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Composites

Journal of Reinforced Plastics and

http://jrp.sagepub.com/content/27/8/819

The online version of this article can be found at:

DOI: 10.1177/0731684407084988

2008

2008 27: 819 originally published online 31 January Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites

Yung-Kuang Yang, Jie-Ren Shie, Hsin-Te Liao, Jeong-Lian Wen and Rong-Tai Yang

for Polypropylene Components

A Study of Taguchi and Design of Experiments Method in Injection Molding Process

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A Study of Taguchi and Design of Experiments

Method in Injection Molding Process for

Polypropylene Components

YUNG-KUANG YANG,* JIE-REN SHIE, HSIN-TE LIAO,

JEONG-LIAN WEN AND RONG-TAI YANG

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Ming Hsin University of Science and Technology

Hsin Feng, 304, Hsinchu, Taiwan

ABSTRACT: This study analyzes contour distortions, wear mass losses and tensile properties of

polypropylene (PP) composite components applied to the interior coffer of automobiles. The

specimens are prepared under different injection molding conditions by changing melting

temperatures, injection speeds, and injection pressures via three computer-controlled progressive

strokes. The contour distortions, wear and tensile properties are selected as quality targets.

The arrangement of sixteen experiments is based on an orthogonal array table. Both the Taguchi

method and the design of experiments (DOE) method are applied to determine an optimal parameter

setting. In addition, a side-by-side comparison of two different approaches is provided. In this study,

regression models that link the controlled parameters and the targeted outputs are developed, and

the mathematic models can be utilized to predict the contour distortions, wear and tensile properties

at various injection molding conditions.

KEY WORDS: contour distortions, wear mass losses, tensile strength, injection molding, Taguchi,

DOE, optimization.

INTRODUCTION

R

ECENTLY, BY USING the polypropylene (PP) with a new catalyst, metallocene,

the production efficiency and the properties of fibers have been greatly improved.

Besides, with the benefit of low production costs, PP becomes popular in various

applications such as consumer electronic products, automotive components, the chemical

industry, and raw materials for packing and sealing, etc.

The mechanical properties of PP composites have been studied intensively, mostly

through experiments. Chien et al. [1] investigated the effects of molding factors on the

mechanical properties of injection molded foaming PP parts and coinjection molding

PP parts of foaming core material embedded in non-foaming skin material.

The controlling parameters were the injection velocity, the melting temperature, the

molding temperature and the back-pressure; the quality targets of the parts were the

weights and mechanical properties such as the tensile strength, the flexural strength and

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: yky@must.edu.tw

Figures 2 and 4 appear in color online: http://jrp.sagepub.com

Journal of REINFORCED PLASTICS AND COMPOSITES, Vol. 27, No. 8/2008 819

0731-6844/08/08 081916 $10.00/0 DOI: 10.1177/0731684407084988

SAGE Publications 2008

Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapore

at Victoria Uni of Technology on August 26, 2011 jrp.sagepub.com Downloaded from

the stiffness. Ismail and Suryadiansyah [2] examined the degree of degradations on the

tensile and morphological properties of the PP/natural rubber (NR) and the PP/recycled

rubber (RR) blended at different rubber contents. With similar rubber contents and

degradation conditions, PP/RR blends exhibited a higher percentage of retention of the

tensile strength and the Youngs modulus but a lower elongation at break than the PP/NR

blends. Sain et al. [3] studied the mechanical properties of the tensile, the flexural and

the un-notched impact strength of the PP composites with a variety of natural fibers

such as old newsprint, kraft pulp, hemp, and glass fibers. Yao et al. [4] considered

large deformation behavior of two commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP)

resins with different processing properties under high temperatures and high strain

rate conditions by means of a Meissner rheometer. Modesti et al. [5] inspected the

influence of processing conditions on the nano-composites structure, i.e., intercalated or

exfoliated, and on the enhancement of mechanical properties of the PP nano-composites.

In order to optimize the process parameters, both the screw speed and the barrel

temperature profile were varied. In addition, Yang et al. [6] applied the design of

experiments (DOE) method on the optimization of the injection molding process for the

contour distortions of PP components. The developed regression models can be utilized

to predict the contour distortions at each location under different injection molding

conditions.

This study applied Taguchis L

16

(2

4

) orthogonal table to plan the experiments.

Nine controlling factors with two levels for each factor were selected. The contour

distortions, wear mass losses and the tensile strengths are the three selected quality

objectives. Typically, lower contour distortions, lower wear mass losses, and higher tensile

strengths in the PP components are desirable for products by the injection molding

process. For each experiment, the Taguchi method is used to calculate a normalized S/N

ratio, which represents the quality characteristic of the considered processes. Choosing the

largest possible S/N ratio then identifies an optimal process parameter level/factor

combination. For side-by-side comparison purposes, regression models that relate the

desired outputs and the significant factors are established through the DOE approach;

furthermore, an optimized parameter setting is then determined from those regression

equations.

TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTS AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS METHOD

Taguchi Method

The Taguchi method is a novel approach for improving quality, which applies several

statistical concepts to quality engineering. The factorial experimental design developed

by Taguchi concentrates on reducing variation in the presence of noises. These

experiments are established using orthogonal arrays. The Taguchi method combines the

effects of each noise factor and calculates a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) for each

experiment. The Taguchi method has been used successfully in several industrial

applications, such as manufacturing processes, mechanical component designs, and

process optimizations [711].

Depending on the objective, there are three different varieties for the Taguchi method as

define the signalnoise (S/N) ratios, which are the nominal-the-better, larger-the-better,

and smaller-the-better. The utilization of a mean square deviation can be considered,

calculating the average performance characteristic values for each experiment.

820 Y.-K. YANG ET AL.

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Three different S/N ratios, corresponding to n experiments, are presented as follows.

Nominal-the-better:

S

Nratio

10 log

1

n

X

n

i1

y

i

m

2

" #

10 log y m

2

S

2

: 1

Larger-the-better:

S

Nratio

10 log

1

n

X

n

i1

1

y

2

i

!

: 2

Smaller-the-better:

S

Nratio

10 log

1

n

X

n

i1

y

2

i

!

10 log y

2

3

where S at the right-hand-side of the equation (1), denotes the standard deviation; y

i

the

experimental data; n the number of performed experiments; m is a targeted value.

Design of Experiments (DOE) Method

The DOE method has been widely applied to various fields: Chao and Hwang [12]

proposed an improved Taguchi method for milling CFRP composite; Puertas and Luis

[13] optimized the machining parameters for electrical discharge machining of boron

carbide via the DOE method; Lin and Chananda [14] improved the injection molding

quality by four-factor full-factorial design; Yang [15] implemented the DOE to determine

the optimal parameters of photo resist coating process for photolithography in wafer

manufacturing; and so on.

By the DOE approach, the objective is to identify an optimal setting that minimizes the

measured average distortion and the mass loss under wear conditions as well as maximizes

the tensile strength for the PP produced components. To resolve this type of multi-output

parameter design problem, an objective function, F(x), is defined as follows [16]:

DF

Y

n

i1

d

w

i

i

!

1

P

n

j1

w

i

Fx DF

4

where the d

i

is the desirability defined for the ith targeted output; the w

i

is the weighting of

the d

i

. For various goals of each targeted output, the desirability, d

i

, is defined in different

forms. If a goal is to reach a specific value of T

i

, the desirability d

i

is:

d

i

0 if Y

i

<

Low

i

d

i

Y

i

Low

i

T

i

Low

i

if Low

i

< Y

i

< T

i

d

i

Y

i

High

i

T

i

High

i

if T

i

< Y

i

< High

i

d

i

0 if Y

i

>

High

i

: 5

Taguchi and Design of Experiments in Injection Molding 821

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For a goal to find a maximum, the desirability is shown as follows:

d

i

0 if Y

i

<

Low

i

d

i

Y

i

Low

i

High

i

Low

i

if Low

i

< Y

i

< High

i

d

i

1 if Y

i

>

High

i

: 6

For a goal to search for a minimum, the desirability can be defined by the following

formulas:

d

i

1 if Y

i

<

Low

i

d

i

High

i

Y

i

High

i

Low

i

if Low

i

< Y

i

< High

i

d

i

0 if Y

i

>

High

i

7

where the Y

i

is the found value of the i

th

output during optimization processes; and the

Low

i

and the High

i

are the minimum and the maximum values of the experimental data for

the ith output. In the Equation (4), the w

i

is set to one since the d

i

is equally important in this

study. The DF is a combined desirability function [16], and the objective is to choose an

optimal setting that maximizes a combined desirability function DF, i.e., minimize F(x).

Steps for Parameter Optimization

The following steps are the processes for the parameter optimization by both the

Taguchi method and the DOE approach:

Step 1. Use the orthogonal array table of Taguchi method to design and conduct the

experiments.

Step 2. Use S/N analysis to obtain an optimal setting that minimizes the contour

distortions and wear mass losses as well maximizes tensile strengths for the

Taguchi method.

Step 3. Use DOE analysis to model the relationship between the controlled param-

eters and targeted outputs via regression equations. An optimal setting is

then identified by maximizing a combined desirability function that balances the

desirability of each output.

Step 4. Compare and verify the optimal solutions of two different approaches by

additional experiments.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AND TEST RESULTS

Material

A commercial high heat and high stiff type of CP-28 PP compounds from STAR

ONE Co. (Taiwan) is the studied material. The basic physical properties are listed as

follows: density of 1.1 g/cm

3

, tensile strength of 20 MPa (under room temperature),

flexural strength of 34 MPa (under room temperature), hardness of 82 Rockwell, and

822 Y.-K. YANG ET AL.

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heat distortion temperature of 1248C, respectively. To remove excessive moisture,

the composite was heated to 808C for 2 hours before the injection molding process.

Schematic of a Specimen

Figure 1 shows the dimensions of a desired final product. It is one of the decorative

components used in the automobile interior. Since a smooth transition between this

part and the applied area is crucial for cosmetic purposes, Yang et al. [6] minimize

the product contour distortions at six locations through properly chosen process

parameters. For practical usage of products, two additional critical quality targets, such

as the wear mass losses and the tensile strength are included in this study since a long

product lifetime is desirable. The experiments were carried out on a computerized

reciprocating screw injection molding machine with the capability of a maximum

injection pressure of 170 MPa, an injection rate of 130 cm

3

/sec, and a maximum clamp

force of 1334 kN.

Experimental Parameters and Design

The product quality produced by the injection molding is always affected by the process

parameters, including the cooling time, the injection pressure, the injection speed, the

filling time, the melting temperature, the ejecting pressure, the molding temperature, the

packing pressure, the geometric shape of the mold, material properties of the melting

molds, the melting speed, and the heat transfer action of flow field, etc. The influences of

the injection molding variables (conditions) on the physical and mechanical properties of

thermoplastics have been studied by researchers [1,5,6,9,14,17]. For a preliminary study,

the injection molding parameters were simulated by C-MOLD

crucial settings.

Tensile specimen

Wear specimen

t = 2mm

Unit = mm

Figure 1. Configurations of a specimen.

Taguchi and Design of Experiments in Injection Molding 823

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In Figure 2, enhanced ribs are added to eliminate the distortions of the components,

although reducing the thickness of parts is one of the common practices to save production

costs. Based on the simulation results from C-MOLD

lower the probability of the short injection. Figure 3 illustrates an injection molding setup,

with which two components are produced for each injection channel per molding cycle.

Table 1 lists the experimental factors and factor levels of the injection molding conditions

based on the C-MOLD

speed ratio (i.e., B/%), and the injection pressure ratio (i.e., C/%) are the factors for

the first progressive stroke. The melting temperature H2 (i.e., D/8C), the injection speed

ratio (i.e., E/%), and the injection pressure ratio (i.e., F/%) are the factors of the second

(a) (b)

Injection port

Rib

Figure 2. Photos of a specimen: (a) Exterior; (b) Interior.

Injection stroke

Injection port

Injection port

Ha Hb H1 H2 H3

Ha Hb H1 H2 H3

Figure 3. Schematic shows the injection molding setup.

Table 1. Experimental factors and factor levels.

Experimental factors for three progressive strokes

First stroke Second stroke Third stroke

Levels of experimental

factors A (8C) B (%) C (%) D (8C) E (%) F (%) G (8C) H (%) I (%)

1 200 20 25 200 20 35 200 20 25

2 210 30 30 210 30 40 210 30 30

824 Y.-K. YANG ET AL.

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progressive stroke. Similarly, the factors of the third progressive stroke are the melting

temperature H3 (i.e., G/8C), the injection speed ratio (i.e., H/%), and the injection pressure

ratio (i.e., I/%).

Table 2 lists sixteen runs based on an orthogonal array L

16

(2

4

), consisting of

nine experimental factors with two levels for each factor. Simultaneously, the cut-away

portions of specimens for wear and tensile tests are also illustrated in Figure 1.

Additionally, the melting temperatures of Ha and Hb are set to 40 and 508C,

respectively; the mold temperature is 608C with a packing pressure of 40 MPa. All these

factors are fixed and computer-controlled during the injection molding process.

TEST RESULTS

Contour Distortion Measurement

The amounts of distortion at six critical locations specified by the customers

are measured by a precision digimatic caliper (series 500, Mitutoyo Co.) with 10 mm

resolution. Figure 1 shows the dimensions of a specimen and six critical locations that have

been selected to measure the amount of distortions. The average distortion measurement

of at six locations is given in Table 2.

Wear Tests

The wear tests were carried out with a Schwingung Reibung and Verschleiss

(SRV, manufactured by Optimol Instruments Pru ftechnik GmbH; Mu nchen, Germany)

oscillation friction wear tester. The dimensions of the wear test specimens were

15 mm15 mm2.45 mm and cut directly from the on-line product of the injection

molding process. The SRV wear tests were performed in ball-on-plane contact with

a load of 60 N. The ball was a chromium steel ball (AISI E52100) of 10 mm in diameter

Table 2. Orthogonal array L

16

(2

4

) of the experimental runs and results.

First stroke Second stroke Third stroke

Run no. A B C D E F G H I d (mm) r (MPa) "m (mg)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.078 22.35 2.3

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 0.085 28.11 2.3

3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 0.057 26.38 2.3

4 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.233 28.49 2.1

5 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 0.160 23.00 2.0

6 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0.150 23.20 2.1

7 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 0.115 26.75 2.5

8 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 0.073 26.28 2.4

9 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 0.195 26.32 2.6

10 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 0.060 25.95 2.8

11 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0.178 26.88 1.3

12 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 0.145 29.12 1.3

13 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 0.255 25.31 2.3

14 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 0.293 28.37 1.9

15 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 0.215 28.42 2.5

16 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 0.115 28.13 1.9

Taguchi and Design of Experiments in Injection Molding 825

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with an average hardness of 62 2 HRC. The applied stroke was 2 mm with a test

frequency of 20 Hz and test duration of 15 min, respectively. It yielded a total sliding

distance of 72 m under the selected testing parameters. The mass loss (i.e., m) was

measured after each wear test. The experimental results are listed in Table 2.

Tensile Tests

The tensile stress has a definite correlation with the tensile test. Figure 1 shows

the location of the cut tensile test specimen. Using the ASTM D63891 specification, the

test was performed with a 25 kN computerized MTS model 810 closed-loop servo-

hydraulic system (manufactured by MTS Systems Co.; MN, USA) at a speed of 1 mm/min

under the room temperature. The specimens were monotonically loaded in tension until

fracture. Software was employed to control the procedure and continuously record

the load and the compliance displacement. The calculated tensile stresses (i.e., ) are listed

in Table 2.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Taguchi Results

The Taguchi method can be employed to obtain an optimal process parameter

level/factor combination. It applies the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio to represent the quality

characteristic and an optimal setting will have the largest possible S/N ratio.

In this study, typically, PP products with small contour distortions and wear mass losses

as well as large tensile strengths are desirable. Therefore, the smaller-the-better S/N ratio

formula (i.e., Equation (3)) is chosen for both the contour distortion and the wear mass

loss. In addition, the larger-the-better S/N ratio formula (i.e., Equation (2)) is applied for

the tensile strength.

Table 3 presents the calculated S/N ratios by the Taguchi method, while Table 4 lists the

S/N ratio for different levels of controlled factors. In Table 4, A

2

, B

1

, C

2

, D

2

, E

1

, F

2

, G

1

,

H

2

and I

1

represent the largest S/N ratios for factors A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I,

respectively. Consequently, A

2

B

1

C

2

D

2

E

1

F

2

G

1

H

2

J

1

is an optimal parameter combination

of the injection molding process. Namely, this setting yields a combination of the melting

temperature of 2108C (i.e., A), the injection speed ratio of 20% (i.e., B), and the injection

pressure ratio of 30% (i.e., C) for the first progressive stroke; the melting temperature

2108C (i.e., D), the injection speed ratio of 20% (i.e., E), and the injection pressure ratio of

40% (i.e., F) for the second progressive stroke; the factors of the third progressive stroke

are the melting temperature of 2008C (i.e., G), the injection speed ratio of 30% (i.e., H),

and the injection pressure ratio of 25% (i.e., I).

DOE Results

DEFINITION OF AN OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

The experimental results of contour distortions ( in mm), wear mass losses (m in mg)

and tensile stresses ( in MPa) are listed in Table 2. The objective of this study is to identify

an optimal setting that gives a minimized average contour distortion at six critical

locations and a minimized mass loss as well as a maximized tensile stress. The found

optimal solution would have to strike the balance between these three-targeted outputs.

826 Y.-K. YANG ET AL.

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Hence, Equation (7) will be selected as a desirability function form for minimizing the

average contour distortion and the mass loss. On the other hand, Equation (6) is suitable

for maximizing the tensile stress. Furthermore, these individual desirability functions are

rolled into Equation (4) as a combined desirability function. More details can be found in

the Myerss book [16].

ANOVA RESULTS

The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted and the results are shown in Table 5(a),

(b) and (c). A Model F Value is calculated from a model mean square divided by

a residual mean square. It is a test comparing a model variance with a residual variance.

If the variances are close to the same, the ratio will be close to one and it is less likely that

any of the factors have a significant effect on the response. As for a Model P Value,

if the Model P Value is very small (less than 0.05) then the terms in the model have

a significant effect on the response [16]. Similarly, an F Value on any individual factor

terms is calculated from a term mean square divided by a residual mean square. It is a test

that compares a term variance with a residual variance. If the variances are close to the

same, the ratio will be close to one and it is less likely that the term has a significant effect

on the response. Furthermore, if a P Value of any model terms is very small (less than

0.05), the individual terms in the model have a significant effect on the response.

Table 5(a) shows the ANOVA result of the . A Model F Value of 8.33 with a Model

P Value of 0.0089 implies that the selected model is significant and there is only a 0.89%

Table 3. S/N ratios of Taguchi experimental results.

S/N Ratio(dB) Normalized

Run no. d r "m d r "m Total

1 22.1211 26.9848 52.7654 0.8031 0.0000 0.2564 1.0594

2 21.4116 28.9765 52.7654 0.7534 0.8664 0.2564 1.8762

3 24.9334 28.4240 52.7654 1.0000 0.6261 0.2564 1.8824

4 12.6405 29.0939 53.5556 0.1392 0.9175 0.3749 1.4316

5 15.9176 27.2330 53.9794 0.3687 0.1080 0.4385 0.9152

6 16.4782 27.3097 53.5556 0.4079 0.1413 0.3749 0.9242

7 18.7860 28.5468 52.0412 0.5695 0.6795 0.1477 1.3967

8 22.6940 28.3914 52.3958 0.8432 0.6119 0.2009 1.6560

9 14.1993 28.4044 51.7005 0.2483 0.6175 0.0966 0.9625

10 24.4370 28.2812 51.0568 0.9652 0.5639 0.0000 1.5292

11 14.9753 28.5887 57.7211 0.3027 0.6977 1.0000 2.0004

12 16.7726 29.2836 57.7211 0.4285 1.0000 1.0000 2.4285

13 11.8692 28.0645 52.7654 0.0852 0.4697 0.2564 0.8112

14 10.6528 29.0575 54.4249 0.0000 0.9017 0.5054 1.4071

15 13.3512 29.0721 52.0412 0.1890 0.9080 0.1477 1.2447

16 18.7860 28.9849 54.4249 0.5695 0.8701 0.5054 1.9450

Table 4. A response table for S/N ratios.

Factor A B C D E F G H I

Level 1 1.3927 1.6463 1.4572 1.1856 1.5492 1.4587 1.5795 1.2841 1.6029

Level 2 1.5411 1.2875 1.4766 1.7482 1.3846 1.4751 1.3543 1.6497 1.3309

Taguchi and Design of Experiments in Injection Molding 827

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chance that the Model F Value could occur due to noise. A P Value for the model

term A (the melting temperature at the first progressive stroke) is 0.0070, which is less

than 0.05, indicating that the model term A is significant. Similarly, the model term B

(the speed ratio at the first progressive stroke) and F (the pressure ratio at the second

progressive stroke) are also significant. There are two interaction interactions of factors,

CH and GJ, which have impact on the . According to the hierarchy principle [18],

the terms C (the pressure ratio at the first progressive stroke), G, H, and I (the

melting temperature, the speed ratio, and the pressure ratio at the third progressive stroke,

respectively) have to be selected. Even the Model P Value for these terms is more than

0.05. C, G, H, and I are also significant terms for the .

Table 5(b) lists the ANOVA result of the . A Model F Value of 700.54 with a

Model P Value of 0.0014 implies that the selected model is significant and there is only

a 0.14% chance that the Model F Value could occur due to noise. The P Values for

Table 5(b). ANOVA results of the r.

Source Sum of squares Degree of freedom Mean square F Value P Value

Model 65.57 13 5.04 700.54 0.0014

A: temperature (8C) 12.15 1 12.15 1686.84 0.0006

B: speed ratio (%) 1.07 1 1.07 148.78 0.0067

C: pressure ratio (%) 4.06 1 4.06 563.92 0.0018

D: temperature (8C) 19.89 1 19.89 2762.72 0.0004

E: speed ratio (%) 1.35 1 1.35 186.89 0.0053

F: pressure ratio (%) 0.15 1 0.15 21.13 0.0442

G: temperature (8C) 0.67 1 0.67 93.39 0.0105

H: speed ratio (%) 10.46 1 10.46 1452.33 0.0007

I: pressure ratio (%) 1.74 1 1.74 241.17 0.0041

BH 0.71 1 0.71 98.20 0.0100

BJ 1.42 1 1.42 197.42 0.0050

DH 0.15 1 0.15 20.57 0.0453

FJ 6.60 1 6.60 916.31 0.0011

Residual 0.01 2 0.01

Total 65.58 15

Table 5(a). ANOVA results of the d.

Source Sum of squares Degree of freedom Mean square F Value P Value

Model 0.074 9 0.008 8.33 0.0089

A: temperature (8C) 0.016 1 0.016 16.12 0.0070

B: speed ratio (%) 0.007 1 0.007 7.52 0.0336

C: pressure ratio (%) 0.004 1 0.004 4.11 0.0890

F: pressure ratio (%) 0.018 1 0.018 18.09 0.0054

G: temperature (8C) 0.000 1 0.000 0.09 0.7785

H: speed ratio (%) 0.001 1 0.001 1.11 0.3331

I: pressure ratio (%) 0.005 1 0.005 5.31 0.0608

CH 0.008 1 0.008 8.03 0.0298

GJ 0.013 1 0.013 12.95 0.0114

Residual 0.006 6 0.001

Total 0.080 15

828 Y.-K. YANG ET AL.

at Victoria Uni of Technology on August 26, 2011 jrp.sagepub.com Downloaded from

all model terms are significant. Additionally, BH, BJ, DH and FJ have

significant influences on the .

Table 5(c) gives the ANOVA result of the m. A Model F Value of 12.32 with

a Model P Value of 0.0005, implying that the selected model is significant and there is

only a 0.05% chance that the Model F Value could occur due to noise. A P Value for

the model term D (the melting temperature at the second progressive stroke) is 0.0352,

which is less than 0.05, indicating that the model term D is significant. Similarly, the

model terms E and F (the speed ratio and the pressure ratio at the second progressive

stroke, respectively) are significant. In addition, the model term G (the temperature

at the third progressive stroke) is significant. There are no interactions of factors that

have impact on the m.

REGRESSION MODELS

Considering the most significant terms from Table 5(a), (b) and (c), regression models

can be developed. Mathematic predicted models for the average distortion, the tensile

stress and the mass loss are shown as follows:

10:8069 0:0063 A 0:0043 B 0:0418 C 0:0134 F

0:0677 G 0:0512 H0:493 J 0:0019 CH0:0024 GJ 8

224:9925 0:1743 A 0:9833 B 0:2015 C 0:338 D0:058 E

3:338 F 0:041 G 1:3875 H5:475 J 0:01 BH0:0285 BJ

0:0046 DH0:1228 FJ 9

m 4:9125 0:025 D0:04 E 0:1 F 0:025 G: 10

Furthermore, by investigating the correlation coefficients, R

2

, which measures the

strength of a linear relationship between the experimental data and the predicted values

from the regression models, the proportion of total variability in the deviation that

can be explained by Equation (8) is:

R

2

SS

Model

SS

Total

0:074

0:080

92:50% 11

where SS is the abbreviation of sum of squares.

Table 5(c). ANOVA results of the Dm.

Source Sum of squares Degree of freedom Mean square F Value P Value

Model 2.14 4 0.54 12.32 0.0005

D: temperature (8C) 0.25 1 0.25 5.76 0.0352

E: speed ratio (%) 0.64 1 0.64 14.74 0.0027

F: pressure ratio (%) 1.00 1 1.00 23.04 0.0006

G: temperature (8C) 0.25 1 0.25 5.76 0.0352

Residual 0.48 11 0.04

Total 2.62 15

Taguchi and Design of Experiments in Injection Molding 829

at Victoria Uni of Technology on August 26, 2011 jrp.sagepub.com Downloaded from

Similarly, the proportion of total variability in the deviation that can be explained by

Equation (9) is:

R

2

SS

Model

SS

Total

65:57

65:58

99:98% 12

and the proportion of total variability in the m deviation that can be explained by

Equation (10) is:

R

2

SS

Model

SS

Total

2:14

2:62

81:67%: 13

MODEL ADEQUACY CHECK

The adequacy of the regression models will be inspected to confirm that the models have

extracted all relevant information from the experimental data. The primary diagnostic tool

is residual analysis [18]. The residuals are defined as the differences between the actual and

predicted values for each point in the design. The residual results for the , the and the

m are shown in Table 6. If a model is adequate, the distribution of residuals should

be normally distributed. The Minitab

For the normality test, the hypotheses are listed as follows:

1. Null hypothesis: the residual data follows a normal distribution

2. Alternative hypothesis: the residual data does not follow a normal distribution.

The vertical axis of Figures 4(a)4(c) has a probability scale and the horizontal axis

has a data scale. A least-square line is then fitted to the plotted points. The line forms

an estimate of the cumulative distribution function for the population from which data

are drawn.

Table 6. Residual results of the d, r and Dm.

d (mm) r (MPa) "m (mg)

Run no. Actual Pred. Residual Actual Pred. Residual Actual Pred. Residual

1 0.078 0.078 0.0000 22.35 22.38 0.03 2.3 2.21 0.09

2 0.085 0.086 0.0013 28.11 28.08 0.03 2.3 2.21 0.09

3 0.057 0.079 0.0221 26.38 26.35 0.03 2.3 2.11 0.19

4 0.233 0.210 0.0234 28.49 28.52 0.03 2.1 2.11 0.01

5 0.160 0.139 0.0215 23.00 23.00 0.00 2.0 1.96 0.04

6 0.150 0.173 0.0228 23.20 23.20 0.00 2.1 1.96 0.14

7 0.115 0.115 0.0004 26.75 26.72 0.03 2.5 2.36 0.14

8 0.073 0.071 0.0016 26.28 26.31 0.03 2.4 2.36 0.04

9 0.195 0.192 0.0031 26.32 26.32 0.00 2.6 2.86 0.26

10 0.060 0.026 0.0344 25.95 25.95 0.00 2.8 2.86 0.06

11 0.178 0.202 0.0243 26.88 26.88 0.00 1.3 1.46 0.16

12 0.145 0.158 0.0133 29.12 29.12 0.00 1.3 1.46 0.16

13 0.255 0.229 0.0259 25.31 25.28 0.03 2.3 2.11 0.19

14 0.293 0.281 0.0116 28.37 28.40 0.03 1.9 2.11 0.21

15 0.215 0.219 0.0038 28.42 28.48 0.06 2.5 2.21 0.29

16 0.115 0.149 0.0338 28.13 28.07 0.06 1.9 2.21 0.31

830 Y.-K. YANG ET AL.

at Victoria Uni of Technology on August 26, 2011 jrp.sagepub.com Downloaded from

0.999

(a)

(b)

(c)

0.999

0.99

0.99

0.95

0.95

0.80

0.80

0.50

0.50

0.20

0.20

0.05

0.05

0.01

0.01

0.001

0.001

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

0.999

0.99

0.95

0.80

0.50

0.20

0.05

0.01

0.001

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

Average:-0.0000391 Anderson-darling normality test

Anderson-Darling normality test

Anderson-Darling normality test

P Value: 0.580

P Value: 0.087

P Value: 0.505

A-squared: 0.285

A-squared: 0.622

A-squared: 0.319

Residual_

Residual_

N:16

0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00

0.00 0.05

0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0

Residual_m

0.1 0.2 0.3

0.05

0.01 0.02 0.03

St.Dev: 0.0198127

Average:-0

N:16

St.Dev: 0.0309839

Average: 0.0016875

N:16

St.Dev: 0.178315

Figure 4. (a) 4 Normal probability plot for the residual of , (b) 4 Normal probability plot for the residual of ,

(c) 4 Normal probability plot for the residual of Dm.

Taguchi and Design of Experiments in Injection Molding 831

at Victoria Uni of Technology on August 26, 2011 jrp.sagepub.com Downloaded from

As a P Value that is smaller than 0.05, it will be classified as significant, and the

null hypothesis has to be rejected. All of the P Values shown on the lower right-hand

side of Figures 4(a)(c) are larger than 0.05; thus, the residuals for the , the and the m

follow a normal distribution and the predictive regression models have extracted all

available information from the experimental data. The rest of the information defined

as residuals can be considered as errors from performing the experiments.

Comparisons of Confirmation Tests

The first confirmation run (No. 1 in Table 7) is an optimal parameter combination

identified by the Taguchi method with temperature settings of 2108C, 2108C and 2008C,

speed ratios of 20%, 20% and 30%, and injection pressure ratios of 30%, 40% and 25%

for the first, the second and the third progressive strokes, respectively. With this setting,

it predicts the , the , and the m to be 0.16 mm, 29.19 MPa and 1.46 mg, respectively.

On the other hand, the second confirmation run (No. 2 in Table 7) is an optimal setting

by the DOE method with a desirability value of 0.83, conducted with temperature

settings of 2008C, 2108C and 2008C, speed ratios of 20%, 20% and 29.8%, injection

pressure ratios of 30%, 40% and 25.2% for the first, the second and the third progressive

strokes, respectively. This setting is identified from the regression models and by

minimizing F(x) in Equation (4). The predicted values for the , the and the m are

0.10 mm, 27.33 MPa, and 1.46 mg, respectively.

In Table 7, the predicted results from the optimal conditions are compatible in the wear

mass loss and around 6% difference for the tensile strengths. Nevertheless, the DOE

approach has an average contour distortion of 0.10 mm vs. 0.16 mm from the Taguchi

method.

CONCLUSION

Both the DOE method and the Taguchi method were applied to find an optimal setting

for the injection molding process. The identified optimal setting for the DOE approach

strikes the balance between the contour distortions, the tensile strength and the wear mass

loss of PP composite components. On the other hand, the result from the Taguchi method

searched for an optimal solution within all possible combinations of factors and levels;

eventually, an optimal combination is selected if it gives a maximized normalized

combined S/N ratio of targeted outputs. The results are summarized as follows:

1. The optimal setting by the Taguchi method is with the melting temperature of 2108C

(i.e., A), the injection speed ratio of 20% (i.e., B), and the injection pressure ratio

of 30% (i.e., C) for the first progressive stroke; the melting temperature 2108C (i.e., D),

Table 7. Confirmation runs and an optimal setting showing results for the d, r and Dm.

First stroke Second stroke Third stroke Pre./Exp. Pre./Exp. Pre./Exp.

Run

no.

A

(8C)

B

(%)

C

(%)

D

(8C)

E

(%)

F

(%)

G

(8C)

H

(%)

I

(%)

d

(mm)

r

(MPa)

"m

(mg)

1 210.0 20.0 30.0 210.0 20.0 40.0 200.0 30.0 25.0 0.16/0.17 29.12/28.40 1.46/1.52

2 200.0 20.0 30.00 210.0 20.0 40.0 200.0 29.8 25.2 0.10/0.12 27.33/27.90 1.46/1.48

832 Y.-K. YANG ET AL.

at Victoria Uni of Technology on August 26, 2011 jrp.sagepub.com Downloaded from

the injection speed ratio of 20% (i.e., E), and the injection pressure ratio of 40% (i.e., F)

for the second progressive stroke; the factors of the third progressive stroke are

the melting temperature of 2008C (i.e., G), the injection speed ratio of 30% (i.e., H),

and the injection pressure ratio of 25% (i.e., I).

2. The optimal parameter setting via the DOE approach with desirability value of 0.83 can

be shown as follows: the setting for the first progressive stroke is with the melting

temperature of 2008C (i.e., A), the injection speed ratio of 20% (i.e., B), and the

injection pressure ratio of 30% (i.e., C); the melting temperature 2108C (i.e., D), the

injection speed ratio of 20% (i.e., E), and the injection pressure ratio of 40% (i.e., F)

for the second progressive stroke; the factors of the third progressive stroke are the

melting temperature of 2008C (i.e., G), the injection speed ratio of 29.8% (i.e., H), and

the injection pressure ratio of 25.2% (i.e., I).

3. For these two different methods, the optimal parameters are almost identical, with only

minor difference in the parameter A (the melting temperature of the first stroke).

However, the DOE approach has an average contour distortion of 0.10 mm vs. 0.16 mm

from the Taguchi method.

4. The developed regression models can be utilized to predict the average contour

distortions, wear mass losses and tensile properties of PP components under different

injection molding conditions. Namely, the implementation of the DOE method with

maximizing the desirability function is a systematic approach to identify an optimal

parameter setting of the injection molding process; thus, the trial-and-error process can

be avoided so that the efficiency of designing an optimal solution is greatly improved.

5. Normality analysis on the residual data of the regression models ensures that the

models are adequate and extract all applicable information from the experimental data.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China,

for financially supporting this research (Contract No. NSC95-2622-E-159-001-CC3) and

Ming Hsin University of Science and Technology (Contract No. MUST-95-ME-005).

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