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Modeling of Exhaust Valve Opening in a

Camless Engine
Paper #: 2002-01-0376
Published: 2002-03-04
DOI: 10.4271/2002-01-0376
Schernus, C., van der Staay, F., Janssen, H., Neumeister, J. et al., "Modeling of Exhaust Valve
Opening in a Camless Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0376, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-
C. Schernus
F. Van Der Staay
H. Janssen
J. Neumeister
B. Vogt
L. Donce
I. Estlimbaum
E. Nicole
C. Maerky
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH
Aachen University of Technology
Johnson Controls Automotive Electronics SA
Electromechanical valve trains in camless engines enable virtually fully variable valve timing
that offers large potential for both part load fuel economy and high low end torque. Based upon
the principle of a spring-mass-oscillator, the actuator stores the energy to open and close the
valves in springs. However, the motion of the valves and the electromechanical actuation suffers
from parasitic losses, such as friction and ohmic resistance. Besides eddy current losses, gas
forces obviously play a further important role in the control of exhaust valve opening especially
at high engine speeds and loads. Based on engine test bench data, computational simulations (3D
CFD, gas exchange process and electromechanical system) are carried out to analyze the effects
of exhaust valve gas forces on the dynamic motion of valve and actuator. The modeling approach
and results of this investigation are discussed in this paper.
SAE 2002 World Congress & Exhibition
Simulation and Modeling
Computational fluid dynamics
Spark ignition engines
Exhaust systems
Exhaust valves
Camless Engine Control for a Robust
Unthrottled Operation
Paper #: 981031
Published: 1998-02-23
DOI: 10.4271/981031
Ashhab, M., Stefanopoulou, A., Cook, J., and Levin, M., "Camless Engine Control for a Robust
Unthrottled Operation," SAE Technical Paper 981031, 1998, doi:10.4271/981031.
M. S. Ashhab
A. G. Stefanopoulou
J. A. Cook
M. B. Levin
University of California
Ford Research Lab
Substantial improvements in engine fuel efficiency, torque and reduction of emissions are
available with camless actuation capable of continuous control of engine valve lift, duration and
timing. A phenomenological model has been developed for an unthrottled operation that is key to
efficiency gain. An adaptive nonlinear controller has been designed to coordinate intake valve
lift and duration by using high sampling rate intake manifold pressure and flow sensors. The
driver torque demand is satisfied, while pumping losses are minimized. Simulation results for a 4
cylinder 2.0 L engine demonstrate event-to-event tracking and cylinder-to-cylinder balancing.
The controller corrects for variations in effective flow areas (e.g. valve deposits), induction ram
effects, and temperature.
International Congress & Exposition
Simulation and Modeling
Spark ignition engines
Optimization Techniques and Results for the
Operating Modes of a Camless Engine
Paper #:
Trask, N., Hammoud, M., Haghgooie, M., Megli, T. et al., "Optimization Techniques and
Results for the Operating Modes of a Camless Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0033,
2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-0033.
Nate R. Trask
Mazen Hammoud
Mohammad Haghgooie
Thomas W. Megli
Wen Dai
Ford Motor Co.
Electronic control of valve timing and event duration in a camless engine enables the
optimization of fuel economy, performance, and emissions at each engine operating condition.
This flexible engine technology can offer significant benefits to each of these areas, but
optimization techniques become crucial to achieving these benefits and understanding the
principles behind them. Optimization techniques for an I4 - 2.0L camless ZETEC dynamometer
engine have been developed for a variety of areas including:
Cold Starts
Cylinder Deactivation
Full Load
Transient A/F control
The procedure for the optimization of each of these areas will be presented in detail, utilizing
both steady state and transient dynamometer testing. Experimental data will be discussed and the
principles governing the response of the engine will be explained. Selection criteria for
determining an optimum strategy for the different modes will be presented and recommendations
will be discussed. Conclusions will show that a camless engine improves performance, offers
significant fuel consumption benefits, improves transient control, and is beneficial in reducing
emissions during the cold start and warmed up conditions.
SAE 2003 World Congress & Exhibition
Spark ignition engines

Simultaneous Improvement of Fuel
Consumption and Exhaust Emissions on a
Multi-Cylinder Camless Engine
Paper #:
Kitabatake, R., Minato, A., Inukai, N., and Shimazaki, N., "Simultaneous Improvement of Fuel
Consumption and Exhaust Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Camless Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines
4(1):1225-1234, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0937.
Ryo Kitabatake
Akihiko Minato
Naoki Inukai
Naoki Shimazaki
Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.
Further improvement in fuel consumption is needed for diesel engines to address regulatory
requirement particularly for heavy duty diesel in Japan enforced in 2015, in addition to the
compliance to the regulatory requirements for exhaust emission, which seems to be more
stringent in future. The authors have participated in the project of Comprehensive
Technological Development of Innovative, Next-Generation, Low-Pollution Vehicles organized
by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), and innovative
devices such as multi stage boosting system, ultra high-pressure fuel injection system and
variable valve actuation (camless) system had been developed in this project from a standpoint of
simultaneous improvement of fuel consumption and exhaust emission.
In camless system, intake and exhaust valves are driven by hydraulic pressure. So, fully flexible
setting of opening and closure timings and lift of the intake and exhaust valves is possible. In this
paper, steady-state operation test was conducted by adopting a combustion chamber with
geometric compression ratio of 20.0 and an Electro-Hydraulic Camless System in the multi-
cylinder engine with 3 stage turbo charge system. The engine performance and exhaust
emissions were compared to same base engine equipped with 3 stage turbo system, piston of
geometric compression ratio of 16.2 and cam drive valve train.
As a result of steady-state operation test, potential of improvement of fuel economy was
indicated in this engine system. In addition, due to cylinder deactivation operation, further
improvement of fuel economy was achieved in extremely low load range by reduction of heat
loss. With regard to the BSFC based on JE05 mode -converted value with giving consideration to
the result of cylinder deactivation operation, improvement of 8.9% was obtained.
With regard to the early exhaust valve opening (EEVO) for which effect to improve turbo
charger response is expected as well as the negative valve overlap (NVO) for which making up
for delay of external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) by internal EGR, the operation for 70
seconds was extracted from JE05 mode operation to implement partially transient operation on
trial basis. It was confirmed that both EEVO and NVO were feasible by using this camless
Further simultaneous reduction of both fuel consumption and exhaust emission in JE05 mode
operation is expected by controlling intake and exhaust valve lift with giving consideration to the
effect of external disturbance, improved thermal efficiency by increase of expansion ratio,
implementation of each cylinder control for each load range including the switching control to
cylinder deactivation operation, and suppression of spike-like NOx and soot emissions by
adopting EEVO and NVO.
SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition
Diesel exhaust emissions
Fuel Consumption
Diesel / Compression Ignition engines
Performance Evaluation of a Camless Engine
Using Valve Actuators with Programmable
Paper #:
Gould, L., Richeson, W., and Erickson, F., "Performance Evaluation of a Camless Engine Using
Valve Actuators with Programmable Timing," SAE Technical Paper 910450, 1991,
Larrie A. Gould
William E. Richeson
Frederick L. Erickson
Philips Industrial Electronics Co.
An electronic valve timing (EVT) approach is described which utilizes high-speed,
electropneumatic actuators producing nearly square wave valve lift profiles throughout the
nominal engine speed range. The resulting impact on engine breathing combined with the
controllability afforded by totally programmable valve timing produce an engine with
performance capability radically different from any traditional internal combustion engine. A
comparison test was conducted on a 1.9 liter, four-cylinder engine to investigate the effects of
these unconventional valve dynamics. The primary focus of this paper is the presentation and
discussion of the results of this evaluation.
International Congress & Exposition
Electronic control systems
Sensors and Actuators
Spark ignition engines
Vehicle performance
Fault Diagnosis of Fully Variable Valve
Actuators on a Four Cylinder Camless
Paper #:
Sara, I. and Mischker, K., "Fault Diagnosis of Fully Variable Valve Actuators on a Four
Cylinder Camless Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):960-969, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1353.
Ipek Sara
Karsten Mischker
Robert Bosch GmbH
Fully Variable Valve Actuation (FVVA) systems enable to employ a wide range of combustion
strategies by providing the actuation of a gas exchange valve at an arbitrary point in time, with
variable lift and adjustable ramps for opening and closing. Making such a system ready for the
market requires appropriate fault-diagnostic functionality. Here, we focus on diagnosis
possibilities by using air intake system sensors such as Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
sensors. Results obtained on a 4-cylinder test bench engine are presented for the early intake
opening strategy under different loads, and at medium range rotational speeds on steady-state
conditions. It is shown that detection and identification of the different critical faults on each
actuator is possible by using a Fourier series signal model of the MAP sensor.
SAE World Congress & Exhibition
Sensors and Actuators
Spark ignition engines
Valve trains
Performance tests
Optimization of a Camless Engine
Distribution By Means of The Modelling.
Study of The Influence of The External
Operation Parameters on The Performance
of The Engine
Paper #:
Royo, R., Corbern, J., Azara, L., Devanne, N. et al., "Optimization of a Camless Engine
Distribution By Means of The Modelling. Study of The Influence of The External Operation
Parameters on The Performance of The Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3370, 2001,
Rafael Royo
Jos Migue Corbern
Luis Azara
Nicolas Devanne
Jose Santinho
Dominique Hennion
Thierry Prunier
Universidad Politcnica de Valencia
Department of Advanced Studies
This paper presents the main conclusions of the project carried out by the Department of
Advanced Studies in Control of Engines of RENAULT and the group IMST of the Departamento
de Termodinmica Aplicada de la Universidad Politcnica de Valencia.
The main objectives of this Project was:
The characterization of the camless engine prototype by means of the modeling for different
engine speeds and loads.
The determination of the influence of the external operation conditions on the performance of a
prototype of a camless engine, by means of the calculation with the program ECARD.
Automotive and Transportation Technology Congress and Exposition
Simulation and Modeling
Vehicle performance
A Four Stroke Camless Engine, Operated in
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition
Mode with Commercial Gasoline
Paper #:
Koopmans, L. and Denbratt, I., "A Four Stroke Camless Engine, Operated in Homogeneous
Charge Compression Ignition Mode with Commercial Gasoline," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-
3610, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3610.
Lucien Koopmans
Ingemar Denbratt
Volvo Car Corp.
Chalmers University of Technology
A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke and camless (Otto) engine was operated in
homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with commercial gasoline. The valve
timing could be adjusted during engine operation, which made it possible to optimize the HCCI
engine operation for different speed and load points in the part-load regime of a 5-cylinder 2.4
liter engine.
Several tests were made with differing combinations of speed and load conditions, while varying
the valve timing and the inlet manifold air pressure. Starting with conventional SI combustion,
the negative valve overlap was increased until HCCI combustion was obtained. Then the
influences of the equivalence ratio and the exhaust valve opening were investigated. With the
engine operating on HCCI combustion, unthrottled and without preheating, the exhaust valve
opening, the exhaust valve closing and the intake valve closing were optimized next. Finally,
with three valve timing events, an HCCI operational window was identified.
Using only three valve timing events, an engine operational window for HCCI combustion was
obtained with: a maximum load of about 3.5 bar, a minimum load of about 0.1 bar, a maximum
speed about 3000 rpm, and a minimum speed about 1200 rpm. The window for HCCI
combustion is restricted by zones of knock (on the high load part) and by cycle to cycle
variations in cylinder pressure (on the low load part) at high and low engine speeds. Between
HCCI combustion and conventional SI combustion, there is a transient interval during which a
spark triggers the auto ignition. A clear benefit in reduced CO emissions, NOx emissions (close
to zero), and fuel consumption was observed during HCCI engine operation, compared with
conventional SI combustion whereas the level of hydrocarbon emissions was approximately the
same. The EVC has the greatest influence on the HCCI auto-ignition delay for the engine
operating parameters tested. The influence of EVO is controlled by the gas dynamics and IVC
has only a minor effect on engine behavior.
SAE International Fall Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exhibition
Diesel / Compression Ignition engines
Spark ignition engines
Tests and Testing