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Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti

Facultatea de Administratie si Management Public




SISTEME ADMINISTRATIVE COMPARATE :
GERMANIA MAREA BRITANIE
ANDRIES BOGDAN IONU
Gru!a ""#$Seria A$Anul III
Bucuresti "%&#
1
I'U' 'U(RARII SI )USIFI(AREA A(ESUIA
Din 2007 Romania este memba in !ni"ne E"o#eana $e a%eea este mai m"&t
$e%at e'i$ent %a sistem"& a$ministati' omanes% teb"ie a$a#tat %e&"i $in inteio"&
%om"nitatii e"o#ene( E)istenta "nei a$ministatii e*i%iente si $emo%ati%e este abso&"t
ne%esaa #ent" %a a%est &"%" sa se #oata #o$"%e( De a%eea este ne%esaa ea&i+aea "nei
e*ome ea&e #ina %ae taa noasta sa se sit"e+e &a ni'e&"& stan$a$e&o e"o#ene si sa se
%aa%tei+e+e #in tans#aenta, #e$i%tibi&itate, es#onsabi&itate, a$a#tabi&itate si e*i%a%itate(
Este a$e'aat %a in "&timii ani #o-ese a" *ost *a%"te #in a$o#taea "n"i #a%.et %om#&e) $e
&e-i #i'in$ *"n%tia #"b&i%a, $es%enta&i+aea se'i%ii&o #"b&i%e, *inante&e #"b&i%e &o%a&e, &"#ta
im#oti'a %o"#tiei si #in in*iintaea "no noi instit"tii, %ae sa #e-ateas%a si sa #"na in
a#&i%ae e*ome&e( Pa%ti%a a aatat, insa, %a m"&te $in a%este &e-i n" a" *ost bine a#&i%ate, ia
noi&e instit"/ii n" si0a" in$e#&init in tota&itate misi"nea(
A$eaea &a !ni"nea E"o#eana a $e#ins si 'a mai $e#in$e, in %ontin"ae, in
mae mas"a $e imb"natatiea stan$a$e&o a$ministatiei #"b&i%e si $e im#&ementaea
e*ome&o in toate $omenii&e a%esteia, %eea %e inseamna %a se%to"& #"b&i% teb"ie sa se
a$a#te+e s%.imbai&o %ontin"e a&e me$i"&"i e%onomi% si so%ia&, int"%at atat $e%i+ii&e
in'estitoi&o staini, %at si a&e %e&o inteni, s"nt in*&"entate $in %e 1n %e mai m"&t $e %a&itatea,
e*i%ienta si %e$ibi&itatea a$ministatiei #"b&i%e( Mai m"&t, in toate state&e !ni"nii E"o#ene,
a$ministatia #"b&i%a a $e'enit "n *a%to esentia& %ae $etemina a'anta2"& %om#etiti' a& "nei
nati"ni( Am a&es a%easta tema $eoae%e Gemania si Maea Bitanie s"nt tai $e+'o&tate, $e
m"&ti ani membe in !ni"nea E"o#eana *a%an$ ana&i+a a%easta %" %on'in-eea %a as#e%te&e
i$enti*i%ate in %e&e $o"a sisteme a$ministati'e a a'ea e&e'ant #ent" sistem"& a$ministati'e
$in Romania(
In %onte)t"& in %ae e)ista mai m"&te %ate-oii $e e-im"i #o&iti%e es#e%ti':
#e+i$entia&ism, #a&amentaism, semi#e+i$entia&ism si mona.ie %onstit"tiona&a, a%easta
&"%ae isi #o#"ne sa %om#ae $o"a $inte a%este ti#"i $e sisteme #o&iti%e( Vo *i %om#aate
sisteme&e #o&iti%e:a& Maii Bitanii 3%" "n sistem %&asi% $e mona.ie %onstit"tiona&a4 si a&
Gemaniei 3%" "n sistem #o&iti% #a&amenta 4( A%este $o"a sisteme #o&iti%e 'o *i %om#aate
si $e+bat"te $e0a &"n-"& &"%aii in ba+a "nei bib&io-a*ii #estabi&ite si in ba+a &e-i&o
*"n$amenta&e a&e a%esto $o"a tai, %" #e'e$ei&e &o(
In 'e$eea "nei mai b"ne #e%e#ei a s"bie%t"&"i este ne%esaa $es%ieea %aa%teisti%i&o
%e&o $o"a ti#"i $e sistem #o&iti%: mona.ie %onstit"tiona&a si #a&amementaism(
Regimul !olitic !arlamentar e#e+inta e)a%t o#"s"& e-im"&"i #o&iti%
#e+i$entia&( Si a%easta #ent" %a in %a$"& #a&amentaism"&"i #"teea este $etin"ta $e
#a&ament( Pa&ament"& e#e+inta 'ointa #o&iti%a a #o#o"&"i ia, #ese$inte&e este a&es $e
o-an"& e#e+entati' 3#a&ament"&4( Pe &an-a *"n%tii&e &e-is&ati'e, #a&ament"& $etine si o
*"n%tie $e %onto&, mai a&es as"#a e)e%"ti'"&"i 3#im0minist"& si %abineti& &"i4 in'estit $e
%ate #a&ament( In %a$"& a%est"i e-im #ese$inte&e 2oa%a "n o& mai m"&t *oma& 3%a si in
%a+"& mona."&"i4, sin-"a *"n%tie #e %ae o $etine *"n%tia $e se* a& stat"&"i( !n e)em#&"
e#e+entati' #ent" a%est ti# $e e-im i& e#e+ina Gemania(
Iata $e%i %a $"#a o #e+entae -enea&a a a%esto $o"a ti#"i $e e-im"i se #ot
obse'a %" "s"inta "ne&e asemanai si $eosebii, %"m a *i %a e-im"& #o&iiti% #e+i$entia& este
in'es"& e-im"&"i #o&iti% #a&amenta ia, e-im"& #o&iti% a& mona.iei %onstit"tiona&e este
*oate a#o#iat e-im"&"i #o&iti% #a&amenta( In %a+"& ambe&o e-im"i #o&iti%e
2
3#a&amentaism si mona.ie %onstit"tiona&a4 ba&anta #"teii se in%&ina in $e#t"&
Pa&ament"&"i(
Re-im"& Pa&amenta a%o$5 im#otan/5 $eosebit5 Pa&ament"&"i, a%esta $e'enin$ a$e'5at"&
*o"m #o&iti% $e -"'enae(
6n %a$"& a%est"i e-im G"'en"& este %on$"s $e "n #im minist" %e este /in"t s5 5s#"n$5
#ent" a%/i"ni&e sa&e 1n *a/a Pa&ament"&"i( A%esta $in "m5 1n %on$i/ii&e 1n %ae a#e%ia+5 %5
n" 17i 1n$e#&ine7te man$at"& 1i #oate eta-e 1n%e$eea a%o$at5(
Pe7e$inte&"i e#"b&i%ii 1i e'in atib"/ii $e e#e+entae 7i #oto%o&, a%esta a'5n$ "n o& #o&iti%
mino 1n a#ot %" #o+i/ia #oeminent5 a #im"&"i minist", tot"7i 1n sit"a/ii $e %i+5
#e7e$inte&e #oate a%/iona %" s"%%es(
Ca t5s5t"ti #in%i#a&e a&e e-im"&"i Pa&amenta en"me5m "m5toae: e-"&a %5 7e*"&
stat"&"i n" 5s#"n$e $in #"n%t $e 'e$ee #o&iti%8 %ea #oti'it %5eia 7e*"& stat"&"i #oate $i+o&'a
#a&ament"&8 e-"&a %5 -"'en"& 5s#"n$e $in #"n%t $e 'e$e #o&iti% 1n *a/a #a&ament"&"i, at9t
#ent" #o#ii&e sa&e a%te %9t 7i #ent" %e&e a&e 7e*"&"i stat"&"i8 e-"&a #oti'it %5eia -"'en"&
teb"ie s5 se b"%"e $e in%e$eea Pa&ament"&"i, "man$ sa $emisione+e at"n%i %an$ o #ie$e(
In %a$"& e-im"&"i #o&iti% a& monar*iei constitutionale, se*"& stat"&"i ae o
#"tee mai m"&t simbo&i%a #ent" %a a%esta :$omneste, n" -"'enea+a; ( In %a$"& a%est"i
e-im #o&iti% mona."& in$e##&ineste *"n%tii %eemonia&e, *i-"ati'e, *"n%tii&e e)e%"ti'e
e'enin$ #a&ament"&"i( Pa&ament"& in$e#&ineste *"n%tii asemanatoae %" %e&e a&e e-im"&"i
#o&iti% #a&amenta( A%esta $in "ma #oate *i %onsi$eat moti'"& #ent" %ae e-im"& #o&iti% a&
mona.iei %onstit"tiona&e este tatat a$esea %a o 'aianta a e-im"&"i #o&iti% #a&amenta(
E)em#&"& $e e-im -&asi% a& mona.iei %onstit"tiona&e este e#e+entat $e Maea
Bitanie(Ast5+i, mona.ii&e %onstit"/iona&e s"nt %ombinate %" o $emo%a/ie e#e+entati'5,
%ae e#e+int5 teoii&e s"'eanit5/ii #o#"&ae %ae #&asea+5 s"'eanitatea 1n m9ine&e #o#o"&"i,
7i %e&e %ae %onsi$e5 im#otant o&"& ta$i/iei 1n -"'en5m9nt( C" toate %5 e-e&e sa" e-ina
#ot *i %onsi$ea/i 7e*"& stat"&"i, Pim Minist"&, a %5"i #"tee #o'ine $ie%t sa" in$ie%t 1n
"ma a&e-ei&o, este <e*"& G"'en"&"i( T5s5t"a %aa%teisti%5 a sistem"&"i %onstit"/iona&
bitani% este absen/a "nei %onstit"/ii 1n sens *oma& 7i n" 1n sens mateia&, 1nt"%9t &a ansamb&"&
%oeent $e %"t"me se a$a"-5 te)te 2"i$i%e a$o#tate $e #a&ament, $e o im#otan/5 $eosebit5
#ent" $e+'o&ataea instit"/ii&o #o&iti%e $in a%east5 /a5, %a 7i #ent" a#ot"i&e $inte
-"'enan/i 7i -"'ena/i(
PARI(U'ARIAI A'E SISEMU'UI ADMINISRAI+ DIN
GERMANIA

Gemania este o e#"b&i%a %" o-ani+ae stata&a *e$ea&a( Este %om#"sa $in 1=
&an$"i in #e+ent 311 &an$"i $in Vest #&"s %e&e > $in Est4( A'an$ in 'e$ee n"ma"& $e
?an$"i a %es%"t si n"ma"& membi&o B"n$esta-"&"i, $e &a @A@, in 1AB7, &a ==2, in 1AA0(
Presedintele Re!ublicii este a&es #ent" "n man$at $e > ani $e A$"naea
Ce$ea&a 3%om#"sa $in membii B"n$esta-"&"i si "n n"ma $e membii e-a& %" %e& a&
$e#"tati&o a&es $"#a %iteii&e: sa aiba %etatenie -emana si 'asta $e @0 ani4( %a in oi%e e-im
#a&amenta Pese$inte&e ae mai m"&t *"n%tii $e%oati'e( A%este *"n%tii s"nt: e#e+entaea
Gemaniei #e #&an intenationa&8 in%.eieea tatate&o intenationa&e8 a%e$itaea si #imiea
e#e+entanti&o $i#&omati%i8 n"miea si e'o%aea 2"$e%atoi&o8 e)e%itaea $e#t"&"i $e
-atiee8 #om"&-aea &e-i&o8 atib"tii in %eea %e #i'este *omaea -"'en"&"i( Pese$inte&e
n" as#"n$e $in #"n%t $e 'e$ee #o&iti% $e a%te&e sa&e %i #ent" in%a&%aea Constit"tiei sa" a
"nei &e-i *e$ea&e(
D

Pre,edintele -ederal $e/ine "matoae&e #eo-ati'e:
E e#e+entaea Gemaniei #e #&an intena/iona&8
E 1n%.eieea tatate&o intena/iona&e8
E a%e$itaea 7i #imiea e#e+entan/i&o $i#&omati%i8
E n"miea 7i e'o%aea 2"$e%5toi&o8
E #om"&-aea &e-i&o8
E atib"/ii 1n %eea %e #i'e7te *omaea G"'en"&"i(
Autoritatea legislati.a
Parlamentul Gemaniei este "n"& bi%amea& %om#"s $in B"n$esta-3A$"naea
Ce$ea&a4 si B"n$esat3Consi&i"& Ce$ea&4(
A&e-eea membi&o #imei %amee 3$e#"tati&o 4 se *a%e in $o"a *e&"i( Si a%easta #ent" %a
2"matate $in $e#"tati s"nt a&esi #in 'ot "ninomina& ma2oita, ia %ea&a&ta 2"matate #in 'ot
#o#otiona& %" &ista( Membii B"n$esta-"&"i s"nt a&esi #ent" "n man$at $e @ ani(
B"n$esat"& este %om#"s $in membii n"miti $e -"'ene&e &an$"i&o 3man$ate&e s"nt $e &a D
&a >, in *"n%tie $e maimea $emo-a*i%a4(
A'an$ in 'e$ee %a B"n$esta-"& este %amea a&easa $e #o#"&atie, se #oate s#"ne
%a $etine *"n%tia e#e+entati'a( Ro&"& &e-is&ati' a& B"n$esat"&"i este &imitat, B"n$esta-"&
a'an$ o mai mae #"tee &e-is&ai'a, $esi %onstit"tia #e'e$e %o&aboaea $inte %amee(
Cie%ae %amea este %on$"sa $e %ate "n #ese$inte si "n 'i%e#ese$inte, asistati $e
se%etai( Pese$inte&e B"n$esta-"&"i se a&e-e #e $"ata ma$a$at"&"i &e-is&atin ia %e& a&
B"n$esat"&"i este $esemnat an"a&( B"n$esta-"& e#e+inta 'ointa #o#"&atiei, ia B"n$esat"&
e#e+in$a o-ani+aea stata&e, *e$ea&a a Gemaniei(
In a*aa $e *"n%tia &e-is&ati'a Pa&ament"& ae $e#t"& $e a n"mi si e'o%a
Can%e&a"& 3si -"'en"&4( In a%est %onte)t 'obim $e B"n$esta-, in *ata %a"ia -"'en"& este
es#"n+ato(
Sistemul electoral
Sistem"& e&e%toa& a& Gemaniei este "n"& mi)t: ma2oita "ninomina& 7i
#o#o/iona& $e &ist5(
Camea in*eioa5 a Pa&ament"&"i *e$ea&, B"n$esta-"& se %om#"ne $in $e#"ta/i, $inte %ae
2"m5tate s"nt a&e7i 1n %i%"ms%i#/ii, #in s%"tin"& ma2oita "ninomina&, ia est"&
#o#o/iona& #e &ist5 $e #ati$( 6n B"n$esta- int5 #ati$e&e %ae ob/in &a a& $oi&ea 'ot "n
#o%ent $e #este > &a s"t5 #e 1ntea-a Gemanie sa" %e&e %ae %97ti-5 %e& #"/in D %i%"ms%i#/ii
in$i'i$"a&e(!neoi se a&o%5 man$ate s"#&imentae 3F!be.an-sman$etenF4 #ati$e&o %ae
ob/in 1nt0"n an"mit ?an$ *e$ea& 3Gemania este 1m#5/it5 1n 1= &an$"i4 "n n"m5 $e
man$ate in$i'i$"a&e s"#eio #o%enta2"&"i ob/in"t 1n a%e& &an$ &a %e& $e0a& $oi&ea 'ot,
#o#o/iona&(
Vasta minima #ent" e)e%itaea $e#t"&"i $e 'ot este $e 1B ani, ia 'ot"& n" este
ob&i-atoi"(

@
Autoritatea e/ecuti.a
O-ani+aea si *"n%tionaea G"'ene&o in Gemania
P"teea e)e%"ti'a este e#e+entata $e Gu.ern$ a%esta *iin$ *omat $in (ancelar
si m"nistii( Can%e&a"& #oate *i #o#"s si $e Pese$inte si $e Pa&ament insa $e%i+ia as"#a
n"miii sa&e, a#atine B"n$esta-"&"i( Pima Po#"nee #ent" #ost"& $e Can%e&a teb"ie sa ii
a#atina Pa&ament"&"i( Da%a $in $i*etite moti'e a%easta #o#"nee n" e)ista sa" n" este
a#obata, Pese$inte&e 'a s"#"ne 'ot"&"i #o#"neea sa( Da%a ni%i in a%est %a+ n" este a&es "n
Can%e&a, Pese$inte&e ae $e#t"& sa $i+o&'e B"n$esta-"&(
Can%e&a"& $is#"ne $e a"toitate ma)ima in G"'en, e& a'an$ $e#t"& sa s%.imbe
%abinet"& $a%a este ne'oie( Tot Can%e&a"& isi as"ma as#"n$eea #ent" in$e#&iniea
obie%ti'e&o #o#"se( In %a+"& in %ae Can%e&a"& #ie$e ma2oitatea $in B"n$esta-, a%easta i&
#oate e'o%a si n"mii "n s"%%eso( De/ine a7a0n"mita Richtlinienkompetenz, #in %ae
*om"&ea+5 in &inii mai sa%ini&e *ie%5"i minist"(
Comaea G"'en"&"i *e$ea& $e#in$e $e a&e-eea Can%e&a"&"i( C" %9te'a &"ni
1naintea a&e-ei&o #ent" Dieta *e$ea&5, #ati$e&e sa" %oa&i/ii&e $e #ati$e 17i $esemnea+5
%an$i$at"& &a *"n%/ia $e %an%e&a( D"#5 a&e-eea Dietei a%easta a&e-e Can%e&a"& &a #o#"neea
Pe7e$inte&"i *e$ea/iei(
Comaea G"'en"&"i $"#5 a&e-eea Can%e&a"&"i, *a%e obie%t"& ne-o%iei&o
1nte #ati$e, %ae stabi&es% at9t #o-am"& #o&iti% %9t 7i
%om#o+i/ia G"'en"&"i(Membii se n"mes% 7i se e'o%5 $e %5te $e %5te Diet5 &a #o#"neea
Can%e&a"&"i(
N" e)ist5 in%om#atibi&itate 1nte *"n%/ia -"'enamenta&5 7i %a&itatea $e
#a&amenta, membii G"'en"&"i *iin$ $e e-"&5 7i membii Dietei *e$ea&e( C"n%/ia
-"'enamenta&5 este 1ns5 in%om#atibi&5 %" %ea $e memb" 1n G"'ene&e sa" Pa&amente&e
&an$"i&o, %eea %e im#&i%5 7i in%om#atibi&itatea %" *"n%/ia $e memb" a& Consi&i"&"i *e$ea&(
G"'ene&e -emane se men/in $e e-"&5, #ent" "n 1nte- man$at $e @ ani, ast*e& 1n%9t
Gemania este, $e $e#ate, /aa %" %ea mai mae stabi&itate -"'enamenta&5 1n !(E(
?e-ea *"n$amenta&5 #e'e$e "n me%anism #e*e%/ionat $e an-a2ae a 5s#"n$eii
-"'enamenta&e, 7i an"me 0mo/i"nea $e %en+"5 %onst"%ti'5(
A%est me%anism #emite Dietei e&ibeaea $in *"n%/ie a Can%e&a"&"i %on%omitent %" a&e-eea
%" a&e-eea "n"i no" %an%e&a(
?a 9n$"& s5", %an%e&a"& ae #osibi&itatea s5 $etemine $e+'o&taea Dietei $e %5te
Pe7e$inte&e *e$ea/iei, #in so&i%itaea "n"i 'ot $e 1n%e$ee(
Ambe&e #o%e$ee inte'in %a "mae a mo$i*i%5ii %oa&i/ii&o #o&iti%e 7i a" $e#t
s%o# asi-"aea "nei ma2oit5/i #a&amentae *a'oabi&e Can%e&a"&"i(
Constit"/ia *e$ea&5 #e%i+ea+5 %5 G"'en"& *e$ea& este %om#"s $in Can%e&a"&
*e$ea& 7i mini7ti *e$ea&i, #e%i+9n$ toto$at5, 7i %om#eten/e&e 7e*"&"i -"'en"&"i, %om#eten/e
%ae se e)e%it5 #in emiteea $e $ie%ti'e(
6n ba+a a%esto %om#eten/e, Can%e&a"& $etemin5 &inii&e $ie%toae a&e #o-am"&"i $e
-"'enae, 1ns5 *ie%ae minist" bene*i%ia+5 $e a"tonomie 1n %on$"%eea ministe"&"i s5"(
Di'e-en/e&e $inte ministee se tan7ea+5 1n G"'en(
Can%e&a"& %oo$onea+5 a%/i"nea -"'enamenta&5 %on*om "n"i Re-"&ament
inteio %ae se a$o#t5 $e G"'en 7i se a#ob5 $e Pe7e$inte&e *e$ea/iei( Can%e&a"& e#e+int5
G"'en"& 1n *a/a Pe7e$inte&"i, a Pa&ament"&"i 7i so%iet5/ii %i'i&e(
S0a *omat obi%ei"& "n"i 'i%e0%an%e&a $inte #esona&it5/i&e #oeminente a& #ati$"&"i &ibea&,
$a%5 a%esta *a%e #ate $in %oa&i/ie, a'9n$ o&"& $e a0& s"#&ini #e %an%e&a 1n %a+ $e absen/5(
De e-"&5, 7e*"& G"'en"&"i n" %on$"%e ni%i "n ministe %.ia Can%e&aia *e$ea&5
a'9n$ #o#i"& s5" minist"(
>
Din 1A=7 se #ot n"mi 7i se%etai $e stat #a&amentai$in 9n$"& membi&o Dietei
*e$ea&e, %ae a" an- $e a$2"n%/i $e mini7ti $a n" #ati%i#5 &a 7e$in/e&e G"'en"&"i(
Teb"ie men/ionat %5 #oti'it ta$i/iei -emane, tit&"& $e se%eta $e stat, *55 a&t5 #e%i+ae
$esemnea+5 #e %e& mai 1na&t *"n%/iona a$ministati' $in ministe"& $in %ae *a%e #ate(
Gu.ernul landului
Ae %9te "n e#e+entant 1n *ie%ae e-i"ne, %ae $e/ine %om#eten/e $e %oo$onae
a 1nte-ii a%ti'it5/i( E& este %onto&at $e %5te minist"& $e Intene a& &an$"&"i 7i $e %5te *ie%ae
minist" 1ns5%inat %" #ob&eme te.ni%e(
A$minista/ia e-i"nii este im#otant5 7i se st"%t"ea+5 1n mai m"&te se'i%ii(
Re-i"ni&e e)e%it5 o t"te&5 as"#a oa7e&o in$e#en$ente 7i -"#5i&o %om"na&e(
6n Gemania se -5ses% @2= $e $e#atamente, 117 m"ni%i#a&it5/i 7i 1=(0=B %om"ne a %5o
a"tonomie este *oate mae( Con%e#t"& $e $es%enta&i+ae 1n Gemania se ta$"%e, 1nt0"n
mo$ #ati%"&a, #in e%"noa7teea %onstit"/iona&5 a
$omeni"&"i #o#i" $e a%/i"ne a& %om"ne&o( Cea mai mae #ate $inte %onstit"/ii&e &an$"i&o
#e%i+ea+5, 1n a%e&a7i tim#, &ibetatea $e #in%i#i" e%"nos%"t5 %om"ne&o(
Ast*e&, %om"ne&e s"nt, 1n &imite&e &o teitoia&e, sin-"e&e es#onsabi&e 7i #omotoae, 1n
e)%&"si'itate, a& ansamb&"&"i a$minista/iei #"b&i%e &o%a&e( E&e 1n$e#&ines% toate sa%ini&e
#"b&i%e, 1n m5s"a 1n %ae, a%estea n" a" *ost atib"ite a&to a"toit5/i #in inteme$i"& "no
$is#o+i/ii &e-a&e(
Cie%ae &an$ ae o &e-is&a/ie %om"na&5 #o#ie, $e7i o-ane&e a$minista/iei
#"b&i%e &o%a&e s"nt %aa%teisti%e t"t"o state&o 3at9t *e$ea&e, %9t 7i "nitae4 7i e&e s"nt:
Pim5ia 7i Consi&i"& 3M"ni%i#a&GCom"na&4(
Sistemul !artidist german este "n"& bi#ati$ism im#e*e%t, sa" :$o"a #ati$e
si 2"matate;( A%est sistem este ast*e& #ent" %a e)ista $o"a #ati$e mai %" in*&"enta #"teni%a
si "n #ati$ mi%, %ae se aso%ia+a $e e-"&a %" #ati$"& a*&at &a #"tee( Bineinte&es %a e)ista mai
m"&te #ati$e in 'iata #o&iti%a insa %e&e mai im#otante s"nt: !ni"nea Cestin0Demo%ata,
Pati$"& So%ia&0Demo%at, Pati$"& ?ibe0Demo%at( Pe &an-a a%este mai s"nt si Pati$"&
E%o&o-ist si Pati$"& So%ia&ism"&"i Demo%ati%( Sistem"& #ati$ist Geman $e :$o"a #ati$e si
2"matate; tin$e inse s#e :$o"a #ati$e si $o"a 2"matati; $eoae%e Pati$"& E%o&o-ist $e'ine
$in %e in %e mai im#otant si se 'a aso%ia si e& &a -"'enae %" "n #ati$ mae(
A'an$ in 'e$ee atib"tii&e &imitate si *oma&e a&e #ese$inte&"i, %at si o"i&e
im#otante a&e Pa&ament"&"i si G"'en"&"i, mai #e%is a& Can%e&a"&"i, se #oate %" "s"inta
inte&e-e $e %e Re#"b&i%a Ce$ea&a Gemania ae "n e-im #o&iti% Pa&amenta(
D"#a o &a-a $es%iee a e-im"i&o #o&iti%e a&e %e&o tei tai 'oi #e%i+a
asemanai&e si $eoasebii&e $inte a%este e-im"i, a'an$ in 'e$ee %a a *ost $e2a $emonstata
a#atenenta tai&o &a %ate-oii&e $e e-im mentionate &a in%e#"t"& &"%aii(
Din 1AAB 7i #9na 1n i"&ie 200> a *ost &a #"tee &a ni'e&"& Gemaniei o %oa&i/ie
#a&amenta5 a7a0n"mit5 Ro7"0Ve$e, a$i%5 1nte So%ia&0Demo%a/i 3SPD4 7i Ve+i0e%o&o-i7ti
3B90 / Die Grnen4( ?a 21 i"&ie 200> #e7e$inte&e Host IJ.&e a $i+o&'at #a&ament"& , %a
"mae a 'ot"&"i $e ne1n%e$ee #e %ae &0a #imit %an%e&a"& $e at"n%i Ge.a$ S%.J$e
3SPD4 &a 1 i"&ie 1n #a&ament( Ca "mae, &a 1B se#tembie 200> a" a'"t &o% $in no" a&e-ei
*e$ea&e, 1n "ma %5oa a 'enit &a #"tee %oa&i/ia -"'enamenta&5 Fne-"0o7"F $inte #ati$e&e
CDU/CSU 7i SPD(


=
Autoritatea 0uridica
?a es#e%taea ?e-ii *"n$amenta&e 'e-.ea+5 i C"tea Constit"/iona&5 Ce$ea&5, %ae e
%om#"s5 $in $o"5 %amee a %9te B 2"$e%5toi: B s"nt a&e7i $e Pa&ament ia %ei&a&/i B s"nt a&e7i
$e Cons&i"& Ce$ea&( A%e7tia se o%"#5 1n s#e%ia& %" inte#etaea 7i a#&i%aea ?e-ii
*"n$amenta&e #in: 1( e+o&'aea &iti-ii&o %" #i'ie &a *"n%/ionaea #"tei&o #"b&i%e, 2(
%onto&"& %onstit"/iona&it5/ii 7i %a&it5/ii nome&o 2"i$i%e 7i D( so&"/ionaea e%"s"i&o
1naintate $e #ati%"&ai %ae07i a#55 $e#t"i&e *"n$amenta&e( C9n$ C"tea Constit"/iona&5
.ot557te ne%onstit"/iona&itatea "nei &e-i, ?e-i"ito"& ae $atoia s0o e'i+"ias5 *55 %a &e-ea s5
ias5 $in 'i-oae(

(urtea Federala (onstitutionala e)aminea+a &e-is&atia *e$ea&a si #e %ea a &an$"i&o
#ent" a %onstata %on*omitatea %" &e-i&e $e ba+a(
(urtea Federala de )ustitie este es#onsabi&a #ent" e+o&'aea #ob&eme&o #ena&e,
%i'i&e, e)%e#tin$ &e-i&e e*eitoae &a m"n%a si $omeni"& 2"is$i%tiona& &ibe, 'o&"nta 3%ae
in%&"$e a%ti'ita/i notaia&e, mostenii si #ob&eme $e #a+a4(
'egislatie 0 &e-i&e Gemaniei in mae #ate s"nt &e-i s%ise, ia in #e+ent e)ista mai
m"&t $e @000 $e &e-i si o$onan/e %" #"tee $e &e-e(


PARI(U'ARIAI A'E SISEMU'UI ADMINISRAI+ DIN
MAREA BRIANIE
Sistem"& #o&iti% a& Maii Bitanii este "n e-im %&asi% $e mona.ie %onstit"tiona&a %"
%aa%teisti%i #"teni% asemanatoae #a&amentaism"&"i( In %a$"& a%est"i e-im mona."& ae
"n o& *oma&, sa" %.ia %eemonia& #"teea *iin$ tans*eata #a&ament"&"i( Maea Bitanie
este o taa *aa %onstit"tie, a& %a"i sistem #o&iti% este ba+at mai m"&t #e %"t"me $e%at #e o
&e-e s%isa( N" se 'a inta&ni in Maea Bitanie "n %a$" 2"i$i%o0#o&iti% i-"os insa, se
ba+ea+a #e in$e&"n-ata #a%ti%a a #a&ament"&"i( Pa&ament"& bitani% este %onsi$eat instit"tie
#o&iti%a ane)a mona."&"i(
In %a+"& Maii Bitanii, o taa a& %a"i sistem #o&iti% se ba+ea+a #e %"t"ma, este &esne
$e inte&es %a o %onstit"tie s%isa n" e)ista( Constit"tia a%estei tai este "na nes%isa, ba+an$"0
se #e %"t"me si ta$itii %onstit"tiona&e, &a %ae se a$a"-a te)te &e-is&ati'e, sa" &e-i e%ente %ae
e-&ementea+ainstit"tii 2"i$i%e %" %aa%te %onstit"tiona&( Datoita *a#t"&"i %a este o
%onstit"tie ba+ata #e %"t"ma, a%easta se #oate in&o%"i "so *aa 'e0"n #o%e$e" s#e%ia&(
Monar*ia in %a$"& a%est"i sistem este sit"ata in 'a*"& iea.iei #o&iti%e a stat"&"i(
Desi %on*om &e-i&o %"t"miae si s%ise mona."& ae %e& mai im#otant o& in 'iata #o&iti%a,
in *a#t e& $etine o *"n%tie $e%oati'a, sin-"a *"n%tie a$e'aata *iin$ a%eea $e se* a& bisei%ii(
Ast*e&, Mona."& ae "m5toae&e atib"/ii:
1( Desemnaea #im"&"i minist"(
Pin a%easta #eo-ati'5 a sa, Mona."& $esemnea+5 1n mo$ ob&i-atoi" &i$e"& #ati$"&"i
1n'in-5to in a&e-ei8
2( San%/ionaea &e-i&o(
C"t"ma 1i e%"noa7te a%est $e#t $e 'eto, $a $e *a#t Re-e&e n" a mai "ti&i+at a%east5
#eo-ati'5 a sa $e a& 1n%e#"t"& se%(a& KVIII0&ea8
D( Pe+int5 LMesa2"& Ton"&"i;(
7
?a $es%.i$eea *ie%aei sesi"ni #a&amentae este #e+entat LMesa2"& Ton"&"i; $e *a#t a%est
obi%ei ae "n o& simbo&i% *iin$ o #&e$oaie 1n *a'oaea #o-am"&"i -"'enamenta& a&
#ati$"&"i a*&at &a #"tee8
@( 6nmanaea o$ine&o 7i $istin%/ii&o(
>( Di+o&'aea Cameei Com"ne&o(
A%east5 #eo-ati'5 a Re-e&"i ae "n o& *oma&, #a%ti% i/iati'a a#a/ine #im"&"i minist",
Mona."& %on*om9n$"0se %eeii a%est"ia, Camea ?o+i&o ne #"t9n$ *i $i+o&'at58
=( De%&aaea st5ii $e 5+boi 7i 1n%.eieea #5%ii(
Pin a%east5 #eo-ati'5 a sa Mona."& este abi&itat s5 $e%&ae stae $e 5+boi 7i s5 1n%.eie
#a%ea(
7( 6n%.eieea tatate&o(
Re-e&e ae #osibi&itatea $e a 1n%.eia tatate %" a&te state, at9t 1n %a&itatea sa $e S"'ean, %9t 7i
%a e#e+entant a& Pa&ament"&"i(
B( Re%"noa7teea a&to state 7i -"'ene(
Re-e&e #5stea+a o&"& ne%ontestat $e 7e* a& Bisei%ii an-&i%ane, *iin$ $e asemenea, 7e* a&
CommonMea&t.0"&"i bitani%(
Autoritatea legislati.a
Parlamentul britanic este "n"& bi%amea& *omat $in Camea Com"ne&o 3Ha"se o*
Commons4 si Camea ?o+i&o 3Ha"se o* ?o$s4( Mae&e Pa&ament"& Bitani% semni*i%a
%"#in$eea t"t"o st5i&o so%ia&e e%"nos%"te %a *iin$ 1n$i"ite s5 aib5 e#e+entan/i 1n
#a&ament( Constit"iea Cameei Com"ne&o e#e+ent9n$ %onse%in/a "nei e'o&"/ii istoi%e
&e-ate 1n s#e%ia& $e ne%esitatea so&"/ion5ii %onst"%ti'e a #ob&eme&o &e-ate $e ta)e 7i
im#o+ite(
Ra#ot"i&e %" %ooana e)#ima" s"bo$onaea #a&ament"&"i *a/5 $e %oan58 e-e&e
a'9n$ at9t atib"/i e)e%"ti'e %9t 7i &e-is&ati'e( Ra#ot"i&e %" %ooana e)#ima" s"bo$onaea
#a&ament"&"i *a/5 $e %oan58 e-e&e a'9n$ at9t atib"/i e)e%"ti'e %9t 7i &e-is&ati'e(
Staea $e s"bo$onae a #a&ament"&"i bitani% *a/5 $e e-e a %ontin"at 7i 1n se%( KIV,
a%esta este ma%at $e se#aaea #a&ament"&"i 1n $o"5 %amee( Ast*e& &a 1DD2 %e&e $o"5
-"#"i 3"n"& *omat $in #e&a/i 7i nobi&i 7i "n"& *omat $in %a'a&eii e#e+entan/i ai
%omitate&o 7i e#e+entan/ii oa7e&o4 $e&ibea" se#aat, ia 1n 1D>1$ in a%este $o"5 -"#"i s0
a" *omat $o"5 a$"n5i %" &o%a&"i se#aate Camea ?o+i&o es#e%ti' Camea Com"ne&o(
?a a%est5 $at5 %e&e $o"5 a$"n5i n" a'ea" atib"/ii&e "n"i o-an &e-is&ati'( De7i sistem"&
%onstit"/iona& bitani% se ba+ea+5 #e #in%i#i"& se#aa/iei %e&o tei #"tei: &e-is&ati'5,
e)e%"ti'5 7i #"teea 2"$e%5toeas%5, 1nte a%estea e)ist5 me%anisme %onstit"/iona&e $e
inte*een/5, $e %o&aboae 7i %oo#eae 1n #o%es"& $e -"'enae(
De #i&$5, #a&ament"& n"me7te #im"&0minist" 7i #e ministii, -"'en"& e)e%it5
initia/i'a &e-is&ati'5, %omisii&e #a&amentae 'ei*i%5 a%ti'itatea -"'en"&"i, $e#"ta/ii
inte#e&ea+5 mini7tii et%( O e)#esie a a%estei %o&abo5i 1nte #"tei este 7i es#onsabi&itatea
ministeia&5 %ae %onst5 1n #eo-ati'a #a&ament"&"i $e a %ee membi&o -"'en"&"i s5
a#ote+e 1n *a/a a%est"ia 1n &e-at"5 %" mo$"& in %ae isi in$e#&ines% atib"/ii&e
1
(
(amera (omunelor $etine intea-a #"tee &e-is&ati'a, a'an$ "n %aa%te e#e+entati'
%on*eit #in 'ot( Membii a%estei %amee s"nt a&esi #in 'ot #ent" "n man$at $e %in%i ani( In
%a$"& a%estei %amee se o-ani+ea+a $o"a -"#"i #a&amentae, -"#"& ma2oita 3%ei %ae
1
B
$etin #"teea4 si %e& minoita 3o#o+itia4, a'an$ in *"ntea &o *ie%ae %ate "n &i$e( A%easta
%amea este %on$"sa $e "n S#eaNe a&es $in an$"& #a&amentai&o( Se obisn"ia %a S#eaNe0"&
sa *ie n"mit $e mona. insa a%"m, #ese$inte&e Cameei Com"ne&o este a&es #in %onsens $e
%ate #a&amentai, #ent" "n man$at $e %in%i ani( Camea %om"ne&o este si o-an"& in *ata
%a"ia -"'en"& teb"ie sa as#"n$a( Ast*e& Camea Com"ne&o in$e#&ineste si *"n%tia $e
%onto& as"#a -"'en"&"i( A%easta *"n%tie #oate *i n"mita :*"n%tie non&e-is&ati'a;
2
O#o+itiei i se o*ea toate %on$itii&e #ent" &ibea e)e%itae a a%ti'itatii #o&iti%e( ?i$e"&
o#o+itiei *omea+a "n %abinet $in "mba, %ae in$e#&ineste o&"& "n"i #otentia& -"'en
3s.a$oM %abinet4( Ast*e& se #oate s#"ne %a*"n%tia #in%i#a&a a Cameei Com"ne&o este a%eea
&e-is&ati'a(

(amera 'or1ilor n" ae "n %aa%te e#e+entati' #ent" %a ea n" ae &a ba+a
e&i-ibi&itatea membi&o sai, %i ee$itatea 3membii mostenin$ ee$ita &o%"& in %amea4( Desi
a%easta %amea ae "n %aa%te ee$ita, mona."& ae $e#t"& sa n"meas%a &o+i in$i*eent $e
oi-inea so%ia&a a innobi&at"&"i %" %on$itia sa *ie babat( Ast*e&, in #e+ent a#o)imati' >00
$inte &o%"i&e $in %amea &o+i&o s"nt o%"#ate $e &o+i n"miti( Membii a%estei %amee s"nt
m"&t mai n"meosi $e%at %ei ai Camei Com"ne&o, s"nt 7>A $e &o+i( In #e+ent se in%ea%a
e$"%eea a%estei %amee &a "n n"ma $e &o%"i mai mi% 3A24, #ent" a a$a#ta sistem"& #o&iti%
&a %on$itii&e Maii Bitanii %ontem#oane( A%easta %amea #"ne si mai mae a%%ent #e %"t"ma,
$e%at %ea&a&ta %amea( Camea ?o+i&o este %on$"sa $e "n ?o$ Can%e&a, %ae *a%e #ate si
$in -"'en(


Sistemul electoral
Sistem"& e&e%toa& ta$i/iona& bitani% este "n s%"tin ma2oita e&ati' 1n
%i%"ms%i#/ii "ninomina&e, n"mit 7i sistem first-past-the-post( De#"ta/ii a&e7i s"nt a%ei
%an$i$a/i $int0o %i%"ms%i#/ie e&e%toa&5 %ae a" a$"nat mai m"&te 'ot"i $e%9t to/i %ei&a&/i
%om#etitoi( 6n &imba2 simbo&i%, $e %"se $e %ai, %ine te%e #im"& $e F&inieF (first-past-the-
post, %97ti-5( Vot"i&e a%o$ate %e&o&a&/i %an$i$a/i n" s"nt &"ate 1n %onsi$eae &a $istib"iea
&o%"i&o $in #a&ament( Sistem"& e&e%toa& #es"#"ne o e&a/ie st9ns5 1nte %i%"ms%i#/ii 7i
$e#"ta/i( <i #ent" %5 mini7tii teb"ie s5 *ie a"tomat 7i membi ai "nei Camee, ei #ot #ie$e,
1n %a+"& 1ne-ist5ii "n"i e7e% 1n %om#eti/ia e&e%toa&5 $in %i%"ms%i#/ia &o, 7i oi%e 7ans5 $e
a ob/ine o *"n%/ie -"'enamenta&5( De#"ta/ii a&e7i s"nt, #ent" to/i &o%"itoii $in
%i%"ms%i#/ia sa e&e%toa&5, oamenii $e &e-5t"5 1n #ob&eme #o&iti%e 7i so%ia&e 7i
Fambasa$oiiF a%estoa 1n Pa&ament"& $e &a ?on$a( De e-"&5, ei s"nt %"nos%"/i 1n
%i%"ms%i#/ia $e #o'enien/5, ei ne*iin$ 1ns5 ob&i-a/i s5 *ie e+i$en/i 'e%.i ai a%estoa, #ent"
a se b"%"a $e 7anse s#oite %" o%a+ia a&e-ei&o(

Autoritatea e/ecuti.a
O-ani+aea si *"n%tionaea G"'en"&"i in Maea Bitanie
Gu.ernul Maii Bitanii este "n o-an e)e%"ti' *omat bine0nte&es $in #emie si
ministii( G"'en"& e#e+inta in *a#t 'i%toia e&e%toa&a a "n"ia $inte #ati$e&e a*&ate &a
-"'enae(#ati$"& %ae a %asti-at a&e-ei&e 'a $etine ma2oitatea #a&amentaa asi-"an$ ast*e&
a#obaea #o-am"&"i $e -"'enae si a #oie%te&o -"'en"&"i, #o#"se Pa&ament"&"i(
2
A
Atib"tii&e G"'en"&"i s"nt:atib"tii e)e%"ti'e, atib"tii &e-is&ati'e 3a#o)imati' A0O $in
&e-i&e 'otate $e Pa&ament s"nt initiate $e G"'en4 si atib"tii %" %aa%te *inan%ia 3#oie%t"&
$e b"-et *iin$ initiat $e G"'en si 'otat $e Pa&ament4( In %a$"& -"'en"&"i e)ista $o"a ti#"i
$e ministii, tit"&ai 3senioi4 si se%etai $e stat 32"nioi4(
Din #"n%t $e 'e$ee *oma& 2"i$i% at9t Cabinet"& %9t 7i G"'en"& 7i Pim"& minist" se
n"mes% $e Cooan5( Tot"7i, %a "mae a "nei %on'en/ii %onstit"/iona&e *omat5 1n se%( KIK,
ob&i-5 e-ina s5 n"meas%5 1n *"n%/ia $e #im0minist" #e 7e*"& #ati$"&"i ma2oita 1n Camea
Com"ne&o(
E)ist5 #osibi&itatea %a Re-ina s5 #oat5 in*&"en/a tot"7i $esemnaea Pim"&"i0minist",
at"n%i %9n$ ni%i, "n #ati$ n" $e/ine ma2oitatea 3%"m a *ost %a+"& e#o%ii ti0#ati$e
intebe&i%e4 sa" %9n$ #ati$"& ma2oita n" ae "n 7e* 3%a+"& s"%%esi"nii &"i %.a%.i&&4( C"
a%este e)%e#/ii, se %onsi$e5 %5 Pim"& minist" este a&es #in s"*a-i" "ni'esa& in$ie%t,
1nt"%9t 1n mo$ noma&, *ie%ae #ati$ abo$ea+5 a&e-ei&e %" "n 7e* $esemnat #ent" a *i Pim0
minist" 1n %a+ $e 'i%toie e&e%toa&5(
A&e-eea %e&o&a&/i membi ai Cabinet"&"i 7i ai G"'en"&"i se *a%e $e %5te #im"&0
minist" $in 9n$"& #ati$"&"i s5", to/i membii -"'en"&"i s"nt 7i membi ai Cameei
Com"ne&o sa", 1nt0"n n"m5 est9ns, ai Cameei ?o+i&o( Con'en/ii&e Constit"/iona&e
ob&i-5 #e #im"&0minist" s5 *ie memb" a& Cameei Com"ne&o(
6n a*aa %a+"i&o %e)%e#/iona&e: $emisia, $e%es"& sa" mo/i"nea $e %en+"5 %onta
G"'en"&"i, $"ata a%est"ia este e-a&5 %" %ea a &e-is&at"ii( D"ata &e-is&at"ii este &a $is#o+i/ia
#im"&"i0 minist" $a man$at"& Cameei Com"ne&o n" #oate $e#57i > ani(
Pim"&0minist" #oate oi%9n$ s5 %ea5 $i+o&'aea P&ament"&"i, #"n9n$ %a#5t
&e-is&at"ii, #ent" a #o*ita $e o %on2"n%t"5 #e %ae o %onsi$e5 *a'oabi&5 $in #"n%t $e
'e$ee e&e%toa&( A7a se *a%e %5 $"ata me$ie a &e-is&at"i&o este $e @ ani(
Pim"&0minist" #oate mo$i*i%a oi%9n$ %om#onen/a -"'en"&"i sa", 1n mo$ obi7n"it
emaniei&e *5%9n$"0se an"a&, $"#5 'a%an/a $e 'a(
St"%t"a G"'en"&"i *a%e obie%t"& mai m"&to %on'en/ii %onstit"/iona&e( O-ani+aea
sa este #eo-ati'5 ea&5, %.ia $a%5, 1n a%est $omeni" %on'en/ii&e %onstit"/iona&e s"nt mai
#"/in i-"oase $e%9t %e&e&a&te %"t"me %onstit"/iona&e(
Temen"& $e !"#ern 1n An-&ia ae tei a%%e#/i"ni, es#e%ti':
P ma2oitate -"'enamenta&5
P a$minista/ia $e stat
P ansamb&"& %"#ins $in %%a( 100 $e #esoane, %ae s"nt mini7ti sa" se%etai $e stat
6n a%east5 "&tim5 a%%e#/i"ne G"'en"& %"#in$e:
Q mini,tri de!artamentali 3%ei %ae %on$"% "n ministe4 %ae #oat5 $en"miea
$e Secretari $e stat #ent" ministee&e %e&e mai 'e%.i, 7i mini%tri 1n %a+"& ministee&o mai
e%ente(Mini7ti $e#atamenta&i s"nt $e e-"&5 7i membi ai Cabinet"&"i( ei 17i %on$"%
ministee&e %" a2"to"& mini7ti&o $e stat %ae &e s"nt a$2"n%/i, 7i %" a2"to"& s"bse%etai&o $e
stat #a&amentai, %ae asi-"5 &e-5t"a %" Camee&e Pa&ament"&"i8
Q mini,tri non2de!arlamentari 3*55 #oto*o&i"4 %ae o%"#5 1n mo$ ta$i/iona& an"mite
*"n%/ii, a$esea onoi*i%e8
Q membrii gru!ului de !arlamentari 3ns4rcina5i cu organi1area .otului 3n Parlament6
7consilierii 0uridici ai Gu.ernului&
Mini7ti %ae *a% #ate $in Cabinet, mini7ti $e stat, %onsi&ieii 2"i$i%i 7i #in%i#a&ii
#a&amentai 1ns5%ina/i %" o-ani+aea 'ot"&"i 1n Pa&ament, s"nt $e %" a#e&ati'"& mini%tri
seniori ia %ei&a&/i %" a#e&ati'"& mini%tri '"niori( N"miea t"t"o mini7ti&o este $e%is5 $e
Pim"& minist" %ae stabi&e7te, $e asemenea, 7i %om#onen/a Cabinet"&", a$e'5at"& o-an $e
$e%i+ie -"'enamenta&5, 7i %ae %"#in$e mini7ti %ei mai im#otan/i( An"mi/i membii ai
G"'en"&"i int5 $in o*i%i" 1n %om#onen/a Cabinet"&"i: ?o$"& Can%e&a, minist"& $e *inan/e,
s"bse%etaii $e stat $e &a a#5ae, intene, a*a%ei e)tene (
10
?ibetatea $e a&e-ee a Pim"&"i0minist", 1n %e #i'es% membii G"'en"&"i,7i ai
Cabinet"&"i, in%&"si' emanieea a%estoa, n" este &imitat5 $e%9t $e #o#i"& #ati$( Pim"&0
minist" #oate s507i e+e'e 7i %on$"%eea "n"i ministe 3e)( C.%.i&& ministe"& $e 5+boi8
M(T.at%.e Ministe"& CC"n%/iei P"b&i%e 4(
Cabinet"& se 1nt"ne7te $in ini/iati'a #im"&"i0minist" %ae stabi&e7te 7i o$inea $e +i(
De%i+ii&e se ia" #in %onsens, %ae se ob/ine $atoit5 as%en$ent"&"i #im"&"i0minist" as"#a
%e&o&a&/i mini7ti(
Sistemul !artidist al Marii Britanii este "n"& bi#ati$ist #", e)istan$ $o"a #ati$e
$ominante, Pati$"& Conse'ato si Pati$"& ?ab"ist, %ae obtin $e *ie%ae $ata A0O $in 'ot"i
%" a#o)imati' A>O$in man$ate( In 'iata #o&iti%a en-&e+eas%a mai e)ista #ati$e insa $inte
a%estea "n"& mai im#otant este Pati$"& ?ibea&, *iin$ #e &o%"& tei insa #ime&e $o"a $omina
%" $esa'asie(
Autoritatea 0uridica
Da%a a *i sa 'obim $es#e Maea Bitanie $in #"n%t"& $e 'e$ee a& a"toitatii
2"$e%atoesti, Re-at"& !nit n" ae o C"te Constit"tiona&a, n" ae "n sistem "nita $e %"ti si
n" ae o se#aae %&aa a &e-i&o #i'ate si #"b&i%e asa %"m $e a&t*e& e)ista in ma2oitatea tai&o
e"o#ene( !n e&ement #ati%"&a este e#e+entat $e absen/a -aan/iei %onstit"/iona&e 1n
*a'oaea %o&e%ti'it5/i&o teitoia&e: Pa&ament"& este &ibe s5 ea&i+e+e oi%e s%.imbae #e %ae
o $oe7te 1n o-ani+aea a$minista/iei $es%enta&i+ate( S"s/in5toii sistem"&"i bitani%
a#e%ia+5 %5 ta$i/ii&e 7i %"t"ma s"nt s"*i%iente #ent" a #5sta a"tonomia 7i in$e#en$en/a
a$minista/iei &o%a&e, $a este %&a %5 a%estea n" s"nt $e%9t a-"mente nesemni*i%ati'e(N"
e)ist5 %"/i %onstit"/iona&e sa" a$ministati'e s#e%ia&i+ate #ent" a tata %on*&i%te&e 1nte
$e%i+ii&e -"'en"&"i %enta& 7i $e%i+ii&e a$minista/iei &o%a&e $es%enta&i+ate( A%east5
%om#eten/5 e'ine tib"na&e&o %i'i&e o$inae 7i 2"is#"$en/ei %ae ea&i+ea+5 "n e*ot ma2o
#ent" a a$a#ta &e-ea o$ina5 1n %i%"mstan/e&e #ati%"&ae a&e a$minista/iei &o%a&e(
Co&e%ti'it5/i&e teitoia&e $es%enta&i+ate bitani%e n" a" %om#eten/e -enea&e( 6n
a#&i%aea #in%i#i"&"i "&ta 'ies $e+'o&tat $e tib"na&e 1n se%o&"& KIK, *ie%ae a%t a&
-"'en"&"i teb"ie s5 aib5 &a ba+5 o abi&itae &e-a&5, %on*eit5 #int0o &e-e sa" o %"t"m5
3%ommon&aM4((
Da%a a *i sa *a%em o %om#aatie %" Romania, a"toitatea 2"$e%atoeas%a in taa
noasta se %om#"ne $in instante&e 2"$e%atoesti, Ministe"& P"b&i% si Consi&i"& S"#eio a&
Ma-istat"ii(Instante&e 2"$e%atoesti s"nt: R"$e%atoii&e, Tib"na&e&e, Tib"na&e&e S#e%ia&i+ate,
C"ti&e $e A#e& si Ina&ta C"te $e Casatie si R"stitie( Instanta s"#ema in iea.ia instante&o
2"$e%atoesti in Romania este Ina&ta C"te $e Casatie si R"stitie, %e ae, in #in%i#a&,
%om#etenta $e a 2"$e%a e%"s"& 1n %asatie si $e a asi-"a inte#etaea si a#&i%aea "nitaa a
&e-ii $e %ate %e&e&a&te instante 2"$e%atoesti(
As!ecte !ri.ind organi1area ,i -unc5ionarea Gu.ernului 3n Rom8nia$
com!arati. cu 54rile Uniunii Euro!ene
Con*om Constit"/iei $in 1AA1, in'esti/ia G"'en"&"i 1n Rom9nia #es"#"ne "n
%om#&e) $e a%ti'it5/i anteioae moment"&"i, es#e%ti':
1($esemnaea "n"i %an$i$at #ent" *"n%/ia $e Pim0minist"8
2(a&%5t"iea &istei membi&o -"'en"&"i 7i 1nto%miea #o-am"&"i $e -"'enae8
11
D($e+bateea 1n Pa&ament a #o-am"&"i $e -"'enae 7i a &istei G"'en"&"i8
@('ot"& $e 1n%e$ee8
>(n"miea G"'en"&"i(
Desemnaea %an$i$at"&"i #ent" *"n%/ia $e Pim0minist" se *a%e $e Pe7e$inte&e /5ii 1n
"ma %ons"&t5ii %" e#e+entan/ii #ati$"&"i %ae $e/ine ma2oitatea abso&"t5 1n Pa&ament 3 1n
a#ot %" n"m5"& tota& a& $e#"ta/i&o 7i senatoi&o4 se *a%e %" e#e+entan/ii t"t"o #ati$e&o
#e+ente 1n Pa&ament(
A&%5t"iea &istei G"'en"&"i 7i 1nto%miea #o-am"&"i $e -"'enae s"nt 1n sa%ina
%an$i$at"&"i &a *"n%/ia $e Pim0minist"( A%esta n" ae i &ibetate $e#&in5 *iin$ ob&i-at s5 /in5
seama at9t $e #o-ame&e #ati$e&o #e %ae se 'a s#i2ini #ent" ob/ineea 'ot"&"i $e
1n%e$ee, %9t 7i $e ne-o%iei&e %" a%estea 1n #i'in/a %an$i$a/i&o ministeiabi&i(
Vot"& $e 1n%e$ee ae 1n 'e$ee %on%o$an/a $inte #o-am 7i #esoane&e a#te s50&
#"n5 1n #a%ti%5( 6n Rom9nia, n" e)ist5 in%om#atibi&itate 1nte man$at"& #a&amenta 7i *"n%/ia
ministeia&5(
Can$i$at"& &a *"n%/ia $e Pim0Minist" teb"ie s5 so&i%ite Pa&ament"&"i 'ot"& $e
1n%e$ee 1n temen $e 10 +i&e $e &a $ata &a %ae a *ost $esemnat( De+bateea #o-am"&"i $e
-"'enae 7i a &istei -"'en"&"i se *a%e 1n 7e$in/5 %om"n5 a %e&o $o"5 %amee a&e
Pa&ament"&"i 1n temen $e 1> +i&e $e &a $e#"ne( Vot"& $e 1n%e$ee este se%et 7i ne%esit5
ma2oitatea abso&"t5( Nea%o$aea 'ot"&"i $"#5 $o"5 tentati'e e7"ate 7i $"#5 e)#iaea
"n"i temen $e =0 $e +i&e, $5 $e#t"& Pe7e$inte&"i s5 $i+o&'e Pa&ament"&, $e a&t*e&, "ni%a
mo$a&itate $e $i+o&'ae a Pa&ament"&"i #e'5+"t5 1n Constit"/ia Rom9niei(
N"miea G"'en"&"i se *a%e #in $e%et #e+i$en/ia& 1n "ma 'ot"&"i $e 1n%e$ee
a%o$at $e Pa&ament(
N"miea G"'en"&"i se *a%e #in $e%et #e+i$en/ia& 1n "ma 'ot"&"i $e 1n%e$ee
a%o$at $e Pa&ament( D"ata man$at"&"i este $e @ ani, $a #oate 1n%eta, 7i 1nainte $e temen,
#in a$o#taea "nei mo/i"ni $e %en+"5 sa" $a%5 Pim"&0Minist" 17i #ie$e %a&itatea $e
memb" a& G"'en"&"i se *a%e #in $e%et #e+i$en/ia& 1n "ma 'ot"&"i $e 1n%e$ee a%o$at $e
Pa&ament(
A'9n$ 1n 'e$ee tim#"& e&ati' s%"t %ae a te%"t $e %9n$ s0a instit"it no"& sistem
%onstit"/iona&, este -e" $e a#e%iat stabi&itatea -"'enamenta&5 1n Rom9nia( Tot"7i, #"tem
ema%a *a#t"& %5 ni%i "n"& $in %e&e > -"'ene %ae s0a" s"%%e$at n" 7i0a 1n%.eiat man$at"&
1nainte $e temen %a "mae a a$o#t5ii "nei mo/i"ni $e %en+"5 3$e7i e&e a" *ost %e"te4, %eea
%e $emonstea+5 %5 1n Rom9nia n" s0a $est5mat ni%i o %a&itate -"'enamenta&5(
Com#a9n$ *omaea -"'en"&"i Rom9niei %" *omaea -"'ene&o state&o$in !ni"nea
E"o#ean5 %onst5t5m %5 7i Rom9nia se 1n%a$ea+5 1n e-im"&, mai m"&t sa" mai #"/in
#a&amenta a& a%esto state(
6n %e #i'e7te mo$"& $e n"mie a& 7e*"&"i -"'en"&"i 3*a%em absta%/ie $e $en"mii&e
$i'ese *o&osite 1n state&e ana&i+ate4, sit"a/ia se #e+int5 ast*e&:
a4 1n > /5i, in'estiea G"'en"&"i se *a%e $e Pa&ament, $"#5 n"miea Pim"&"i0minist"
$e %5te 7e*"& stat"&"i 3Be&-ia, Danema%a, Ge%ia, Ita&ia, 7i Pot"-a&ia4( O#/i"nea este
&imitat58
b4 1n a&te > state: A"stia, Can/a, ?")emb"-, Maea Bitanie 7i O&an$a, Pim"&0Minist"
7i G"'en"& se n"mes% $e 7e*"& stat"&"i, *55 a *i ne%esa 'ot"& $e 1n%e$ee a&
Pa&ament"&"i( ?ibetatea $e o#/i"ne a 7e*"&"i stat"&"i 'aia+5 $e &a o /a5 &a a&ta 3e)(
1n Can/a &ibetatea este a#e%iabi&5, 1n Maea Bitanie este #a%ti% ine)istent548
%4 1n a&te > /5i: Cin&an$a, Gemania, I&an$aa, S#ania 7i S"e$ia e)ist5 #o%e$"i
#ati%"&ae $e in'estit"5(

Com#a9n$ sit"a/ia /5i&o $in !E %" sit"a/ia Rom9niei, 'om obse'a %5 in'estit"a
-"'en"&"i nost" este asem5n5toae %" %ea $in #im"& -"# $e /5i %om"nitae( Este 'oba $e
12
asem5nae 7i n" $e i$entitate 1nt"%9t Pe7e$inte&e Rom9niei n"me7te Pim"&0minist" abia
$"#5 %e a%esta a #imit 'ot"& $e 1n%e$ee a& Pa&ament"&"i, 7i n" 1nainte, %a 1n /5i&e
es#e%ti'e(
Oi-ina&itatea e-im"&"i %onstit"/iona& om9n %onst5 1n abi&itatea Pe7e$inte&"i $e
$i+o&'ae a Pa&ament"&"i 1n %a+"& 1n %ae a%esta n" a%o$5 'ot"& $e 1n%e$e, $"#5
#a%"-eea "nei an"mite #o%e$"i(
6n %e #i'e7te %om#atibi&itatea *"n%/iei -"'enamenta&e %" %ea #a&amenmta5,
sit"a/ia se #e+int5 ast*e&:
a4 /5i 1n %ae %a&itatea $e memb" a& -"'en"&"i este %on$i/ionat5 $e %a&itatea $e
#a&amenta: Maea Bitanie, I&an$a8
b4 /5i 1n %ae %a&itatea $e memb" a& -"'en"&"i este in%om#atibi&5 %" %ea $e
#a&amenta: A"stia, Can/a, ?")emb"-, Pot"-a&ia, S"e$ia8
%4 /5i 1n %ae %e&e $o"5 %a&it5/i n" s"nt in%om#atibi&e: Cin&an$a, Be&-ia, Danema%a,
O&an$a, Ita&ia 7i S#ania(
Con*om 'e%.ii &e-i, G"'en"& ea a&%5t"it $in Pim0Minist", mini7ti 7i Se%etai
$e Stat( Ine)isten/a "no e-&ement5i %&ae a *5%"t %a o#inii&e %" #i'ie &a st"%t"a
G"'en"&"i s5 $i*ee, 1n *"n%/ie $e #o+i/ia Pim"&"i0minist" 7i Gsa" a %oa&i/iei
-"'enamenta&e(
6n %e #i'e7te *"n%/ia $e minist" $e stat, a%e&a7i a"to o %onsi$ea %on*om5
Constit"/iei, $eoae%e tit"&at"a $e minist" "ti&i+at5 1n te)t"& %onstit"/iona&, ae %aa%te
-enei%, *iin$ #osibi&e oi%e %i%"mstan/iei( Ast*e&, se #oate "ti&i+a at9t $en"miea $e mini7t"
$e stat, %9t 7i %ea $e minist" *55 #oto*o&i" 3%eea %e $e a&t*e& se 1nt9m#&5 1n ea&itate e)(
minsit" #ent" e&a/ii %" Pa&ament"&, minist" $e&e-at &a Ministe"& Inte-aii e"o#ene4,
e)isten/a a%esto *"n%/ii *iin$ $i%tat5 $e im#eati'e #o&iti%e, 7i n" 2"i$i%e(Teb"ie #e%i+at %5
*"n%/ia $e minist" $e stat ae %aa%te onoi*i%, e#e+ent9n$ o e'i$en/iee a ministee&o #e
%ae #im"&0minist" &e %onsi$e5 mai im#otante(
Mo$i*i%aea e&ati' *e%'ent5 a n"m5"&"i $e ministe 7i a tit"&at"ii
a%estoa se 1nt9&ne7te 1n m"&te /5i %om"nitae, %eea %e e*&e%t5 a$a#taea &a $inami%a ea&it5/ii
sa" o 1n%e%ae $e i$i%ae a e*i%ien/ei se'i%ii&o #"b&i%e, oi s"nt e+"&tat"& "no eoi sa" a
"no #esi"ni #ati+ane(6n *ine, mo$"& $e *"n%/ionae0 7e$in/e s5#t5m9na&e %" .ot59i
a$o#tate #in %onsens sa" $e #im"&0minist" este %om"n /5i&o $in !E 1n %ae *i-"a #o&iti%a
%enta&5 este Maea Bitanie, Gemania, Rom9nia(
Con%&"+ia este %5 st"%t"a 7i mo$"& $e *"n%/ionae a G"'en"&"i om9n se
1ns%i" 1n stan$a$e&e e"o#ene, ia mo$i*i%5i&e a$"se Constit"/iei #in Re*een$"m"& $in
1B01A o%tombie 200D 'o o*ei mo$a&it5/i $e %e7tee a stabi&it5/ii -"'enamneta&e,
%ontin"it5/ii, %oeen/ei 7i e*i%a%it5/ii a%/i"nii -"'enamenta&e(
ASEMANARI SI DEOSEBIRI INRE DOUA ARI
1D
D"#a %"m am $emonstat $e2a: Maea Bitanie #oate *i %onsi$eata o taa %" "n e-im
#o&iti% %&asi% $e Mona.ie Constit"tiona&a 3%ae insa tin$e s#e #a&amentaism4 si %a
Re#"b&i%a *e$ea&a Gemania ae #ate $e "n e-im #o&iti% #a&amenta( Iata $e %e #ent" o
mai b"na inte&e-ee a temati%ii este ne%esaa o %om#aae a %e&o tei ti#"i $e e-im(
Asemanarile $inte Gemania si Maea Bitanie #ot *i i$enti*i%ate ast*e&:
O #ima asemanae inte %e&e $o"a e-im"i este a%eea %a *ie%ae stat ae "n Pa&ament
bi%amea& $inte %ae o %amea $etine #"teea e#e+entati'a, *iin$ a&easa in mo$ $ie%t $e
%ate #o#"&atie( Cea $e a $o"a %amea a'an$ "n o& in &"aea $e%i+ii&o membii sai *iin$
n"miti sa" a&esi $e #"teea e)e%"ti'a(
O a&ta asemanae a#ae inte Maea Bitanie si Gemania ti#"& $e e-im #o&iti% *iin$ *oate
a#o#iat, %a%i mona.ia %onstit"tiona&a este, in 'i+i"nea m"&toa, %onsi$eata o ane)a a
e-im"&"i #a&amenta( Din a%est #"n%t $e 'e$ee in %a+"& An-&ei mona."& ae #"tee mai
m"&t *oma&a %a%i :mona."& %on$"%e n" -"'enea+a;, ia in %a+"& Gemaniei %ae este o
e#"b&i%a *e$ea&a #ese$inte&e ae si e& tot "n o& *oma& -"'enaea *iin$ in maini&e
Pa&ament"&"i, %a si in %a+"& An-&iei( O a&ta asemanae inte a%este $o"a tai este a%eea %a in
ambe&e %a+"i, #im0minist"& si es#e%ti' %an%e&a"& $etin #"teea e)e%"ti'a( Din a%easta
$ei'an$ o a&ta asemanae, a%eea #i'in$ mo$"& %"m este a&es e)e%"ti'"&( E)e%"ti'"& este a&es
$e %amea %" #"tee e#e+entati'a 3a$i%a %amea a&easa $e #o#"&atie4, ia $a%a e)e%"ti'"&
#ie$e ma2oitatea Cameei Com"ne&o si es#e%ti' B"n$esta-"&"i, #oate *i $emis *"n%tia *iin$
#e&"ata $e "n s"%%eso(
Este &esne $e inte&es %a oi%e asemanae at-e $"#a sine si o deosebire9 In a%est %a+
toate asemanai&e mai s"s mentionate ata- o seie $e deosebiri9
O #ima $eosebie este a%eea inte e-im"i&e #o&iti%e 3#ent" %a sa n" "itam %a $esi
e-im"& #o&iti% -eman si %e& en-&e+ se aseamana *oate tae, %e&e $o"a ti#o&o-ii $e sistem
#o&iti% s"nt $i*eite tot"si4, a'an$ $e a *a%e %" "n e-im #a&amenta,si "n"& $e mona.ie
%onstit"tiona&a((
O a&ta $eosebie a#ae $e $ata a%easta &a ni'e&"i Constit"tiei, in %a+"& Gemaniei
e)istan$ %onstit"tii s%ise %" "n %aa%te &e-a& bine $e&imitat, %onstit"tii i-i$e, mai e)a%t( Pe
$e a&ta #ate in %a+"& Maii Bitanii n" e)ista o %onstit"tie s%isa, e-im"& #o&iti% ba+an$"0se
*oate m"&t #e %"t"me si ta$itii %" "n o& *"n%tiona& $ine stabi&it si 'ei*i%at $e in$e&"n-ata
#a%ti%a #o&iti%a(
O $eosebie mai este si a%eea a sisteme&o $e #ati$e( Si asta #ent" %a in %a+"& Maii
Bitanii a'eam $e a *a%e %" sisteme bi#ati$iste #e*e%te, #e %an$ in Gemania se e-aseste "n
sistem bi#ati$ist im#e*e%t sa" %.ia #&"i#ati$ist in %a+"& "no a"toi, %" $o"a #ati$e si
2"matate %ae $e *a#t in "&tima #eioa$a tin$e s#e $o"a #ati$e si $o"a 2"matati, %.ia si in
'i+i"nea &"i Ma"i%e D"'e-e(
Din #"n%t"& $e 'e$ee a& Pa&ament"&"i 'om $istin-e o a&ta $eosebie( Desi %e&e 2
#a&emente s"nt bi%amea&e, in %a+"& %ameei %ae n" e#e+inta #o#"&atia $in An-&ia 'om
obse'a %a a%easta n" e#e+inta o-ani+aea stata&a, #e%"m in %e&a&a&t %a+, %i e#e+inta
aisto%atia 3$esi in +i&e&e noaste n" se mai #"na mae a%%ent #e ea4(
O $eosebie &a *e& $e im#otanta, %ae e*&e%ta mo$"& $e -"'enae este a%eea %a in
%a+"& Gemaniei, *omati"ni&e #o&iti%e n" s"nt s"#a0e#e+entate in #a&ament, #e %an$ in
%a+"& An-&iei, %.ia $a%a #ati$"& %ae a obtin"t 'i%toia ae o ma2oitate e&ati'a e& 'a a'ea o
ma2oitate abso&"ta in #a&ament 3%" a&te %"'inte 'a *ii s"#e0e#e+entat4(
Desi mona.ia %onstit"tiona&a tin$e %&a s#e #a&amentaism, $i*eente a#a inte
Maea Bitanie si Gemania $"#a %"m s0a #"t"t obse'a( Insa a%est &"%" s0a #"t"t obse'a $e
&a in%e#"t"& &"%aii, intentia *iin$ a%eea $e a $emonsta %e&e #e%i+ate(
1@
D"#a o #e+entae a %aa%teisti%i&o %e&o $o"a ti#"i $e e-im"i, a %aa%teisti%i&o
*ie%aei tai si a asemanai&o si a $eosebii&o se #oate s#"ne %a a *ost $emonstat *a#t"& %a
*ie%ae $inte %e&e $o"a tai a#atine %ate-oiei $e e-im #o&iti% %e i0a *ost atib"ita(
PRE:ENAREA A+ANA)E'OR (OMPEII+E A'E SISEME'OR
ANA'I:AE
Germania
- este "n sistem e#e+entati' $e $emo%atie, in sens"& %a toate #"tei&e s"'eane e'in
%etateni&o %ae in mo$ in$ie%t e)e%ita #"teea &o in stat #in #o%es"& e&e%toa&8
- $e&e-aea $e es#onsabi&itate atat &a ni'e& e-ionat si a& &an$"i&o %on$"%e &a
%onstienti+aea im#otantei o&"&"i *ie%a"i ni'e& $e a$ministae8
- sistem"& %"ti&o $e #e %e&e > ami*i%atii #emite e+o&'aea mai a#i$a a #ob&eme&o
si %a+"i&o s#e%i*i%e obie%t"&"i $e a%ti'itate #ent" *ie%ae $inte C"ti8
- e)istenta "n"i sistem in*omati% inte-at &a ni'e&"& G"'en"&"i ae o&"& $e a in*oma si
$e a *a%e sa %i%"&e in*omatia &a ni'e& %enta&8
- es#e%taea #in%i#i"&"i s"bsi$iaitatii #ent" e+o&'aea sa%ini&o %e e'in
m"ni%i#a&itatii &a ni'e& &o%a&8
- %oo#eaea inteministeia&a este "n e&ement $eosebit $e im#otant #in %ae se asi-"a
%ons"&taea -"#"i&o a$ministati'e inainte $e a se #o#"ne sa" e&aboa oi%e a%t
nomati'8
- a"tonomia &a ni'e& &o%a&, *e$ea& si &a ni'e& $e &an$ %on$"%e &a o#aati'itate in
e+o&'aea #ob&eme&o %e a#a si %"noasteea mai %&aa a ne'oi&o e)istente &a ni'e&
&o%a&(
Marea Britanie
- %o#"& *"n%tionai&o #"b&i%i in Maea Bitanie este "n -"# *oate #"teni% in %eea %e
#i'este #o%es"& $e initiee si im#&ementae a #o&iti%i&o #"b&i%e8
- %eaea $e a-entii in inteio"& ministee&o, o*ea se'i%ii&o #"b&i%e mai m"&ta
a"tonomie si "n -a$ i$i%at $e es#onsabi&itate8
- stabi&iea si *"n%tionaea e*i%ienta a "n"i sistem %" ta$itie, 'iabi& in tim#8
- %o&aboaea $inte se%to"& #"b&i% si %e& #i'at s0a intensi*i%at si a $e'enit *oate
%om#&e)a *iin$ #ent" sistem"& a$ministati' "n a'anta2 $in #"n%t $e 'e$ee a&
tans*e"&"i $e NnoM0.oM si ata-eii $e es"se s"#&imentae8
1>
MODA'IAI DE RANSFER DE ;NO< =O< DIN (E'E DOUA
SISEME ADMINISRAI+E IN (E' DIN ROMANIA
In sistem"& a$ministati' $in Romania s"nt ne%esae s%.imbai im#otante,
"ne&e $inte a%estea #ot *i #e&"ate $in sisteme&e a$ministati'e $in Gemania si Maea
Bitanie(
Cate'a as#e%te i$enti*i%ate %ae a a'ea e&e'anta #ent" sistem"& a$ministati' $in Romania
s"nt #e+entate in %ontin"ae:
- oientaea %ate %etatean #in asi-"aea $e se'i%ii #"b&i%e %oes#"n+atoae #ent"
#o#"&atie8
- #e-atiea sistemati%a si s#e%ia&i+aea *"n%tionai&o #"b&i%i si in s#e%ia& a mana-ei&o
#"b&i%i #ent" a i$enti*i%a mo$a&itati&e $e a%ti"ne #oti'ite #ent" e+o&'aea
#ob&eme&o si s"stineea e*e%ti'a a im#&ementaii &o8
- es#e%taea #in%i#i"&"i a"tonomiei si $esenta&i+aii sistem"&"i a$ministati'8
- mo$eni+aea se%to"&"i #"b&i% #in #o&iti%a $e #esona&, $e+'o&taea "n"i $ia&o- so%ia&
%" sin$i%ate&e, initieea "n"i #o%es sistemati% $e *"n$amentae si $e e'a&"ae a
#o&iti%i&o #"b&i%e, i$enti*i%aea "no #osibi&itati $e se'ie mai b"na a %etateni&o(
Romania se %on*"nta %" #ob&eme in $omeni"& a%%esibi&itatii si %a&itatii
se'i%ii&o #"b&i%e #e%"m si a& im#a%t"&"i #e %ae a%estea &e a$"% as"#a
me$i"&"i(E&aboaea "nei state-ii $e $e+'o&tae &o%a&a a$"%e m"&te a'anta2einte
%ae:imb"natatiea si $e+'o&taea in*ast"%t"ii e-iona&e si &o%a&e, $e+'o&taea t"ism"&"i
"a&, %"&t"a&, #o&iti%i a%ti'e $e o%"#ae a *otei $e m"n%a, #omo'aea "no #o&iti%i
#&iate #e s#e%i*i%"& +ona&(
!n im#e$iment in e*oma sistem"&"i a$ministati' $in Romania este bio%atia e)e%si'a
%ae -eneea+a "n %i%"it &ent a& $o%"mente&o(
!ti&i+aea in a$ministatia #"b&i%a a te.no&o-ii&o in*omati%e a'ansate a
sim#&i*i%a semni*i%ati' %i%"ite&e si *&")"i&e in*omationa&e, a e$"%e inte'a&e&e $e
so&"tinae a %eei&o si a imb"natati semni*i%ai' #o%es"& $e %om"ni%ae si tans#aenta
in a$ministatia #"b&i%a(
1=

Bibliografie:

1. Legea fundamentala a Republicii Federale Germania, E$( A&&, B"%"esti, 1AAB8
2( Aen$t ?i2#.at0 Modele ale democratiei- Forme de guvernare si functionare in
treizeci si sase de tari, E$( Polirom, Iasi, 20008
D( Cistian Iones%"0 Sisteme constitutionale contemporane E$( Sansa( B"%"esti, 1AA@(
@( Gabie&a Stan%i"&es%", Amenia An$oni%ean" 0 ,,Sisteme %om#aate $e
a$ministatie #"b&i%S e"o#eanS;, E$it"a E%onomi%S, B"%"esti 2001
>( MMM(MiNi#e$ia(o- , a%%esat &a $ata $e >(01(201D(
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