here i t i s presented as compl ete and perf ect f rdeogy preci sel y
because al l ten grounds and ni ne vehi cl es are i ncl uded i n i t78). However, Bon and
other Dzogchen texts do not speak of movi ng step by step through the f i ve paths,
f br al l these f i nd thei r perf ecti on i n the natural state of open awareness. The
superf l ui ty of gradual ef f brt i s f urther addressed by the Authenti ci ty i n i ts treatment
of open awareness. Cruci al here i s the way open awareness i s contrasted wi th
consci ousness and vi rtual l y i denti f i ed wi th the nature of real i ty.
3. 3 Open awareness and consci ousness
Though not a ubi qui tousl y hel d posi ti on i n ei ther Bon or Buddhi st Dzogchen,
the di f f erence between open awareness and consci ousness i s a cruci al poi nt f br the
Authenti ci ty and rel ated l i terature. For exampl e, 772ree Reveal ed Cl ycl es. j ust bef ore
the passage ci ted above, states "Thi s great perf ecti on i s wi thout consci ousness
(shes pa medpoj but i s an excel l ent superi or wi sdomdshes rab)79). " None of the
other Ni ne Vehi cl es woul d make put f brward such a cl ai m.
I t i s axi omati c i n I ndi an and Ti betan epi stemol ogy that any consci ousness
must have an obj ect of whi ch i t i s consci ous dshes bya, J nNe: yoj that i s, an obj ect
whi ch i t observes l dmi gs pa, dl ambanq) and thus on whi ch i t i s f ocused. Focusi ng
i n turn requi res ef l brt, as wel l as a more narrowscope than the unbounded
whol eness toward whi ch open awareness i s di rected. Because the Dzogchen state
of medi tati ve stabi l i zati on i s not f ocused or di rected at any parti cul ar obj ect, no
ef l i ort i s requi red.
Thi s poi nt i s f urther underscored by those who mai ntai n that whereas the
medi tati ve stabi l i zati on taught i n other vehi cl es i s a consci ousness (shes pa), the
Dzogchen categori es of open awareness and unbounded whol eness are not.
Moreover, i n the Authenti ci ty, as f or Dzogchen more general l y, any appearance
associ ated wi th subj ect and obj ect i s a conventi onal truth80). Si nce conceptual
thought, i ncl udi ng i nf erence, i s necessari l y predi cated on a subj ect and an obj ect,
these modes of cogni ti on are by def i ni ti on excl uded f romhavi ng the ul ti mate as
thei r obj ect. Expressi ng a vi ewthat i s al so hel d i n the earl y Perf ecti on of Wi sdom
(phar pl tyi n, prcu' nNopdi rami ta) l i terature, we read, "Al l si gns of conventi onal i ti es
are conventi onal truths. The paci f i cati on of al l si gns of el aborati on i s ul ti mate
truth8i ). , ,
Thus, open awareness and unbounded whol eness, i n addi ti on to bei ng
non- conceptual and f ree of ordi nary sensory percepti on; do not even f al l under the
rubri c of consci ousness. Consci ousness i s an i mpermanent phenomena (Zi ngos po),
whereas open awareness and unbounded whol eness are not. Thi s poi nt harkens
back to the Authenti ci ty ' s di scussi on of the rel ati onshi p between cause and ef f ect,
ef f brt and real i zati on. As we have seen, whereas a consci ousness necessari l y ari ses
f romcauses, the sel f ari sen wi sdomdoes not. Pri mordi al wi sdomi s nei ther a
consci ousness nor i s i t rel ated wi th any cause82), nor i s i t a causel ess i mpermanent
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7Z!eAuther7ti ci ty of (i pen Awamaess and . . .
209
thi ng because such do not exi st. Al though thi s di sti ncti on between consci ousness
and the sel f ari sen pri mordi al wi sdomi s not uni versal l y hel d i n Dzogchen, i t serves
wel l as a way of phi l osophi cal l y protecti ng the uni que Dzogchen epi stemol ogy
f romassi mi l ati on i nto other perspecti ves. (Those uphol di ng thi s perspecti ve
mai ntai n that to consi der wi sdoma causel ess consci ousness i s to take up a 7})"thi ko
tenet83). ) Di sti ngui shi ng wi sdomand consci ousness i s al so a way of expressi ng the
wel l known Dzogchen contenti on that i ts vi ewi s i nconcei vabl e and i nexpressi bl e.
For Dzogchen, the ef f brtl ess f tui t of practi ce i s an unbounded whol eness ahi g
l e ayag gci g>) whi ch spontaneousl y occurs i n i ts own pl ace. I n thi s sense, ef f ort i s
anti theti cal to real i ty i tsel f (al though i n another sense, l ess emphasi zed i n our texts,
ef f ort must be i ncl uded wi thi n unbounded whol eness. ) Spontanei ty al so i s
i ngredi ent i n authenti ci ty, f or the authenti cati ng power of ref l exi ve open awareness
(rang gi ri g pa' i tshad moj i s natural l y coaj oi ned wi th spontaneous medi tati on84)
and thus, agai n, i s ef f brtl ess. Such i s i ts manner of Dzogchen authenti ci ty.
Accordi ng to the Authenti ci ty thi s does not exi st i n the l ower vehi cl es.
Li kewi se the natural vi tal i ty of a medi tati ve stabi l i zati on that pri mordi al l y and
spontaneousl y ari ses i s not di scussed i n the l ower vehi cl es, whose medi tati ve
stabi l i zati on comes about through ef l brt.
I n a manner enti rel y consi stent wi th, though not speci f i cal l y arti cul ated i n, the
Authenti ci ty, Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak el aborates the epi stemol ogi cal uni queness of
Bon Dzogchen' s open awareness i n hi s 77eati se on the Mbther 717ntra85). He
mai ntai ns that al though open awareness i s a type of di rect percepti on, i t i s not
f ound among the categori es of di rect percepti on di scussed i n sutra vehi cl e l i terature,
especi al l y that associ ated wi th the Sautranti ka and Ci ttamatra systems (i ndo sems
thun mong boj .
The f bur di rect percei vers descri bed i n these systems are wel l known: sensory
di rect percepti on (2i hang po' i mngon sum, i ndrtya- pratyakgstOmental di rect
percepti on Cvi d gyi mngon sum, manasa: pratyak"W, yogi c di rect percepti on
f rnal ' byor mngon sum, yogi - pratyakgsby, and, the category seemi ngl y most
compati bl e wi th Dzogchen di scussi ons, open awareness di rect percepti on f rang ri g
mngon sum, svasabvedona- pratyaksw. However, i n thi s Bon Dzogchen perspecti ve,
i ts ref l exi ve open awareness i s none of these.
Thi s open awareness i s nei ther sensory nor mental di rect percepti on, conti nues
Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, because these do not observe thei r own natural state86).
Moreover, such percepti on l acks the medi tati ve stabi l i zati on of open awareness,
and open awareness i s not, l i ke these, i nduced by an i mmedi atel y pri or condi ti on
(de ma thag rkyen, samanantara- pratyayq), that i s, by a previ ousl y exi sti ng
consci ousness. Nor i s the open awareness of Dzogchen the same as the open
awareness spoken of i n Ci ttamatra. The l atter necessari l y has consci ousness, rather
than unbounded whol eness, as i ts expl i ci t obj ect i mgos yuD. Moreover, the
consci ousness whi ch i s the di rect obj ect of the open awareness descri bed i n
Ci ttamatra i s condi ti oned whereas the ul ti mate, unbounded whol eness, whi ch i s the
210
A. - C. Kl ei n
di rect obj ect of the open awareness as wel l as i ts own nature, i s descri bed i n
Dzogchen i s uncondi ti oned87).
Nor i s open awareness the equi val ent of yogi c di rect percepti on as descri bed i n
sutra l i terature. I n di scussi ng thi s, Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak speci f i cal l y consi ders the
wi sdomof medi tati ve equi poi se bel ongi ng to a Superi or of the Perf ecti on Vehi cl e.
Af ter al l , dual i sti c appearances di ssol ve f br such a consci ousness, and medi tati ve
equi poi se experi ences the natural condi ti on of empti ness88). wnereas the wi sdomof
medi tati ve equi poi se cogni zi ng empti ness i s descri bed, f br exampl e, i n dGe- l ugs
texts as i nduced by an i nf erenti al consci ousness whi ch then i tsel f segues i nto the
wi sdomof empti ness, the open awareness of Dzogchen i s descri bed as sel f i settl ed,
and there i s no process by whi ch conceptual thought i tsel f i s transf ormed i nto or
preci pi tates wi sdom. The open awareness di scussed i n Dzogchen i s not i nduced by
a medi tati ve stabi l i zati on that exi sts pri or to i t. Pri mordi al wi sdom' s ontol ogy does
not rest wi th reasoni ng. Thus, al though the constructi on of conceptual posi ti ons has
some purpose, noted at the outset of the Authenti ci ty, i t does not take one to
ul ti mate understandi ng. Why? Conceptual processes, the vi a negati va al one, cannot
make open awareness mani f est.
Whereas a consci ousness necessari l y ari ses f romcauses, the sel f ari sen
wi sdomdoes not. Not bei ng a consci ousness, i t i s not rel ated wi th any cause but i s
i mbued wi th the qual i ty of spontaneous occurrence. Ef f brtf ul exerti on i s
anti theti cal to i ts very nature, though artf u1 acti vi ty (' baae) i s not. Thi s i s one
theoreti cal pri nci pl e whi ch f aci l i tates Dzogchen' s extri cati on f romthe morass of
di f f i cul ti es associ ated wi th an extreme subi ti st vi ew. To cl ai mthat ef f ort i s
unnecessary i s to i nvoke the core Dzogchen pri nci pl e that del usi on i s temporary
and nondel usi on i s al ways present. Any ef f brt to produce nondel usi on i s
i nappropri ate because both open awareness and the real i ty whi ch i t gnosti cal l y
engages are spontaneous occurrences.
Not bei ng a consci ousness, there i s no need to posi t an obj ect f br Dzogchen' s
open awareness. For thi s reason, ef f ort i s seen as an i nappropri ate gesture toward
open awareness partl y because, as we have seen, open awareness i s nei ther a
consci ousness nor an i mpermanent phenomena and thus cannot be brought about
due to any cause and ef f ect process.
Spontaneous occurrence i s thus f undamental l y rel ated to ef f ortl essness; . to
el aborate on thi s we turn to another text emi cal l y associ ated wi th the Authenti ci (J 4
the Stages of the Vehi cl es (71heg ri op and i ts commentary (71h/ e?I I L l g7' eD. Both works
are tradi ti onal l y attri buted to gShen- rab Mi - bo. Vai rocanaO" - who by some
accounts studi ed wi th gShen- - rab Mi - bo - i s sai d to have transl ated Strages of the
Pi ehi cl es (T7zeg ri nthegpa' i ri mpa mngon du bshadpa ' i mdo rgyud? f romZhang-
zhung l anguage, al so i denti f i ed as the l anguage of Gi l gi t, and l ater to have hi dden
i t as gter at Yer- ba near Samye.
The root text, Stages of the Vehi cl es and i ts commentary, 7; heg pa' i ri mpa
mngon du bshad pa' i mdo rgyud kl yi ' grel pa aheg ' greD90) are, l i ke the
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7ZreAuthenti ci l ty of 6i pef l A vvareness and , . .
211
Authenti ci ty , sai d to have been di scovered by the three Buddhi sts. These works
provi de the Deci si ve Overvi ewa7b ba spyi gcoae) of the Cl eari ng ELvtremes . f rom
the Pri mordi al Mi nd (Yki khri mtha' gsaD9i ) another work consi dered associ ated
wi th the Authenti ci ty92).
The di scussi on of spontaneous occurrence i n Commentary on the Stages of the
J 7l ehi cl es i s an i mportant el ement i n that text' s expl i cati on of howDzogchen di f f ers
f romand i s superi or to the other ei ght vehi cl es. The Commentary opens wi th
sTon- pa gShen- rab exhorti ng hi s three mai n students, known as the "three sharp
ones" tshamgsui nj to l i sten undi stractedl y93). Ref erri ng to hi msel f as the Li on
Speaker, he notes that hi s extensi ve di scussi on of the Dzogchen Vehi cl e wi l l
proceed by way of seven central topi cs:
1) vi ewreal i zed,
2) pl edges hel d,
3) stages of medi tati on
4) method of accompl i shment,
5) good acti vi ti es engaged
6) ef f ects of accompl i shment and
7) that whi ch di sti ngui shes Dzogchen f roml ower vehi cl es94).
These topi cs are di scussed i n terms of f i ve categori es: vi ew, behavi or, f rui ti on,
the dynami c di spl ay f rtsaDof medi tati ve stabi l i zati on, and great reasoni ng95).
A f ul l synopsi s of these i ssues woul d take us too f ar af i el d, but a synthesi s of
i mportant areas of conf i uence (or, l ess f requentl y, contrast) wi th the presentati on i n
Authenti ci ty wi l l f urther i l l ustrate the contours of the l atter. Even though we cannot
be absol utel y sure, as Bon tradi ti on hol ds, that these works predate the Authenti ci ty,
they certai nl y provi de an i mportant i ntel l ectual context f or i t.
Unl i ke Authenti ci ty, the Vehi cl e Commentai y descri bes the Dzogchen vi ewi n
terms of three aspects: (1) pri mordi al puri ty (ko tagi , (2) spontaneous occurrence
ahun grub) and, (3) the uni on of these wi th j ust- i s- ness Ui bzhi n ayi d kyi skye
mchecl ). Pri mordi al puri ty and spontaneous occurrence are uni ted as the base (2gzhi j
and wi th each other, f br nei ther one i s, by i tsel C the compl ete sel f ari sen pri mordi al
wi sdomf rang ' byung ye shest. Pri mordi al puri ty si gni f i es that everythi ng
whatsoever, i n cycl i c exi stence and ni rvana, i s the sel f cl ari ty of pri mordi al
wi sdom(Sve shes rang gsaD96). Nonethel ess, del usi on does ari se. These two cl ai ms
become compati bl e by way of the cl ai mthat spontaneous occurrence i s not the
same as causel ess occurrence, f br, as we have seen del usi on i ndeed has causes.
The uni on of pri mordi al puri ty and spontaneous occurrence i s possi bl e because
pri mordi al puri ty i s not ontol ogi cal l y rei f i ed; the Vehi cl e Commentary notes earl y
on that i t does not actual l y kugos szOexi st97). Li kewi se, we f i nd the observati on
that pri mordi al puri ty and spontaneous occurrence are actual l y not true (Zi ngos mi
bdei p98). They are, however, dynami c:
Si nce thi s very base
Has spontanei ty i n great pri mordi al puri ty
212
A. - C. Kl ei n
Pl ay f rol boj i tsel f i s i ts essenti al nature. 99)
Nei ther pri mordi al puri ty nor spontaneous occurrence al one i s the compl ete
sel f ari sen pri mordi al wi sdomf rang ' byung ye shesi . Of the three Dzogchen terms
that themati ze SZages, onl y spontaneous occurrence i s f bund i n the Authenti ci ty.
The absence of the wel l known- termko dog i n Authenti ci ty i s curi ous, not l east
because the word occurs f requentl y i n both the SZages of the Vehi cl es and i ts
Commentai y. Perhaps these two works, though nowemi cal l y consi dered a source
f br the Authenti ci ty, were i n f act wri tten af ter i t; al though cl earl y some ki nd of
Ni ne Vehi cl es l i terature i s i n the background of Li - shu stag- ri ng' s text. The term
ka tag f requentl y occurs i n other Bon Dzogchen works, we f i nd i t i n Cl eari ng
Extremes. f romthe Pri mordi al ]vand Magi cal S27ace 7i "easure (Ai Li mmkha' i ' phrul
mci zocDand Zhree Reveal ed CYcl esi OO). Further research here i s needed.
However thi s may be, the pri nci pl e of pri mordi al puri ty Ql a dogy and the
associ ated observati on i n Commentary on the Stages of the Vki hi cl es that al l thi ngs
whatsoever of samsara and ni rvana are characteri zed by the sel f cl ari ty of
pri mordi al wi sdomtve shesi i s f undamental to a central conundrumof the
Authenti ci ty, and of Dzogchen more general l y: I f al l i s pri mordi al l y pure, whence
i gnorance? I f pri mordi al wi sdomi s al ready present, why practi ce? Most, i f not al l ,
of the cruci al i ssues of Dzogchen phi l osophy, especi al l y as i ntroduced i n the
Vki hi cl e l i terature and el aborated i n the Authenti ci ty, are rel ated to these questi ons.
I n thi s l i terature, spontaneous occurrence, a characteri sti c of the base, the path,
and the f rui t, i s the anti thesi s of ef l brtf ul engagement, f br base, path, and f rui t are
equal l y ef l brtl ess, pri mordi al l y perf ecti Oi ). For Dzogchen, the pedagogi cal dangers
of renounci ng ef l i ort pal e besi de the i mperati ve to sustai n ef l i ortl essness. Wi thout
spontaneous occurrence, none of the qual i ti es of enl i ghtenment woul d occur. Thi s
poi nt, part of the descri pti on of real i ty, f i ows di rectl y i nto the undesi rabi l i ty of
ef f brt.
The unsui tabi l i ty of ef l brt f or accessi ng an ontol ogi cal l y ef f brtl ess real i ty al so
i nf brms Dzogchen descri pti ons of medi tati ve stabi l i zati on whi ch, unl i ke that i n the
l ower vehi cl es, i s not characteri zed as an ef f ect. Wi th thi s cl ai m, the Vehi cl e
Commentai y emphasi zes that the experi ence of open awareness never resul ts f rom
conceptual endeavor. Here, as i n the Authenti ci ty, ef f brt and conceptual i ty are
anti theti cal to base, path, and f tui t. The spontaneous, pri mordi al puri ty of
Dzogchen i s di scovered onl y wi th the absence of ef f brt. I ndeed, f or the
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness and non- hol di ng mark the di f f erence between correct
and i ncorrect Dzogchen practi ce. Any attracti on i zhenj to i nternal thoughts or
external obj ects i s ef l brtf u1 and theref ore must be abandoned bef bre mi nd nature
can be experi enced. The l ower vehi cl es however recogni ze nei ther pri mordi al
puri ty, spontaneous occurrence nor j ust- i s- ness 0i bzhi n ayi d). Thi s, most
succi nctl y, i s the di f l l erence i n vi ewbetween Bon Dzogchen and i ts other vehi cl es.
I n thi s context, the Vk?hi cl e Commentary concl udes i ts themati zi ng of i ssues
rel ated wi th pri mordi al puri ty by ref l ecti ng on the ontol ogi cal status of del usi on;
Authenti ci ty, ef l i ortl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n the Authenti ci ty of ( i pef l A vvai er7ess and . . .
213
consi deri ng, f or exampl e, whether i t i s causel ess or noti 02). Li ke the Authenti ci ty,
the Vki hi cl e Commentary concl udes that del usi on (' khrul boj begi nni ngl essl y ari ses
f romunawareness pma ri g poj i 03). Fai l ure to recogni ze one' s own sel f ari si ng
pri mordi al wi sdomi s the source of i nnate unawareness. Learned unawareness
f o11ows f romthi s.
The Vki hi cl e Commentary' s secti on on spontaneous occurrencei 04) opens by
echoi ng the text' s own earl i er statement that everythi ng that exi sts, whether of
cycl i c exi stence or ni rvana, i s spontaneousl y occuni ng. There are two systems
ugsi regardi ng thi s, the spontaneous occurrence of the nature and of those (gthung l
phenomena whi ch possess naturei 05).
What i s the rel ati onshi p between Bon nature and the phenomena through
whi ch i t mani f ests? Are they mi xed up i n such a way that i mpermanent phenomena
take on qual i ti es of the nature or i s the namre i tsel f as momentary as i mpermanent
phenomena? The answer i s nei ther. One does not take on the qual i ti es of the other,
j ust as the f aces of human, horse, and bi rd can be si mul taneousl y ref l ected i n water
- they do not become mi xed, thei r own shape and thei r own col ors remai n cl eari 06).
Thi s pattern of argumentati on persi sts through much of the Authenti ci ty: two
el ements are named, f br exampl e nature and the phenomena whi ch possess i t, or
pri mordi al wi sdomand i gnorance appearance and empti ness. The nami ng of these
dyads preci pi tates debate as to thei r rel ati onshi p, anal ysi s that gai ns i ts drama
because of an apparent i rreconci l i abi l i ty wi th the Dzogchen vi ew. That i s, to prove
ei ther utter i denti ty or di f f erence between the el ements i n the dyad wi l l damage the
Dzogchen posi ti on. I n "sol vi ng" thi s matter, the Authenti ci ty def l ects the di recti on
suggested by i ts opponents' debate and suggests a newontol ogi cal move, poi nti ng
toward, f or exampl e, a ki nd of unbounded yet coherent i denti ty that does not entai l
unwanted phi l osophi cal consequences. Thi s repeti ti ve openi ng of the di al ogi cal
space opens i n turn to the Dzogchen vi ew.
I n the Authenti ci ty, the ref usal to be l i mi ted by the f brmal stri ctures of debate
i s ref l ected al so i n i ts f requent use of the poeti c voi ce; over a hundred anci ent,
mai nl y nonextant tantri c poeti c texts are ci ted throughout the work. Al though the
Vki hi cl e Commentary does not quote poetry, i t too has a mul ti val ent voi ce. Af ter
si tuati ng i tsel f sol i dl y wi thi n Ni ne Vehi cl e categori es, and contesti ng those of the
l ower vehi cl es wi th the type of debate j ust menti oned, the text takes on the ki nd of
evocati ve tone more characteri sti c of Dzogchen i n general . The structure of debate
i s l ef t behi nd as a steady streamof descri pti ve ontol ogi es evoke the naturei 07). Open
awareness [has] the nature of cl ear l i ght, f or i ts essence i s untouched by
extremes of permanence or anni hi l ati on; i ts nature i s nondual , f br i t nei ther
i ncl udes nor excl udes (Cspong sduct); i t i s uncontami nated by attracti on i zhenj
and thus very bl i ssf u1 i n nature. Because nature, unbounded whol eness, i s
the spontaneousl y occurri ng nature, i ts nature does not ari se through other
ef f ects. Because i t i s bi rthl ess streams of l i ght, l i ke the sun ri si ng i n the sky,
i ts nature never ceasesi 08).
214
A. - C. Kl ei n
4 Scri ptureandreal i ty
Let us nowreturn to the theme of authenti ci ty and the ways i n whi ch scri pture,
essenti al i nstructi ons, and the voi ce of real i ty i tsel f converge i n the Authenti ci ty.
Howi s thi s arti cul ated?
Samantabhadra i s i ngredi ent i n the real i zati on of mi nd nature, i n mi nd nature
i tsel and i n the scri ptures expl ai ni ng the connecti on between them. Cl earl y, i f
authenti c scri ptures are part of the expressi on of real i ty i tsel C they cannot be
products of ef f brt. Nor i s thi s necessary. For the Authenti ci ty, the power of those
scri ptures l i es not i n thei r words but i n the bl essi ngs, l i teral l y "waves of gi vi ng"
(Zuyi n rl abst that gi ve ri se to them. Authenti c scri ptures are dynami c i n the way that
Samantabhadra, real i ty i tsel f l i s dynami c, but thei r ef f i cacy l i es nei ther i n
descri pti on nor i n reasoni ng, not real l y i n words at al l . Conceptual authenti ci ty has
no pl ace i n actual Dzogchen practi ce, however i mportant i t may be i n Dzogchen
trai ni ngi 09).
Thus we ani ve at the a- l ogi cal concl usi on toward whi ch the text has been
movi ng al l al ong. Nei ther bound by the l i neari ty of conventi onal l ogi c, nor
di vorci ng i tsel f f romreason' s ri gor, the Authenti ci ty devel ops a l ogi c that of ten
f bl l ows the f orm, not of syl l ogi sti c reasoni ng, but of poeti c and mul ti di mensi onal
expl orati on. We have, af ter al l , al ready been tol d that nei ther descri pti on nor
reasoni ng are the acme of scri ptural perf ormance; earl y on the Authenti ci ty noted
that even Samantabhadra cannot demonstrate real i ty to be "thi s. "i i O).
Undeci dabi l i ty as a cruci al f eature of real i ty i s rei terated much l ater i n the text
when we read that "The undwel l i ng, unseen empti ness i s di f f i cul t to i ndi cate as
`thi s, ' l i ke a stammerer' s dreami i i ). " I f i t i s di f f i cul t even f br the dharmakaya
Samantabhadra to i ndi cate mi nd nature as "thi s", gShen- rab has a si mi l ar
conundrum, stated i n the Scri pture of the Bl i sshtl Sbmantabhadra :
Thi s i s the heart of the Great Compl eteness:
One bei ng i ndef i ni te, there are many
Many not occurri ng, a dwel l i ng as one,
A non- di f f erence between one and many
Even nonexi stence i tsel f passes beyond nonexi stence.
The conventi on of sayi ng "beyond"
Has not been stated even by gShen- rabi i 2).
Scri ptures ari se f romthe heart of ef l brtl essness to express the spontaneous
mi nd- nature, synonymous wi th the base, that i s pri or to any di vi si on i nto Buddhas
and senti ent bei ngs. Authenti c scri ptures are seen as the di rect expressi on
. f rom- not about- . real i ty i tsel f . I n thi s way the di scussi on of authenti c scri ptures
teaches the authenti ci ty of open awareness. Furthermore, both scri pture and open
awareness are characteri zed by a compl eteness correl ate wi th ef f brtl essness and
Authenti ci ty, ef f ortl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 77beAuthenti ci ty of ( i pen A wai eness and . . .
215
spontanei ty. Not i nconsequenti al l y, i t i s through real i zi ng these, whi ch i s
tantamount to recogni zi ng one' s own nature as Samantabhadra, that one i s
enl i ghtened:
Regardi ng thi s poi nt, the Ceasel ess, Changel ess Essence whi ch i s n772ol eness
i g}Z2tng duung sayi ngpo ayag gci g? says:
I f one real i zes the essenti al i nstructi ons dwel l i ng spontaneousl y duri ng the
three i nterval s
Fromthen on one' s own mi nd i s the Body of Bon
Hence, at the moment of separati ng f romthe body
One i s a Buddha, mani f esti ng the great bl i ss whi ch i tsel f i s
The excel l ent Samantabhadrai i 3).
I n thi s way the text comes f u11 ci rcl e, as unbounded whol eness can and must.
Poetry has been a natural vehi cl e f or putti ng f brward such a- l ogi cal and
meta- conceptual l ore. At the same ti me, the phi l osophi cal pri nci pl es at thei r root
are al so gi ven ri gorous voi ce i n the Authenti cty, i n much the way that both
reasoni ng and the speci al , di rect engagement wi th real i ty uni que to open awareness
are both part of that text and part of the overal l makeup of any gi ven practi ti oner.
Acknowl edgements:
To Lopdn Tenzi n Namdak, f or many di scussi ons of i ssues central to the
Authenti ci ty and rel ated materi al s.
To Tenzi n Wangyal Ri npoche, my col l aborator on the transl ati on of the
Authenti ci ty.
To Tal i ne Gool j i n, f br edi ti ng and transf er of Ti betan f ootnotes here.
Notes
1) sems ayi d man ngag rduogs chen ni / thams cad ngo bo ayi dyi n rtogs/ des na yi dyul
sgommi ci gos / spang bl ang medphyi r mayampa ayi d/ ti ng ' dui n rtag tu n[yamspa med/
[120. 3- 4]
2) 71heg pa' i ri mpa mngon du bshadpa' i mdo rgyud , Ti betan Bonpo Monasti c Centre:
Dol aaj i , I ndi a: 369- 385; #74 i n Samten Karmay , Catal ogue
3) 71hegpa' i ri mpa mngon du bhsadpa' i mdo , : gyud k)2i l grel pa aheg i grel , Ti betan Bonpo
Monasti c Centre: Dol ari j i , I ndi a: 387- 559; menti oned Karmay, Catal ogue
4) For a bri ef consi derati on of the si gni f i cance of the Authenti ci ty ' s poeti c voi ce, see Kl ei n,
"Bon Dzogchen on Authenti ci ty: Prose and Poetry on the Path" i n Changi ng Mi nds:
Contri buti ons to the Study qf Budi thi smand 7: i bet i n Honor of J tl O7"ay Hopki ns (I thaca:
SnowLi on Press, f a11 2000, (f brthcomi ng).
5) whatever i s s oken b Samantabhadra Here, as el sewhere, underl i ned notes i ndi cate
transl ati on of the annotati on f romthe Gal mdo i tsel f We do not knowwhose hand
i nscri bed themor at what date,
216
A. - C. Kl ei n
6)
wni ch i s atermthat i s an ex l anato res onse to are uest f or ex l anati on re ardi n
enti ess and such. (ci ag here si gni f i es l a sogs. )
7)
8)
9)
1O)
11)
12)
13)
14)
source of f ai th.
i f one asks to whomthere i s teachi n i t i s the Sambho aka a
Thewni teShen Dei i tsel f ex l ai ns
associ ated wi th the aestheti cs of composi ti on
f o11owerso the Shen dei .
That i s, the practi ti oners of Bon i g- i yung drung sems ai pa' =byang chub sems ci pa' =
Bodhi sattva).
wi des read ervasi onof Yun Drun teachi n s.
Conf i dence i n onesel f the Tatha athas and one' s masters.
15)
16) yang mes sayi ngpo ayag gci g rang ri gpa / bon sku rgyal ba kun bzang byi n rl abs kyi s
/ ' gro ba' i mgonpo gshen l ha dkarpos ri g / de ayi d thugs kp7i s ci gongs pa ' i ngo bo rryi d/
sprul sku gshen rab thugs l a ri g par shar / de ayi d sgra doyangs gsung don bdud rtsi ' i
rgyun/ skal l dan sems ci pa' gtvung cf rung gshen l a bsgrags/ de ayi d thugs kyi s bkrol ba ' i
bstanpa ' di / ayams nryong l ung dang man ngag gdi ng gsuml ci an / [48. 3- 49. 2]
17) Si mi l arl y, the Zhang zhung s7Yyan rgyud tradi ti on mai ntai ns that i t i s through the
bl essi ngs of the d7zarmakdya that real i zati on ari ses i n the sambhogakdya whi ch i n turn
bri ngs about the teachi ng of the ni rmdnakdya, gShen- rab Mi - bo- che. (Tenzi n Wangyal
Ri npoche)
18) The passage on the three authenti cators i s exami ned more thoroughl y i n Kl ei n, "Bon
Dzogchen on Authenti ci ty (7: shad ma, pramdpcOProse and Poetry on the Path. "
19) Gl oss by Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak
20) pl ryi ' i yul du ma gyur yang rang ri gpa ' i man ngag bstan btsamgyi s / mngon sumdu gsal
l a / rtog pa med ci ng dugos po medpar ri g ste / [55. 5- 6]
21) nga ni bon gyi sayi ngpo ste / bon ayi dyul med rang gi sems f rang sems ma bcos bon gyi
sku l sayi ng po kun ' byung ayag gci g de / ma nor ba de ayi d f rang ri g tu nga l as
kun ' byung bon gyi u' e i nga rtogs kun tu bzangpo ' byung i zhes pa dang [52. 4- 5]
The "I " and "me" of thi s poemi s Samantabhadra, For thi s reason, the ' byung of thi s l i ne
i s transl ated as "i s there" i nstead oC as el sewhere i n thi s text, the more l i teral transl ati on
of ' byung as "ari se. " The text here al so ref i ects on whether Samantabhadra,
personi f i cati on of the bon- nature, i s a "person. " Fromthe vi ewpont of the base i gzhi nasi ,
Samantabhadra i s a pri nci pl e rather than a person; f romthe vi ewpoi nt of dynami c
di spl ayf rtsal du shaO, however, Samantabhadra i s a person. Here we transl ate the name
as "Al l - good" to make cl ear that thi s i s a pri nci pl e as wel l . Bon sku i s most strongl y
rel ated wi th gzhi and thus wi th empti ness; Samantabhadra rel ates wi th the dawni ng of
cl ari ty (gsal shanj .
22) sems kun gyi rtsa ba byang chub sems/ ngo bo' i sayi ng po ayag gci g ma/ dus
gsum' du ' bral med de gci g gi ngang/ ye nas ' khrul pa mi mnga' ka nas ci ag [77. 2- 3]
23) sangs rgyas cl ang ni sems can l a/ gnas skabs ' brel medmthar thug ' brel payod/ [84. 4]
24) man ngag med l a mi phan rtag tu ' khrul / [84. 4- 5]
The termgdi ng carri es the connotati on of bei ng non- dual i sti c, si gni f yi ng the subj ect' s
qual i ty of surety, i n contrast to rmst (yi d ches) whi ch appears bel owand connotes a more
sutra styl e understandi ng of trust as bel i ef i n somethi ng or someone, hence a dual i sti c
state. (Tenzi n Wangyal Ri npoche)
f orthose racti ti onershavi n abl essedkarmi cconnecti on l as ' hros wi th Shen- rab
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7Zre Authenti ci ty of OpmA vvai z: ness and . . .
217
25) I t f o11ows that the bon subj ect, al l these, samasara and ni rvana, i s the pri mordi al ancestor,
the great vehi cl e, unbounded whol eness; thi s i s the thesi s, because there are many di verse
perspecti ves. "
' khor ba dong nrya ngan l as ' dos pa ' di cl ag thams cad bon can / yang mes thegpa chen
po thi g l e ayag gci gyi n te dombca ' / mthong stangs mi mthun du ma ' dugpa ' i phyi r ro /
[53. 6- 54. 1]
26)tpmt f th (dbngyi ngoboayi dy
27) sangs rgyas cl ang sems can gnEvi s ka ' i gzhi sayi ngpo byang chub kyi sems rang ' byung gi
ye shes chen po yi n pas / sangs rgyas k)?i rgyu yang sems can yi n l a / sems can gyi rgyu
yang sangs rgyas yi n te / des na rgyu ' bras ro gci gpa ' i sangs rgyas zhes bya ' o/ [84. 5- 6]
28)!tymg!g- begi n!!l ngthb i gdodnasy
29) ye nas cl e l tar sangs rgyas yi n yang / yi n pa l a yi npar ma rtogs pa ' i phyi r ' khrul te / sems
can du smi n pas/ de ' i tha sayad du sems can gyi rgyu sangs rgyas yi n zhes bya ste / gzhi
ngo bo ayi d l a ni l gyur ba gang yang med do / [85. 6- 86. 1]
3O) sayi ngpo ci bzhi n ngo bo ayi dshes na / bsamgtan mayampar gzhag ci ang l angs zhes yod
mi mnga' / ma sgom' bral medsangs rgyas ci gongs pa ' i mchog [99, 6]
31) man ngag ' di dog rtogs ' gyur na/ btsal ba medpar mngon sangs rgyas/ [1OO. I - 2]
32) thegpa kun gyi mes po nga / spong bsdudzhen gsumye nasmed/ rtsol sgrub nad l as ye
nas ' ci as / rtag chad mtha' l as ye nas grol / di nan pa' i theg pas ye ma reg / de kun
nga ' dod rtsol sgrub pas / sl ar l a rtog pa ' i nad ki yi s zi n / sayi ng po nges don mthong mi
sri d/ cl es na kun gyi thun mong mi n / [107. 4- 6]
33) e ma ho Zkun bzang spyodyul chen po ' di / ye nas bde chen snvi ng po l a/ do gzod rtsol
bar sayi ng re u' e / ' og ma nga ru che bcos pa / wa yi seng ge ' i skad sgrogs kyang / seng
ge ayi d du cang gyur ram/ [107. 6- 1O8. 1]
34) scl er chags ref ers to ani mal s wi th nai l s or hoof s i . e. , not bi rds.
35) rtsol sgrub l aml a gnas pa' i gang zag rnams / dugul l a yang zhun byas kyang l cags
mi ' byung / mchong bu byi dor byas kyang ri n chen mi n / sol ba sgegpar byas kyang i j on
shi ng mi n / mtshon pa ' i tshi gs su byas kyang l ung l as ayams / 7duogs chen ' di don gzhan
gyi s ga l a ci pog / [108. 5- 6]
36) e ma ho / sems ayi d ayag gci g rduogs pa chen po ' di / ' og mas ci l tar ci pyad kyang rtogs
mi sri d / rgya mtsho ski yog gi s bcus pas zad mi sri d / bye ri grang gi s bcadpas chod mi
sri d/ nammkha' l ag gi s bsnp2abspas stryob mi sri d/ chu bo gyen l a bzl ogpas zl og mi sri d
/ gtan tshi gs sgrayi s gzhi gspas ' grub mi sri d/ [1O8. 6- 109. 1]
37) Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, oral commentary February, 1999
38) i . e. , Candraki rti ' s Madhyamakavatara VI 1 16, whi ch states that concepti ons of [i nherent]
exi stence cease once phenomena have been thoroughl y anal yzed.
39) The basi s of al l whi ch i s the ve essence of the basi s (gzhi ' i ngo bo ayi d kun gzhO
40) mayi n te ' khor ' dos gayi s kyi ma gos pa' i stu2i ngpo / dag snang ' khrul snang gayi s ka
l as ' dos/ ngo bo ayi d kyi sku mchog/ sangs rgyas sems can gayi s ka mayi n par ye don
gyi ye shes de / kun tu bzangpos rtogs shi ng ri g nas / cl e ' i thugs ki yi dkyi l nas bcudphyung
ste / byi n gyi s rl abs kyi s bshadpas / stonpa ngespa ' i l ung tshad ma ' o / [109. 6- 1 1O. 1]
41) ma nor nges pa' i tshad ma l ung chen ni / sangs rgyas sems can medpa' i snga rol du/
yang mes chen po ngo bo ayi d sku yi s / kun bzang thugs l a tshi g med don du rtogs / de ' i
thugs kyi byi n rl abs bcudpl ryungpa ' o / [1 1O, 2- 3]
42) ston pa thugs u' e che mnga' bas / thugs k)2i dkyi l nas bcudpl ryung nas / byi n gyi s rl abs
k)2i s bshadpa ' i l ung / rtsol bral i ryag gci g (i gongs pa ' i l ung / l ung rnams kun gyi rgyal
218
A. - C. KI ei n
po ' di / kbyung chen bzhi n du rl abs kyi s gcod/ si ng ge bzhi n du shugs k)7i s mchongs / nam
mkha' bzhi n du yongs l a kkp2ab / rgya mtsho ' i rl an bzhi n kun l a bangs / [1 1 1. 1- 3]
43) Gal mdo, 111. 3- 4.
44) the mi nd- nature whi ch i s whol eness tsems ayi d ayag gci g. ?
45)as- gg!l ggnden
46) de l tar ye nas yi n kyang ' khrul ba ' byung bar mi ' gal te / thi g l e ayag gci g de ayi d ma
rtogs pa ' i pk)2i r ro / ci per na ye nas gser yi n kyang / sas sgri b pa ' i phyi r ma mthong bzhi n
no / [58. 3- 4]
47) ' khor ' dos kyi rtsa ba byang chub ki yi sems ayi d ma rtogs shi ng ngo ma shes pas ' khrul te
/ khams sumdu ' khor zhi ng rgyu ch' ug tu ' kJ ryams pa yi n no / de yang ma rtogs pa' i
doang gi s de mayi n l a cl er ' dei n gyi shespa brtaspas ' khrul pa ' o / [77, 6- 78. 1]
48) gzhi l as ' khrul pa gtan med kyang / bl o ' i ' khrul pas gzhi bcos pas / gzhi ayi d ma mthong
rgyu rki yen gyi s / gzhi ayi d ' khor ba' i bon l tar snang / [81. 5]
49) See Gal mdo 50. 5- 6
50) See 78. 5- 6.
51) 7Vga ni snang ba ' di ye nas sangs rgyas tel rang sa rang sar grol ba yi ul de l tar ye sangs
rgyas pa l a ' khrul du med del (i per na ri n po che gser gyi gl i ng dong ' di a' a/ de na
gar ' khrul te ma ' khrul l bl gang l a yang rtog med ci e mi rtog stev' ci es na rtogpa dong bral
zhi ng ma ' khrul pa' bl des na ma ' khrul pa' i don bzung bast ma ' khrul dang ' phradpa de
l a l hun gyi s grub pa zet: / ye sangs rgyas pa dong ' di l tar snang ba gayi s su medpa de l a
gci g bu zenl gi tyi s su medpas gang l a yang mi rtog stel de kho na ma ' khrul bar ' dugpa/
de ' i don gsal bar ' dugpa de l a mngon sumzex/ kl ryod gayi s su medpa l a gayi s su brtags
pa ste don domdong kun rdeob tu btags pa de ayor de ' khrul payi n te. . . [15. 3- 16. 1)
52) Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, oral commentary, Kathmandu, February, 1999
53) sems ki yi rang bzhi nyi n snang du / sems can sangs rgyas rgyu gci gpl ryi r / rang bzhi n l hun
grub sangs rgyas so/ [85. 4- 5]
54) rgyal ba' i dki yi l ' khor gser gci an bar / ' khor dung nrya ngan ' dos pa kun / sayi ngpo l hun
grub ayi dyi n te / de ayi d rang snang dag ' khrul ki yang / tryi d l as g- i yos pa rdul tsammed/
[85. 5- 6]
55) J i bzhi n ngang du rtogs na l ta sgom' bras bu gci g/ ye nas yongs rdeogs ci a gzod btsol ci a
med/ 7Zheg ri m382. 1- 2
56) l ta ba rang ri g sgo nas spyodpa bl ang dor med/ 7; Pzeg ri m383. 3
57) because i t can be uri f i ed
58) ' khrul pa de rgyu medpar l as ' khrul pa mayi n te / rgyuyod cl e / rgyu de rang gl o bur ba
yi n pa ' i pl ryi r ' khrul pa sbyang du btubpo / des na ' badpa l a donyod do / [81. 1- 2]
59) sayi ngpo byang chub k)2i don sems ayi d dugos med l a / ma ri gpa ri gpa gayi s doyer med
pas / sgri b pa sbyang zhi ng ma ri g pa spang ste / ye shes ched du btsal du medpas /
[94. 4- 5]
60) Man ngag l ung gyi tshadma See f or exampl e 13. 6- 14. 2
61) The Authenti ci ty does (105. 6f l ) di scuss the di f l i erence betvveen reasons whi ch operate
through the power of connecti on (brei p and through opposi tes (' gaDand rel ates thi s wi th
i ts di scussi on of cause and ef f ect. I t does not, however, el aborate on the three
rel ati onshi ps between reasoni ng and that whi ch i t authenti cates.
62) Man ngag l ung gyi tshad ma ' i i grel ba, 17. 3 - 18. 2
63) Man ngag l ung gyi tshad ma ' i ' grel ba 16. 5- 6.
The typol ogi es of reasoni ng i n rel ati on to Authenti ci ty requi res f Urther anal ysi s; here we
can onl y begi n to i ntroduce the probl ems i nvol ved.
Authenti ci ty, ef f brtl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7heAuthentr' or' ty of Ci pen Awai i eri ess and . . .
219
64) Here gzhi , sems ayi d and thi g l e nEvag gci g are i denti cal l don gci gl . However, gzhi and
sems ayi d are mu gsum. wnatever i s sems ayi d i s necessari kl y a gzhi , but whatever i s a
gzhi i s not necessari l y a sems ayi d For exampl e, bon ayi d i s a gzhi but not a sems n[vi a'
1i kewi se the empti ness of a tabl e i s a basi s but not a mi nd- nature, f or a mi nd- nature must
be connected wi th mi nd. I t i s al so sai d that the f brtunate medi tate on the three, bon ayi a
sems ayi d nammkha ' i doyi ngs ayi d as one and i nseparabl e.
65) ci per na/ du ba ' dugphan chadi me medmi sri d bzhi n no /
66) de l as byung ba' i ' brel pa. [54. 6]. Thi s i s f i rst i nstance i n thi s text of a cl assi c
phenomenol ogy descri pti ve term; several centuri es l ater i t becomes one of two types of
rel ati onshi p possi bl e between obj ects. 67) between c cl i c exi stence and ni rvana and the
mi nd- nature.
68) de l tar mayi n te / me dong du ba de l as byung ba' i ' brel pa yodl a/ ' di l a ' brel pa med
' khor ' dos sems [54, 6]
69) 55. 1- 55. 2
70) unboundedwhol eness
71) the appearances, i . e, al l experi enced phenomena
72)!f r!g!I - gg- yg!y- gssep9gomth
73) snang ba mi mthun sna tshogs pl o2i r / ' khor ' dos sems ayi d bdol kl ryab che / ayag gci g
kun tu rang byung bas / dhgos bo cl e ayi d l as byung ' brel / [55. 2]
74) Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, i n gl ossi ng thi s, uses the wel l - known sutra termngo bo gci g l dog
pa tha dod , a phrase whi ch does not occur i n the text
75) Karmay, Catal oguep. 102
76) Thus sbyor l amZ)prayoga margoj does not mean preparati on, i n the way that the uni on of
cal mi zhi gnas, s' amath4} and speci al i nsi ght l hag mthong ci ars' ana margoj are sai d i n
sutra to prepare one f or di rect percepti on of empti ness. Here i t has to do wi th the qual i ty
of medi tati ve stabi l i zati on ai ng nge ' ci zi n, samatthi j .
77) bsGragspa skor gsumVol . ka i n possessi on of Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, 72b. 3f f n. d. , n. p.
78) The i nterest i n mappi ng Dzogchen onto Ni ne Vehi cl e stmcture i s a si gni f i cant f eature of
the Authenti ci ty, al though not one we can el aborate here. Suf l i ce i t to state that 7' 7i ree
Cl ycl es al so i s concerned wi th the hi erarchi cal stmcture of i ts teachi ng, and thus wi th the
Vehi cl es. The Authenti ci ty i s not an i sol ated i nstance of thi s combi nati on.
79) 72b. 3 (Copy i n possessi on of Lopon Tenzi n Namdak, n. d. , n. p. )
80) See 86, 4.
81) tha sayad kyi mtshan ma thams cad snang ba ni kun rdeob bo / spros pa ' i mtshan ma
thams cad aye bar zhi ba ni don dampa ' o / [86. 4- 5]
82) I n the context of thi s di scussi on, and at thi s earl y peri od i n Bon phi l osophi cal ref l ecti on,
the thi rd category of phenomena known as nei ther f ormnor consci ousness adon mi n ' du
byed vi prayuktasamskj roj di d not exi st. The shape of thi s arguement i tsel theref ore, can
be understood to emerge f roma rel ati vel y earl y peri od i n Ti betan phi l osophi cal thi nki ng.
83) Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, (Feb. 1999, 3a) poi nts out that, neverthel ess, there are f ew
Dzogchen exponents who expl i ci tl y make thi s di sti ncti on; the great Buddhi st Dzogchenpa
Longchen Rabj ami s one. I n parti cul ar, Longchenpa ci tes sutras to establ i sh that Buddha
taught Dzogchen, and that Madhyami ka teaci ngs on empti ness are not the f i nal teachi ngs.
84) rang gi ri gpa ' i tshad ma ni / pl ryi nang gsang ba ' i man ngag gi s ayams don dang mi ' gal
bar gci eng du ' gyur ba ste l dus gsuml hun gyi sgoml a mi ' bral bar shes pa ' o [53. 4- 5].
85) Md rgyud pp. 8- 9. Al though thi s text i n general i s f romthe vi ewpoi nt of the seventh
vehi cl e, i ts di scussi on here i s the same i n the Great Compl eteness.
220
A. - C. Kl ei n
86) Ma , gyud9. 8f f
87) For exampl e, the open awareness experi enci ng an eye consci ousness observi ng a tabl e has
that eye consci ousness as i ts di rect obj ect, whereas the tabl e i tsel f i s not a di rect obj ect.
88) Mt] rgyud35. 13 f f
89) 71heg pa' i ri mpa mngon du gshad pa' i mdo rgyud (71heg ri i nj i n Boupo qrub mtha'
Materi al Reproduced f rommanuscri pts f romthe bSam- gl i ng Monastery mDol - po.
Publ i shed by Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, TBMC (Dol aaj i 1978), 369- 385. Samten Karmay i n
hi s Catal ogue l i sts i t as a work attri buted to Shen- l ha ' od- dkar.
The great non- sectari an Dzogchenpa rDo- oj e gl i ng- pa (1346- 1415) consi dered hi msel f a
rei ncarnati on of Vai rocana, and Vai rocana a rei ncarnati on of gShen- rab' s di sci pl e Yi d- kyi
khye' u- chung and of Buddha' s f amous cousi n- di sci pl e, Ananda (Karmay 1988: 217). 90)
These texts occupy a central pl ace i n the cuni cul umof Menri Monastery i n exi l e, at
Dol arl j i .
91) LopOn Tenzi n Namdak, August, 1997 notes that thi s genre combi nes both g71er and s. Al y. an
rgyud - whi ch i s to say i t i s both a di scovered text and part of the oral transmi ssi on
recei ved by Lung- ston I Ha- gnyan. See al so the bi ography wri tten by hi s son,
Lung- sgom' Khor- l o rgyal - po, Lung ston l ha gayan gyi rnamthar i n Sources of a Hi stor y
(Dol aaj i l 972), pp. oj CBon, Compi l ed and edi ted by Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, TBMC
276- 286
92) For a bri ef survey of works consi dered to be sources f or or i mportant contexts of the
Authenti ci ty see Kl ei n, "Sources of Knowi ng i n Earl y Bon Dzogchen: A Specul ati ve
Chronol gy" i n the Proceedi ngs of the I nternati onal Associ ati on of Ti betan Studi es
Meeti ng i n I ndi ana, l 998, f orthcomi ng.
93) 513. 4. The names of the three students are gi ven l ater i n the text as I Ha' i bon- po I Ha- bo
l ha sras, Li - sha thang- po and I Hen- than ' phm1- po- che (389. 4)
94) 77zeg ri m513. 3- 6
95) 71hegri m538. 5
96) 514. 4- 5
97) 514. 1- 3
98) 381. 3
99) gzhi ayi d ka dog chen po l a / l hun grub ngang l cl an gtan tshi gs gyi st rang gzhi n rol pa ngo
bo ayi d [381. 2- 3] .
1OO)Samten Karmay suggests that the termka dag ori gi nated i n 1Oth century Ti bet,
sometl me
duri ng the peri od between Gl ang Dar- ma' s assasi nati on i n 842 and about 950 (Karmay
1985: 277). As Dr. S. Karmay has al so astutel y observed, the termka tag does not appeqr
i n the i mhdyui patti compi l ed i n 814. Thi s rai ses the questi on of when and where i t
became part of Buddhi st Dzogchen usage.
I f the Authenti ci ty were wri tten i n the 8th century as i s emi cal l y cl ai med, we. wou. l d
have a very si mpl e expl anati on on hand f br the absence of thi s term. However, gi ven i ts
many ref erences to the ni ne vehi cl es of Bon, i n order to pl ace the Authenti ci ty at thi s earl y
i cl e l i terature i n Ti bet m peri od we woul d al so have to assume the presence of Ni ne Veh
the ei ghth or ni nth century, And we may be abl e to do that.
Based on hi s study of canoni cal materi al s and earl y doxographi cal l i terature, Phi l l i p
Stanl ey has documented the presence, i n 8th century Ti bet, of transl ati ons of al l maj or
Cza, be, g, OI l eS, 7f , th, e, , 1)l i "7. V2hi . i 2Le2ZS. ` . I [l i , kStac". Ze. Yb2?, 8a". O. "MSh, of , ?g. d, d, h. I E. M. `' S. ni i Cl i ' g' i ' ed. . ' Z
doxographi cal texts attri buted to that peri od, paper del i vered at the 8th Semi nar of the
Authenti ci ty, ef f ortl essness , del usi on and Spontanei ty i n 7ZpeAuthenti crty of Opan A warcmess and . . .
221
I nternati onal Associ ati on f or Ti betan Studi es, Bl oomi ngton, I ndi ana). He has 1i kewi se
argued convi nci ngl y that the Mi nd Cl ass tsems sdoj of Buddhi st Dzogchen materi al s
l i kel y came to Ti bet very soon af ter thei r i ncepti on i n I ndi a.
1Ol )Di scussi on of the ni ne vehi cl es occurs f or exampl e i n some of the earl y Buddhi st Tantras.
102)539. 5- 6
103)516. 6- 518. 5
104)515. 2
105)518. 6)f f
1 06)5 1 9. 1 f f :
107)521. 6- 522.
108)rang ri g ' od sal gyi rang bzhi n / ngo bo ayi d rtag chad ki yi mtha' l a ma regpas gayi s su
medpa ' i rang bzhi n / spong sdud kyi s mi ' gurpas ma sl adpas / bde ba chen po ' i rang
bzhi n / bon ayi d thi g l e n!vag gci g rang bzhi n l hun gyi s grub pas / ' bras bu gzhan nas
mi ' byung ba ' i rang bzhi n skye med ' od gsal gyi rl abs nammkha' l a ayi ma shar ba l tar
byung bas gar yang mi i gagpa ' i rang bzhi n / [527. 1- 4]
109)See di scussi on of the Kusal i and Pandi ta systems of trai ni ng i n Kl ei n, "Bon Dzogchen on
Authenti ci ty: Prose and Poetry on the Path" 2000 and i n f orthcomi ng transl ati on of and
i ntroducti on to the Authenti ci ty by Kl ei n &Wangyal .
1 1O)ma nges pa yangyi n te ' di kho na' i zhes / kun tu bzang po n[vi d kyi s kyang bstan du med
pa ' i pbyi r ro / [61. 62. . 1]
1 1 1)mi gnas mi mthong stongpapl ryod cl ang ' dra / ' di zhes bstan dka ' i ai gi ma' i rmi l am' dra
/ [118. 4- 5]
112)don gyi ayi ng khu rdeogs chen ' di / gci g tu ma nges mangpoyi n / du mar mi ' dug gci g tu
gnas / gci g dong mangpo ' i tha cl ad med/ medpa np7i d k)2ang med l as ' das / ' ci as zhes ba ' i
tha sayad ni / gshen rab kyi s ki yang ma gsungs so 4123. 5- 6]
1 13)dus gsuml hun gnas man ngag don rtogs na / do l ta ni yi d nas rang sems bon sku ' i phyi r /
l us bral skad gci g ma l a kun tu bzang po ' i mchog/ bde chen ayi d du mngon par sangs
gryas so / zhes pas so/ [122. 3- 4]
Ref i erences
[Ti betan Sources!
Li - shu stag- ri ng (8"i century), g71an tshi gs gal mdo ri gpa ' i tshad ma.
i n Gal mdo, 7: exts Concerend wi th the Logi cal Establ i shment of the Authenti ci ty of
the rDzogs- chen teachi ngs of Bon (Del hi : Tenzi n Namdak, Ti betan Buddhi st
Monasti c Centre, 1972 repri nt).
Al so, No. 54. 48 i n Karmay, Catal ogue under ti tl es g7Zxn tshi gs nges pa' i gal mdo/
Actual Ti tl e Sems ayi d rdeogs chen gyi s tshad ma gtan tshi gs sgra don gtan l a
dbabpa
Man ngag l ung gi tshad ma f rtsa ba ci ang ' grel boj ,
i n Gal mdo, 71exts Concerned wi th the Logi cal Establ i shment of the Authenti ci ty of
the rDzogs- chen 71?achi ngs of Bon, Dol ari j i , TBMC, I ndi a, 131- 46;
Al so i nmACYam- medgsung ' bum, Vol . l a, n. p. , n. d. , pp. 1- 21 [Thi s i s theedi ti on
222
A. - C. Kl ei n
consul ted f or present paper]
Root text attri buted to Kun- tu bzang- po, commentary to Li - shu stag- ri ng, No. 73. 4
i n Karmay Catal ogue
sPa- ston bsTan- rgyal bzang- po (13- 14th centuri es), bs7bn pa' i rnambshad dor rgyas gsal
ba ' i gron ma,
i n Sources f or the Hi story of BOn: A Col l ecti on qf Rare Manuscri pts . f i ' om
Bsam- gl i ng Mbnastery i n Doi po, compi l ed and edi ted by Tenzi n Namdak, (Dol ari j i ,
I ndi a: Ti betan Bonpo Monasti c Centre, 1972).
gShen- l ha ' od- dkar, 71hegpa ' i ri mpa mngon du bshadpa ' i mdo rgyud
Dol aaj i , I ndi a: Ti betan Bonpo Monasti c Centre, 1978, 369- 385. No. 74 i n Karmay,
Catal ogue .
, 71hegpa ' i ri mpa mngon du bshadpa ' i mdo rgyud k vi ' grel ba Phrul gyi
me l ong ci gu skor
(Dol aaj i , I ndi a: Ti betan Bonpo Monasti c Centre), 387- 359. No. 74 Karmay,
Catal ogue .
, rDzogs chen bsgrags pa skor gsum.
No. 54 i n Karmay, Catal ogue.
Chandra, Lokesh, and Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak, eds. , Hi stoi y and Doctri ne of Bon- po
Ni spanna- Ybga, $ata- Pi taka Sei res, I ndo- Asi an Li teratures, Vol 73 (NewDel hi :
I nternati onal Academy of I ndi an Cul ture, 1968).
Lop6n Tenzi n Namdak (sMan ri sl ob dpon bsTan ' dzi n rnamdag), ?Vf a rgyudye shes thi g
l e' i mchan ' grel thar l amrab gsaL (Del hi and Dol ari j i , i ndi a: Ti betan Bonpo Monasti c
Centre, n. d. )
[Non- Ti betan Sourcesl
Karmay, Samten G.
1977 A Catal ogue of Boupo Publ i cati ons, Tokyo: Toyo Bunko.
1988 71he Great PeJ ztZecti on. Lei den: E. J . Bri l l .
1985 The rDzogs- chen i n i ts earl i est text: A Manuscri pt f romTun- huang. I n Azi z,
B. and Kapstei n, M, eds. , Soundi ngs i n 7Vbetan Ci vi l i zati on, pp. 272- 282.
Del hi : Manohar.
Kl ei n, Anne C. , and Wangyal , Tenzi n Ri npoche
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gal mdo ri gpa ' i tshad moj . Asi ati sche Studi en XLI X (4): 769- 792.
Kl ei n, Anne C.
f brthcomi ng Bon Dzogchen on Authenti ci ty (7l shad ma, pramana): Prose and
Poetry on the Path. I n Changi ng Mi nds: Contri buti ons to the Study qf
Buddhi smand 7 i bet i n Honor of J of e v Hopki ns. I thaca: SnowLi on.
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Chronol ogy. I n the Proceedi ngs of the I nternati onal Associ ati on of 7l i betan
Studi es Meeti ng i n I hdi ana, 1998.
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223
1988
Ori ental i a XXXI I I : 205- 48.
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bstan- ' j i n bl o- gros (1888- 1975). I n 7Vbetan Studi es / Studi a 7i beti ca,
Proceedi ngs oj Cthe 4th Semi nar of the l hternati onal Associ ati onf or 7Vbetan
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