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Dr.

Chinmoy Saha
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
Dr. Chinmoy Saha
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
Microwave Filter Design : Insertion Loss
Method
Microwave Filter Design : Insertion Loss
Method
Introduction Introduction
A filter is a network that provides perfect transmission for signal with
frequencies in certain passband region and infinite attenuation in the stop
band-regions.
Such ideal characteristics cannot be attained, and the goal of filter design is
to approximate the ideal requirements to within an acceptable tolerance.
( )
( )
( ) e
e
e
1
2
V
V
H =
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
e
e
1
2
10
20
V
V
Log n Attenuatio
A Filter
H(e)
V
1
(e) V
2
(e)
Transfer Function
Filters are used in all frequency ranges and are categorized into
three main groups:
Low-pass filter (LPF) that transmit all signals between DC and
some upper limit e
c
and attenuate all signals with frequencies
above e
c
.
High-pass filter (HPF) that pass all signal with frequencies
above the cutoff value e
c
and reject signal with frequencies
below e
c
.
Band-pass filter (BPF) that passes signal with frequencies in
the range of e
1
to e
2
and reject frequencies outside this range.
The complement to band-pass filter is the band-reject or band-
stop filter.
e
Attenuation/dB
0
e
c
3
10
20
30
40
e
Attenuation/dB
0
e
1
3
10
20
30
40
e
2
Attenuation/dB
e
0
e
c
3
10
20
30
40
Classifications Classifications
L
1
=g
2
L
2
=g
4
C
1
=g
1 C
2
=g
3
R
L
= g
N+1
1
L
1
=g
1
L
2
=g
3
C
1
=g
2
C
2
=g
4
R
L
= g
N+1
g
0
= 1
L
2
L
1
C
1
C
N
C
2
L
2
L
1
C
1 L
3
C
3
C
N
L
N
high-pass filter
Low -pass filter
band-pass filter
Classifications Classifications
Filter can be further divided into active and passive type.
For passive filter output power <= input power
Active filter provides power gain. Some amplifying Stage
(Normally OPAMP) must be there.
The characteristic of a passive filter can be described using
the transfer function approach or the attenuation function
approach.
In low frequency circuit the transfer function (H(e))
description is used
At microwave frequency the attenuation function description
is preferred.
At frequency below 1.0GHz, filters are usually implemented
using lumped elements such as resistors, inductors and
capacitors.
Classifications Classifications
Filter Characterization
Two-port Network
H(e) Input Output
Fig. 1 Two-port Network
) (
) ( ) (
e u
e e
j
e H H =
Filter Characterization
Fig. 2 Characteristics of
ideal bandpass filter
1
Freq.
lH(e)l
u(e)
Characteristics of ideal bandpass filters ;

> <
s s
=
2 1
2 1
, 0
1
) (
f f f f for
f f f for
H e
d
and et e u = ) (
not realizable
approximation required
Filter Characterization : Filter Characterization : Practical specifications Practical specifications
Passband : Lower cutoff frequency f
1
and upper cutoff frequency f
2
Insertion loss: , must be as small as possible
Return Loss: , degree of impedance matching
Ripple: variation of insertion loss within the passband
Phase Delay and Group Delay: are measures of the amount of delay
encountered by a signal as it passes through a network.
Group delay describes the delay of a packet of frequencies
Phase delay describes the delay for a single sinusoid.
is the phase of H(e) in radians.
Skirt frequency characteristics :depends on the system specifications
Power handling capability
) ( ) ( log 20 dB H e
) ( log 20 dB
e
e u
t
d
d
d
) (
=
e
e u
t
) (
=
P
) (e u
There are essentially two Synthesis Techniques at low-frequency :
a) Image parameter Method (IPM)
b) Insertion-Loss Method (ILM)
Filter Syntheses Techniques Filter Syntheses Techniques
Image parameter Method (IPM)
Provides a relatively simple filter design approach
The IPM approach divides a filter into a cascade of two-port
networks, and attempt to come up with the schematic of each two-
port, such that when combined, give the required frequency response.
Arbitrary frequency response cannot be incorporated into the design
m=0.6 m=0.6 m-
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
t
2
1
t
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
High-f
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
A filter response is defined by its insertion loss or power loss ratio (P
LR
)
Then a suitable filter schematic is synthesized.
Design procedure is based on the attenuation response or insertion loss of the filter.
Allows a high degree of control over the pass band and stop band amplitude and
phase characteristics, with a systematic way to synthesize a desired response.
The necessary design trade-offs can be evaluated to best meet the application
requirements.
Out of lot of Choices (Butterworth, Chebyshev, Elliptic Function, Linear Phase etc.)
are there to the designers. Based on the design specification and constrain an optimum
design is to be chosen.
Insertion-Loss Method (ILM) Insertion-Loss Method (ILM)
if a minimum insertion loss is most important, a binomial response can be used
if a sharp cutoff is needed, a Chebyshev response is better
in the insertion loss method a filter response is defined by its insertion loss or
power loss ratio
Insertion Loss Method Insertion Loss Method
It begins with a complete specification of a physically realizable frequency
characteristic
Normally the design starts with a normalized low-pass prototype (LPP). The
LPP is a low-pass filter with source and load resistance of 1O and cutoff frequency
of 1 Radian/s.
Impedance transformation and frequency scaling are then applied to denormalize
the LPP and synthesize different type of filters with different cutoff frequencies.
There are a number of standard approaches to design a normalized LPP that
approximate an ideal low-pass filter response with cutoff frequency of unity.
well known methods are:
Maximally flat or Butterworth function.
Equal ripple or Chebyshev approach.
Elliptic function.
Power Loss Ratio (P
LR
)
[S
ij
]
P
in
P
refl
P
trans
is an even function of e , so
in in trans
in in refl
P S P T P
P S P P
2
21
2
2
11
2

= =
= I =
2
) ( 1
1
e I
=
tran
in
LR
P
P
P
Filter Design :Insertion Loss Method Filter Design :Insertion Loss Method
IL = 10 log P
LR
) ( ) (
) (
) (
2 2
2
2
e e
e
e
N M
M
+
= I
2
) (e I
network synthesis
procedures are required
) (
) (
1
1
1
2
e
e
D
N
P
P
P
tran
in
LR
+ =
I
=
M (e
2
) and N (e
2
) are real polynomials
Type of responses for n-section prototype filter
A. Maximally flat response (Butterworth Response)
The pass band extends from e = 0 to e = e
c
At the band edge the power loss ratio is 1 + k
2
.
For this point to be -3 dB point, we have k = 1.
N
c
LR
k P
2
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
e
e
Provides the flattest possible passband response for a given
filter complexity, or order. For a low-pass filter, it is specified
by
k
2
:passband tolerance
N:order of filter
N
c
LR
k P
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
e
e
For e >>e
c
So the insertion loss increases at the rate of 20N dB/decade
2
1 k +
For N = 3
B. Equal ripple response (Chebyshev Response)
Type of responses for n-section prototype filter
T
N
(x) Chebyshev Polynomial of order N
Oscillates between -1 to +1 for
) ( ) ( 2 ) (
3 4 ) ( , 1 2 , ) (
2 1
3
3
2
2 1
x T x xT x T
x x x T x T x x T
n n n
=
= = =
1 s x
For N = 3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
0
2 2
1
e
e
N LR
T k P
For large x,
So for e>>e
c
insertion loss
N
n
x x T ) 2 (
2
1
) ( =
N
c
LR
k
P
2
2
2
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
e
e
Insertion loss increases at the
rate of 20N dB/decade
Sharper cut-off compared to Butterworth
Passband response contain ripples of amplitude 1+k
2
For e>>e
c,
Insertion loss is times greater than Butterworth filter ( ) / 2 4
2N
C. Elliptic Function
Type of responses for n-section prototype filter
It has equal-ripple responses in both passband
and stopband
Maximum attenuation in the passband is A
max
Minimum attenuation in the stopband is A
min
are difficult to synthesize
linear phase response is necessary to avoid signal distortion
there is usually a tradeoff between the sharp-cutoff response
and linear phase response
a linear phase characteristic can be achieved with the phase
response
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
N
c
p A
2
1 ) (
e
e
e e |
D. Linear Phase Response
Type of responses for n-section prototype filter
The group delay is given by
this is also a maximally flat function, therefore, signal distortion is
reduced in the passband
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = =
N
c
d
N p A
d
d
2
) 1 2 ( 1
e
e
e
|
t
We start with designing the low pass filter prototypes which are
normalized in terms of impedance and frequency
The designed prototypes are then scaled in frequency and
impedance
Lumped-elements will be replaced by distributive elements for
microwave frequency operations
Design Steps
Filter
Specifications
Low Pass
Prototype Design
Scaling
and Conversion
Implementation
Maximally Flat Low Pass Filter Prototype (Butterworth)
we will derive the normalized element values, L and C, for a
maximally flat response.
Assume : source impedance of 1
Cut off frequency e
c
= 1
The desired power loss ratio (k =1) with N= 2 is
Consider the two-element (N=2)
low-pass filter prototype shown
4
1 e + =
LR
P
Input impedance
2 2 2
1
) 1 (
1 C R
RC j R
L j
RC j
R
L j Zin
e
e
e
e
e
+

+ =
+
+ =
Reflection Co-efficient is given by
1
1
+

= I
in
in
Z
Z
The power loss ratio is given by
Maximally Flat LPF Prototype (Butterworth) Contd
This expression is a polynomial in
2
Comparing to the desired response
R =1, since P
LR
=1 for =0.
In addition, the coefficient of
2
must vanish
coefficient of
4
to be unity
Specification
Maximally Flat LPF Prototype (Butterworth) Maximally Flat LPF Prototype (Butterworth) Contd Contd
4
1 e + =
LR
P
This procedure can be extended to find the element values for higher N (?)
Not practical for large value of N.
The element values for the ladder-type circuits is tabulated .
(for normalized low-pass design, source impedance is 1 and
c
=1 rad/sec)
N= 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , . . . N= 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , . . .
((bb))
((aa))
N= 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , . . . N= 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , . . . Contd Contd
Element Values for Maximally Flat LPF Prototypes Element Values for Maximally Flat LPF Prototypes
(g
0
=1,
c
=1, N =1 to 10)
G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones,Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and
Coupling Structures, Artech House, Dedham, Mass., 1980
) , ( , 2, 1, ,
2
1 2
sin 2 F H N i
N
i
g
i
=

= t
Performance with higher N Performance with higher N
Attenuation versus normalized frequency for maximally flat filter prototypes
Equal Ripple Low Pass Filter Prototype (Chebyshev)
For an equal-ripple low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency
c
=1 rad/sec,
the power loss ratio
where 1+k
2
is the ripple level in the passband.
Since the Chebyshev polynomials have the property that
At = 0

+
=
2
1
1
k
P
LR

=
1
0
) 0 (
N
T
For N odd
For N even
For N odd
For N even
) ( 1
2 2
e
N LR
T k P + =
There are two cases to consider, depending on N odd or
even
Consider the two-element (N=2)
low-pass filter prototype shown
Low pass prototype for Low pass prototype for N = N = 22
2 2 2 2
2
2
) 1 2 ( 1 ) ( 1 + = + = e e k T k P
LR
) 1 4 4 ( 1
2 4 2
+ + = e e k
( ) (
, 1 2
2
2
T x xT
x T

=
Can be solved for R,L, and C if the ripple level (determined by k
2
) is specified
= + + ) 1 4 4 ( 1
2 4 2
e e k
Equating
Equating at =0
( )
R
R
k
4
1
2
2

=
Equating the coefficients of
2
and
4
2 2 2 2
4
1
4 R C L
R
k =
) 2 (
4
1
4
2 2 2 2 2
LCR L C R
R
k + =
can be used to find L and C
R is not unity leading to impedance mismatch if the load is unity.
Solutions : quarter wave transformer
Add an additional filter element to make N odd
2 2
1 2 2 1 k k k R + + =
(For N even)
= + + ) 1 4 4 ( 1
2 4 2
e e k
Low pass prototype for Low pass prototype for N = N = 2 . 2 .Contd Contd
Element Values for Equal Element Values for Equal--Ripple LPF Prototypes ( Ripple LPF Prototypes (gg
0 0
= 1, = 1,
c c
= 1, = 1,
NN=1 to 10) =1 to 10)
0.5 dB ripple 1+k
2
= 10^(0.5/10)=1.122
For odd N , g
N+1
=1, Impedance Matched
For even N, g
N+1
= 1.9841
Element Values for Equal Element Values for Equal--Ripple LPF Prototypes ( Ripple LPF Prototypes (gg
0 0
= 1, = 1,
c c
= 1, = 1,
NN=1 to 10) =1 to 10)
3 dB ripple 1+k
2
= 10^(3/10)=2
For odd N , g
N+1
=1, Impedance Matched
For even N, g
N+1
= 5.8095
1 1
1
4

=
i i
i i
i
g b
a a
g
N
i
N
b
i
t |
2 2
sin
2
sinh + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
=
1 1
1 1
ln
2
2
k
k
|
N
a
g
2
sinh
2
1
1
|
=
t
N
i
a
i
2
1 2
sin

=
Parameter Extraction Parameter Extraction
1 10
10
=
IL
k
0.5 dB Ripple Level
Attenuation Attenuation vs vs Normalized Frequency Normalized Frequency
3 dB Ripple Level
Attenuation Attenuation vs vs Normalized Frequency Normalized Frequency
Filters having a maximally flat time delay, or a linear
phase response, can be designed in
the same way, but things are somewhat more
complicated because the phase of the voltage
transfer function is not as simply expressed as is its
amplitude. Design values have
Linear Phase Low Linear Phase Low--Pass Filter Prototypes Pass Filter Prototypes
been derived for such filters [1], however, again for the ladder
circuits of Figure 8.25, and they are given in Table 8.5 for a
normalized source impedance and cutoff frequency (c =1rad/sec).
The resulting normalized group delay in the passband will be d =
1/c =1 sec.
Filter Transformation Filter Transformation
For the LPF prototypes discussed so far we had R
s
=1 and
cutoff frequency
c
=1 rad/sec.
So we need impedance and frequency scaling .
Also, conversion mechanism to get high-pass, bandpass, or
bandstop characteristics.
L L
S
R R R
R R
R
C
C
L R L
0
0
0
0
=
'
= '
= '
= '
Impedance Scaling
Illustration (Impedance level 50)
same reflection coefficient maintained
Series branch(impedance) elements
Shunt branch(admittance) elements ;
O = O = 50 1
L L
R R
( )
i i i i
g g g j g j 50 50 e e
( ) 50 / 50 /
r r r r
g g g j g j e e
Series Reactance
Filter Transformation: Filter Transformation: Frequency Scaling (LPF to LPF)
To change the cutoff frequency
of a low-pass prototype from
unity to
c
we replace by
/
c
k K
c
k
L j L j jX ' = = e
e
e
c
e
e
e
Shunt Susceptance
k K
c
k
C j C j jB
'
= = e
e
e
So the new element values are
c
k
k
C
C
e
= '
c
k
K
L
L
e
= '
If both impedance and frequency scaling is required
c
k
k
R
C
C
e
0
= '
c
k
K
L R
L
e
0
= '
Frequency scaling for low-pass filters
Series Reactance
Filter Transformation: Filter Transformation: (LPF to HPF)
k
K
c
k
C j
L j jX
'
= =
e e
e 1
e
e
e
c

Shunt Susceptance
So the new element values are
k c
k
C
L
e
1
= '
k c
k
L
C
e
1
= '
If both impedance and frequency scaling is required
Transformation of a LPF into HPF
k
k
c
k
L j
C j jB
'
= =
e e
e 1
k c
k
L R
C
e
0
1
= '
k c
k
C
R
L
e
0
= '
Low-pass prototypes can also be transformed to have the bandpass
or bandstop responses.
Bandpass Bandpass and and Bandstop Bandstop Transformations Transformations
LPFBPF:
Where
1
and
2
denote the edges of the passband,
LPF
BPF
BSF
Series reactance
Shunt Susceptance
LPF to BPF LPF to BPF
LPF to BSF LPF to BSF
LPFBSF:
|
|
.
|

\
|
A

A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

A
=
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
k
k
k
k
L
L
j L j
jX
0
0
0
0
So the series inductors of the low-pass prototype are converted
to parallel LC circuits with
Similarly the shunt capacitors is changed to
Summary of Prototype Filter Transformation Summary of Prototype Filter Transformation
Design Problem 1: Design Problem 1: Calculate the inductance and capacitance values for a maximally-flat
low-pass filter that has a 3dB bandwidth of 400MHz. The filter is to be connected to 50
ohm source and load impedance. The filter must has a high attenuation of 20 dB at 1 GHz.
( )
(


=
n
k
g
k
2
1 2
sin 2
t
Step 1: Determine the order of the filter
( )
( )
c
A
N
e e / log 2
1 10 log
1 10
10 /
10

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
N
c
A
2
1
1 log 10
e
e
( )
( )
2
400 / 1000 log 2
1 10 log
10
10 / 20
10
>

=
Thus choose an integer value , i.e N=3
Step 2: Determine the element values (If not supplied)
( )
1
3 2
1 2
sin 2
1
=
(

=
t
g
g
0
= g
3+1
= 1
( )
2
3 2
1 2 2
sin 2
2
=
(


=
t
g
( )
1
3 2
1 3 2
sin 2
3
=
(


=
t
g
Step 2: Determine the element values (If not supplied) .
nH
g R
L L
c
o
9 . 19
10 400 2
1 50
6
1
1 3
=


= = =
t e
pF
R
g
C
c o
9 . 15
10 400 2 50
2
6
2
2
=

= =
t e
Step 3: Transformation for Scaling
15.9pF
19.9nH
50 ohm
50 ohm 19.9nH
Step 3: Circuit
nH
g R
L
c
o
8 . 39
10 400 2
2 50
6
2
2
=


= =
t e
pF
R
g
C C
c o
95 . 7
10 400 2 50
1
6
1
1 3
=

= = =
t e
7.95pF
39.8nH
50 ohm
50 ohm
7.95pF
Design Problem 2 : Design Problem 2 : Design a maximally flat low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency
of 2 GHz, impedance of 50 , and at least 15 dB insertion loss at 3 GHz.
( )
(


=
n
k
g
k
2
1 2
sin 2
t
Step 1: Determine the order of the filter
( )
( )
c
A
N
e e / log 2
1 10 log
1 10
10 /
10

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
N
c
A
2
1
1 log 10
e
e
( )
( )
4
2 / 3 log 2
1 10 log
10
10 / 15
10
>

=
Thus choose an integer value , i.e N=5
Step 2: Determine the element values (If not supplied)
( )
618 . 0
5 2
1 2
sin 2
1
=
(

=
t
g
g
0
= g
5+1
= 1
( )
618 . 1
5 2
1 2 2
sin 2
2
=
(


=
t
g
( )
2
5 2
1 3 2
sin 2
3
=
(


=
t
g
Step 2: Determine the element values (If not supplied) .
( )
618 . 1
5 2
1 4 2
sin 2
4
=
(


=
t
g
( )
618 . 0
5 2
1 5 2
sin 2
5
=
(


=
t
g
pF
R
g
C C
c o
984 . 0
10 2 2 50
618 . 0
9
1
1 5
=

= = =
t e
nH
g R
L L
c
o
438 . 6
10 2 2
618 . 1 50
9
2
2 4
=


= = =
t e
pF
R
g
C
c o
183 . 3
10 2 2 50
2
9
3
3
=

= =
t e
Step 3: Transformation for Scaling
Step 3: Circuit
Alternatively you can go for other type .
Design Problem 3 Design Problem 3
Design a bandpass filter having a 0.5 dB equal-ripple response, with N=3. The
center frequency is 1 GHz, the bandwidth is 10%, and the impedance is 50.
From Table
Impedance and Frequency Transformation
BPF Circuit
Design Problem 3 Design Problem 3
Design a 3 section Chebyshev low-pass filter that has a ripple of
0.05dB and cutoff frequency of 1 GHz.
1 1
1
4

=
i i
i i
i
g b
a a
g
N
i
N
b
i
t |
2 2
sin
2
sinh + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
=
1 1
1 1
ln
2
2
k
k
|
N
a
g
2
sinh
2
1
1
|
=
t
N
i
a
i
2
1 2
sin

=
1 10
10
=
IL
k
Extraction Equations Extraction Equations
k = 0.1076078715 |= -5.850582044 137134 . 1
2
sinh =
N
|
29307 . 1
2
sinh
2
=
N
|
879 . 0
137134 . 1
2
1
2
1
=

= g
1132 . 1
4
1 1
2 1
2
= =
g b
a a
g
879 . 0
4
2 2
3 2
3
= =
g b
a a
g nH L L 7
10 2
8794 . 0 50
9
3 1
=

= =
t
pF C 543 . 3
10 2 50
1132 . 1
9
2
=

=
t
48
Design Problem 4 Design Problem 4
Design a band-pass filter having a 0.5 dB ripple response, with N=3. The center
frequency is 1GHz, the bandwidth is 10%, and the impedance is 50W.
Solution
Extract the Parameters
g
o
=1 , g
1
=1.5963, g
2
=1.0967, g
3
= 1.5963, g
4
= 1.000
Lets first and third elements are equivalent to series inductance and g
1
=g
3
, thus
nH
g Z
L L
o
o
s s
127
10 2 1 . 0
5963 . 1 50
9
1
3 1
=

=
O
= =
t
e
pF
g Z
C C
o o
s s
199 . 0
5963 . 1 50 10 2
1 . 0
9
1
3 1
=

=
O
= =
t
e
k o k
g Z L =
Continue
49
Second element is equivalent to parallel capacitance, thus
nH
g
Z
L
o
o
p
726 . 0
0967 . 1 10 2
50 1 . 0
9
2
2
=


=
O
=
t
e
pF
Z
g
C
o o
p
91 . 34
10 2 1 . 0 50
0967 . 1
9
2
2
=

=
O
=
t
e
o
k
k
Z
g
C =
50O
127nH 0.199pF
0.726nH 34.91pF
127nH 0.199pF
50O
Microstrip Microstrip Implementation : Why ? Implementation : Why ?
The lumped-element filter sections generally work well at low
frequencies only.
At higher RF and microwave frequencies lumped-element
inductors and capacitors are not available (Available only for a
limited range of values), and can be difficult to implement at
microwave frequencies.
Distributed elements such as open-circuited or short-circuited
transmission line stubs, are often used to approximate ideal
lumped elements.
At microwave frequencies the distances between filter
components is not negligible. (Additional Challenge)
Lumped elements can be converted to transmission line
sections with Richards transformation.
Kurodas identities is used to physically separate filter
elements by using transmission line sections.
Such additional transmission line sections do not affect the filter
response, this type of design is called redundant filter synthesis.
It is possible to design microwave filters that take advantage of
these sections to improve the filter response.
Microstrip Microstrip Implementation : How Implementation : How
Implementation using stub
Richards transformation
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = O
p
v
l e
| tan tan
| tan jC C j jB
c
= O =
At cutoff unity frequency we have =1. Then
| tan 1= = O
8

=
So inductor and capacitors of the lumped element circuit are replaced by
shorted and open stub of length /8 at e
c
.
| tan jL L j jX
L
= O =
Transformation from plane to e plane
Reactance of the inductor is
Susceptance of the capacitor is
An inductor can be replaced with a short-circuited stub of length |l and
characteristic impedance L
A capacitor can be replaced with an open-circuited stub of length l and
characteristic impedance 1/C
Richards transformation : Summary
The four Kuroda identities use redundant transmission line sections to achieve
a more practical microwave filter implementation.
Physically separate transmission line stubs.
For that additional transmission lines are added
Transformseries stubs into shunt stubs, or vice versa
Change impractical characteristic impedances into more realizable values
Kurodas Identities Kurodas Identities
The Four Kuroda Identities(n
2
=1+Z
2
/Z1)
It is difficult to
implement a
series stub in
microstripline.
Using Kuroda
identity, we
would be able
to transform
S.C series stub
to O.C shunt
stub. So the 2
nd
identity is most
crucial.
Kuroda identity :Proof
1
st
identity
ABCD of the shunt stub
(
(

O
=
(

=
(

1
0 1
1
0 1
2
. Z
j
Y D C
B A
Stub St
ABCD of the Tr. Line of length l stub
(
(

O
O
O +
(
(

O
=
(

1
1
1
1
1
0 1
1
1
2
2
Z
j
Z j
Z
j
D C
B A
l | tan = O
where
So the combined ABCD (LHS)
(
(
(

O
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ O
O
O +
=
2
1 2
2 1
1
2 1
1 1
1
1
1
Z
Z
Z Z
j
Z j
(
(

O
O
O +
=
(
(

=
(

1
1
1
1
cos sin
sin cos
1
1
2
1
1
Z
j
Z j
l l
Z
j
l jZ l
D C
B A
TL
| |
| |
2 2
cot
1
Z
j
l jZ
Y
O
= =
|
(1)
Kuroda identity :Proof
ABCD of the series stub
(
(

O
=
(

=
(

1 0
1
1 0
1
2
1
.
n
Z j
Z
D C
B A
Stub Ser
ABCD of the Tr. Line of length l
(
(

O
(
(
(
(

O
O
O +
=
(

1 0
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
n
Z j
Z
n j
n
Z
j
D C
B A
l | tan = O
where
So the combined ABCD (RHS)
(
(
(
(

O
O
+
O
O +
=
2
1 2
2
2
2 1
2
2
1
) ( 1
1
1
Z
Z
Z
n j
Z Z
n
j
(
(
(
(

O
O
O +
=
(

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
Z
n j
n
Z
j
D C
B A
TL
(2)
From (1) and
(2), LHS and
RHS are
identical if
1
2 2
1
Z
Z
n + =
Kuroda identity :Proof
Other Kuroda identities can be proved in a similar fashion
Second Kurodas Identity
Consider the second identity in which a series stub
is converted into a shunt
/8
/8
Z
1
Z
o
Z
1
+Z
o
Z
o
+Z
o
2
/Z
1
SC
OC
From Table g
1
= 0.7654 g
2
= 1.8478 g
3
=1.8478
g
4
= 0.7654 g
5
= 1
Design Problem 5 :Design a low-pass third-order maximally flat filter
using only shunt stubs. The cutoff frequency is 8GHz and the
impedance is 50 O.
LPF prototype
0.765
1.848
1/1.848
=0.541
1/0.765=1.307
Applying Richards transformation Adding Elements
Use second Kuroda identity on left,
Use first Kuroda identity on right
433 . 0
307 . 2
1
307 . 1
1
)
1 307 . 1
1
1 (
1
2
2
= =

+
=
n
Z
567 . 0
307 . 2
307 . 1
1
)
1 307 . 1
1
1 (
1
2
1
= =

+
=
n
Z
307 . 2 1 )
765 . 0
1
1 (
765 . 1 765 . 0 )
765 . 0
1
1 (
2
2
1
2
= + =
= + =
Z n
Z n
1.765
1.848
0.541
0.433
1 1
2.307
0.567
Use second Kuroda identity on left,
741 . 0 567 . 0 )
848 . 1
567 . 0
1 (
415 . 2 848 . 1 )
848 . 1
567 . 0
1 (
2
2
1
2
= + =
= + =
Z n
Z n
Use second Kuroda identity on left,
309 . 3 1 )
433 . 0
1
1 (
433 . 1 433 . 0 )
433 . 0
1
1 (
2
2
1
2
= + =
= + =
Z n
Z n
1.765
0.541
1 1
2.307
2.415 1.433
0.741
3.309
Apply Kurodas identity..
all lines are /8 long at 8 GHz
88.3
27.1
50 50
115.4
120.8 71.7
37.1
165.5
Impedance Scaling Impedance Scaling
All elements are multiplied by 50
Microstrip implementation
50
88.3 120.8 71.7
50
115.4 27.1 37.1 165.5
ii/p /p
o/p o/p
c
r