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EVOLUTION TECHNOLOGY

While computers are now an important part of the lives of human ein!s" there was a time where
computers #i# not e$ist% &nowin! the histor' of computers an# how much pro!ression has een ma#e can
help 'ou un#erstan# (ust how complicate# an# innovative the creation of computers reall' is%
Unli)e most #evices" the computer is one of the few inventions that #oes not have one specific inventor%
Throu!hout the #evelopment of the computer" man' people have a##e# their creations to the list re*uire#
to ma)e a computer wor)% +ome of the inventions have een #ifferent t'pes of computers" an# some of
them were parts re*uire# to allow computers to e #evelope# further%
The Beginning
,erhaps the most si!nificant #ate in the histor' of computers is the 'ear -./0% It was in this 'ear that the
first 1computer1 was #evelope#% It was create# ' &onra# 2use an# #ue# the 2- Computer% This
computer stan#s as the first as it was the first s'stem to e full' pro!rammale% There were #evices prior
to this" ut none ha# the computin! power that sets it apart from other electronics%
It wasn3t until -.45 that an' usiness saw profit an# opportunit' in computers% This first compan' was
calle# 67C computers" owne# an# operate# ' 8ohn 6tanasoff an# Cliffor# 7err'% Two 'ears later" the
Harvar# 9ar) I computer was #evelope#" furtherin! the science of computin!%
Over the course of the ne$t few 'ears" inventors all over the worl# e!an to search more into the stu#' of
computers" an# how to improve upon them% Those ne$t ten 'ears sa' the intro#uction of the transistor"
which woul# ecome a vital part of the inner wor)in!s of the computer" the ENI6C - computer" as well as
man' other t'pes of s'stems% The ENI6C - is perhaps one of the most interestin!" as it re*uire# 5:":::
vacuum tues to operate% It was a massive machine" an# starte# the revolution to uil# smaller an# faster
computers%
The a!e of computers was forever altere# ' the intro#uction of International 7usiness 9achines" or I79"
into the computin! in#ustr' in -.;/% This compan'" over the course of computer histor'" has een a
ma(or pla'er in the #evelopment of new s'stems an# servers for pulic an# private use% This intro#uction
rou!ht aout the first real si!ns of competition within computin! histor'" which helpe# to spur faster an#
etter #evelopment of computers% Their first contriution was the I79 <:- E=,9 Computer%
A Programming Language Evolves
6 'ear later" the first successful hi!h level
pro!rammin! lan!ua!e was create#% This was a
pro!rammin! lan!ua!e not written in 3asseml'3
or inar'" which are consi#ere# ver' low level
lan!ua!es% >O?T?6N was written so that more
people coul# e!in to pro!ram computers easil'%
The 'ear -.;;" the 7an) of 6merica" couple# with +tanfor# ?esearch Institute an# General Electric" saw
the creation of the first computers for use in an)s% The 9IC?" or 9a!netic In) Character ?eco!nition"
couple# with the actual computer" the E?96" was a rea)throu!h for the an)in! in#ustr'% It wasn3t until
-.;. that the pair of s'stems were put into use in actual an)s%
=urin! -.;@" one of the most important rea)throu!hs in computer histor' occurre#" the creation of the
inte!rate# circuit% This #evice" also )nown as the chip" is one of the ase re*uirements for mo#ern
computer s'stems% On ever' motheroar# an# car# within a computer s'stem" are man' chips that
contain information on what the oar#s an# car#s #o% Without these chips" the s'stems as we )now them
to#a' cannot function%
Gaming, Mice, & the Internet
>or man' computer users now" !ames are a vital part of the computin! e$perience% -.05 saw the creation
of the first computer !ame" which was create# ' +teve ?ussel an# 9IT" which was #ue# +pacewar%
The mouse" one of the most asic components of mo#ern computers" was create# in -.04 ' =ou!lass
En!elart% It otaine# its name from the 1tail1 lea#in! out of the #evice%
One of the most important aspects of computers to#a' was invente# in -.0.% 6?,6 net was the ori!inal
Internet" which provi#e# the foun#ation for the Internet that we )now to#a'% This #evelopment woul#
result in the evolution of )nowle#!e an# usiness across the entire planet%
It wasn3t until -.<: that Intel entere# the scene with the first #'namic ?69 chip" which resulte# in an
e$plosion of computer science innovation%
On the heels of the ?69 chip was the first microprocessor" which was also #esi!ne# ' Intel% These two
components" in a##ition to the chip #evelope# in -.;@" woul# numer amon! the core components of
mo#ern computers%
6 'ear later" the flopp' #is) was create#" !ainin!
its name from the fle$iilit' of the stora!e unit%
This was the first step in allowin! most people to
transfer its of #ata etween unconnecte#
computers%
The first networ)in! car# was create# in -.</" allowin! #ata transfer etween connecte# computers% This
is similar to the Internet" ut allows for the computers to connect without use of the Internet%
Household PC's Emerge
The ne$t three 'ears were ver' important for computers% This is when companies e!an to #evelop
s'stems for the avera!e consumer% The +celi" 9ar)A@ 6ltair" I79 ;-::" 6pple I an# II" T?+A@:" an# the
Commo#ore ,et computers were the forerunners in this area% While e$pensive" these machines starte#
the tren# for computers within common househol#s%
One of the most ma(or reathrou!hs in computer software occurre# in -.<@ with the release of the
VisiCalc +prea#sheet pro!ram% 6ll #evelopment costs were pai# for within a two wee) perio# of time"
which ma)es this one of the most successful pro!rams in computer histor'%
-.<. was perhaps one of the most important 'ears for the home computer user% This is the 'ear that
Wor#+tar" the first wor# processin! pro!ram" was release# to the pulic for sale% This #rasticall' altere#
the usefulness of computers for the ever'#a' user%
The I79 Home computer *uic)l' helpe# revolutioniBe the consumer mar)et in -.@-" as it was affor#ale
for home owners an# stan#ar# consumers% -.@- also saw the the me!aA!iant 9icrosoft enter the scene
with the 9+A=O+ operatin! s'stem% This operatin! s'stem utterl' chan!e# computin! forever" as it was
eas' enou!h for ever'one to learn%
The Cometition Begins ! Ale vs" Microso#t
Computers saw 'et another vital chan!e #urin!
the 'ear of -.@/% The 6pple Lisa computer was
the first with a !raphical user interface" or a GUI%
9ost mo#ern pro!rams contain a GUI" which
allows them to e eas' to use an# pleasin! for
the e'es% This mar)e# the e!innin! of the out
#atin! of most te$t ase# onl' pro!rams%
7e'on# this point in computer histor'" man' chan!es an# alterations have occurre#" from the 6ppleA
9icrosoft wars" to the #evelopin! of microcomputers an# a variet' of computer rea)throu!hs that have
ecome an accepte# part of our #ail' lives% Without the initial first steps of computer histor'" none of this
woul# have een possile%
1) Qual o objetivo do texto?
2) Os primeiros computadores eram mquinas de preo baixo?
3) Como eram os primeiros computadores?
4) Cite pelo menos duas aes que podemos reali!ar atrav"s dos computadores atualmente#
$) %ublin&e uma 'rase que est na 'orma ne(ativa no passado simples#
)) Quantas ve!es o verbo *o +e aparece no texto no passado simples?
,) Circule 2 verbos re(ulares#