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Moisture Determination by Improved On-Site Diagnostics

Maik Koch and Michael Krueger Omicron Electronics Austria

Abstract

This paper discusses approaches to measure moisture in power transformers using dielectric response methods and equilibrium diagrams. Moisture in oil-paper insulations is a vital status-property for it damages by three mechanisms: It decreases the dielectric withstand strength, accelerates cellulose aging and causes the emission of gaseous bubbles at high temperatures. In recent years dielectric diagnostic methods have been developed, which derive moisture concentration of the solid insulation from its dielectric properties such as dissipation factor or polarization current. Dielectric response methods provide substantial advantages compared to moisture determination by conventional equilibrium diagrams, for example it is unnecessary to wait for moisture equilibrium. In this article a new method is introduced, which combines measurements in frequency and time domain, and which makes reliable diagnostics possible even for heavily aged insulations. The second part of this paper deals with equilibrium diagrams applied for moisture determination. Since the conventional application of these diagrams leads to erroneous results, an advanced representation of equilibrium diagrams using relative moisture in oil is introduced. Relative saturation in oil and cellulose provides easy, accurate and continuous measurements and directly reflects the destructive potential of water in oil-paper-insulations. Examples of onsite moisture determinations compare the new methods to conventional approaches and describe the assessment of moisture analysis results.

Moisture in Oil-Paper-Insulated Transformers

Power transformers represent the most expensive chain links connecting generation to utilization. Due to the cost pressure of a liberalized energy market the utilities shift maintenance from time based to condition based approaches. This development requires reliable diagnostic tools.

Dangerous Effects of Water

Water in oil paper insulations causes three dangerous effects: it decreases the dielectric withstand strength, accelerates cellulose aging and causes the emission of bubbles at high temperatures. Figure 1 (left) illustrates the influence of moisture relative to saturation and acidity on the dielectric withstand strength of oil [1]. Water molecules dissociate themselves and enable acids to dissociate supporting breakdown processes with charge carriers. It is worthy to mention, that breakdown voltage correlates better with moisture saturation [%] than with moisture content [ppm].

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75 TAN 0,01 TAN 0,10 70 TAN 0,3 TAN 0,49 60 50 0 5 10
75
TAN 0,01
TAN 0,10
70
TAN 0,3
TAN 0,49
60
50
0
5
10
15
20
Breakdown Voltage / kV
Life expectance / a

Relative Moisture Saturation / %

1000

100

10

1

0,1

Dry 1% 2% 3% 4% 50 70 90 110 130
Dry 1%
2%
3%
4%
50
70
90
110
130

Temperature / °C

Figure 1. Effects of water:

Left: Breakdown voltage in oil depending on moisture relative to saturation and total acid number TAN [1] Right: Expected life for solid insulation depending on moisture content and temperature [2]

Because of hydrolysis the long cellulose chains break down into smaller pieces. Water is added in this reaction, acid serves as a catalyst [2]. Thus the degree of polymerisation (DP, number of jointed glucose rings per cellulose chain) decreases from 1000-1500 to 200-400 at the end of the cellulose life span. Figure 1 (right) depicts the life expectance of paper, supposing a starting DP of 1000 and ending DP of 200.

State of the Art in Moisture Determination

The decision about maintenance actions as for example on-site drying requires knowledge about the actual moisture concentration. State of the art for moisture measurements are equilibrium diagrams, where one tries to derive the moisture in the solid insulation (paper, pressboard) from moisture content in oil (ppm). This method fails for several reasons, where aging of oil and water titration has the major impact. Furthermore Karl Fischer titration suffers from moisture ingress during transportation to the laboratory, different procedures releasing water from the sample leading to unsatisfying comparability of the results [4]. Therefore dielectric diagnostic methods were developed, which deduce moisture in paper and pressboard from dielectric properties of the insulation [5]. These methods promise to give higher accuracy and are designed for onsite moisture determination. This paper describes a new dielectric diagnostic method that combines time and frequency domain measurements and provides reliable results also for aged transformers. The paper further presents essential improvements on equilibrium diagrams.

Measurement of Dielectric Properties

Dielectric Properties of Insulations

The multilayer insulation of power transformers consisting of oil and paper shows polarization and conductivity phenomena. Dielectric diagnostic methods measure the interfacial polarization effect, which originates from the interfaces between cellulose and oil. Polarization is superimposed by the DC conductivity of cellulose and oil. The resultant total current density in frequency domain J( ) caused by a sinusoidal field strength E( ) can be expressed by (1), [6].

(

)

J ω

=

jωε

0

)

capacitive component

(

)

+

(

ω

χ

ε

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j

resistive losses

σ

0

ε ω

0

+

χ

′′

(

)

ω

E

(

)

ω

(1)

The imaginary part of the current density represents its capacitive component caused by the high frequency part of permittivity and the low frequency susceptibility '. The real part includes a resistive current due to the DC conductivity 0 and a resistive current due to dielectric losses . The inertia of the dipoles and charge carriers moved by the electrical field cause these dielectric losses. Moisture, temperature and conductive aging products influence these phenomena. The discrimination of moisture from other effects is a key quality feature for the analysis of dielectric measurements.

Accelerated Measurement of Dielectric Properties

The dielectric response of insulations can be recorded in time domain or in frequency domain. A time domain current measurement records the charging and discharging currents of the insulation. They are also known as Polarization and Depolarization Currents PDC. Frequency domain measurements are derived from the old known Tangent Delta measurements with a frequency range much enhanced especially to low frequencies. The derived measurement method is called Frequency Domain Spectroscopy FDS. The combination of time domain polarization current measurements with frequency domain spectroscopy [7] drastically reduces the test duration compared to existing techniques. Essentially, time domain measurements can be accomplished in a short time but are limited to low frequencies (typically below 1 Hz). In contrast, frequency domain measurements are feasible for high frequencies as well but take very long time at low frequencies. The new instrument acquires data in frequency domain from 5 kHz to 0,1 Hz and in time domain from 0,1 Hz to 100 µHz or less. For further evaluation the time domain data are transformed to frequency domain. Figure 2 (left) illustrates the combination of dielectric measurements in time and frequency domain. The new technique reduces the time duration of a measurement to 25 % compared to pure frequency domain measurements. For instance, data for 1 kHz down to 0,1 mHz typically need 11 hours for a frequency domain measurement, but less than 3 hours for the new instrument (Figure 2, right). A polarization and depolarization current measurement will need 5,5 h to record data from 1 s to 10000 s which corresponds to 1 Hz to 0,1 mHz. The time required for the real life measurement at a specific insulation depends on the condition of that insulation. For the succeeding analysis of moisture content the properties of the solid insulation should become visible as explained at Figure 4. Dry or cold insulations require to measure down to very low frequencies, the long durations as in Figure 2 (right) are necessary. Hot or highly conductive insulations require a much smaller frequency range of e.g. 1 kHz to 0,1 Hz, thus the duration will decrease to a few minutes. For the range of 1 kHz to 1 mHz suitable for most transformers the new system needs 25 min, whereas pure a frequency domain measurement needs 1 h 5 min.

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100 1 Current [nA]
100
1
Current [nA]
1 1 0,001 0,001 Dissipation factor Dissipation factor
1 1
0,001
0,001
Dissipation factor
Dissipation factor
1 Time [s] Trans- formation
1
Time [s]
Trans-
formation
0,1 0,1 1000 1000 10000 Frequency [Hz] Frequency [Hz] 1 0,001 0,0001 1000 Frequency [Hz]
0,1
0,1
1000
1000
10000
Frequency [Hz]
Frequency [Hz]
1
0,001
0,0001
1000
Frequency [Hz]
Dissipation factor
14 1000 12 100 10 10 8 1 6 0,1 4 0,01 2 0,001 0
14
1000
12
100
10
10
8
1
6
0,1
4
0,01
2
0,001
0
0,0001
PDC
FDS
DIRANA
Time need [h]
Frequency range [Hz]

Figure 2. Left: combination of time and frequency domain measurements Right: Required time duration and acquired frequency range for the different measurement techniques

Performance of a Measurement

A dielectric response measurement is a three terminal measurement that includes the output voltage, the sensed current and a guard. The guarding technique insures for an undisturbed measurement even at onsite conditions with dirty insulations or bushings. For two winding transformers, after disconnection from the network, the voltage output can be coupled with the HV winding, the current input with the LV winding and the guard with the tank. It is unnecessary to wait until the transformer cooled down or reached moisture equilibrium.

Current sense 1 A Voltage source = Current sense 2 A Guard C C C
Current sense 1
A
Voltage source
=
Current sense 2
A
Guard
C
C
C
T
LT
HL
LV
MV
HV
Instrument

Figure 3. Schematic for a two channel measurement at a three winding transformer

The new instrument DIRANA features two input channels. They enable for an additional time save for example at three winding transformers. Here the output voltage can be applied on the MV winding, while the input channels are connected to the HV and LV winding (Figure 3). This feature halves the test duration additionally to the time and frequency domain combination.

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Analysis of Dielectric Measurements

Interpretation in Frequency Domain

Dielectric diagnostic methods deduce moisture in paper or pressboard from dielectric properties like polarisation and depolarisation currents, complex capacitance and dissipation factor. Moisture strongly influences these quantities. The dissipation factor plotted via frequency shows a typical s-shaped curve. With increasing moisture content, temperature or aging the curve shifts towards higher frequencies. Moisture influences the low and the high frequency parts. The middle part of the curve with the steep gradient reflects oil conductivity. Insulation geometry conditions determine the "hump" left of the steep gradient. In order to determine the moisture content of the insulation, the measurement should also provide data left of the "hump", where the properties of the solid insulation dominate (Figure 6).

high high moisture and aging moisture and aging of cellulose of cellulose 1 1 low
high
high
moisture and aging
moisture and aging
of cellulose
of cellulose
1 1
low
low
0,1
0,1
insulation
insulation
geometry
geometry
high
high
low
low
high
high
0,01
0,01
oil
oil
conductivity
conductivity
low
low
0,001
0,001
0,001
0,001
0,01
0,01
1
1
100
100
1000 1000
Frequency [Hz]
Frequency [Hz]
Dissipation factor
Dissipation factor

Figure 4. Interpretation scheme for FDS providing discrimination between the influences of moisture, aging, oil conductivity and insulation geometry

Moisture Analysis

Moisture determination bases on a comparison of the transformers dielectric response to a modelled dielectric response. A fitting algorithm rearranges the modelled dielectric response and delivers moisture content and oil conductivity. A reliable moisture analysis of onsite measurements bases on an exact data pool for the modeled dielectric response. The data pool constitutes of measurements on new pressboard at various temperatures, moisture contents and oils used for impregnation [8]. The dielectric properties of aged pressboard were investigated as well in order to compensate for the influence of aging. To ensure the reliability of the achieved data base the results were compared to previous investigations, e.g. [9]. In the moisture analysis algorithm at first the insulation temperature T from the measured dielectric response C(f) is taken and the corresponding permittivity record PB (f) from the extra- and interpolated data base. The so called XY-model combines this permittivity record PB (f) with the complex oil permittivity Oil (f). The XY-model allows for the computation of the dielectric response of a linear multi-layer-dielectric [10], where X represents the ratio of barriers to oil and Y the ratio of spacers to oil.

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The obtained modelled permittivity m(f) = tot(f) is converted into a modelled capacitance Cm(f) and then compared to the measured dielectric response C(f). The modelled capacitance Cm(f) with the best fitting to the measured capacitance C(f) gives the moisture content in cellulose and the oil conductivity of the real transformer. Figure 5 (left) depicts the programming flowchart of the new analysis algorithm.

M e a s u r e m e n t C(f) D at a
M
e a
s
u
r e
m e
n
t C(f)
D
at
a b
a s
e
(f)
Temperature T
Oil (f)
σ oil
=
2.2 − j
PB (f) at temp. T
ε oil
⋅ ω
ε 0
1 − Y
Combination by
ε
=
Y ⋅
ε
+
tot
PB _mod
1 − X
X
+
ε
ε
oil
PB _mod
Measured
M
o d
e
l led dielectric
C
o
m p
a
r i
s
o
n
dielectric response
re sp
o
n
se m (
f)
, C m
(f)
m
o
i
s
t
u
re content,
o
i
l
c
o
n
d
u
ct
i
v
i
t
y

HV-winding

Core
Core

Spacer

Barrier

Oil

LV-winding

X

v i t y HV-winding Core Spacer Barrier Oil LV-winding X Y Oil Spacers Barriers Figure

Y

Oil

Spacers

Barriers

Figure 5. Left: programming flowchart of the analysis algorithm Right: representation of a cylindrical transformer insulation by the XY-model

Consideration of Conductive Aging Byproducts

Aging of cellulose and oil causes conductive by-products as carboxylic acids. These acids are deposited in the solid insulation and dissolved in oil. Their DC-conductivity increases the losses and thus “imitates” water.

10 2 ,1 % aged 1 ,2 % aged 1 2 ,0 % new 0
10
2
,1
%
aged
1
,2
%
aged
1
2
,0
%
new
0
,8
%
new
0,1
0,01
0,001
1E-04 0,001
0,01
0,1
1
10
100
1000
Dissipation factor

Frequency [Hz]

Figure 6. Dissipation factor for new and aged pressboard samples having similar moisture contents measured at 20°C insulation temperature

Figure 6 compares the dissipation factor of aged material to that of new material. At similar moisture content the losses in aged materials are much higher than in the new material. Accordingly, a moisture analysis algorithm that does not compensate for conductive aging products will overestimate moisture content. This may mislead to unnecessary drying of

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transformers. The newly developed software compensates for the influence of conductive aging byproducts, resulting in a more reliable moisture analysis at aged transformers. Still more practical measurements will be used to improve the functionality of the compensation algorithm.

Moisture Measurement through Moisture Equilibrium

Moisture Equilibrium

Moisture equilibrium bases on three conditions: thermal equilibrium (temperature), mechanical equilibrium (e.g. pressure) and chemical equilibrium. Thermodynamic equilibrium is reached, if the macroscopic observables do not change with time and place. An equilibrium regarding the time aspect is possible during a constant load period of a transformer. Still the observables will change with place. Equilibrium for time and place can be reached only in locally limited areas, e.g. between cellulose and the surrounding oil at high temperatures and slow oil flows. Moisture equilibrium means, that the no migration of water molecules inside materials and between oil and cellulose occurs. Moisture migrates until the water vapour pressure p gains the same value, thus differences in the moisture vapour pressure are the driving force for moisture migration, (2).

p

Cellulose

=

p

Oil

=

p

Air

(2)

Supposed the same temperature and pressure rules, moisture exchange can be described in terms of relative saturation. The moisture content relative to saturation level in adjacent materials becomes equal (3). The material might be cellulose, oil, air or even a plastic.

RS

Cellulose

=

RS

Oil

= RH

Air

(3)

Conventional Equilibrium Diagrams

It is a standard procedure for operators of power transformers to derive the moisture by weight (%) in cellulose from the moisture by weight in oil (ppm). This approach consists of three steps: (1) Sampling of oil under service conditions, (2) Measurement of water content by Karl Fischer Titration and (3) Deriving moisture content in paper via equilibrium diagrams (e.g. [14]) from moisture in oil. Unfortunately crucial errors effect this procedure:

Sampling, transportation to the laboratory and moisture measurement by Karl Fischer titration,

after

Equilibrium

conditions

are

rarely

achieved

(depending

on

temperature

hours/days/months),

A steep gradient and high uncertainty in the low moisture region compounds the accuracy,

Diagrams from various literature sources lead to different results,

The temperature gradient in windings (up to 30 K) causes a uneven moisture distribution,

Equilibrium depends on moisture solubility in oil and moisture adsorption capacity of cellulose.

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5 21°C New KP 40°C New KP 4 60°C New KP 80°C New KP 3
5
21°C New KP
40°C New KP
4
60°C New KP
80°C New KP
3
2,9
2,6
2,1
2
1,5
1
60°C New PB
60°C Aged KP
60°C Aged PB
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Moisture in cellulose / %
Moisture in insulation paper / %

Moisture in oil / ppm

5

4

3

2

1

0

21°C New 21°C New 21°C Aged 21°C Aged 40°C New 40°C New 40°C Aged 40°C
21°C New
21°C New
21°C Aged
21°C Aged
40°C New
40°C New
40°C Aged
40°C Aged
60°C New
60°C New
60°C Aged
60°C Aged
80°C New
80°C New
80°C Aged
80°C Aged
0
20
40
60
80

Moisture in oil / ppm

Figure 7. Left: equilibrium diagram for moisture in Kraft paper KP and oil with additional graphs for new pressboard PB and aged kraft paper and pressboard Right: equilibrium diagrams adapted to the moisture adsorption capacity of new Kraft paper in new oil and of thermally degraded Kraft paper in aged oil

The validity of equilibrium diagrams is restricted to the original materials that were used to establish the diagrams. Especially aging changes the moisture adsorption capacity substantially. The following Figure 7 (left) displays the graphs for equilibrium of new Kraft paper with new oil at 20, 40, 60 and 80°C. Additionally for 60°C it shows moisture equilibrium for new pressboard in new oil and for aged Kraft paper and aged pressboard in aged oil. Assumed the moisture content in oil is 20 ppm these curves lead to a moisture content in new paper of 2,9 %, in new pressboard of 2,6 %, in aged paper and aged oil it is 2,1 % and for aged pressboard and aged oil 1,5 %. Thus equilibrium diagrams not adapted to the specific materials are inapplicable to calculate moisture in paper from moisture in oil.

Diagrams Adapted to the Moisture Adsorption Capacity

The first step to improve equilibrium diagrams is to adapt them to the water adsorption capacity of the materials involved [3]. Diagrams as Figure 7 (right) might be used to determine the “true” water content in cellulose, since they are adapted to the moisture adsorption capacity of the materials. They still have the essential drawback, that their validity is restricted to the involved materials. For other materials and ageing conditions they have to be redrawn, that is, a correction is necessary for every transformer with its special materials and aging conditions. Because of this disadvantage the following subsection describes the next step to more universal equilibrium diagrams.

Measurement via Moisture Saturation of Oil

In this approach instead of moisture in oil relative to weight (ppm) the relative saturation in oil (%) is used. Additionally the diagrams are adapted to the moisture adsorption capacity of the cellulose. Based on equation (3) via moisture adsorption isotherms the moisture content in cellulose is derived from moisture relative to saturation of the surrounding oil. The advantages are:

Oil aging and its influence on moisture saturation level becomes negligible, since it is already included into the measurement of moisture saturation.

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With relative moisture on the X-axis the graphs become less temperature dependent compared to moisture by weight on this axis (Figure 8, right)

Errors due to sampling, transportation to the lab and titration are excluded.

Continual, accurate measurement and easy implementation into a monitoring systems Figure 8 (right) shows moisture by weight in thermally degraded Kraft paper as a function of moisture saturation. With thermal aging the ability of cellulose to adsorb moisture decreases. In this example a moisture saturation of 4,1 % at 47°C oil temperature gives in Kraft paper 2,2 % moisture content relative to weight. The approach to use moisture saturation of oil substantially improves moisture determination in transformers; still the diagrams have to be adapted to the moisture adsorption capacity of the specific cellulose material. The next section shows a way to overcome this drawback.

Measurement and Implementation of Moisture Saturation in Cellulose

Moisture saturation is a critical factor that determines the amount of water available for interactions with materials. The destructive effects of water in power transformers are a decreased breakdown strength of oil, accelerated aging of cellulose and bubble formation. Water molecules that are available for interactions with materials cause all these destructive effects. This is not the case for molecules that are strongly bound, e.g. by hydrogen bonds to OH-groups of cellulose molecules forming a monolayer. Just water relative to weight, measured by Karl Fischer titration, reflects the bound and less active water as well. Moisture relative to saturation - not relative to weight - determines the available water for destructive effects. This approach gives the following advantages:

Neither oil nor paper aging effects the validity

Conversion via equilibrium charts unnecessary

Direct relation to the destructive impacts of water

Continual, accurate measurement and easy implementation into a monitoring systems

65 60 55 Oil temperature 50 45 40 35 RS in oil 30 25 20
65
60
55
Oil temperature
50
45
40
35
RS in oil
30
25
20
RS in cellulose
15
10
5
0
Top oil temperature / °C

10

8

6

4

2

0

01.06.2003 05.06.2003 09.06.2003 13.06.2003 17.06.2003

Time, date

5 4 3 2,2 2 Aged KP 21°C Aged KP 40°C 1 Aged KP 60°C
5
4
3
2,2
2
Aged
KP 21°C
Aged
KP 40°C
1
Aged
KP 60°C
Aged
KP 80°C
4,1
0
0
10
20
30
40
Relative saturation / %
Moisture in aged Kraft paper / %

Moisture relative to saturation / %

Figure 8. Left: top oil temperature, relative saturation in oil and in cellulose measured resp. calculated by an online monitoring system Right: determination of water content in thermally degraded Kraft paper via a moisture adsorption isotherm

Figure 8 (left) illustrates the application of a relative saturation measurement using a capacitive probe in a power transformer equipped with an online monitoring system. The load factor influences the top oil temperature, which follows in diffusion processes changing the

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relative saturation in oil. A long term average equilibrates the relative saturation in oil with the relative saturation of the surrounding cellulose and comes to 4,1 %. Using a moisture isotherm as Figure 8 (right) one can derive the moisture by weight in cellulose as well, that would be 2,2 % in this case.

Application at Onsite Measurements

Here the example of a heavily aged transformer dedicated for scrapping should be considered. Such a case delivers a good opportunity to compare different approaches to assess moisture content. Mineral oil type Shell Diala 6KX having a neutralization number of 0,49 mg KOH/g oil from 1954 filled the transformer. This high value together with an oil conductivity of 900 pS/m indicates a strong influence of conductive aging products and therefore a progressed aging state. Paper samples were taken after measuring the dielectric properties (polarization and depolarization currents, frequency domain spectroscopy) and oil sampling (moisture content in ppm, moisture saturation in %). Figure 9 depicts the measurement data of the dielectric measurements. The fast decaying currents in time domain and the high dissipation factor in frequency domain indicate a highly conductive insulation. Figure 10 (left) compares the moisture results of the different measurement and analysis approaches. Karl Fischer titration at paper samples came to 2,6 % moisture by weight (KFT). The analysis results of the dielectric response methods differ from each other: Two algorithms had no compensation for conductive aging products and determined 3,8 and 4 % moisture by weight (FDS, PDC). The new analysis software having a compensation for conductive aging products indicates 2,9 % moisture relative to weight (Dira).

1E-04 10 1 1E-05 1E-06 0,1 Ipol Idep 0,01 1E-07 Current / A Dissipation Factor
1E-04
10
1
1E-05
1E-06
0,1
Ipol
Idep
0,01
1E-07
Current / A
Dissipation Factor

1

10

100

1000

10000

1E-07 Current / A Dissipation Factor 1 10 100 1000 10000 0,001 0,01 0,1 1 10

0,001 0,01

0,1

1

10 100 1000
10
100 1000

1E-04

Time / s

Frequency / Hz

Figure 9. Left: polarisation currents measured between HV- and LV-winding Right: dissipation factor as measured between HV- and LV-winding

In an oil sample the moisture saturation was measured directly onsite and also the moisture content in ppm by Karl Fischer titration in a laboratory. Via an moisture sorption isotherm 11 the relative saturation reading lead to 2,5 % moisture in cellulose (RS), which well agrees with the paper samples and the dielectric response analysis compensating for conductive aging products. An equilibrium chart based on moisture content in oil in ppm [14] determined a too high moisture content of 6,0 % (PPM), proving that equilibrium diagrams not adopted to aging state and moisture adsorption capacity cannot reliably evaluate moisture in power transformers.

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6,0 6 5 4,0 3,8 4 2,9 2,6 3 2,5 2 1 0 KFT PPM
6,0
6
5
4,0
3,8
4
2,9
2,6
3
2,5
2
1
0
KFT
PPM RS
Paper
sample
PDC FDS Dira
Dielectric
response
Oil sample
Moisture content [%]
5 4 3 Wet, > 30 % 2 extremely Moderately wet wet 1 Dry 80°C
5
4
3
Wet,
> 30 %
2
extremely
Moderately
wet
wet
1
Dry
80°C
21°C
Moisture
contamination
Moisture content [%]

0

10

20

30

Moisture saturation [%]

Figure 10. Left: moisture content in the solid insulation as obtained from various measurement methods Right: moisture sorption isotherm for a cellulose material relating moisture saturation to moisture content [3] with categories according to IEC 60422 [13]

To conclude, the findings at this very aged transformer show, that a compensation for aging products is necessary both for the measurement based on moisture equilibrium and them based on dielectric properties.

Assessment of Moisture Results

IEC 60422 categorizes moisture saturations of more than 6 % as "moderately wet", which is equivalent to a moisture content of approximately 2,2 %. In this area the water molecules become more and more active, causing the dangerous effects of water. At this level, maintenance actions such as drying should be considered taking into account the importance and future operation of the transformer. Figure 10 (right) shows the relationship between moisture content and moisture saturation which helps to assess the analyzed results.

Summary

This paper discusses approaches to measure moisture in power transformers using dielectric response methods and equilibrium diagrams.

Dielectric diagnostic methods deduce moisture in the solid insulation from dielectric properties like polarisation depolarisation currents and dissipation factor vs. frequency.

A new instrument “Dirana” combines time domain (PDC) and frequency domain (FDS) measurements and thus substantially shortens the measurement duration.

A new software was developed which bases on a new data pool, measured at new and aged pressboard with various moisture contents and oil impregnation.

The new analysis algorithm compares measurements from a transformer to modelled dielectric responses, obtained from the so called XY-model. The new software features weighting of low frequency data and an extended XY-model.

The analysis algorithm compensates for the influence of conductive aging by-products.

The new software was successfully utilized for onsite measurements in comparison to other measurement and analysis methods.

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The conventional application of equilibrium diagrams to derive moisture in cellulose (%) from moisture in oil (ppm) is effected by substantial errors.

To exclude the interference due to oil aging the moisture in oil relative to saturation level (%) is more appropriated instead of moisture in oil in ppm.

One step forward constitutes the use of moisture relative to saturation in oil and cellulose. This measure is easy, continually and accurate measurable.

References

1. M. Koch, S. Tenbohlen: “The Breakdown Voltage of Insulation Oil under the Influence of Humidity, Acidity, Particles and Pressure”, International Conference on Advances in Processing, Testing and Application of Dielectric Materials APTADM, 26.-28.09.2007, Wroclaw.

2. L. E. Lundgaard, W. Hansen, D. Linhjell, T. J. Painter: “Aging of oil-impregnated paper in power transformers”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Jan. 2004 Volume: 19, Issue 1, p. 230- 239.

3. M. Koch, S. Tenbohlen, T. Stirl: “Advanced Online Moisture Measurements in Power Transformers” CMD 2006 International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis, Changwon, Korea, 2006

4. M. Koch, S. Tenbohlen, I. Hoehlein and J. Blennow: “Reliability and Improvements of Water Titration by the Karl Fischer Technique” Proceedings of the XVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, ISH, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007

5. S. M. Gubanski, P. Boss, G. Csepes, V.D. Houhanessian, J. Filippini, P. Guuinic, U. Gafvert, V. Karius, J. Lapworth, G. Urbani, P. Werelius, W. S. Zaengl: “Dielectric Response Methods for Diagnostics of Power Transformers” CIGRÉ Task Force 15.01, Technical Brochure 254, Paris, 2004

6. W. S. Zaengl “Dielectric Spectroscopy in Time and Frequency Domain for HV Power Equipment, Part I: Theoretical Considerations” IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol 19, No. 5 pp.5-18, September / October 2003

7. H. Borsi, E. Gockenbach, M. Krueger “Method and Device for Measuring a Dielectric Response of an Electrical Insulation System” European Patent EP1729139

8. M. Koch, S. Tenbohlen, M. Krüger and A. Kraetge: “A Comparative Test and Consequent Improvements on Dielectric Response Methods” Proceedings of the XVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, ISH, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007

9. C. Ekanayake: “Diagnosis of Moisture in Transformer Insulation”, Ph.D. dissertation, Dep. of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology,

2006

10. U. Gafvert, G. Frimpong, and J. Fuhr: “Modelling of dielectric measurements on power transformers", Proc. 37th Session “Large High Voltage Electric Systems” (CIGRE), paper 103, Paris, France, 1998

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12. T. V. Oommen: “Moisture Equilibrium Charts for Transformer Insulation Drying Practice” IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-103, No. 10, Oct. 1984, pp. 3063-3067

13. B. Pahlavanpour, M. Eklund K. Sundqvist "Revised IEC Standard for Maintenance of In- Service Insulating Oil" Weidmann Third Annual Technical Conference, Sacramento, USA. 2004

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Biography

Maik Koch is a product manager at OMICRON Austria. Before that he worked as a research assistant at the University of Stuttgart in Germany where he graduated as a Doctor of Philosophy. His fields of research were ageing and moisture determination in oil paper insulated power transformers using chemical and dielectric analysis methods. He received a diploma for electrical engineering at the Technical University of Cottbus in Germany. He has written about twenty scientific papers and collaborates in Cigrè working groups.

Michael Krueger is head of the OMICRON competence center primary testing. He studied electrical engineering at the University of Aachen (RWTH) and the University of Kaiserslautern (Germany) and graduated in 1976 (Dipl.-Ing.). In 1990 he received the Dr. techn. from the University of Vienna. Michael Krueger has 30 years experience in high voltage engineering and insulation diagnosis. He is member of VDE, Cigré and IEEE.