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Chapter 7-8

Revolutionary War: Though the Declaration of Independence didnt come until 1776, the war against the
British started with the battles at Lexington and Concord in 1775.
Declaration of Independence: The colonies in an act of defiance against the British signed the Declaration and
officially declared war.
Wealth of Nations: The book written by Adam Smith which laid the basis for American economic theory.
Treaty of Versailles: This treaty granted independence to the American colonies after the Revolutionary war.
Land Ordinance of 1785: This ordinance called for public lands to be divided into square lots and surveyed.
Although the conservatives hoped that land would become a major source of revenue, it never did.
Annapolis Convention: A convention called to settle questions about trade regulations but no action was
Land Ordinance of 1787: This ordinance set the guidelines that territories would take in order to become
states. The main principle being the eventual equality with the older states.
Constitution: The rules and regulations that form the American government.
Bill of Rights: These rights were added onto the Constitution two years after it was ratified.
Treaty of 1794: With this treaty the British agreed to leave the posts they had established in the Northwest.
The Land Act of 1796: Largely similar to the Land Ordinance of 1785 but it added a credit provision which
was ultimately revoked because it caused losses to the government.
Louisiana Purchase: Thomas Jefferson acquired the Louisiana territory from France for the very reasonable
cost of 15 million dollars.
Embargo Act of 1808: In fear of war Thomas Jefferson enacted the Embargo Act which stopped trade with
any foreign ports.
Non-importation Act of 1809: Partially opened up trade with specific prohibitions against Great Britain,
France, and their possessions.
The War of 1812: This war with the British was started when the British Navy began kidnapping American
sailors and forcing them into their army.
The Treaty of Ghent: Ended the War of 1812.
Acquisition of Florida: The Florida territory was acquired from the Spanish.
Texas annexed as a state: Texas becomes a state after winning its independence from Mexico.
Treaty of 1846: This Treaty with Britain established the boundary between Oregon and Canada on the 49th
Oregon annexed as a state: As part of the Treaty of 1846, America became the soul owner of the Oregon
Acquisition of the Mexican Cession: The Mexican Cession was acquired by conquest.
Gadsen Purchase: Acquired from Mexico.
Homestead Act of 1862: This act made it possible for anyone over 21 to have 160 acres of public land on the
payment of small fees as long as they lived on the land for at least 5 years.
Alaskan Purchase: The Alaskan Territory was purchased from Russia.
Hawaiian Annexation: Hawaii becomes the last state added to the United States of America.

Chapters 9-10
Increase of Railroads, Boats efficiency, Canals and Roads.
Mechanisms made to produce of flour and cotton without the aid of man.

1807 -Steam boat was invented by Robert Fulton and Robert R. Livingston.

Railroad and canals were made privately and publicly few railroads were funded by the federal

Effects of increased railroads/canals and more efficiency in boats created.
Transportation of goods costs decreased since transferring goods took less time to get from point A to
B downstream as well as upstream. Traveling Costs a large portion of money that ate away ate
profits became a fraction of the cost.

Transportation freight rates with the easier transportation of goods came with the industrial

America started with only a few factories and lumber mills. The new nation arouse by 1860 America
was only second to Great Britain.
Industrial revolution began with the north. Started from the New England expanding to the Middle
Colonies. With up rise of industry production made household production declined dramatically.
Factories characteristics
A substantial output of a standardized product made to be sold in a wide, rather than a strictly local,
Complex operations carried on in one building or group of adjacent building or group of adjacent
buildings. A considerable investment in fixed plant, the mechanization of processes, and the use of
power are implied.
An assembly of workers under a definite organizational discipline.

Factories were not just a building it was assembly line for processing raw goods. Something Great
Britain had forbid the U.S while under their power/watch. The hope of becoming a more united
states was near. We worked together, traded with each other, and produced together. Even though
we had this period of unity it was broken with the disagreement of slavery.

First developed factory was cotton textile industry. Made by Almy, Brown, and Slater.

The Lowell shops and the Waltham system

Cabot Lowell observed a power loom in Great Britain and copied it design. It included all stages of
production (spinning, weaving, dying, and cutting) all under one

Oliver Evans builds a flour mill in Philadelphia. (1782)

Latter copied by Henry Ford and his production of the automobile.

Water was power and energy.

Slow moving water wheels were an equivalent to several thousand horse power. Most effective of
them all was the (Breast wheel) water flew up and underneath as oppose to above or underneath.

Steam engines were introduce but not effective as water power. They broke down frequently and had
little skilled mechanics to repair them.
Result of improved machinery, cheaper distribution of goods, increase railroads, canals, roads. The
north had capital-intensive industries: cotton textiles, iron, liquors, flour/grist mills, paper, tanning,
and wool textile.
Other industries such as boots/shoes, coaches/harnesses, furniture/wood work, and glass were had
less job opportunities then capital-intensive industries. Farming was in the south, but if you were in
the north you had to have a skill/trade to be able to work.
Transportation was easier and less costly, new inventions for factory lines and transportation created
the market growth. We became a united nation threw goods and increased production of man and

Chapter 11
There were 31,443,000 American in the country. The population was growing about 3% per year. This
growth was a natural increase of the population and also due to the immigrants that were arriving then to the

Child labor in spinning was common, especially in areas south of Boston. Family-based labor system known
as the Rhode Island system developed there.

Similar to current changes in the labor force, mainly from Asian and Hispanic immigrants,
further composition changes came from immigration. The large waves of immigrants came principally from
three countries: England, Ireland, and Germany.

The tragic potato famine precipitated the heavy Irish emigration. Fleeing starvation
and the oppression of hated absentee landlords, the Irish found employment as common
laborers and factory hands.

Women constituted only one-fifth of the manufacturing labor force, indicating the lessening relative
importance of textile manufacture and the competition of cheap immigrant labor, most of which was male.

In monetary terms, annual manufacturing wages in New England were only about 1 percent higher than in
the Middle Atlantic States.

Unions of different crafts in Philadelphia federated to form a city central or trades union, the

Union of Trade Associations. Six years later the societies in New York established a General TradesUnion.

White male citizens of the Unite States could vote, black males could vote in New York and New England,
and alien males could vote in the agricultural Northwest.

The New Hampshire legislature passed the first regulatory law setting a 10-hour upper limit for a days work,
but there was a loophole in it. The law provided that if workers agreed to work longer hours, the 10-hour
limit might be exceeded.

Chapter 12 and 13

Robert Morris established and organized the first bank of the United States.

U.S. adopts the Decimal System.

Northwest Land Ordinance forbids slavery in the Northwest Territory.

The Coinage Act.

Cotton Gin is invented.

Gold to Silver ration rises to 16 to 1.

War of 1812.

Second Bank of U.S. is chartered.

U.S. is the leading slave nation.

Safety-Fund Act.

Andrew Jackson becomes President of the U.S.

Michigan passes Free Banking Law.

Great Depression hits.

Louisiana Law of 1842.

Great Depression ends.

Gold is discovered in California.

California becomes a free state.

Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.