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# Most Important 100 Questions Physics XII

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1. The neutron separation energy is defined as the energy required to remove a neutron from
the nucleus. Obtain the neutron separation energy of the nucleus
20
Ca
41
from the following
data? M
n
= 1.008665u, m(
20
Ca
40
) = 39.962591u & m(
20
Ca
41
) = 40.962278u.
2. A variable frequency 230V alternating voltage source is connected across a series
combination of L = 5H, C = 80F and R = 40. Calculate (i) the angular frequency of source
which drives the circuit in resonance (ii) amplitude of the current at resonating frequency
(iii) r.m.s potential drop across the inductor at resonating frequency.
3. A beam of light consisting of two wavelengths 6500A
0
and 5200A
0
is used to obtain
interference fringes in Youngs double slit experiment. The distance between the slits is
2mm and distance the plane of the slits and the screen is 120cm. (a) Find the distance of
3
rd
bright fringe on the screen from the central maximum for the wavelength 6500A
0
. (b)
What is the least distance from central maximum, when the bright fringes due to both the
wavelengths coincide?
4. A circular coil of 20 turns and radius 10cm is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.10 T
normal to the plane of the coil. If the current in the coil is 5.0A, what is the (a) total torque
on the coil, (b) total force on the coil (c) average force on electron in the coil due to the
magnetic field? (The coil is made of copper wire of cross-sectional area 10
-5
m
2
and the free
electron density in copper is given to be about 10
29
m
-3
)
5. Three charges - 2 c, 2 2 c, - 2 c are arranged along
P a straight line as shown in the figure. Calculate the total electric field
Intensity due to all the three charges at the point P which is
1 m away from the line.
6. Two concentric circular coils A and B of radii 10 cm and 6 cm respectively, lie in the same
vertical plane containing the north to south direction. coil A has 30 turns and carries a
current of 10 A . Coil B has 40 turns and carries a current of 15 A .the sense of the current
in A is anticlockwise and clockwise in B for an observer looking at the coils facing west. Give
the magnitude and direction of net magnetic field.
7. In an ammeter, 10% of main current is passing through the galvanometer. If the resistance
of the galvanometer is G, then what is the shunt resistance in ohms?
8. When a circuit element X is connected across an a.c. source, a current of 2A flows
through it and this current is in phase with the applied voltage. When another element Y is
connected across the same a.c. source, the same current flows in the circuit but it leads the
voltage by /2 radians.(i) Name the circuit elements X and Y. (ii) Find the current that flows
in the circuit when the series combination of X and Y is connected across the same a.c.
voltage.
9. A series LCR-circuit with L = 0.12 H, C = 480 nF, R = 23 is connected to a 230 V variable
frequency supply. (a) What is the source frequency for which current amplitude is
maximum? Obtain this maximum value. (b) What is the source frequency for which average
power absorbed by the circuit is maximum? Obtain the value of this maximum power. (c)
For which frequencies of the source is the power transferred to the circuit half the power at
resonant frequency? What is the current amplitude at these frequencies? (d) What is the Q-
factor of the given circuit?
10. . Coils in the resistance boxes are made from doubled up-insulated wire. Why?
11. To work functions 2ev and 5ev for two metals x and y respectively. Which metal will emit
electrons, when it is irradiated with light and wave length 400nm
and why?
12. The figure below shows a potentiometer circuit for comparison of
two resistances. The balance point with the standard resistance R =
12 ohms is found to be 65.3 cm, while that with the unknown
resistance X is 73.8 cm. Determine the value of X. What would you
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do if you failed to find a balance point with the given cell E?
13. Two identical cells of e.m.f 2.0 V each joined in parallel provide supply to an external circuit
consisting of two resistors of 12 ohm each joined in parallel.
A very high resistance voltmeter reads the terminal voltage
of cells to be 1.6 V. What is the internal resistance of each
cell?
14. Two cells of e.m.f 1.5 and 2 volts and internal resistance 2
and 1 ohm respectively have their negative terminals joined
by a wire of 6 ohm and positive terminal by a wire of 4 ohms
resistance. A third wire of resistance 8 ohms connects the
mid points of these two wires, Find the potential difference at the end of third wire.
15.
3 cm. How much work is required to be done on the system to take the charges to infinite
distance from each other?
16. Sketch graph to show how Q given to a capacitor of capacity C charge varies with the
potential difference V.
17. (a) A point charge 'q' produces an electric flux of 2.0 x 10
4
Nm
2
/C and this flux is made to
pass through a symmetrical Gaussian surface of radius 20 cm centered on the charge.
(i) Now if the radius of the Gaussian surface is tripled then how much flux would pass
through the surface?
(ii) Find the value of 'q'
(b) there are three concentric spheres S
1
, S
2
and S
3
. The sphere S
1
encloses a charge 'q'
inside it. What is the ratio of the electric flux through S
1
, S
2
and S
3
?
18. (a) If 20 % of the area of plates is filled up with dielectric of
constant 5 and 30 % by another dielectric of constant 15, find
the capacitance of the capac
(b) In a Van-de-Graff generator the spherical shell of the
metal has 2 x 10
6
V on its electrode. The dielectric strength of
the surrounding gas is 6 x 10
7
of the shell.
19. In a plot of photo electric current versus anode potential, how
does
a. The saturation current varies with anode potential for
incident radiations of different frequencies but the same intensity?
b. The stopping potential varies for incident radiation of different intensities but same
frequency?
c. Photoelectric current vary for radiations of different intensities but the same
20. Two long parallel straight wires X and Y separated by a
distance of 5 cm in air carry currents of 10 A and 5 A
respectively in opposite directions. Calculate the magnitude
and direction of the force on a 20 cm length of the wire Y.
A circular coil of100 turns, radius 10 cm carries a current
of 5 A. it is suspended vertically in a uniform horizontal
magnetic field of 0.5 T, the field lines making an angle of
600 with the of the plane of the coil. Calculate of the
torque must be applied on it to prevent it from turning.
21. The primary coil of an ideal step-up transformer has 100
turns and the transformation ratio is also 100. The input
voltage the power are 220 V and 1100 W respectively. Calculate: (i) number of turns in the
secondary (ii) the current in the primary (iii) voltage across the secondary (iv) the current
in the secondary (v) power in the secondary.
22. The given circuit diagram shows a series LCR circuit connected to a variable frequency 230
V source:

(a) Determine the source frequency which drives the circuit in resonance.
(b) Obtain the impedance of the circuit and the amplitude of current at the resonating
frequency.
(c) Determine the rms potential drops across the three elements of the circuit.
(d) How do you explain the observation that the algebraic sum of the voltages across the
three elements obtained in (c) is greater than the supplied voltage?
23. The energy levels of an atom are as shown in fig. Which of them will result in the emission
of photons of wavelength 275 nm?
24. A semiconductor has equal electrons and hole concentrations of 2X10
8
m
-3
. On doping with
certain impurities the hole concentration increases to 4X10
10
m
-3
. (i) What type of
semiconductor is obtained on doping? (ii) Calculate the new electron hole concentration of
the semiconductor. (iii) How does the energy gap vary with doping?
25. Four point charges are placed at the four corners
of a square in the two ways (i) and (ii) as shown
below. Will the (i) electric field (ii) Electric
potential, at the centre of the square, be the same
or different in the two configurations and why?
26. An armature coil consists of 20 turns of wire, each
of area A = 0.09m
2
and total resistance 15.0 . It
rotates in a magnetic field of 0.5T at a constant frequency of 150/ Hz. Calculate the value
of (i) maximum (ii) average induced emf produced in the coil
27. Two point charges Q and 2Q at kept D distance apart. A third charge X is to be kept on the
line joining them in such a way that the net force on Q and 2Q is zero. Calculate the position
of X in terms of Q and D
28. A 100ohm Resistor and a 200ohm resistor are connected in series across an 84 volt cell.
The potential difference across 100ohm is found using a 400ohm Voltmeter. What will be
the voltmeter reading? What will be the potential difference across 100ohm if measured
with a potentiometer?
29. (a).When an inductor L and a resistance R in series are connected across a 12 V, 50Hz ac
source, a current of 0.5A flows in the circuit. The current differs in phase from applied
voltage by /3 radian. Calculate the value of R.
(b) A capacitor and a bulb are connected in series to an ac source. Explain, how the
brightness of the bulb will change when Distance b/w the plates of the capacitor is
increased and A dielectric slab is introduced in the capacitor
30. Why is a potentiometer preferred over a voltmeter for determining the emf of a cell? Two
cells of Emf E
1
and E
2
are connected together in two ways shown here.

E
1
E
2
E
1
E
2

The balance points in a given potentiometer experiment for these two combinations of cells
are found to be at 351.0 cm and 70.2 cm respectively. Calculate the ratio of the Emfs of the
two cells.
31. When a circuit element X is connected across an a.c. source, a current of 2 A flows
through it and this current is in phase with the applied voltage .When another element Y is
connected across the same a.c. source, the same current flows in the circuit but it leads the
32. (i) Name the circuit elements X and Y.
(ii) Find the current that flows in the circuit when the series combination of X and Y is
connected across the same a.c. voltage.
(iii) Plot a graph showing variation of the net impedance of this series combination of X and
Y as a function of the angular frequency of the applied voltage.
33. (a) Find the electrostatic potential energy of a system consisting of two charges 7 C and -2
C placed at (-9cm,0,0) and (9cm,0,0) respectively.
(i) How much work is required to separate the two charges infinitely away from each other?
(b) Two positive point charges of 0.2 C and 0.01 C are placed 10 cm apart. Calculate the
work done in reducing the distance to 5 cm.
34. A cyclotrons oscillator frequency is 10 MHz .What should be the operating magnetic field for
accelerating protons? If the radius of the Dees is 60 cm, what is the kinetic energy of the
proton beam produced by the accelerator? (e=1.60 x 10
-19
C, m
p
=1.67 x 10
-27
kg). Express
your answer in units of MeV ( 1 MeV =1.602 x 10
-13
J)
35. The two slits in YDSE are separated by 0.03mm and the screen is kept 1.5m away. The 4
th

bright fringe is at a distance of 1cm from the central maxima. Calculate the wavelength of
light used.
36. An electron makes a transition from 4
th
shell to the 1
st
shell. Find the wavelength of light
emitted. To which spectral series does this transition belong?
37. The half-life of
238
U
92
against alpha-decay is 1.5 10
17
s. What is the activity of a sample of
U
238
having 25 10
20
atoms?
38. Draw a circuit diagram for use of npn transistor as an amplifier in common emitter
configuration. The input resistance of a transistor is 1000ohm. On changing its base current
by 10microampere, the collector current increases by 2 m A. If a load resistance of 5K ohm
is used in the circuit, calculate: The current gain, Voltage gain of the amplifier
39. A material has a work function of 1.5 eV. Light of wavelength 310nm is incident on it. Find
Kinetic energy of the emitted photo-electron, Threshold wavelength, stopping potential.
40. A message signal of frequency 10 kHz and peak voltage of 10 volts is used to modulate a
carrier of frequency 1 MHz and peak voltage of 20
volts. Determine: (a) modulation index, (b)
the side bands produced.
41. The electric field components in figure are E
x
=
x
1/2
, E
y
= E
z
= 0, in which = 800 N/C m
1/2
.
Calculate (a) the flux through the cube, and (b)
the charge within the cube. Assume that a = 0.1 m.
42. A neutron is absorbed by a
3
Li6 nucleus with
subsequent emission of an alpha particle. Write
the corresponding nuclear reaction and Calculate
the energy released in this reaction
in MeV. Given M(
3
Li
6
) =6.015126a.m.u , M(
2
He
4
) = 4.0026044 a.m.u
M(
0
n
1
) = 1.0086654 a.m.u , M(
1
H
3
) = 3.016049 a.m.u
43. How is a sample of an n-type semiconductor electrically neutral though it has an excess of
negative charge carriers?
44. How the angular separation of interference fringes in young woulds double slit experiment
change when the distance of separation between the slits and the screen is doubled?
45. Prove that the instantaneous rate of change of the activity of a radioactive substance is
inversely proportional to the square of its half life.
46. Explain how the average velocity of free electrons in a metal at constant temperature, in an
electric field, remains constant even though the electrons are being constantly accelerated
by this electric field.

47. How is the resolving power of a microscope affected when,
(i) the wavelength of illuminating radiations is decreased?
(ii) the diameter of the objective lens is decreased?
48. A radioactive material is reduced to 1/16 of its original amount in 4 days .How much
material should one begin with so that 4x10-3 of the material left after 6 days.
49. Derive an expression for the Electric field at a point on the (i) axial line and (ii) equatorial
line of an electric dipole
50. Describe the principle construction and working of Van de Graff Generator.
51. State Gauss theorem and apply it to find the electric field at a point due to
a. A point charge
b. A line of charge
c. A plane sheet of charge
d. A charged spherical conducting shell
52. Derive expression for the potential energy of a system of point charges.
53. Derive expression for the torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
54. Derive expression for the work done in turning a dipole in a uniform electric field.
55. Derive an expression for the potential energy of a dipole in a uniform electric field.
56. Explain the principle of a parallel plate capacitor
57. Derive an expression for the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor.
58. Derive an expression for the effective capacitance when three capacitors are connected in
(i) series (ii) parallel
59. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor.
60. Derive an expression for the loss of energy when two conductors at different potentials are
brought into electrical contact. Account for this energy.
61. Derive and expression for the energy density of a parallel plate capacitor.
62. Derive I = nAeV
d

63. Define drift velocity and derive an expression for it.
64. Deduce Ohms law from elementary concepts.
65. State Biot Savarts Law and apply it to find the magnetic field at a point due to long straight
conductor carrying current.
66. State Amperes circuital theorem and apply it to find the magnetic field inside a (i) solenoid
(ii) toroid
67. State the Principle of a potentiometer and Explain how is it used (i) to determine the
internal resistance of a primary cell (ii) to compare the emfs of two primary cells
68. State Kirchhoffs laws and apply it to derive Wheatstones bridge principle.
69. Explain how will you use a metre bridge to find the resistance of a given resistor wire?
70. Describe the elements of earths magnetic field.
71. Compare the properties of para dia and ferromagnetic substances.
72. Describe the principle construction and working of CYCLOTRON. Derive an expression for
cyclotron frequency. Why electrons cannot be accelerated in a cyclotron?
73. Derive an expression for the force between two straight long parallel conductors carrying
constant current and hence define one ampere.
74. Describe the principle construction and working of Moving Coil Galvanometer.
75. Derive an expression for the torque on a current carrying loop kept in a uniform magnetic
field
76. Explain how will you convert a galvanometer into (i) an ammeter (ii) a voltmeter
77. Define motional emf and derive an expression for it.
78. What are eddy currents? Explain its applications
79. What is self induction and self inductance? Derive an expression for the self inductance of a
long solenoid carrying current
80. Define mutual induction and mutual inductance. Derive an expression for the mutual
inductance of a pair of solenoids. What are the factors affecting the mutual inductance of a
pair of solenoids?
81. Explain the principle and construction of a transformer and the various losses in a
transformer.
82. Derive an expression for impedance of a series LCR circuit. Define resonance is series LCR
circuit and derive an expression for resonant frequency.

83. Derive an expression for average power in an AC circuit. Define power factor and show that
the average power consumed in a pure inductor or a pure capacitor is zero.
84. Define Q factor of resonance. Derive an expression for Q factor.
85. Derive lens makers formula.
86. Derive an expression relating angle of prism, angle of incidence, angle of emergence and
angle of deviation when light is refracted by a prism.
87. What is the order of energy gap in a semiconductor?
88. Give the ratio of the number of holes and the number of conduction electrons in an intrinsic
semiconductor.

In the given diagram, is the diode D forward or reversed biased?
89. How does the energy gap in an intrinsic semiconductor vary, when doped with a trivalent
impurity? How does the width of the depletion region of a p-n junction vary, if the reverse
bias applied to it increases?
90. Explain the working of NPN transistor as switch and oscillator with labelled circuit diagrams?
91. Draw the energy band diagram of an N-type semiconductor. How does the forbidden
energy gap of an intrinsic semiconductor vary with increase in temperature?
92. In a transistor, the base current is changed by 30 A. This results in a change of 0.03 V in
base to emitter voltage and a change of 3 mA in the collector current. (i) Find (a) current
gain
ac
and (b) transconductance gm, (ii) If this transistor is used as an amplifier with
the load resistance 7.5 k, calculate voltage gain of amplifier.
93. By drawing a labeled circuit diagram, explain how a NPN transistor can be used as an
amplifier in common base configuration. Find its current gain, voltage gain and power gain.
94. Define the terms potential barrier and depletion region for a pn junction. Explain with
the help of a circuit diagram, the use of a pn junction as a full wave rectifier. Draw the input
and output waveforms.
95. Why does a solenoid tend to contract when a current passes through it?
96. What is the need of radial magnetic field in moving coil galvanometer?
97. A wire of length L metre carrying a current of I ampere is bent in the form of a circle. Find
its magnetic moment.
98. Two wires OA and OB carry same amount of current I and making an angle (acute) but
not 90
o
. Find the magnetic field at a point P at a distance r from O lying in the bisector of
angle .
99. A rectangular coil of 100 turns has length 5 cm and width 4 cm. It is placed with its plane
parallel to a uniform magnetic field and a current of 2 A is sent through the coil. Find the
magnetic field, if the torque acting on the coil is 0.2 Nm.
100. If an equilateral triangle of length l is placed in magnetic field B exists in a direction
parallel to one of its side. Find the force acting on each of its length.

Physics Simplified by Jatin Khera

Young Scientist Award Winner (2010-2011)
B.Sc (Hons.) Physics, M.Sc (Physics), B.Ed; University of Delhi, M.Tech, PhD*; IIT Kharagpur/IMPRS Germany
+91-9711-99-6663; jatinkhera.ph@iitkgp.ac.in, jatinkhera.iit@gmail.com
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