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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




LABORATORY MANUAL




PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
(CHE642)


CONTENTS

1. REPORTING PRACTICAL WORK AND LAB REPORT COVER
2. LAB SAFETY
3. EXPERIMENT
a. DCS : DELTA V EMMERSON
Open Loop Test
Closed Loop Test
Load Disturbance Test
Set Point Test

b. DCS : FOXBORO
Open Loop Test
Closed Loop Test
Load Disturbance Test
Set Point Test














SAFETY PROCEDURES IN LABORATORY

Laboratory safety is the top priority and this requires all people in the lab to be observing the safe
practices at all times. Following are some safety procedural rules to help guide you in protecting
yourself and others from injury in the laboratory

DO
1) MUST wear proper Attire and Lab Coat (Green Lab Coat) when you are in lab.
2) Shoes MUST completely cover the foot. No sandals are allowed.
3) MUST reports any accidents, injury, fire or emergency happen to the LECTURER/ LAB
TECHNICIAN immediately.
4) MUST know the location and understand the operation of:
Fire extinguisher
First aid kit
Fire alarm
Emergency exit route
5) MUST strictly follow laboratory safety principle
6) Perform only those experiments authorized by the instructor. Never do anything in the
laboratory that is not called in the laboratory procedures or by your instructor.
7) Observe good housekeeping practices. Work area shold be kept clean and tidy at all
times.
DONT
1) Strictly NOT allowed to EAT, DRINK and SMOKE in the lab.







a. DCS: DELTA-V EMERSON
Open Loop Test
1. Select the control loops:
a. Gas Pressure Control Plant
i. PIC91
ii. PIC92
b. Gas Flow Temperature Plant
i. FIC91
c. Boiler Drum Heat Exchanger Plant
i. LIC11
ii. FIC12
d. Liquid Flow Plant
i. FIC21









2. Double click at Controller to open the Faceplate
e.g PIC92








Controller



Controller

Faceplate

3. Click at Process History View to view the trend/graph.
4. Stabilize the process either in manual (MAN) or Automatic (AUTO) mode.
5. Record the initial value of manipulated variable (MV in %).
6. Once the process stabilized, if it is in AUTO mode, switch it to MAN mode.
(Remember: open loop test must be carried out in MAN mode)
7. Make a step change between 5 20% to the manipulated variable.
8. a) For self-regulating system: wait until the new steady state reached.
b) For non self-regulating system: wait until slope can be calculated from process
response. Then, set the system to AUTO mode.
9. Print the response curve.
10. Use Tangent Method or Reformulated Tangent Method to determine response rate (RR),
time delay (Td) and time constant (Tc).
(Remember: Value of PV and MV MUST be in %)
11. Determine the PI controller setting using Ziegler Nichols or Cohen Coons method.




Process History View
MAN and AUTO mode
Detail
Set Point (SP)
MV
Closed Loop Test

1. Set the controller in AUTO mode
2. Click Detail icon at Faceplate to set the controller setting.

3. Insert the PI controller setting (Kc and I) value at Gain and Reset Section.
4. If the response oscillates, do fine tuning to achieve stable condition.
5. If the response oscillates:
a) Reduce the Kc -an excessively large proportional gain will lead to process
instability and oscillation.
Or
b) Increase the I an excessively small integral term can cause the present value to
overshoot the setpoint value.
6. Record the optimum PI controller setting.

Load Disturbance Test
1. Set the controller in manual mode
2. Make change to MV of about 10% of current MV value
3. Wait for 3 s.
4. Then set the controller to automatic mode.
5. Wait until the response become stable.

Set point test
1. From load disturbance test, continue with set point test.
2. System must be in automatic mode
3. Make a change in set point about 10% of current operating process value
4. Wait until the response become stable.
5. Combine both response curves and print the graph.
6.

b. DCS: FOXBORO

Open Loop Test.
1. Select the Plant -Water Flow and Level Control Plant (WLF922)
2. Activate the selected control loops
i. FIC31
ii. LIC31






Control loops


Controller
3. To view trending
a. select File>Additional FoxView
b. Click at Change Env
c. Change the Environment to Operator
d. At new FoxView select Plant WLF922.
e. Double click at Controller.
f. Click at TREND.
4. To enlarge the trending
a. Click at Change Env
b. Change the Environment to Process_Eng
c. Then, right click at the trend and select moveable
d. Maximize the trend

AUTO and MAN mode
MV (%)
Set Point (SP)
5. To perform open loop test, stabilize the process either in manual (MAN) or Automatic
(AUTO) mode.
6. Record the initial value of manipulated variable (MV in %).
7. Once the process stabilized, if it is in AUTO mode, switch it to MAN mode.
(Remember: open loop test must be carried out in MAN mode)
8. Make a step change between 5 20% to the manipulated variable.
9. a) For self-regulating system: wait until the new steady state reached.
b) For non self-regulating system: wait until slope can be calculated from process
response. Then, set the system to AUTO mode.
10. Collect the data from AIM Historian Data Display at Desktop
a. Tag the desired data
b. Set the desired Date/Time
c. Click at View Data




11. Use Numerical Analysis to determine response rate (RR), time delay (Td) and time
constant (Tc).
(Remember: Value of PV and MV MUST be in %)
12. Determine the PI controller setting using Ziegler Nichols or Cohen Coons method.

Closed Loop Test

7. Set the controller in AUTO mode
8. Insert the PI controller setting (PB and I) value at PBAND and INT Section.

9. If the response oscillates, do fine tuning to achieve stable condition.
10. If the response oscillates:
c) Reduce the Kc -an excessively large proportional gain will lead to process
instability and oscillation.
Or
d) Increase the I an excessively small integral term can cause the present value to
overshoot the setpoint value.
11. Record the optimum PI controller setting.

Load Disturbance Test
6. Set the controller in manual mode
7. Make change to MV of about 10% of current MV value
8. Wait for 3 s.
9. Then set the controller to automatic mode.
10. Wait until the response become stable.

Set point test
7. From load disturbance test, continue with set point test.
8. System must be in automatic mode
9. Make a change in set point about 10% of current operating process value
10. Wait until the response become stable.
11. Combine both response curves.
12. Use HyperSnap-DX program to print the graph:
a. START > Program > HyperSnap-DX >HyperSnap- DX
b. In HyperSnap-DX Pro select Capture > Active window and click at the trending
c. Once the trending appear in HyperSnap DX program, go to Image >Invert
Black and White
d. Print the inverted graph.