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By: Monica Abreu | AP Language and Composition P.





1. All letters of the alphabet are used.
2. Each letter includes a textual quotations that relates to the novel.
3. Each letters concept contains an analysis of a literary element or elements. For example, the letter S is for
Symbol. The Table of Contents page lists page 19 as S is for Symbol. The quote selected There will be a
merry company in the forest; and I well-nigh promised the Black Man that comely Hester Prynne should make
one (79). This FOR EXAMPLE, is from the novel, The Scarlet Letter. The Black Man is a symbol for the devil or
Satan. How the use of symbols and what some other symbols are in the novel: the letter A, Pearls name,
and others would then be explained and quotes supplied with pages cited in parentheses. How symbols have
an effect on the theme would be discussed. A picture that would illustrate how the symbol is used to create
an effect would be selected and the reference information cited below the picture. Or the letter C is for
Chiasmus, etc.
4. A technically generated picture that relates to either the quote or analysis is included for each letter. Whether
or not the picture contributes to the explanation will be evaluated.
5. The project is entirely professional from Cover Page, Table of Contents, to Works Cited page.
6. Each quote has the page # in parenthesis followed by a period.
7. Each picture has APA style documentation on the page under the picture. Notice that MLA format is not
required for this project but APA is required.
8. The creativity of the layout, picture selections, font type and size, and colors are attention-getting.
9. There are no grammatical (punctuation, spelling, sentence structure) errors. Use grammar and spell check.
10. The documentations are flawlessly APA style for all of the items above.
*Use card stock paper only. An assistant will be available to help hole punch and bind your project together.



AND 20


Table Of Contents
0. Cover Page
1. Rubric
2. Table of Contents
3. Able
4. Black Flower
5. C
6. D
7. E
8. F
9. G
10. H
11. I
12. J
13. K
14. L
15. M
16. N
17. O
18. P
19. Q
20. R
21. S
22. T
23. U
24. V
25. W
26. X
27. Y
28. Z
29. References


The letter was the symbol of her calling. Such helpfulness was found in herso much
power to do, and power to sympathizethat many people refused to interpret the
scarlet A by its original signification. They said that it meant Able, so strong was
Hester Prynne, with a woman's strength. (pg.129)


Hawthorne presents an alternate view of Hester that encompasses the positive
outcome of her sorrow. He explains how the meaning attributed to the letter A
changed over the course of time to purposefully illustrate the martyrdom of her
actions. The scorn and judgment she was put through in the Puritan community gave
rise to a more sympathetic nature within her- a change that in turn affected the
interpretation of the scarlet letters meaning.


Black Flower
Before this ugly edifice, and between it and the wheel-track of the street, was a grass-plot, much
overgrown with burdock, pig-weed, apple-pern, and such unsightly vegetation, which evidently
found something congenial in the soil that had so early borne the black flower of civilised society,
a prison (39).


Hawthorne uses the symbol of the Black Flower to foreshadow a tale of human weakness and
sorrow. He parallels the prison to civilized society in order to exemplify the stratum within it,
complete with corruption- even in a Puritan community. In this Black Flower of society is
housed Hester Prynne. This comparison provides a frame of reference of how those around her
view her within their community.


People of New England! cried he, with a voice that rose over them, high, solemn, and
majesticyet had always a tremor through it, and sometimes a shriek, struggling up out of a
fathomless depth of remorse and woeye, that have loved me!ye, that have deemed me
holy!behold me here, the one sinner of the world! At lastat last!I stand upon the spot
where, seven years since, I should have stood, here, with this woman, whose arm, more than the
little strength wherewith I have crept hitherward, sustains me at this dreadful moment, from
groveling down upon my face! Lo, the scarlet letter which Hester wears! Ye have all shuddered at
it! Wherever her walk hath beenwherever, so miserably burdened, she may have hoped to find
reposeit hath cast a lurid gleam of awe and horrible repugnance round about her. But there
stood one in the midst of you, at whose brand of sin and infamy ye have not shuddered! (201)


Hawthore established a central chiastic structure to The Scarlet Letter, which is evident with
the beginning and ending public scaffold scenes. The author implements irony by creating a first
scene where Hester is meant to publicly confess her sins before the townspeople and another
where it is Dimmesdale who confesses his guilt. The second half of the novel is a essentially
mirror image of the first. In the middle, of course, is another, private scaffold scene that serves
as the conjunction of the two halves of the novel.


Her only justification lay in the fact that she had been able to discern no method of rescuing him from a
blacker ruin than had overwhelmed herself except by acquiescing in Roger Chillingworths scheme of
disguise. (133)

The people knew not the power that moved them thus. They deemed the young clergyman a miracle of
holiness. They fancied him the mouth-piece of Heaven's messages of wisdom, and rebuke, and love. In
their eyes, the very ground on which he trod was sanctified. (114)


Disguise is a prevalent theme in The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne outlines two main sources of disguise:
Roger Chillingworths identity and Reverend Dimmesdales sin. Hawthorne presents Dimmesdales failing
health as a result of an underlying guilt that physically ails him. Hawthornes intention is to create
dramatic irony. Dimmesdales followers continue to praise him as holy yet the audience knows that his
sickness is just sin in disguise. Similarly, Roger Chillingworths companions are not aware that he was
Hesters husband, but the omniscient author made it clear to the audience.


On the breast of her gown, in fine red cloth, surrounded with an elaborate embroidery and
fantastic flourishes of gold thread, appeared the letter A. It was so artistically done, and with so
much fertility and gorgeous luxuriance of fancy, that it had all the effect of a last and fitting
decoration to the apparel which she wore, and which was of a splendour in accordance with the
taste of the age, but greatly beyond what was allowed by the sumptuary regulations of the


Hawthorne manages to exude a tone of power and strength as he describes Hesters adornment.
The letter itself is a symbol for Hesters defiance of the Puritan community. The brilliance of
color indicates her passionate nature and Hawthorne describes the embellishment in a way that
supports this. The author designed the elaborate embroidery as a sign of rebellion by Hester
against her punishment.

Thou shalt forgive me! cried Hester, flinging herself on the fallen leaves beside him. Let God
punish! Thou shalt forgive! (155)


In The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne addresses the conflict between ones sins and forgiveness.
During this fervent plea by Hester, the author exposes her desire for Roger Chillingworth to
forgive Dimmesdale and herself for their actions, instead of seeking revenge. However, Roger
Chillingworths plan of vengeance did not include forgiveness, only suffering. The author made
this moment a climax, referencing around Hesters discomfort toward Chillingworths actions
since the beginning.


"I will not speak!" answered Hester, turning pale as death, but responding to this voice, which
she too surely recognised. "And my child must seek a heavenly father; she shall never know an
earthly one!"
"She will not speak!" murmured Mr. Dimmesdale, who, leaning over the balcony, with his hand
upon his heart, had awaited the result of his appeal. He now drew back with a long respiration.
"Wondrous strength and generosity of a woman's heart! She will not speak!" (55)



In this scene, the author foreshadows the adulterous truth of Hester Prynne and Reverend
Dimmesdale. The author clearly depicts Dimmesdales belief of grace and kindness in Hesters
heart as opposed to others opinions of her. Once the author reveals the truth, Dimmesdales
praises and Hesters generosity can be easily comprehended as the result of their relationship.
Hawthornes techinique of foreshadowing in the novel is widespread and essential.



"Nay; not so, my little Pearl!" answered the minister; for, with the new energy of the moment, all
the dread of public exposure, that had so long been the anguish of his life, had returned upon
him; and he was already trembling at the conjunction in whichwith a strange joy,
neverthelesshe now found himself. "Not so, my child. I shall, indeed, stand with thy mother
thee one other day, but not to-morrow!" (122)


The author emphasizes Dimmesdales hypocrisy in his actions, as a man who wants repentance
for his sins yet is too afraid of the public to. In another one of Hawthornes ironic foreshadowing
events Dimmesdale was quoted in the beginning as asking Hester What can thy silence do for
him, except to tempt him---yea, compel him, as it were---to add hypocrisy to sin? Hawthorne
includes many events where Dimmesdale had the chance to redeem himself yet refused. The
author uses Dimmesdale to represent how the Puritan ideals are filled with hypocrisy despite
being a righteous society.


"One thing, thou that wast my wife, I would enjoin upon thee," continued the scholar. "Thou hast
kept the secret of thy paramour. Keep, likewise, mine! There are none in this land that know me.
Breathe not to any human soul that thou didst ever call me husband! Here, on this wild outskirt
of the earth, I shall pitch my tent; for, elsewhere a wanderer, and isolated from human interests,
I find here a woman, a man, a child, amongst whom and myself there exist the closest ligaments.
No matter whether of love or hate: no matter whether of right or wrong! Thou and thine, Hester
Prynne, belong to me. My home is where thou art and where he is. But betray me not!" (61)


The author imposes dramatic irony as the identity of Roger Chillingworth is revealed.
Chillingworth makes Hester promise not to reveal his secret and she agrees. Chillingoworths
concealed identity plays a big part in his relationship with Dimmesdale. Hawthorne incorporates
moments where Chillingworthalmost reveals his identity just like Dimmsdale comes close to
revealing his sin. Keeping Roger Chillingworths real identity hidden is a response to Hesters sin
against him; it is out of humiliation and the longing for vengeance.



The door of the jail being flung open from within there appeared, in the first place, like a black
shadow emerging into sunshine, the grim and gristly presence of the townbeadle, with a sword
by his side, and his staff of office in his hand. This personage prefigured and represented in his
aspect the whole dismal severity of the Puritanic code of law, which it was his business to
administer in its final and closest application to the offender. Stretching forth the official staff in
his left hand, he laid his right upon the shoulder of a young woman, whom he thus drew forward,
until, on the threshold of the prison-door, she repelled him, by an action marked with natural
dignity and force of character, and stepped into the open air as if by her own free will. (39)


Hawthornes allusion to jail is to create a metaphor that explains the restrictions set by society
on Hester. Punished not only on the scaffold and by the letter A, Hester was required to stay in
jail for some time, physically ostracized from society. Hawthorne vividly depicts her strength
through imagery, using her release from prison as a form of characterization. He describes the
way she rebelliously walked out herself, building her reputation as strong-willed.



"My little Pearl," said he, feebly and there was a sweet and gentle smile over his face, as of a
spirit sinking into deep repose; nay, now that the burden was removed, it seemed almost as if he
would be sportive with the child"dear little Pearl, wilt thou kiss me now? Thou wouldst not,
yonder, in the forest! But now thou wilt?"

Pearl kissed his lips. A spell was broken. The great scene of grief, in which the wild infant bore a
part had developed all her sympathies; and as her tears fell upon her father's cheek, they were
the pledge that she would grow up amid human joy and sorrow, nor forever do battle with the
world, but be a woman in it. Towards her mother, too, Pearl's errand as a messenger of anguish
was fulfilled. (203)


Of all the characters, Pearl probably changes most from this revelation. She has gone from a
child of lust and shame to a child of passion to a child of love and morality (in the confession of
imperfection), now basking in the sunlight of truth and in the unconditional love among mother,
father, and child. We will learn that Pearl goes on to have a beautiful, happy life, in which she
marries and keeps her mother close to her heart, without the ill effects of her torturous early life.
She is now our moral compass, pointing towards truth, for it is truth, worn not as a badge of
shame, but as a badge of acknowledgment of the realities of human imperfections in spite of
human dignity, that will ward off the evil of the puritanical culture of shame.



In this manner, the mysterious old Roger Chillingworth became the medical adviser of the
Reverend Mr. Dimmesdale. As not only the disease interested the physician, but he was strongly
moved to look into the character and qualities of the patient, these two men, so different in age,
came gradually to spend much time together. For the sake of the minister's health, and to enable
the leech to gather plants with healing balm in them, they took long walks on the sea-shore, or in
the forest; mingling various walks with the splash and murmur of the waves, and the solemn
wind-anthem among the tree-tops.


Hawthornes use of the term "leech" to describe Chillingworth is appropriate and ironic. First of
all, leeches were used by physicians in order to facilitate bloodletting. Of course, Hawthorne is
more strongly suggesting the parasitic relationship between Chillingworth and Dimmesdale. The
physicians actions seem to have the pure intent of stealing the reverend's health as revenge.


There was a singular circumstance that characterised Mr. Dimmesdale's psychological state at
this moment. All the time that he gazed upward to the zenith, he was, nevertheless, perfectly
aware that little Pearl was pointing her finger towards old Roger Chillingworth, who stood at no
great distance from the scaffold. The minister appeared to see him, with the same glance that
discerned the miraculous letter. To his feature as to all other objects, the meteoric light imparted
a new expression; or it might well be that the physician was not careful then, as at all other
times, to hide the malevolence with which he looked upon his victim. Certainly, if the meteor
kindled up the sky, and disclosed the earth, with an awfulness that admonished Hester Prynne
and the clergyman of the day of judgment, then might Roger Chillingworth have passed with
them for the arch-fiend, standing there with a smile and scowl, to claim his own. So vivid was the
expression, or so intense the minister's perception of it, that it seemed still to remain painted on
the darkness after the meteor had vanished, with an effect as if the street and all things else
were at once annihilated. (125)


The author uses the meteor to literally and figuratively bring light to Dimmesdales troubles. As
the meteor streaked through the sky, Dimmesdale sees Chillingworth. Hawthorne is clearly
implementing a metaphor of truth. He is building up the guilt and secrets of Dimmesdale and
the threat of bringing truth is enough to scare him.


Her needle-work was seen on the ruff of the Governor; military men wore it on their scarfs, and the minister on
his band; it decked the babys little cap; it was shut up, to be mildewed and moulder away, in the coffins of the
dead. But it is not recorded that, in a single instance, her skill was called in to embroider the white veil which
was to cover the pure blushes of a bride. The exception indicated the ever relentless vigour with which society
frowned upon her sin. (66)


At one point, Hester begins to do needlework for many of her companions. Eventually, she
becomes well-known for her needle-work, a characterization that is ironic. She is never asked to
do the work of brides because metaphorically, she is full of sin. Hawthorne creates a role for her
that mirrors her past.


Those who had before known her, and had expected to behold her dimmed and obscured by a
disastrous cloud, were astonished, and even startled, to perceive how her beauty shone out, and
made a halo of the misfortune and ignominy in which she was enveloped. It may be true that, to
a sensitive observer, there was something exquisitely painful in it.



After exhausting life in his efforts for mankinds spiritual good, he had made the manner of his
death a parable, in order to impress on his admirers the mighty and mournful lesson, that, in the
view of Infinite Purity, we are sinners all alike. It was to teach them, that the holiest amongst us
has but attained so far above his fellows as to discern more clearly the Mercy, which looks down,
and repudiate more utterly the phantom of human merit, which would look aspiringly upward.



The stranger had entered the room with the characteristic quietude of the profession to which
he announced himself as belonging. Nor did his demeanour change when the withdrawal of the
prison keeper left him face to face with the woman, whose absorbed notice of him, in the crowd,
had intimated so close a relation between himself and her. (57)


Hawthorne purposefully illuminates the contrasting attitudes of Roger Chillingworth. His
previous actions characterize him as a man of knowledge and calmness, yet his current actions
are crazed and obsessive. Chillingworth develops his character further into madness, yet
maintains a sort of quietude that is distinct to him. Hawthorne emphasizes this through
descriptive imagery of his physician habits.


Rose Bush
But on one side of the portal, and rooted almost at the threshold, was a wild rose-bush, covered, in this
month of June, with its delicate gems, which might be imagined to offer their fragrance and fragile beauty
to the prisoner as he went in, and to the condemned criminal as he came forth to his doom, in token that
the deep heart of Nature could pity and be kind to him.
This rose-bush, by a strange chance, has been kept alive in history; but whether it had merely survived
out of the stern old wilderness, so long after the fall of the gigantic pines and oaks that originally
overshadowed it, or whether, as there is fair authority for believing, it had sprung up under the footsteps
of the sainted Ann Hutchinson as she entered the prison-door, we shall not take upon us to determine.
Finding it so directly on the threshold of our narrative, which is now about to issue from that inauspicious
portal, we could hardly do otherwise than pluck one of its flowers, and present it to the reader. It may
serve, let us hope, to symbolise some sweet moral blossom that may be found along the track, or relieve
the darkening close of a tale of human frailty and sorrow. (38)


Hawthorne presents the rose-bush in the beginning. He describes it as a holder of moral
significance. It foreshadows the unfortunate events that take place for each character. It is a
reminder that morality can be found in any situation. The rose-bush is a metaphor for relief from
sorrow as well. This metaphor sets the scene for the grieving to come.


Lastly, in lieu of these shifting scenes, came back the rude marketplace of the Puritan,
settlement, with all the townspeople assembled, and leveling their stern regards at Hester
Prynneyes, at herselfwho stood on the scaffold of the pillory, an infant on her arm, and the
letter A, in scarlet, fantastically embroidered with gold thread, upon her bosom. (48)

And thus, while standing on the scaffold, in this vain show of expiation, Mr. Dimmesdale was
overcome with a great horror of mind, as if the universe were gazing at a scarlet token on his
naked breast, right over his heart. (118)


The scaffold symbolizes both sin and punishment and shame and guilt. Hawthorne uses the
scaffold as a basis for character development. Through public humiliation, Hester became a
strong woman who cared about the humanity of others. For her, getting on the scaffold was
punishment for her sins. In the case of Dimmesdale, the scaffold represented his shame and
guilt. He took strides to be able to admit his sins to the community by getting on the scaffold. In
sum, the scaffold is a symbol of both pain and penance. Each experience is on the scaffold is a
monumental occurrence.



Here, she said to herself had been the scene of her guilt, and here should be the scene of her
earthly punishment; and so, perchance, the torture of her daily shame would at length purge her
soul, and work out another purity than that which she had lost: more saint-like, because the
result of martyrdom.

Another peculiar torture was felt in the gaze of a new eye. When strangers looked curiously at
the scarlet letter and none ever failed to do sothey branded it afresh in Hesters soul; so that,
oftentimes, she could scarcely refrain, yet always did refrain, from covering the symbol with her



Heart-smitten at this bewildering and baffling spell, that so often came between herself and her
sole treasure, whom she had bought so dear, and who was all her world, Hester sometimes burst
into passionate tears. Then, perhapsfor there was no foreseeing how it might affect herPearl
would frown, and clench her little fist, and harden her small features into a stern,
unsympathising look of discontent. Not seldom she would laugh anew, and louder than before,
like a thing incapable and unintelligent of human sorrow. (74)



We have wronged each other, answered he. Mine was the first wrong, when I betrayed thy
budding youth into a false and unnatural relation with my decay. Therefore, as a man who has
not thought and philosophised in vain, I seek no vengeance, plot no evil against thee. Between
thee and me, the scale hangs fairly balanced. But, Hester, the man lives who has wronged us
both! Who is he? (60)



The unhappy culprit sustained herself as best a woman might, under the heavy weight of a
thousand unrelenting eyes, all fastened upon her, and concentrated at her bosom. It was almost
intolerable to be borne. Of an impulsive and passionate nature, she had fortified herself to
encounter the stings and venomous stabs of public contumely, wreaking itself in every variety of
insult; but there was a quality so much more terrible in the solemn mood of the popular mind,
that she longed rather to behold all those rigid countenances contorted with scornful merriment,
and herself the object. (46)


Hawthorne describes these unrelenting eyes as the source of Hesters discomfort. The publicity of
her punishment brings about the description of her character: strong, yet anxious toward the
silent witnesses. These witnesses are fundamental to the novel since they embody the pain of her
sin. Witnesses are key to Hesters punishment; being humiliated and judged in the public eye
brought out her weaknesses, yet made her stronger than before.


Again, at the first instant of perceiving that thin visage, and the slight deformity of the figure,
she pressed her infant to her bosom with so convulsive a force that the poor babe uttered another
cry of pain. But the mother did not seem to hear it. At his arrival in the market-place, and some
time before she saw him, the stranger had bent his eyes on Hester Prynne. (49)


The arrival of Roger Chillingworth stirred up Hesters situation. Unbeknownst to her, he would
wreak havoc on her already damaged life by trying to get revenge on Dimmsedale. Hawthorne
describes the man in a mysterious yet revealing fashion. The author later reveals to the audience
who Chillingworth is and what he is planning on doing, but does it with dramatic irony. So
Chillingworth is sort of a secret enemy.


The godly youth! said they among themselves. The saint on earth! Alas! if he discern such
sinfulness in his own white soul, what horrid spectacle would he behold in thine or mine! The
minister well knew subtle, but remorseful hypocrite that he was!the light in which his vague
confession would be viewed. He had striven
to put a cheat upon himself by making the avowal of a guilty conscience, but had gained only one
other sin, and a selfacknowledged shame, without the momentary relief of being self-


The emphasis placed on the youth of Reverend Dimmesdale stems from the unusual admiration
of his followers due to his sacredness coupled with his young age. The irony in this is that he is
not as sacred as he is thought to be. Hawthorne repeatedly describes him as youthful because it
is a central element to his characterization. Also, his youth is emphasized when describing his
illness to create empathy among his followers.


We impute it, therefore, solely to the disease in his own eye and heart that the minister, looking
upward to the zenith, beheld there the appearance of an immense letterthe letter Amarked
out in lines of dull red light. Not but the meteor may have shown itself at that point, burning
duskily through a veil of cloud, but with no such shape as his guilty imagination gave it, or, at
least, with so little definiteness, that another's guilt might have seen another symbol in it. (124)


Hawthornes uses descriptive imagery to show how Dimmesdale saw a symbol in the sky. This
actually was an expression of his guilt. He is trying to show the effects of a guilty imagination on
the conscience. The author explains how real the event seemed to Dimmesdale as a result of his



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