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2006 Enfusiasm Inc.

Kiln Building:
Methods, Tips and how I uilt das !e" Kiln
#hil $oppes
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
%otice and &isclaime"
' This p"esentation is the p"ope"t( of Enfusiasm
Inc. and ma( not e copied o" dist"iuted
without w"itten consent f"om Enfusiasm Inc.
' Enfusiasm Inc., its owne"s and its emplo(ees
ma)e no wa""antee implied o" othe"wise fo"
an( of the info"mation contained within this
p"esentation.
' Enfusiasm Inc., its owne"s and its emplo(ees
assume no liailit( fo" an( of the info"mation
contained within this p"esentation.
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
*easons to ma)e (ou" own
)iln
' +owe" cost
' Bette" components
, -omme"cial )iln manufactu"es must ma)e a
nume" of t"adeoffs in thei" designs, not all of
which .shipping/ a"e to the enefit of the optimal
)iln design fo" glass fusing.
' &esigned to fit (ou" needs e0actl(
' 1un2
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
3hat )ind of glass wo") will
(ou e doing4
' -asting
' $igh 1i"e fusing
' 5lass fusing
' 6nnealing
' The impo"tant 7uestions he"e a"e what a"e
(ou" pea) ope"ating tempe"atu"es and how
long will (ou e holding these tempe"atu"es4
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
3hat a"e (ou" pa"ticula"
wo")ing en8i"onment needs4
' #lacement
, Basement
, 5a"age
, $ouse
, 9tudio
' 68ailale powe"
, ::0;220 at what ampe"age
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
3hat is (ou" udget and (ou"
"esou"ces4
' -ost
, 1o" m( )iln the"e was an e8en split :;< fo"
st"uctu"e, elect"ical and insulation
' 6ccess to steel wo")ing
' $and(4
' Tools4
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
3hat is a )iln4
' 9impl( a o0 o" containe" in which (ou dump
heat into.
, 6ll the heat (ou put into a )iln must come out of the
)iln.
' 6 pe"fect insulato" will ne8e" cool and li)ewise in the
asence of an insulato", the )iln will ne8e" heat.
' 6 good )iln design is a alance etween heating and
insulation to meet the needs of (ou" pa"ticula" design.
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
T(pes of )ilns , Top 1eed
' -lamshell;Top feed
, Eas( access inside
, 9imple design .97ua"e/
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
T(pes of Kiln , 1"ont +oade"
' 1"ont +oade"
, %ice fo" loo)ing inside
, -an e simple loading
.needs to e at "ight
height/
, 5ood fo" coming
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
T(pes of Kiln = Bell
' Eas( access a"ound
wo") su"face
' $igh capacit( , +a"ge
wo")ing su"face
' Mo"e complicated
lifting s(stem
' Mode"ate e0pense
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
9(stems in a Kiln
' The"e a"e < asic s(stems in the design of a )iln
, 9t"uctu"e
' 3hat holds e8e"(thing togethe", usuall( a steel o0 of some t(pe
, Insulation
' 3hat holds the heat in. Mate"ials "ange f"om fie" lan)et,
insulation oa"d to "ic)
, Elect"ical
' 3hat (ou use to heat the )iln and how (ou dist"iute it to the )iln
and how (ou cont"ol it..5as can e used ut I will not discuss it/
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
5et a good plan
' &ecide on (ou" ma>o" components ahead of time
' &"aw up (ou" design
' 1igu"e out ma>o" featu"es of each s(stem
, 9t"uctu"e
' 3hat )ind of steel4 .angle i"on, o0 steel, e0panded metal o" sheet sides/
' $ow hea8(4
' $ow to suppo"t an( lifting elements4
, Insulation
' 3hat t(pe4
' $ow hea8(4
' $ow will (ou hang;suppo"t the insulation4
, Elect"ical
' $ow much heat "e7ui"ed4
' 3hat t(pe of elements4
, %ich"ome o" Kanthal
' $ow will (ou hang;suppo"t the elements4
' $ow will (ou dist"iute powe" to elements4
' 3hat will (ou" cont"olle" design loo) li)e4
' 3hat )ind of cont"olle"4
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
9afet(
' 9t"uctu"e
, ?%+@ use "ated mate"ials on load ea"ing assemlies
' 5"ade A o" g"ade B olts
' Known tension st"ength cale, chain, etc.
' Cualit( welds .TI5 o" MI5/ on welded load elements
' 1o" the few pa"ts that will hold the load spending a few mo"e dolla"s fo" that "ated olt is ette"
than ha8ing hund"eds of pounds of insulation and steel coming c"ashing down late".
, If (ou a"e conce"ned aout a design, consult an enginee"D.post on the oa"d, the"e a"e
+?T9 of 8e"( capale technical assistance.
' Insulation
, !se foil on the oute" la(e" to "educe dust
, !se "ef"asial .la8acloth/ to "educe dust on seal
, 6+36@9 wea" "espi"ato" du"ing asseml( and maintenance
' Elect"ical
, Know (ou" local code and ma)e su"e (ou wi"e to code standa"ds
, 9iEe (ou" cale, "ela(s, switches etc. acco"dingl(
, If (ou can affo"d it, put in a ac)up o8e"temp shutoff
, &itto on the ao8e, if (ou ha8e a 7uestion, post on the oa"d.
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
E0ample #lans =:
Bottom Bottom
Bottom
0ft. 2.88in.
0ft. 11.38in. 0ft. 11.38in. 0ft. 11.38in. 0ft. 11.38in.
0ft. 2.88in.
5ft. 3.00in.
Bottom Plate
1/8" x 4' x 4' 11.5"
5'3" Dimension is inside
dimension of angle iron.
5
f
t
.

5
.
2
5
i
n
.
2 - Bottom Plates
1/8" x 11.5" x 2' -5.75"
3/8" a! all aro"nd
#ottom metal !late an
inside of angle iron
#order.
5ft. 5.25in.
5ft. 3.25in.
2
f
t
.

5
.
$
3
i
n
.
10 1"x2"x2' 5 5/8" #ox steel
4 1"x2"x5' 5 1/4" #ox steel
1 1"x2"x5' 3" #ox steel
4 1/8"x1.5" x5' 3 1/4" angle iron
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
E0ample #lans =2
%8 Bri&'s
1.8$l#s/#ri&' ( 183l#s in #ri&'
5ft. 3.00in.
5
f
t
.

3
.
0
0
i
n
.
0ft. 7.50in.
0
f
t
.

7
.
5
0
i
n
.
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
E0ample #lans =<
1
$
"
52"
$0"
2
1
"
)x!anded *etal +ide and ,o!
2"
2"
2" 2"
2
"
2
"
,-ermo-12 2" .ard Board
8/ - 2" 0i#er#lan'et
5$"
1
8
"
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
E0ample #lans = F
4ft. 4.00in.
0ft. 4.00in.
4ft. 4.00in.
,1 ,2
B
1
0ft. 4.00in.
4ft. 4.00in.
0ft. 4.00in.
4ft. 4.00in.
1
B
,3 ,4
0ft. 4.00in.
0
f
t
.

1
0
.
0
0
i
n
.
0
f
t
.

5
.
0
0
in
.
0
f
t
.

1
0
.
0
0
in
.
0
f
t
.

5
.
0
0
in
.
0ft. 3.00in.
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
E0ample #lans = A
1"
3

3
/
4
"
1

1
5
/
1
$
"
1%/$4" .ole
3 1/8" 1 1/2" 3 1/8"
1

7
/
8
"
3

1
/
2
"
4

%
/
1
$
"
1 %/1$" 1 %/1$"
5"
2 1/8"
2

1
/
2
"
1"
1 5/8"
4

1
/
2
"
1

3
/
1
$
"
4

1
/
2
"
2" 3 3/4"
5

1
/
2
"
4 13/1$"
1 1/1$ to 1 1/8
2 3/4" 1 3/4" 2" 2"
5

1
1
/
1
$
"
1
0

1
/
4
"
5
"
1

1
/
4
"
5
/
1
$
"
3 3/8"
3 3/1$"
13/1$"
2

1
/
1
$
"
1

1
5
/
1
$
"
1%/$4" .ole
5/32" .ole
5/32" .ole
5/32" .ole
1%/$4" .ole
1

1
/
2
"
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
&esign , Elect"ical
Length (in) Width (in) Height (in)
2iln +i3e 17 52 52 45%$8
Po4er 5e6"ired
,otal Po4er 7289 33.25 2$.$0 22.$1 13.30
1m!s : 220; 151 121 103 $0
1m!s : 240; 13% 111 %4 55
<"m#er of $01 5ela=s
1m!s : 220; 3.02 2.42 2.0$ 1.21
1m!s : 240; 2.77 2.22 1.88 1.11
<"m#er of 141 )lements
1m!s : 220; 10.80 8.$4 7.34 4.32
Total Vol (in
3
)
1.25KW/ft
3
1.00KW/ft
3
0.85KW/ft
3
0.5KW/ft
3
#owe" G Holts 0 6mps
26.6 K3 G 26.6 0 :000 3atts G 26,600 3atts
26.6 K3 G 2F0Holts 0 :::6mps
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
&esign , Elect"ical -omponents
' 1"om p"e8ious page we need B , :F6mp elements and
at least < = 606mp "ea)e"s
' -ost of F , <A6mp "ea)e"s was cheape" than < = 60
6mp "ea)e"s
, 2 ci"cuits fo" the sides .top and ottom/
, 2 ci"cuits fo" the top .f"ont and ac)/
' &ecided on &u"alite elements fo" top .7ua"tE tue
hanging s(stem/
' &ecided on Ioppa 5lasswo")s s(stem fo" the side
.mullite "od hanging s(stem/
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
&esign , 9imple Elect"ical
9chematic
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
&esign , -omple0 Elect"ical
9chematic
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
&esign , Insulation: $eat
' $eat is t"anspo"ted .mo8ed/ ( < methods:
, *adiation
' 6n e0ample is the sunJs "a(s.
, -on8ection
' *e7ui"es a mo8ing mate"ial. @ou" home fo"ced ai"
s(stem heats ( con8ection.
, -onduction
' @ou" sto8e in (ou" home heats ( conduction. The sto8e
elements get hot and ( conduction heat (ou" f"(ing pan
which coo)s (ou" mo"ning eggs.
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
Insulation , $eat t"anspo"t in a )iln
' In a )iln 6++ < t(pes of heat t"anspo"t pla( an impo"tant pa"t in how a )iln
wo")s
' %ot all methods of heat t"anspo"t wo") e7uall( in all a"eas of a )iln
, Inside
' *adiation is the p"ima"( method of heat t"anspo"t
' -onduction of ai" is HE*@ poo" so cont"iution inside is low
' -on8ection is minimal
, Kiln 3alls
' *adiation is nil
' -onduction is the p"ima"( method of heat t"anspo"t
' -on8ection is nil
, ?utside face;walls of )iln
' *adiation is significant if not p"ima"( method of heat t"anspo"t
' -onduction is nil .ai" an e0cellent insulato"/
' -on8ection ma( e significant, especiall( if (ou ha8e fans
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
$eat -onduction
' The calculation of heat mo8ement (
conduction is HE*@ complicated
, The "ate heat mo8es is dependent upon the mate"ial
and the cu""ent tempe"atu"e that mate"ial is
cu""entl( at
' Ma)es fo" a p"olem that essentiall( can onl( e sol8ed
( a compute" anal(sis
' $e"e, e0pe"ience is p"oal( ette" fo" an
app"o0imate solution
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
T(pes of Insulato"s
' I1B , Insulating 1i"e"ic) .K2</
, He"( good insulato"
, $ea8( .<:.K ls;cuft/
, Tends to fla)e with time. Bad mate"ial to use fo" a top, est fo" ottom and sides .fo" high temp )iln/
' Blan)et , T(picall( :L o" 2L BM ."efe"s to the densit( Bls;cuft/
, 3o")s well
, +ight
, *e7ui"es some s(stem;method of suppo"t fo" sides and top
, Initial use it needs to e u"ned out. Ma( fla)e fo" a while .might want to "igidiEe/
' Boa"d , The"mo :2, &u"aoa"d .+& o" $&/
, %ice fo" sides as p"o8ides "igid mate"ial fo" element suppo"t
, $ea8( .The"mo :2 G :F.Als;cuft/
, *e7ui"es some s(stem;method of suppo"t
, +i)e lan)et, initial use "e7ui"es u"ning out. Ma( want to "igidiEe.
' *ef"asial , 9ometimes called la8acloth
, Ma)es a good gas)et;sealing mate"ial a"ound doo"s and seams
, 9h"in)s significantl( on fi"st use .:AN=20N/ so eithe" u( p"esh"un) o" sh"in) it efo"e (ou fasten it
pe"manentl(
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
Insulation &esign
' &esign fo" (ou" pea) temp and ma0imum hold tempe"atu"es
, In a high fi"e o" casting )iln (ou" pea)s can "each :B001 with significant hold
temps
, In a glass fusing )iln (ou" pea)s will t(picall( e a"ound :A001 with mino" hold
times .:A , <0 min/ and anneals at :0001 with hou" long holds
, In a tac) fuse o" anneal )iln (ou" pea) ma( onl( e a"ound :F001 o" as low as
:0001
' *ule of thums
, 1o" a casting )iln
' !se K2< I1B fo" the ottom with F=:;2 inch dimension eing (ou" ottom thic)ness
' !se 6L of lan)et o" oa"d insulation in walls and top
, 1o" a fusing )iln
' !se K2< I1B fo" the ottom with 2=:;2 inch dimension eing (ou" ottom thic)ness
' !se FL of lan)et o" oa"d insulation in walls and top
, 1o" annealing )iln
' !se K2< I1B fo" ottom with 2=:;< inch dimension eing (ou" ottom thic)ness
' !se 2L , <L of lan)et o" oa"d insulation in walls and top
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = 9teel
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = 9teel
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = 9teel
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = 9teel
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = 9teel
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = 9teel
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = 9teel
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Insulation
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Insulation
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Insulation
2 la(e"s of :L insulation to stagge" the seams
%ote the"mocouple wi"es
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Insulation
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Insulation
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Insulation
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Elect"ical
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Elect"ical
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Elect"ical
-old o0 and $ot o0
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Elect"ical
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Elect"ical
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
-onst"uction = Elect"ical
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
1inished 2
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
&etails
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
1i"st 5lass
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
$ow does it pe"fo"m4
Uberiln !hara"teri#ation !$r%e&
0.00
200.00
400.00
$00.00
800.00
1000.00
1200.00
1400.00
1$00.00
1800.00
12>00>00 1* 1>12>00 1* 2>24>00 1* 3>3$>00 1* 4>48>00 1* $>00>00 1* 7>12>00 1* 8>24>00 1* %>3$>00 1* 10>48>00 1* 12>00>00 P*
Ti'e
T
e
'
(

(
)
)
+=stem ?n!"t
*ain2 ?nside
0i#er @side
Board @side
Board ,o!
A"tside 2iln ,o!
A"tside Bri&' Bottom
A"tside 2iln +ide
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
E0ample of ?8e"shoot
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
E0ample of -ont"olle"
+ea"ning
Inte"nal temp on a F00&#$ "amp to :A001
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
+essons +ea"ned;Tips
' ThingJs I might do diffe"ent
, %ot use 99 owties on top. .-hec) fo" low ca"on 99 ahead of time. &o
p"actice fi"es to chec) fo" fla)ing/
, 5et a mo"e t"aditional limit switch fo" o8e"temp .such as a 3atlow o8e"temp
limit cont"olle"/
, #"oal( use 99*Js instead of Me"c &isp "ela(s
, #lan elementJs ette" efo"e top;steel la(out
' @ou will spend a +?T mo"e on ha"dwa"e and special tools than (ou thin)
so >ust plan on it
' &onJt fo"get (ou" accesso"( costs .shel8es, )ilnwash, spa"e pa"ts, etc./
' &onJt fo"get to use anti=seiEe on olts;nuts
' If (ou use an hou" mete" use the analog t(pe not the digital t(pe
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
!seful +in)s
' Elements
, http:;;www.>oppaglass.com;
, http:;;www.du"alite.com;
' 5ene"al $a"dwa"e O Elect"ical 9upplies
, http:;;www.mcmaste".com;
, http:;;www.mscdi"ect.com;
, http:;;www.no"the"ntool.com;
, http:;;www.ha"o"f"eight.com;
, http:;;www.g"ainge".com;
, http:;;www.use=enco.com;
' -ustom Machine 9hop
, http:;;www.emachineshop.com;
' -ont"olle"s
, http:;;www.o"tonce"amic.com;
, http:;;www.a"tinst.com;
, http:;;www.digit"(.com;
' Tempe"atu"e measu"ing e7uipment and the"mocouples
, http:;;www.omega.com;
, http:;;www.iscsma"tconnection.com;
2006 Enfusiasm Inc.
!seful +in)s .cont/
' Insulation and "ef"acto"ies
, http:;;www.unif"a0.com;
, http:;;a=:catalog.com;AAun:.html;
, http:;;www.tampa"ue".com;
, http:;;www.la8acloth.com;
' 5ene"al 5lass E7uipment supplie"s
, http:;;www.c"lau"ence.com;
, http:;;www.c"loo.com;
, http:;;www.aap"oducts.com;
, http:;;www.fusionhead7ua"te"s.com;
, http:;;www.sunshineglass.com;
' 6"asi8e tools and e7uipment
, http:;;www.hisglasswo")s.com;
, http:;;www.)ingsle(no"th.com;
, http:;;www.g"anitecit(tool.com;