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BACK TO BASICS

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
Use these notes to complete this module. If you
have a grammar book please also use it.
Unit 2 1 Module 1
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS - the assistants
Adjectives and adverbs make language more interesting. hey allo! us to e"press
things in detail. #hat did it$they look like% ho! !as it done&
Adjectives assist nouns and include !ords such as% big% small% beautiful. hey also
include colours% numbers and nationalities.
#hat did the cake taste like& It !as delicious cake.
#hat colour !as the car& It !as etallic !lue"
Co#ound adjectives$ 'yphenated !ords !hich% !hen
skilfully used% can avoid an other!ise
lengthy description.
eg !enty-year-old (ohn ))..
A st%in& o' adjectives$
eg It !as a !et !indy night. If using three or
more use a comma after all% e"cept the last
eg It !as a cold% !et% !indy night.
Co#a%ative adjectives$ *egular+ add ,er, eg old% older
Irregular+ eg good% better
Su#e%lative adjectives$ Add ,est, or ,most, eg oldest% the most
beautiful.
Adve%!s assist ve%!s
A verb tells us !hat is being or !as$!ill be done and the adverb tells us ho!.
Most adverbs are adjectives - ,ly,. eg .uickly - 'e ran .uickly.
beautifully - /he sang beautifully.
0ot all adverbs end in ,ly, 'e ran as 'ast as he could
1ou !ill have to !ork (a%d to gain your
234 certificate.
/pelling #hen the adjective ends in ,y, change the ,y,
to ,i, and add ,-ly, 5e"ceptions shy% shyly6 sly%
slyly7
#hen the adjective ends in ,-ly,% the same
rule applies% sometimes !ith rather alarming
results% eg ugly becomes uglily. In such cases
it,s usually better to find another !ord or
construction
Unit 2 2 Module 1
Be)a%e *(o#e'ull+* is an adverb !hich is
fre.uently misused. *emember
,hopefully, does not mean ,I hope that, it
means ,full of hope,% so it is a
complement to a verb. eg he
in.uisitive child searched the Internet
hopefully.
,o) and )ell are adverbs. 'o! do you do&
8ery !ell% thank you.
Soe )o%ds can !e !ot( an adjective and an adve%!
'o! come&
It depends on the sentence. eg 'e drove a 9fast: car.
93ast: describes the car 5noun7%
therefore it is an adjective.
'e drove the car 9fast:.
his time 9fast: describes the manner in
!hich he !as driving 5verb7% therefore it
is an adverb.
Adve%!s can -uali'+ adjectives
eg It !as an e.t%eel+ e"pensive restaurant.
Adve%!s can -uali'+ adve%!s
eg 'e ran aa/in&l+ .uickly to break the record.
Adve%!s can !e 'o%ed !+ addin& *0l+* to t(e #%esent1#ast #a%tici#le
eg hurried5ly7 supposed5ly7
undoubted5ly7 joking5ly7
loving5ly7
Co#a%ative adve%!s more .uickly% more gently
Su#e%lative adve%!s most .uickly% most gently
Unit 2 ; Module 1
SE2F0C,ECK$ ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

3ind as many adjectives as you can to describe the !eather.
3ind as many adverbs as you can to describe someone,s attempts at
speaking another language.
Use an adjective and an adverb together to describe the !eather.
Use t!o adverbs together to describe someone,s attempts at speaking
another language.
Unit 2 < Module 1
SELF-CHECK
3
ARTIC2ES
T(e inde'inite a%ticle 0 a1an
an is used before a singular !ord$letter beginning !ith a vo!el or vo!el
sound+ an apple, an egg, an island, an opal, an umbrella, an
Yves St Laurent dress, an e-mail, an F.A. Cup match
before a silent h+ an hour; half an hour; an hour and a half
a is used before A44 consonants e"cept silent h: a ban, a co!, a door, etc
before vo!els !hich begin !ith the sound of a consonant+ a unit,
a universit", a one-bedroomed flat
a1an is used before a singular countable noun+ # need a ticet for the concert.
#t$s time "ou had a holida".
before e"pressions of .uantity+ a lot of, a couple, a great man".
!ith certain numbers$fractions+ a hundred, a thousand% a third
%one third is also acceptable&
before (al'4 !hen (al' follo!s a !hole number+ one and a half
ilos, a half-share.
!hen .uoting a price+ 'p a ilo, () a metre.
to mean 9one:+ *id "ou bu" or rent a house+ # bought one.
In e"clamations before singular% countable nouns+ Such an
e,citing match.
oit a1an before plural nouns
Unit 2 = Module 1
T(e de'inite a%ticle 0 t(e
t(e is used #hen the object is uni.ue or considered to be so+ the earth, the
e-uator.
>efore a noun !hich has become definite as a result of being
mentioned a second time+ .e scored a goal seconds before the
final !histle. #t !as probabl" the most important goal of his career.
>efore a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause+
The car in the sho!room.
>efore a noun !hich by reason of locality can represent only one
thing+ /he bo"s are pla"ing football in the par. 0lease set the
video to record the 1anchester 2nited match.
>efore superlatives+ the best, the !orst.
he - singular noun can represent a class of animals% people or
things+ The 3iant 0anda is close to e,tinction. The hotelier has
suffered during the foot and mouth crisis. 5not just one but many
hoteliers throughout the country7
>efore certain proper names+ the Atlantic, the 4etherlands, the
Sahara; and names consisting of noun - of - noun+ the 3ulf of
1e,ico, the /o!er of London.
#hen referring to a family+ the Smiths %ie 1r 5 1rs Smith and
possibl" their children as !ell&
>efore itles containing o'$ The *ue of Liverpool, The 6ing of
Spain.
Unit 2 ? Module 1
5SE OF CA6ITA2S
#hilst there are some rules for the employment of capitals% in many instances it is a
matter of taste6 but in all instances consistency is important.
Al)a+s sta%t a sentence !ith a capital letter.
I' t(e sentence sta%ts )it( a nu!e%% !rite the number in !ords.
Initial ca#itals s(ould !e used 'o% #%o#e% nouns eg he test !ill be held on the
last /aturday in (uly. hey are going to live in 0orth 1orkshire. #e use a capital 0
here because 0orth 1orkshire is a specific place. If !e are referring to an area in
general do not use ca#ital lette%s eg @orn!all is in the south-!est of 2ngland.
6e%sonal titles need a capital letter. Mrs (ones% 'is Arace the Buke of esolshire.
Ke+ )o%ds in titles of publications% stage productions and musical !orks etc. 9A
Clace in the /un:% 9Much Ado about 0othing:% 9he Arrival of the Dueen of /heba:.
Naes o' !uildin&s4 o%&anisations etc" he 'ouse of @ommons% he >ritish
>roadcasting @orporation% /ir (ohn albot:s Crimary /chool.
Ac%on+s 5!ords formed from either the initial letters of other !ords or a mi"ture
of !ords and syllables7 0AE% 0U% *E/CA% 0IM>1.
Onl+ )%ite )(ole )o%ds in capitals if you are re.uested to% ie !hen completing a
form you may be asked to 9#*I2 I0 >4E@F @ACIA4/:% o%% if you !ish to dra!
attention to something important% 90E /MEFI0A:% 9BA0A2*:% 93I*2 2GI:.
Neve% )%ite enti%el+ in ca#itals" 3rom the follo!ing short passage you !ill see
that it is 5a7 difficult to read and 5b7 confusing.
#'20 /'2 'AB @EMC422B '2* U0I82*/I1 @EU*/2 /'2 B2@IB2B E
ACC41 3E* A (E> A/ A *A824 @E**2/CE0B20 #I' '2 >>@. /'2
#A/ A/F2B E A20B A0 I02*8I2# A ;CM E0 '2 3E44E#I0A
U2/BA1. '21 /20 '2* BI*2@IE0/ C*I02B I0 @ACIA4 422*/
'*EUA'EU. /'2 C4A@2B '2/2 E0 '2 /2A >2/IB2 '2* A0B *I2B
E A4A0@2 A '2M 2A@' IM2 /'2 /ECC2B A *A33I@ 4IA'/ E*
>2@AU/2 E3 A 'E4B-UC. U03E*U0A241% >2I0A A /*A0A2* E '2
4E0BE0 A*2A% /'2 MA0AA2B E A2 I0E '2 #*E0A 4A02 E3 '2
M2= A0B MI//2B '2* (U0@IE0. /282*A4 BA1/ A0B /EM2 1=HH MI42/
4A2* /'2 @EU4B /I44 >2 /220 B*I8I0A I0 '2 @4E@F#I/2 BI*2@IE0.
/'2 BIB0: BA*2 /EC >2@AU/2 >1 0E# '2* *EAB AG 'AB 2GCI*2B.
022B42// E /A1 /'2 BIB0: A2 '2 (E>I
Unit 2 J Module 1
65NCT5ATION
3ull stops% commas% colons% semi-colons% dashes% brackets 5round7 and Ks.uareL%
hyphens% .uestion marks% e"clamation marks% .uotation marks 5single and double7.
2et*s sta%t )it( t(e eas+ ones
T,E F522 STO6 " 7also 8no)n as *#e%iod* o% *#oint*9.
It,s used to
indicate that a sentence has been completed
denote an abbreviation% though the trend no! is to omit the full stop.
Eld method 0e! method
Mr. and Mrs. /mith% Mr M Mrs /mith
12% 0e! *d.% 12 0e! *d
/t. Ives% /t Ives
@orn!all. @orn!all
< a.m. < am
It is still used !hen abbreviating days and months eg 1on. )7 Sept. 'o!ever%
unless space is limited% it is fro!ned upon to abbreviate in this !ay.
T,E COMMA 4
Use
#hen listing three or more items in a sentence. eg She !on medals for s!imming,
riding and pla"ing hoce".
#hen merging t!o sentences !ith a conjunction. eg You can gain an #4/8S9L
-ualification not onl" b" distance learning, but also b" attending a t!o-!ee
residential course.
#hen adding !ords to the beginning or end of a sentence. eg 2n-uestionabl", 8FL
teaching is a demanding but fun thing to do. eg :e didn;t have enough mone" for a
ta,i, so !e !aled instead.
#hen inserting some non-essential component into a sentence. eg A 3erman
shepherd dog, also no!n as an Alsatian, !on the top pri<e at Crufts.
#hen introducing a .uotation. eg As he hauled himself up from the hole in the
pavement, the man !as heard to sa", =#;ll sue the person !ho left that manhole
cover off=.
Unit 2 N Module 1
T,E CO2ON $
Use
#hen introducing a list !hich has been preceded by an independent clause.
eg Companies !hich participated in the event included: AS>C, *8F and ?Y@.
o separate the result from that !hich precedes it. /he trains !ere often late and
unreliable: he decided to loo for a Aob nearer his home. he use of the colon
brings home to the reader the seriousness of the situation.
T,E SEMI0CO2ON :
/ome!here bet!een a full stop and a comma. It is used
to indicate a slight break in a sentence. 4o one !as able to complete the test; there
!as a misprint on the paper.
!hen making lists such as invitees to an event. /he guests included: /om Smith,
3eneral Secretar"; Bames >ro!n, Accountant; etc
T,E DAS, 0
Used as
a pause% !hen the dash separates a part of the sentence !hich has a strong
connection !ith the other part of the sentence. #t !as not a daffodil - it !as a
narcissus, dancing in the bree<e.
an indication of parenthesis. A pair of dashes 5or commas7 separate a non-essential
component. >rackets could do the same job.
a link. #f music be the food of love - :. Shaespeare.
T,E ,;6,EN 0
Used to
link separate !ords to make one compound !ord.
orange-bo,, !ithout the h"phen this !ould mean an orange-coloured bo,.
paper-fastener, !ithout it !ould mean a fastener made of paper.
to form an adjective. !ell-dressed, C'7-volt. Shaespeare;s ;lil"-liver;d loon;.
Unit 2 O Module 1
<5OTATION MARKS * =
/ingle and double. Modern practice is to use single marks for all .uotations unless
there is a .uotation !ithin a .uotation.
T,E E>C2AMATION MARK ?
4imit its use to e"clamatory sentences and phrases. 3et outD :hat a beautiful bab"D
T,E <5ESTION MARK 3
he only real problem here is not using it !hen it is re.uired or using it !hen it is not
needed.
:ill "ou please complete the enclosed application form+
# !onder if "ou could call into this office ne,t !ee. his is not a .uestion it,s a
statement.
BRACKETS 7%ound9 @s-ua%eA
Round !%ac8ets enclose a !ord% clause or phrase inserted in a sentence !hich is
grammatically complete !ithout it.
he students 5from all parts of the !orld7 !ho study !ith I02/E4 have to !ork very
hard to gain their .ualification.
S-ua%e !%ac8ets are generally used to enclose something e"tra% by !ay of
e"planation% but not part of the sentence. eg # !al EverbF to !or each da".
Unit 2 1H Module 1
T,E A6OSTRO6,E
#ho !ould believe that such a little mark could be so universally misunderstood.
Indeed it is probably the most misunderstood and fre.uently misused punctuation mark
in the 2nglish language"
It %eall+ is -uite si#le.
Croviding it is !ell taught% students should rarely have a problem !ith its use. o
someone !ho kno!s ho! to use it% its misuse can prove to be cause for real irritation
and concern. /o here goes% let,s make sure that in future everyone !ho learns 2nglish
becomes an e"pert in the use of the apostrophe. Many people live in fear and dread of
the apostrophe and either pretend it doesn,t e"ist% or liberally splatter the page !ith
apostrophes on every ,s,. 'o!ever% to use the apostrophe incorrectly is more of a crime
than not to use one at all.
I' in dou!t leave it out
B(en +ou 8no)4 let it s(o)"
IT*S 5SED TO
s(o) t(at soet(in& (as !een oitted
'ello% I,m (ack% !hat,s your name& /he ;a; in ;am; has been substituted b" an
apostrophe, also the ;i; in ;is;.
I,d P I had you,ve P you have don,t P do not
Mornin, thro,
:e;re going to the cinema. :ho;d lie to Aoin us+
indicate o)ne%s(i#
/he dog o!ned b" Bane !on the ;>est of >reed; at Crufts.
>ecomes
Bane;s dog !on ))..
his is fairly straightfor!ard6 the apostrophe sho!s that (ane o!ns the dog.
#hat happens if the name of the person !ho o!ns the dog ends in ,s,% eg. (ames or
Chyllis&
his !ould become Bames;s dog or 0h"llis;s dog
2ven though this is grammatically correct% it is more usual to omit the final ,s, and
simply put the apostrophe at the end of the name6 this automatically indicates
possession.
Bames; dog !on GG.. 0h"llis; dog !on GGGG.
Unit 2 11 Module 1
sin&ula% and #lu%al
1r Bones and 1rs Bones H /he Boneses 5this indicates more than one% nothing has
been omitted and as yet !e have not mentioned anything belonging to them7. 'o!ever%
if !e discuss the car belonging to 1r and 1rs Bones
this becomes
/he Bones;s car or /he Bones; car.
9ne cae, ten caes - it doesn:t matter ho! many there are% an apostrophe is not
re.uired. 'o!ever as soon as something belongs to the cake an apostrophe is
re.uired eg /he cae;s stand !as almost a metre high.
NB Clease note that 9its: sho!ing o!nership does not follo! the apostrophe rule.
eg /he gate creaed on its hinges.
Unit 2 12 Module 1
SE2F0C,ECK$
T,E 5SE OF CA6ITA2S4 65NCT5ATION AND T,E A6OSTRO6,E
*ead through the follo!ing passage and make the necessary corrections.
4ook out for the misuse of capital letters and punctuation6 apostrophes
either left out or put in the !rong place and there may be the odd spelling
error and grammatical error lurking around some!here. /ee ho! many
you can find. hirty-seven P e"cellent% belo! thirty P more revisionI
Cheshires *eep South I #ts :orth a JisitD
south Cheshire is an area of fasinating contrast$s and great beaut", #t is
reno!ned for it$s Cheese, pictures-ue blac and !hite Kmagpie$ houses,
0astoral Countr"side and canals.
#t is regarded as one of the finest diar" farming areas$ in the countr"
and has more co!$s to the acre than an"!here else in the :orld.
1ost of the famous cheshire cheese is no! made in creamer"$s, but
some farms are still producing the top -!alit" KFarmhouse$ cheese.
From an" vantage point, on the 0ecforton and bicerton .ills, the
impression over the surrounding countr"side is of an endless patch!or
-uilt of hedges and fields$ !ith small copse$s and hedgero! trees. on a
Sunn" da", hundreds of ponds %man" of them old marl pits& glint and
shine, :ell-managed hedges and ponds are e,cellent habitat$s for :ild
flo!ers and >irds.
Unit 2 1; Module 1
SELF-CHECK
3
/he /o!n of nant!ich as much to offer architecturall" and historicall".
/he parish Church is no!n has the Lcathedral of South CheshireM.
4ant!ich museum brings together various aspects, of the to!ns histor"
an gives fascinating glimpses of the life of people though the "ears.
/here are also a permanent displa" of cheese maing once a maAor
industr" on local farms:
Unit 2 1< Module 1
SE2F0C,ECK$
T,E 5SE OF CA6ITA2S4 65NCT5ATION AND T,E A6OSTRO6,E
CORRECT VERSION
@heshir e:s Beep /outh Q It:s #orth a 8isitI
/outh @heshire is an area of fascinating contrasts and great beauty" It is
reno!ned for its cheese% pictures.ue black and !hite 9magpie: houses%
pastoral countryside and canals.
It is regarded as one of the finest dairy farming areas in the country and has
more co!s to the acre than any!here else in the !orld.
Most of the famous @heshire cheese is no! made in creameries% but some
farms are still producing the top .uality 93armhouse: cheese.
3rom any vantage point 5no comma here7 on the Ceckforton and >ickerton
'ills% the impression over the surrounding countryside is of an endless
patch!ork .uilt of hedges and fields !ith small copses and hedgero! trees.
En a sunny day% hundreds of ponds 5many of them old marl pits7
glint and shine. #ell-managed hedges and ponds are e"cellent habitats for
!ild flo!ers and birds.
he to!n of 0ant!ich has much to offer architecturally and historically. he
parish church is kno!n as the Rcathedral of /outh @heshireS. 0ant!ich
Museum brings together various aspects 5no comma here7 of the to!n:s
history and gives fascinating glimpses of the life of people through the years.
here is also a permanent display of cheese making% once a major industry
on local farms.
Unit 2 1= Module 1
CO5NT AND MASS NO5NS
Also kno!n as countable and uncountableNnon-count nouns
Nouns are things - animate or inanimate% real or
imaginary% visible or invisible.
6%o#e% nouns are names of people% places and trade names etc.
Counta!le nouns are things !hich can be singular or plural. In the
singular the noun must be preceded by an article.
eg I have a cat. I bought a house.
>ut in the plural this becomes+-
I have t!o cats. I sell houses for a living.
Mass 7uncounta!le1 /omething !hich is al!ays singular% irrespective of
non0count nouns9 .uantity.
eg bread% air% petrol.
/erve on a slice of bread.
Use t!o slices of bread.
A!st%act nouns #ords such as% information, hope, fear.
hese are generally regarded as uncountable.
eg 'e set out !ith boots on his feet% hope in his
heart and an almighty great rucksack on his back..
>ut not al!a"s.
eg @arrying a great rucksack like that one !onders
!hether his hopes of crossing the U/A on foot !ill
be achieved.
SE2F0C,ECK$ CO5NT AND MASS NO5NS
Cut the follo!ing into the correct column+ child% music% tennis% ice% money%
city% furniture% fear% kno!ledge% briefcase.
@ountable Mass @ountable or Mass
/ingular Clural
Unit 2 1? Module 1
SELF-CHECK
3
T,E GER5ND
he Cin&D form of the verb used rather like a noun% eg. jumping% !alking% singing% speaking
etc.
5sin& t(e &e%und
as t(e su!ject /inging in tune is not everyone:s forte.
o' a sentence
6%o(i!itions 0o smoking. 0o riding on the grass verges.
a'te% #%e#ositions Are you interested in cooking&
'o! about studying for a 234 .ualification&
Ve%! E &e%und hey avoided skidding by attaching chains to the car
!heels.
/he suggested jumping up and do!n to keep !arm.
Most children dislike spelling.
T(e #e%'ect &e%und Used !hen referring to a past action.
'e !as praised for having helped so many students to
learn 2nglish.
T(e #assive &e%und 6%esent$ 'er effort !as re!arded by being given a
substantial pay rise.
6ast$ A substantial pay rise indicated her effort
having been ackno!ledged.
Ta8e +ou% #ic8 /ome verbs can take the infinitive or gerund !ithout the meaning
being altered.
eg beginNstart. I began 5started7 dieting last !eek.
I began 5started7 to diet last !eek.
Ether verbs include+ continue, cease, canNcould bear, intend,
advise, allo!, permit, recommend.
Re&%et4 %ee!e%4 Use these if the gerund is the first action.
Fo%&et 7ne&ative9 eg I remember dreaming about o!ning a house in 3rance. ie he
dream came first% then I remembered.
I:ll never forget missing the flight6 I !as stranded for a !eek.
to e.#%ess 'ea%4 'e never e"ceeded the speed limit. 'e !as afraid of
so%%o) o% s(ae getting booked.
hey !ere sorry for creating so much mess.
Unit 2 1J Module 1
SE2F0C,ECK$ T,E GER5ND
Cut the correct forms of the verb5s7 in the space5s7 provided.
1. hey entered by )))))the lock. 5to force7
2. >y )))))hard they succeeded in ))))). the I02/E4 certificate.
5to !ork% to gain7
;. I am looking for!ard to )))))). you. 5to meet7
<. Bon:t forget )))))the cat out before )))).. to bed.
5to go% to put7
=. 'e hates ))))). up early so he had ))))))). t!o alarm clocks.
5to get% to set7
?. #hen the skater felt the ice )))) )))))).. he hurried to the edge
of the lake ))))))). himself from ))))).. 5to begin% to stop%
to dro!n% to crack7
J. Bavid >eckham !on,t be fit enough ))))).. against Arsenal so *yan
Aiggs !ill be ))))))) instead. 5to play7

Unit 2 1N Module 1
SELF-CHECK
3
6RE6OSITIONS
#ords that help us to ans!er .uestions such as% !hen and !here% and link elements
eg noun% pronoun or participles.
6osition
Usually% but not al!ays% !ritten before 5pre7 the noun etc.
#e are told to avoid ending a sentence !ith a preposition and !hilst it is perhaps best
to conform in formal !riting or speech% it is considered acceptable in informal language
to move the preposition to the end eg
:here is the shop from !hich "ou bought "our dress+ - :here;s the shop "ou bought it
from+
:ith !hom are "ou going+ - :ho are "ou going !ith+
6(%asal ve%!s
#e fre.uently tag a preposition on to the end of a verb to convey a specific meaning eg
tr" out, add up, give up, cough up.
6%e#ositions and adjectives1#a%tici#les
o!ing to confident of sorr" forNabout pleased !ith
6%e#ositions %elatin& to$
Tie Moveent 6lace
at at above
before in belo!
b" b" beneath
in on over
on into under
from onto inside
since from outside
for of bet!een
during out in front of
after to opposite
until, till do!n around
up across
past along
across among, amongst
to!ards amid
along
Unit 2 1O Module 1
SE2F0C,ECK$ 6RE6OSITIONS
Add a preposition or prepositions from the list belo! to the follo!ing to
form a prepositional phrase.
ask break take
believe call run
hope come put
prepare die think
get turn sit
Crepositions+ for% off% across% a!ay% over% of% up% after% do!n% along% out%
back% into% in% to% about% through% on% up.
#rite sentences to sho! ho! a8e u# can be used in si" different !ays.
Unit 2 2H Module 1
SELF-CHECK
3
S6E22ING R52ES
DO5B2E OR SING2E CONSONANT3
*emember% a double consonant softens the vo!el+
file fill pile pill
ei o% ie3
#e all kno! the rule 9i: before 9e: e"cept after 9c:
6%onounced CeeD 6%onounced CeeD
o% Ce+eD
ie ei a'te% c ei e.ce#tions
field ceiling counterfeit either
grief conceive seiTe neither
niece deceive !eir
relief perceive !eird
thief receive
CONSONANTS F TO DO5B2E OR NOT TO DO5B2E
ve%!s1nouns
If% in its basic form% the consonant is preceded by onl+ one vo)el% then dou!le it for
the past tense$participles and related noun% if applicable.
Ve%! 6ast tense and
#ast #a%tici#le
6%esent
#a%tici#le
Noun
occur occurred occurring occurrence
cancel cancelled cancelling cancellation
travel travelled travelling travel
rob robbed robbing robber
t)o vo)els use a sin&le consonant
sail sailed sailing sailor
feel 3elt feeling feeling
need needed needing
Unit 2 21 Module 1
a vo)el sound E a consonant
sin&le *l*
cra!l cra!led cra!ling cra!l
tra!l tra!led tra!ling tra!l
Dou!le *l*
cull culled culling cull
GE.ce#tions 0 verbs ending in ,en, - open% sharpen
,er, - offer
ve%!s endin& in *e*
Basic ve%! 6ast tense E d 6%esent #a%tici#le d%o#
*e* add *in&*
elope eloped eloping
rule ruled ruling
decide decided deciding
i' *+* 'ollo)s a consonant
Basic Ve%! 6ast tense d%o# *+* add
*ied*
6%esent #a%tici#le add
*in&*
cry cried crying
lobby lobbied lobbying
i' *+* 'ollo)s a vo)el4 t(e *+* %eains
Basic ve%! 6ast tense 6%esent #a%tici#le
play played playing
ve%!s endin& in *c* a%e &iven a *8*
panic - panicking mimic - mimicking
Unit 2 22 Module 1
625RA2S
Most En&lis( nouns 'o% #lu%als !+ addin& *e* o% *es*
books flo!ers plates businesses kisses
E.ce#tions
Sin&ula% 6lu%al Sin&ula% 6lu%al
u A a ae
ma"imum ma"ima formula formulae
is Es on a
analysis analyses criterion criteria
us I
bacillus bacilli
cactus cacti
radius radii
en
brother brethren
child children
man men
!oman !omen
*+* !ecoes *ies*
city - cities beauty - beauties
endin& )it( *o* add ,es, potato5es7 tomato5es7 veto5es7
or ,s, radio5s7 folio5s7 auto5s7
Nouns endin& in *'* o% *'e* a%e inconsistent" Soe ta8e *'s* ot(e%s *ves*
Sin&ula% 6lu%al Sin&ula% 6lu%al
chef chefs half halves
roof roofs knife knives
Nouns endin& in *c(* *s(* *ss* o% *.* ta8e *es*
churches flashes masses co"es
Most nouns endin& in *s* ta8e *es*
Unit 2 2; Module 1
6ROB2EM AREAS
he follo!ing are consistently mis-spelled or mis-used.
practise 5verb7 practice 5noun7
license 5verb7 licence 5noun7
accept 5verb7 e"cept 5preposition7
affect 5verb7 effect 5verb or noun7
all right al)a+s t!o !ords
aural% oral sound similar but aural refers to the ear and
oral refers to the mouth
biannual t!ice a year
biennial once every t!o years
compliment a courteous e"pression
complement something that goes !ell !ith something else
dependent 5adjective7 relying on something or someone
dependant 5noun7 something or someone !hich or !ho relies on something
or someone else
disinterested unbiased% impartial
uninterested not interested
elicit e"tract ie information
illicit unla!ful
ensure to make sure
insure to protect something against misfortune
its possessive neve% has an apostrophe
it,s abbreviation for ,it is,
their possessive pronoun
there at or in that place - adverb
!ho,s !ho is or !ho has
!hose the one belonging to a person or an inanimate object
eg the person !hose car has broken do!n
the club !hose secretary !as arrested last !eek
less applies to things measured by amount not siTe%
.uality or number
eg he sale price !as less than half the normal price.
fe!er ans!ers the .uestion ,ho! many&,
eg 3e!er people attended than had been e"pected.
Unit 2 2< Module 1
TENSES
he !ord 9tense: is a grammatical term for time. In all 2uropean languages !e can
communicate in various forms of the Cresent% Cast or 3uture ense. #e can say !hat
!e do% !hat !e did or !hat !e !ill do.
1. he Cresent enses
here are t!o core present tenses
a7 T(e 6%esent Si#le% so called as it consists of one verb component%
underlined belo! in the e"amples+
hey speak
/he replies 5add -s or -es for the third person singular7
#e hear
#hen do !e use it&
- o e"press thoughts and feelings.
eg I think he is married.
- 3or repeated and routine actions.
eg /he gets up at J o:clock.
- o describe permanent situations.
eg hey live in >ristol.

NB he Cresent /imple can also be used to refer to future time
eg he bus leaves at 1H o:clock on /aturday morning.
(ohn:s plane lands later this afternoon.
b7 T(e 6%esent Continuous16%o&%essive is a compound tense containing
t!o verb components+
the present tense of the verb 9to be: plus the present participle or gerund
of the main verb% indicated belo!+
to be gerund
hey are speaking
0obody is listening
I am studying
Usually !hen the verb infinitive ends in -e this !ill be omitted before
adding -ing and often !hen the infinitive is monosyllabic and ending in a
consonant the latter is doubled.
eg verb infinitive gerund
rise rising
hit hitting
sip sipping
Unit 2 2= Module 1
#hen do !e use it&
- o say !hat is happening no!
5the action has already started and has not ended+ this !ould include
comments about the !eather and !hat people are !earing7
eg At the moment they are sitting in front of the television.
- o describe temporary situations
eg /heila is living !ith some friends until she can find a flat of her
o!n.
- o e"press regrettable actions
eg I am al!ays losing my keys.
NB he Cresent @ontinuous$Crogressive can also be used !hen talking about plans
for the future
eg Eur neighbours are emigrating early ne"t year
#e:re travelling to Italy by train in the summer
c9 T(e 6%esent 6e%'ect 7Si#le9 and 6%esent 6e%'ect
Continuous16%o&%essive
hese are t!o tenses that join the past to the present
Cresent Cerfect 5/imple7
eg I:ve lost my keys Ktherefore I cannot open the door no!L
#e have lived in >ath for ten years Kand !e still doL

#ith the Cresent Cerfect @ontinuous$Crogressive there is no sense of
the action being completely finished
eg A+ 4ook at your handsI #hat have you been doing&
>+ I:ve been mending my bicycle Khe job is not complete. >
is in the middle of doing it and he:s probably taking a
breakL
@ontrast this !ith the Cresent Cerfect /imple+
I:ve mended my bicycle Kie the job is done and the bike is no!
available for useL.
NB #hen using verbs such as !ork or live there is no difference in meaning bet!een
continuous and simple.
eg Ba!n has been !orking in the /lough office for t!o years.
has !orked
I 9ve lived in *ochdale for some time.
have been living
Unit 2 2? Module 1
>oth of the above are compound tenses. he /imple tense has t!o components+ the
Cresent tense of the verb 9to have: and the past participle of the main verb
eg 'e has !alked the Cennine #ay.
KcompletedL
he @ontinuous tense has three components+
17 the Cresent tense of 9to have:
27 been 5the present participle of 9to be:7
;7 the gerund of the main verb
eg 'e has been !alking the Cennine #ay.
Knot necessarily completedL
he regular form of the Cast /imple ends in -ed and this !ill be the same as the past
participle in such tenses as the Cresent Cerfect and the Cast Cerfect. 'o!ever !ith
irregular forms this is not al!ays the case. 0ote a fe! common e"amples belo!.
verb infinitive past simple past participle
to begin began begun
to s!im s!am s!um
to bite bit bitten
. . . and there are many moreI
As teachers of 2nglish !e must ensure that !e use these correctly ourselves.
2. he Cast enses
a7 T(e 6ast Si#le is the only past tense !ith one component.
0on-native speakers often confuse it !ith the Cresent Cerfect. he Cast
/imple is used to describe actions that finished in the past. he inclusion
of a time phrase reminds us that this is the case.
eg #e visited the @hannel Islands last summer.
/he lost her camera !hilst on holiday.
he shooting party left t!o hours ago.
b7 T(e 6ast Continuous

#hereas the Cast /imple is used for complete actions in the past% the
Cast @ontinuous 5Cast /imple of 9to be: plus the gerund of the main verb7
is used to describe incomplete actions going on in the past. A single
complete action can occur !hilst a continuous action goes on in the
background.
eg It !as raining !hen I stepped outside
past continuous past simple
Unit 2 2J Module 1
he Cast @ontinuous can also be used as a descriptive tense% particularly !ith people
and !eather.
eg 'e !as !earing short grey trousers.
he moon and stars !ere shining brightly.
c7 T(e 6ast 6e%'ect
his is a compound tense 5Cast /imple of 9to have: plus past participle of
the main verb7 !hich native speakers often avoid using.
eg 9'e said he had forgotten his dinner money: is the correct version of
9'e said he forgot his dinner money:
Clainly the forgetting occurred before the saying. he Cast Cerfect is the
past tense you use to say !hat happened earlier than a certain point of
time in the past.
eg hey asked me if I had seen the doctor on time.
>y 11 o:clock all the chocolate cake had disappeared.
he car !e had paid for in cash proved to be unreliable.
d7 T(e 6ast 6e%'ect Continuous
his tense is 9had been: plus the gerund of the main verb.
Imagine a continuous action leading up to a single event in the past.
eg Ceter had been !aiting for the bus for a good half hour !hen it
suddenly appeared.

(ean e"perienced blurred vision as she had been !orking on the
computer for most of the evening.
e7 5sed to 7do9
9Used to: plus infinitive means that something happened on a regular
basis in the past.
eg #e used to go to church on /unday Kbut !e don:t go any moreL
#e normally use didn:t use to in negatives
eg #e didn:t use to take calculators into e"aminations.
o% #e never used to take calculators into e"aminations.
#e normally use did . . . use to in .uestions
eg #hich medicine did she use to take&
Bid you use to !atch that a!ful situation comedy&
Unit 2 2N Module 1
Bas1)e%e &oin& to is used to e"press an intention in the past !hich
fre.uently does not translate into action.
eg I !as going to paint the ceiling at the !eekend but I just didn:t have
the time.
'e !as going to catch the early train but !as prevented from doing
so because he had to stay behind at !ork.
;. he 3uture ense
a9 Goin& to
his is used to talk about something !e have decided to do in the near
future 5an intention7.
eg (ames is going to take a holiday in Malta.
#e:re not going to listen to that sort of music.
Kcan be taken as a refusalL
b7 Bill1s(all
#ill is commonly identified as a modal au"iliary that forms part of the
future tense. It is accompanied by the infinitive of the main verb and
together they form the neutral future.
eg /he !ill visit us in the ne! year
5/he:ll7
#hich is usually !ell e"pressed as +
/he:s visiting us in the ne! year
Ksee notes on Cresent @ontinuousL
>oth )ill and s(all are often used as the first !ord in a sentence to
e"press a functon.
Bill% for e"ample% is used to make a re.uest

eg #ill you open the !indo!% please&
o% to give an order
eg #ill you be .uietI
S(all is used to make a suggestion
eg /hall !e go to the theatre tonight&
o% !hen the speaker is volunteering to do something
eg /hall I fi" the clock&
Unit 2 2O Module 1
Bill% ho!ever% tends to be the more versatile of the t!o. In addition it can
be used+
i. to predict
eg It:ll rain tomorro!
5It !ill7
ii. to sho! determination
eg I !ill !in that race even if I have to train day and night.
iii. to make a promise
eg If you pass that e"amination I:ll buy you a car.
5I !ill7
iv. to e"press supposition and an instant decision
eg 5here:s a knock at the door7
hat:ll be the postman. I:ll get it.
c7 T(e Futu%e Continuous

Bill1s(all and the verb 9to be: plus the gerund are used to describe an
action over a period of time in the future.
eg his time ne"t !eek !e !ill be celebrating Bad:s birthday.
At noon I shall be enjoying this lovely !eather in the garden.
It:s difficult to imagine !hat I:ll be doing in ten years: time.
d9 T(e Futu%e 6e%'ect
his takes the form of !ill have plus the past participle of the main verb
and is used to e"press a completed action in the future.
eg >y the time you arrive at the port the boat !ill have set sail.
#ill he have completed his thesis before he goes abroad&
e7 T(e Futu%e 6e%'ect Continuous consists of four components+
!ill have been plus the gerund 5 . . . ing7
he tense is used to predict ho! long something !ill last% vie!ed up to a
point in the future.
eg En 2H
th
(anuary I !ill have been !orking for this company for
thirty years.
KAction started before time of speakingL
his time ne"t !eek he !ill have been travelling for
thirty-si" hours.
KAction !ill start after time of speakingL
Unit 2 ;H Module 1
<. he @onditional ense
his is made up of 9!ould: plus the infinitive of the main verb. 9/hould: is
possible instead of 9!ould: !ith the first person.
he @onditional occurs in the follo!ing cases+
i. In sentences !ith :if: and similar !ords
eg If I !on the lottery I !ould first pay off all my debts.
KI:dL
/upposing$Imagine you !ere sent to a desert island% !hat
lu"ury item !ould you take !ith you&
ii. In a report about the past !hich looks for!ard to the future
eg hey assured us they !ould remove the eyesore the ne"t day.
I e"plained I !ouldn:t be able to do it on my o!n.
Kor couldn:tL
iii. #hen making polite re.uests or offers
eg I should$!ould like some brandy !ith my coffee.
#ould you prefer to go to the sea or the mountains&
NB 9#ould: and 9should: are used in other conte"ts
eg #hen I !as small our teacher !ould al!ays give us si"pence
on our birthday. 5meaning 9used to give:7
Ceople shouldn:t abuse the !elfare state. 5instead of 9ought not
to abuse:7
If !e e"amine 9if: clauses more closely !e !ill see there are three types of @onditional.
he first type !e can refer to as the probable condition
eg If you finish your !ork on time% !e:ll pay a visit to the science
museum. 5!e !ill7
If !e don:t score more points !e:ll be soundly beaten.
5!e shall7
he second type !e can classify as the improbable condition
eg If im got up on time he !ouldn:t be late for his lecture.
If I !ere you I:d cancel the policy no!.
5I !ould7
Unit 2 ;1 Module 1
In the third type !e find that the opposite really happened to !hat is e"pressed in the
9if: clause. It can be described as impossible because it has already taken place and
cannot be changed.
eg 1ou !ould have passed your e"ams if you had devoted more
time to your studies.
K1ou didn:t devote more time and you didn:t passL

If she hadn:t fallen asleep she !ould have seen the lunar eclipse.
K/he did fall asleep and she didn:t see the eclipseL
0otice the se.uences of tenses in each of the three types of @onditional+
9If: @lause Main @lause
First @ondition Cresent /imple !ill
Second @ondition Cast /imple !ould
Third @ondition Cast Cerfect !ould have
SE2F0C,ECK$ TENSES
@onstruct three sentences of the type above !ith the follo!ing jumbled
!ords+
Unit 2 ;2 Module 1
If the instructions follo! on the tin
you get you results best the
SELF-CHECK
3
VERBS
#hen you use a verb you are focusing on the action that takes place !ithin a
sentence. #ithout a verb you do not have a sentence.
STR5CT5RE OF VERBS
In the section on tenses you !ill have observed there are simple and compound
tenses 5ie composed of more than one part7. In a simple tense you only have the
main verb7
Fo% e.a#le$ in he speaks% speaks is the main verb of to speak
in they arrived% arrived is the main verb of to arrive
In a compound tense you !ill find% as !ell as the main verb% an au"iliary 5or 9helping:7
verb
Fo% e.a#le$ 'e has spoken hey are arriving
'aving studied the tenses of 2nglish already% can you say !hich other tenses make
use of the verb 9to have:&
eg the past perfect 5or pluperfect7
'e had refused
NB he past participle occurs only in compound tenses.
here is a third au"iliary verb+ the verb 9to do: !hich is used to make .uestions and
negatives in simple tenses.
eg Boes she take sugar& Bid I leave my umbrella behind& /he doesn:t take sugar

Unit 2 ;; Module 1
au"iliary
verb+ present
tense of 9to
have:
main verb+
past
participle of
9to speak:
au"iliary
verb+ present
tense of 9to
be:
main verb+
gerund of 9to
arrive:
au"iliary
verb+ past
simple of 9to
have:
main verb+
past
participle of
9to refuse:
au"iliary
verb+ present
tense of 9to
do:
main verb+
infinitive
!ithout 9to:
au"iliary
verb+ past
simple of 9to
do:
main verb+
infinitive
!ithout 9to:
negative
au"iliary
verb
main verb+
infinitive
!ithout 9to:
All three of the above verbs 5have% be and do7 can also be used as main verbs.
eg #e have had an argument 4ook !hat the clo!n is doing
eg 'e is being silly
here are occasions !hen you may have more than one main verb. his is usually in
a sentence !here the passive voice is being used6 here the subject of the sentence
is not responsible for the action described by the verb% but instead is on the receiving
end of that action.
eg he boy is being .uestioned by the police he artefacts have been stolen
SE2F0C,ECK$ VERBS
Identify each of the underlined !ords saying !hether they are main or
au"iliary verbs% giving any e"tra information necessary% as in the course
notes.
1. hey are having a party.
2. #e sell shrimps.
;. Bo you take American 2"press&
<. #e have had the most !onderful time.
=. My application has been rejected.
?. hey are being !atched by the /ecret /ervice.
J. 'ave you read that story&
N. hey don:t shoot rabbits% do they&
Unit 2 ;< Module 1
au"iliary
verb+
present
tense of 9to
have:
main verb+
past
participle of
9to have:
au"iliary
verb+ present
tense of 9to
be:
main verb+
gerund of 9to
do:
au"iliary
verb+ present
tense of 9to
be:
main verb+
gerund of 9to
be:
au"iliary
verb
Main
verb+
gerund
of 9to be:
Cast
participle
of 9to
.uestion:
au"iliary
verb
main verb+
past
participle of
9to be:
main verb+
past
participle of
9to steal:
SELF-CHECK
3
Modal Au.ilia%+ Ve%!s
his group of verbs has no infinitive - you cannot say 9to must: - and has no 9s: on the
;
rd
person singular. Duestions are constructed by reversing the order of the subject
and the verb% and 9do: is not used to form a negative.
>y doing the self-check you !ill be able to see !hich verbs are modals.
NB Most modal verbs have no past forms% could and !ould being the e"ceptions.
eg S(e ust cancel (e% a##ointent
!ould become in the past+
S(e (ad to cancel (e% a##ointent
CMust (ave cancelledD means something completely different.

I a+ not visit t(e useu toda+ 5indicating possibility7
!ould become in the past+
I )asnDt su%e i' I )as &oin& to visit t(e useu on t(at da+
I a+ not visit t(e useu toda+ 5indicating prohibition7
!ould become in the past+
I )as not allo)ed to visit t(e useu on t(at da+
SE2F0C,ECK$ MODA2 A5>I2IAR; VERBS
2"ercise 15a7
Identify the modal au"iliary verbs from the follo!ing+
1. must N. could
2. should O. shall
;. !ould 1H. find
<. s!im 11. !ill
=. may 12. can
?. read 1;. !rite
J. ought 1<. might
Unit 2 ;= Module 1
SELF-CHECK
3
2"ercise 15b7
#hich four of the above are not modal verbs& @an you say !hy&
2"ercise 2
ry placing another verb after each of the ten modal au"iliaries you have
identified above. #hich modal is the e"ception to the rule given% and can
be follo!ed by 9to:&

6(%asal Ve%!s
here are thousands of phrasal verbs in the 2nglish language !hich for foreigners
can be .uite difficult to learn and take some time getting used to.
hese verbs consist of t!o or more parts+ an ordinary verb 5eg #ut4 ta8e4 loo87 and
a small !ord or particle such as o''4 do)n4 u#4 aside etc.
Fo% e.a#le$ #hat phrasal verb can you use instead of the underlined !ord in
the follo!ing sentence&
hey have postponed the meeting until 3riday.
Ans)e%$ #ut o''
/ome phrasal verbs have more than one particle% eg &et on )it(4 &o t(%ou&( )it(4
sna# out o'
Ene final point to note about the particle is that it does not al!ays come immediately
after the verb.
eg Are you going to give back the ladder you borro!ed&
I:ll give it back as soon as possible.
I' t(e o!ject is a #%onoun4 t(e #a%ticle )ill coe a'te%"
Unit 2 ;? Module 1
SE2F0C,ECK$ 6,RASA2 VERBS
2"ercise 1
3ind a phrasal verb from the list on the right for each of the single !ords
on the left.
2"ercise 2
hink of a synonym in the form of a phrasal verb for each of the
follo!ing !ords. 2ach phrasal verb !ill end in one of the particles
listed.
Carticles

7!ot( lists can !e used o%e t(an once9
@opyright I02/E4 #orld!ide 2H1H
Unit 2 ;J Module 1
1 continue
2 reduce 5prices7
; e"tinguish
< alight
= depart
? return
J inspect
N criticise 5someone7
O investigate 5the matter7
1H retreat
a look over
b set off
c look into
d give back
e put out
f put do!n
g carry on
h back a!ay
i get off
j bring do!n
up do!n out in off
on into at for
1. seek ?. demolish
2. !ait J. ridicule
;. maintain 5payments7 N. remove
<. discover O. !ithdra! 5money7
=. inherit 1H. enter
SELF-CHECK
3