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Steel Connections SteelConnections

Alectureprepared p p
By
A P D E B M Assis. Prof. Dr Ehab Boghdadi Matar
Acknowledgement Acknowledgement
k l d h f d i hi l h Iacknowledgephotosfoundinthislecturetothe
scientificteachingaidsfoundindifferentsources,
i ll especially
AISCdigitallibrary
ESDEPlecturenotes
AISC connection teaching toolkit AISC connectionteachingtoolkit
PersonalphotostakeninGermany,Holland,
Austria and Egypt AustriaandEgypt.
Ehab matar
Assis. Prof. of steel structural
Objectives Objectives
Throughthefollowing3lectures,weshallstudy
togetherthesteelconnections.Ourmain
objectiveswillbe:
1. Identify the different types of steel connections 1. Identifythedifferenttypesofsteelconnections
2. Understandingtheforcetransferthroughsteel
ti connections
3. Practicingthedesignofboltedandwelded
connectionsthroughneatselfexplained
calculationsandfulldwgs details. g
Welded Connections WeldedConnections
The most common welding Themostcommonwelding
processes,particularlyforwelding
structuralsteel,useelectricalenergy
astheheatsource;themostoften
d i th l t i Th usedistheelectricarc.Thearc
consistsofarelativelylargecurrent
dischargebetweenelectrodeand
basemetalconductedthrougha
h ll i i d l thermallyionizedgaseouscolumn,
calledplasma.Inarcwelding,fusion
occursbytheflowofmaterialacross
thearc,withoutpressurebeing
applied.
Wehavetwoweldingprocedure
types:
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) ShieldedMetalArcWelding(SMAW)
SubmergedArcWelding(SAW)
StructuralWelding(AISC)
Another common method for connecting structural steel is welding
Welding can be performed in the shop or in the field Welding can be performed in the shop or in the field
Many fabrication shops prefer to weld rather than bolt
Welding in the field is avoided if possible due to welding condition requirements
5
Welding in the field is avoided if possible due to welding condition requirements
There are several welding processes, types, and positions to be considered in building
construction
StructuralWelding(AISC)
The American Welding Society (AWS) is a nonprofit organization with a goal to advance
the science, technology and application of welding and related joining disciplines
AWS develops codes, recommended practices, and guides under strict American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) procedures
D1 1 St t l W ldi C d St l f th t lt d d i th ld i
6
D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel, one of the most consulted codes in the world, is
produced by AWS (AWS 2004a)
StructuralWelding(AISC)
Welding is the process of fusing multiple pieces of metal together by heating the filler
7
Welding is the process of fusing multiple pieces of metal together by heating the filler
metal to a liquid state
A properly welded joint is stronger than the base metal
SMAWWelding(AISC)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is also known as manual, stick, or hand welding
An electric arc is produced between the end of a coated metal electrode and the steel p
components to be welded
The electrode is a filler metal covered with a coating
h l d i h The electrodes coating has two purposes:
It forms a gas shield to prevent impurities in the atmosphere from getting into the
weld
8
It contains a flux that purifies the molten metal (AISC & NISD 2000)
GMAWWelding(AISC)
G M t l A W ldi (GMAW) i l k MIG ldi Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is also known as MIG welding
It is fast and economical
A continuous wire is fed into the welding gun A continuous wire is fed into the welding gun
The wire melts and combines with the base metal to form the weld
The molten metal is protected from the atmosphere by a gas shield which is fed
9
through a conduit to the tip of the welding gun
This process may be automated (AISC & NISD 2000)
FCAWWelding(AISC)
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) is similar to the GMAW process
The difference is that the filler wire has a center core which contains flux
With this process it is possible to weld with or without a shielding gas
This makes it useful for exposed conditions where a shielding gas may be affected
10
by the wind
(AISC & NISD 2000)
SAWWelding(AISC)
S b d A W ldi (SAW) i l f d b t ti i t ti Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) is only performed by automatic or semiautomatic
methods
Uses a continuously fed filler metal electrode
The weld pool is protected from the surrounding atmosphere by a blanket of granular
flux fed at the welding gun
11
Results in a deeper weld penetration than the other process
Only flat or horizontal positions may be used (AISC & NISD 2000)
WeldingEquipment(AISC)
Equipment used for welding will vary depending on the welding process and whether
the welding is being done in the shop or in the field
12
A Flux Cored Arc Welding machine for shop welding is pictured above left
A Shielded Metal Arc Welding machine for field welding is pictured above right
WeldingTerminology(AISC)
Tack Weld (above left)
A temporary weld used to hold parts in place while more extensive, final welds
are made
Continuous Weld Continuous Weld
A weld which extends continuously from one end of a joint to the other
Stitch Weld (above right)
13
Stitch Weld (above right)
A series of welds of a specified length that are spaced a specified distance from
each other
Weldability Weldability
ld bili d fi d i h [3] i Weldability asdefinedinJohnson[3],isa
measureoftheeaseofproducingacrackfree
d d t t l j i t S f th dil andsoundstructuraljoint.Someofthereadily
availablestructuralsteelsaremoresuitedto
welding than others weldingthanothers.
Weldingproceduresshouldbebasedonasteels
h i i d f h bli h d i chemistryinsteadofthepublishedmaximum
alloylimitssetbyitsspecification.Thefollowing
t bl h th id l h i l l i f th tableshowstheidealchemicalanalysisofthe
carbonsteels.
Mostmildsteelsfallwellwithinthisrange,whilehigherstrength
steelsmayexceedtheidealanalysisshowninthetable.
Electrodes(SalmonandJohnson)
Welding Positions WeldingPositions
Th Fl t P iti i hi h th TheFlatPosition:inwhichthe
weldmetalcanbedeposited
fasterbecausegravityisacting
with the welder so large withthewelder,solarge
electrodesizesandhigh
currentsmaybeused.
The Over Head Position: It is TheOverHeadPosition:Itis
themostdifficultpositionin
weldingprocessandusually
executed in field Electrodes executedinfield.Electrodes
diametersbelow5mmareto
beutilizedotherwiseweld
metalrunsdown.
TheVerticalandHorizontal
Positions.
Advantages of welded connections Advantagesofweldedconnections
Si th d t i l d i i h l Sincetheprocessdosenotinvolvedrivingholes,
thegrosssectionalareaoftheweldedmemberis
used which result in less member weight usedwhichresultinlessmemberweight.
Weldedconnectionsaremorerigid.
Repairs and further new constructions of Repairsandfurthernewconstructionsof
connectionscanbedoneeasily.
Welded structure has better finish and Weldedstructurehasbetterfinishand
appearance.
There will be in many cases no need for Therewillbeinmanycasesnoneedfor
connectinganglesorsplicingplates.
Disadvantages of welded connections Disadvantagesofweldedconnections
It i kill d l b Itrequiresskilledlabor.
Testingofweldingconnectionsisdifficultand
very expensive veryexpensive.
Duetoanevenheatingandcooling,thewelded
member is likely to get warped at the welded memberislikelytogetwarpedatthewelded
surfacecausingdistortion.
Internal stresses in the welded zone are likely to Internalstressesintheweldedzonearelikelyto
besetup.
Welded metals have less fatigue strength than Weldedmetalshavelessfatiguestrengththan
metalconnectedbyboltsbecauseofits
brittleness.
WeldingTerminology(AISC)
Butt
Lap Corner
Tee
Edge
Shown above are types of structural joints which are established by positions of the
connected material relative to one another
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connected material relative to one another
Lap, tee, and butt joints are most common (AISC)
Types of welded connections Typesofweldedconnections
Inprincipletherearefourmaintypes:
1. Fillet weld 1. Filletweld
2. Buttweld
3. Slotweld
4 Plug weld 4. Plugweld
WeldingTerminology(AISC)
Fillet Fullpenetration
singlebevel
groove weld
Partialpenetration
singlebevelgroove
weld grooveweld weld
Full penetration Partial penetration
Plug
Fullpenetration
doublevee
grooveweld
Partialpenetration
singleJgrooveweld
W ld t d fi th fi ti f th ld d it d l i d i h Weld types define the configuration of the weld and its underlying design approach
Fillet welds and groove welds are most common
Groove welds fall into two categories Groove welds fall into two categories
Full penetration the entire member crosssection is welded
Partial penetration just part of the member crosssection is welded
22
Partial penetration just part of the member crosssection is welded
(AISC)
Fillet weld Filletweld
Fill ld d Filletweldsaremade
betweenplatesurfaces,
which are met at right whicharemetatright
anglesoroverlapping.
Theanglebetweenthe
platesusuallyvaries
between60
o
and120
o
.
The minimum angle for Theminimumanglefor
flatweldingpositionis
60
o
,forverticalwelding , g
70
o
,andforoverhead
position80
o
.
FilletWelds(AISC)
Symbolic Profiles SymbolicProfiles
ActualProfiles
Themostcommonlyusedweldisthefilletweld
Filletweldsaretheoreticallytriangularincrosssection
Filletweldsjointwosurfacesatapproximatelyrightanglestoeachotherinlap,tee,
and corner joints
24
andcornerjoints
(AISC & NISD 2000)
Butt weld Buttweld
B ld d Buttweldsaremade
betweentheedgesof
abutting plates that meet abuttingplatesthatmeet
atthesameplane
withoutoverlapping.The
edgepreparationchosen
foraparticularsizeof
butt weld must ensure buttweldmustensure
thatacomplete
penetrationcanbe p
achievedwithminimum
weldmetal.
FullPenetrationGrooveWelds(AISC)
The bevel or J preparation extends over most of or the entire face of the material
being joined
Complete fusion takes place
26
In some types of full penetration groove welds the material will be beveled from one
side of the plate with a separate plate on the opposite side called backing or a
backing bar (AISC & NISD 2000)
PartialPenetrationGrooveWelds(AISC)
Partial joint penetration welds are used when it is not necessary for the strength of the
27
Partial joint penetration welds are used when it is not necessary for the strength of the
joint to develop the full cross section of the members being joined
(AISC & NISD 2000)
Slot and Plug welds SlotandPlugwelds
A i i l f l l t Aprincipleuseforplugorslot
weldsistotransmitshearina
lapjointwhenthesizeofthe
connection limits the length connectionlimitsthelength
availableforfilletorother
edgewelds.
Slot and plug welds are also Slotandplugweldsarealso
usefulinpreventing
overlappingpartsfrom
buckling buckling.
Theshearcapacityis
calculatedastheproductof
the area of the hole or slot theareaoftheholeorslot
andthedesignshearstressfor
filletweld.
WeldAccessibility
Access holes are required for some Access holes are required for some
welds, such as the welded flange
connection shown to the right
The top access hole allows for
ExtensionBar
The top access hole allows for
a continuous backing bar to
be placed under the top
flange flange
The bottom access hole allows
for complete access to weld
th ti idth f th
WeldAccess
l
BackingBar
the entire width of the
bottom flange
A detail of a weld access hole for a
C
o
l
u
Holes
welded flange connection is shown
below
u
m
n
SeatAngle
29 (AdaptedfromAISC2001)
(AdaptedfromAISC2002a)
Weld symbols are used to
WeldSymbols(AISC)
Weld symbols are used to
communicate the specific
details and requirements
of each weld to the
welder
Weld symbols are
included on fabrication included on fabrication
and erection drawings
Horizontal Weld Line HorizontalWeldLine
Tail
Note
(Indicating this is a
FieldWeldSymbol
LeaderLine
(Indicatingthisisa
typicalweld)
LengthandSpacingofweld
(InInches)
Size of weld
30
BasicWeldSymbol
(Filletweldsymbolshown)
Sizeofweld
(InInches)
Examples(SalmonandJohnson)
WeldSize(AISC)
The size of a weld must match the size specified on the drawings
Some welds may meet the required size after a single pass of the welder
Larger weld sizes may require multiple passes to meet the size requirement
Common single pass welds include fillet welds up to and including 5/16 inch (8mm)
and thin plate butt welds with no preparation
Common multiple pass welds include single bevel full penetration groove welds single
32
Common multiple pass welds include single bevel full penetration groove welds, single
bevel partial penetration groove welds, and fillet welds over 5/16 inch (8mm)
The weld in the above picture is a multiple pass fillet weld
Allowable stresses in Butt Welding AllowablestressesinButtWelding
The permissible stresses Thepermissiblestresses
undertheapplicationof
staticloadsforbutt
weldedconnections
dependonthewelding
executionwheretwo
valuesaregivenforthe
allowablestresses;the
firstforgoodwelding
whichfulfillsthe
i t f th requirementsofthe
specificationswhilethe
secondvalueforexcellent
welding where all the weldingwhereallthe
weldsareexaminedto
guaranteetheefficiency
of the joint ofthejoint
Allowable stresses for Fillet weld AllowablestressesforFilletweld
Filletweldsasindicatedin
ECP clause 5 6 3 1 are ECPclause5.6.3.1are
stressedacrossthethroat
(t)oftheweldwhiletheir
size is specified by the leg sizeisspecifiedbytheleg
length(S);wheret=k.S.The
valueofkshallberelatedto
the angle between the two theanglebetweenthetwo
surfacesasshown
Effectiveareaofweldis
i L *k*S h givenasL
effw
*k*Swhere
L
effw
istheeffectivewelding
length
Theallowablestressesis
20%oftheultimate
strength of the base metal strengthofthebasemetal
forallkindsofstresses.
GeneralrequirementsforWelded
connectionsAccordingtoECP
Fill t ld i d fi d b t t Si S d ff ti Filletweldisdefinedbytwoparameters:SizeSandeffective
weldinglengthL
eff
whereL
eff
=L
overall
2S
S4mmforbuildings,
S6mmforbridges
Fortwoconnectedpartswithdifferentthicknesst
1
,t
2
wheret
1
>>t
2
,
then
S>4mmfort
1
s 10mm
S>5mmfor10s t
1
s 20mm
S>6mm for 20s t s 30mm S>6mmfor20s t
1
s 30mm
S>8mmfor30s t
1
s 50mm
S>10mmfor50s t
1
s 100mm
AndinallcasesSshouldnotexceedtheminimumthicknessofthe
connected parts i.e. t
2
connectedpartsi.e.t
2
L
eff
50mm4S
L 70S L
eff
70S
IfL
eff
>70Sareductionfactorshouldbeusedforthearea
oftheweld.Thisreductionfactorisgivenby
EffectiveareaofweldingA=L
eff
*t=L
eff
*K*S
F fill ld d i bj d M M M N
0 . 1 ) 70 /( 2 . 0 2 . 1 s = S L |
ForafilletweldedconnectionsubjectedtoM
x
,M
y
,M
t
,N
andQ
x
andQ
y
,
y
x
M M N
t x
y x
x
M Q
x
I
y
I A
. . + + = o
x t Leff = lines weld of areas the of summation the is A
t
y
p
t x
x
M
Q
y
I A
Q
q . + =
stress. principle the is F
Iy + Ix = lines welded the of inertia of moment polar the is Ip
C.G r about thei lines welded the of inertia of moments the is Iy Ix,
p
t
y
y
q q q
x
I
M
A
Q
q .
2 2
+
+ =
p p
pw
y x
F q F
q q q
1 . 1 3
2 2
s + =
+ =
o
Singlelineoffilletweld
shouldnotbendabout
theirlongitudinalaxis.
Intermittentweldsshall
notbeusedinparts
intendedtowithstand
dynamicloading.In
otherloadcases,the
distancebetween
ff ti l th f effectivelengthsof
consecutiveintermittent
filletweldswhether
chained (L ) or staggered chained(L
1
)orstaggered
(L
2
)shallnotexceed12
timesthethicknessof
the thinner part when in thethinnerpartwhenin
compressionor16times
thethicknessofthe
thinnerpartwhenin t e pa t e
tension,butshallinno
caseexceed20cmsas
showninFig.(5.17).
Examples Examples
Given: Thefollowing
steeltrussmembers
designedforcaseI
loadingfromSteel37
Required: Designthis
connectionusingfillet
weldingandagusset
platethicknessof
10mm
Solution: Assumingthatthe
thi k f fill t ld thicknessoffilletweld
>5mmand<9mmfor
member 1 and <10mm for member1and<10mmfor
member2and3.TakeS=
6mm then the force resisted 6mm,thentheforceresisted
byeach1cmoffilletweldis
1cmx0.2F
u
S= 0.2 3.6
u
0.6x0.7= 0.301t/cm.
Theweldinginmember1 The welding in member
hastwosolutions:eitheruse
allaroundweldingoruse
twoparallelweldinglines.
Assumingtheweldlines
lengthsarea,b andcwhich
isknowntobe9cm.
Thedesignforceis14.142t.
Fromequilibriumofforces,(a+b+c) 0.301=14.14
Then a + b = 37 98 cm (1) Then,a+b=37.98cm (1)
Takingthemomentsofforcesabouttheweldlineb,then
9 a 0.301+9 0.301 4.5=14.14 (9 2.54) a=
29.2cm.
From (1) then b 8 76cm From(1),thenb=8.76cm
Thentheoveralllengthsofweldisa=29.2+20.6
=30.4cm 310mm
b=8.76+2x0.6=9.96cm 100mm
Ontheotherhandifweassumeonlytwoweldlinesa,b
then,
(a+b) 0.301=14.14t a+b=46.98cm (2)
Takingthemomentsofforcesaboutweldlineb,then
9 a 0.301=14.14 (9 2.54)a=33.72cm.
From(2),thenb=13.26cm
Thentheoveralllengthsofweldisa=33.72+20.6
=34.92cm 350mm
b=13.26+2x0.6=14.46cm 150mm
Example 5 9 Example5.9
Gi Th h b k t Given: Theshownbracket
columnconnection.The
filletweldsizeis6mmfor
thewebconnectionand
8mmfortheflange
connection knowing that connectionknowingthat
thebracketandthe
columnaremadeofSt.
52 52
Required: Determinethe
maximumloadcarrying y g
capacityWofthis
connection
Solution:
Theweldlinesareassumedall
d th b k t ti aroundthebracketcrosssection.
Thisweldlineswillbesubjected
toashearingforceWanda
bending moment 20 x W bendingmoment20xW
Propertiesofareaofweldlines:
A=2 15 0.80.7+2 20
0.6 0.7= 33.6 cm
2
0.6 0.7 33.6cm
I=2 0.6 0.7 (20)
3
/12+2
0.80.7 15 (12.5)
2
=2412.2
cm
4
3 Theweldlinesissubjectedto
shearstressqandnormalstressf
Where:
q =W/A=W/33.6t/cm
2
=My/I=20Wx12.5/2412.2=
W/10.96t/cm
2
Theprincipalstressisgivenas
2
2 2
2 2
/ 1277 0 3 3 cm Wt
W W
q F =
|
|

|
+
|
|

|
= + = o / 1277 . 0
96 . 10 6 . 33
3 3 cm Wt q F =
|
.

\
+
|
.

\
= + = o
Theprincipalstress
shouldnotexceedthe
maximumallowable
stressof0.2F
u
1.1
0.1277Ws 0.2
5.21.1 Ws 8.96
ton.
WeldInspections(AISC)
In addition to the erectors quality control program, tests and inspections are specified
by the Engineer of Record and/or the local building authority by the Engineer of Record and/or the local building authority
A local building inspector may request that tests in addition to those specified by the
Engineer of Record be performed
Some problems that can be found in welds include:
Lack of fusion Cracks Wrong size
44
Porosity Insufficientpenetration
There are several weld tests and inspections that are commonly used
Poorworkmanship
VisualInspection(AISC)
Visual inspection is the most frequently used inspection and is the only inspection p q y p y p
required unless the specification calls for a more stringent inspection method
Inspection is done by the welder before, during, and after welding
When outside inspection is required it should also be done before, during, and after
welding
Minor problems can be identified and corrected before the weld is complete
45
Minor problems can be identified and corrected before the weld is complete
(AISC & NISD 2000)
DyePenetrant Test(AISC)
Dye penetrant testing locates minute surface cracks and porosity
Dye types that may be used include:
Color contrast dye which shows up under ordinary light
Fluorescent dye which shows up under black light
46
The dye is normally applied by spraying it directly on the weld
(AISC & NISD 2000)
MagneticParticleInspection(AISC)
Magnetic particle inspection uses powdered magnetic particles to indicate defects in Magnetic particle inspection uses powdered magnetic particles to indicate defects in
magnetic materials
A magnetic field is induced in the part
47
The magnetic powder is attracted to and outlines cracks within the material
(AISC & NISD 2000)
UltrasonicInspection(AISC)
Ultrasonic inspection can be used to detect flaws inside welds
High frequency sound waves are directed into the metal with a probe held at a specific
angle angle
The flaws reflect some energy back to the probe
Flaws show up as indications on a screen (above) and are subject to interpretation by
48
Flaws show up as indications on a screen (above) and are subject to interpretation by
an inspector
(AISC & NISD 2000)
RadiographicInspection(AISC)
Radiographic inspection or X ray can also be used to detect flaws inside welds Radiographic inspection, or Xray, can also be used to detect flaws inside welds
Invisible rays penetrate the metal and reveal flaws on an xray film or fluorescent
screen (above)
49
This is the most costly of the inspection methods
(AISC & NISD 2000)
WeldingCostConsiderations(AISC)
Fillet weld is less expensive than groove weld Fillet weld is less expensive than groove weld
No special preparation
No backing required g q
Less volume of weld
Partial penetration groove weld is less expensive than full penetration
50
groove weld
Labor represents the majority of the cost associated with welding
Th ks Thanks you