Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 458

46 02 30

Alphabetical index

91461

A
accumulator, 074, 161, 167, 1617, 1619 air cooler, 014, 042, 045, 049, 086, 151, 154 air cooler tools, 0542 cleaning of cooler inserts, 156 maintenance of the charge air cooler, 155 antipolishing ring, 1023, 115

cooling, 012, 013, 0216, 0311, 042, 043, 181 cooling water, 012, 0216, 0311, 042, 043, 084 cooling water pump, 186 removing pump from the engine, 18-6 counterweight screw, 079 crank pin, 063 crankshaft, 013, 031, 042, 047, 062, 073, 081, 111 cylinder head, 013, 046, 0410, 072, 121 cylinder head general maintenance, 121 cylinder head tools, 052 mounting a cylinder head, 124 removing a cylinder head, 121 cylinder head screw, 079 cylinder liner, 013, 046, 049, 0410, 062, 1023 cleaning of cylinder liner water side, 1029 cylinder liner maintenance, 1023 cylinder liner tools, 0518 honing a cylinder liner bore, 1029 mounting a cylinder liner, 1027 removing a cylinder liner, 1023

B
bearings, 002, 013, 062, 065, 066, 067, 101, 1010, 1019, 1119 big end bearing, 063, 113, 1119 inspection of the big end bearing, 1122 mounting the big end bearing, 1123 removing the big end bearing, 1119 big end bearing screw, 079, 1119 bypass, 043, 1513, 203, 219

C
cams, 087 camshaft, 014, 049, 062, 071, 145 camshaft maintenance, 147 mounting a camshaft piece, 148 removing a camshaft piece, 147 camshaft bearing, 0410 camshaft bearings, 002, 062, 1019 camshaft gear, 046, 065, 131 camshaft gear maintenance, 131 mounting the camshaft gearing, 139 removing the camshaft gearing, 133 centrifugal filter, 043, 1810 common rail, 012, 074, 161 compressor, 154 connecting rod, 013, 046, 049, 063, 087, 113, 1119 assembling and mounting a connecting rod, 1110 connecting rod screw, 079 connecting rod tools, 0514 removing and dismantling a connecting rod, 115 control mechanism, 042, 221 control oil pump, 076, 175 exhaust pipe, 201

E
emergency operation, 086, 154 exhaust gas, 012, 082, 087, 154

F
fixing bolt, 043, 079 flow control valve, 162 flywheel, 004, 073 flywheel/thrust bearing, 062, 1010, 113 assembling a flywheel/thrust bearing, 1014 dismantling a flywheel/thrust bearing, 1010 maintenance of a flywheel/thrust bearing, 1010 fuel, 012, 021 fuel characteristics, 024 fuel treatment, 021 fuel filter, 042 fuel injection line, 167 fuel injection pipe, 074, 122 fuel injection pump, 014, 047, 048, 161 fuel injection pump element, 162, 164, 166 fuel injection valve, 044, 045, 047, 0410, 072, 076, 1222, 1612

91461

Alphabetical index

46 02 30

fuel injector, 067, 072, 1616 fuel pressure control valve, 174 fuel system, 042, 045, 0410, 171 flow fuse, 1618

O
oil mist detector, 043, 044, 045 operation, 031, 036, 039, 086, 087, 154 overspeed trip device, 061

G
gudgeon pin, 0410, 063, 113, 114, 119, 1110, 1115

P
piston, 013, 036, 046, 048, 0410, 063, 113 assembling and mounting a piston, 1110 piston tools, 0511 removing and dismantling a piston, 115 piston ring, 013, 0310, 046, 063, 114, 119, 1116 inspection and maintenance of piston rings, 119 pneumatic system, 014, 216 pressure control valve, 045 push rod, 141, 144, 145

I
indicator valve, 1221 injection system, 042, 161 injection system tools, 0527 injection tappet, 067 intermediate gear, 0410, 065, 131, 136, 139 intermediate gear central screw, 079

R
rocker arms, 066, 072, 141, 143, 144, 145 roller, 066, 143 rotocap, 044, 046 runningin filter, 1812

L
lateral screw, 079 leakage detection, 1618 leakage detection ring, 1619 lube oil filter, 042 lubricating oil pressure control valve, 187 lubricating oil pump, 047, 068, 077, 1812 lubrication, 012, 014, 0211, 035, 0311, 043, 181 lubricating oil, 012, 0211, 0311, 043, 084, 1119

S
safety valve, 073, 101, 1222 slow turning, 033, 211 split gear wheel, 065, 1315 mounting the split gear wheel, 1316 removing only the split gear wheel, 1317 removing the split gear wheel, 1316 split gear wheel maintenance, 1316 SSV, 1622 start up and safety valve, 074, 161, 1617 start, 031, 032 local start, 032 remote and automatic start, 033 start after a prolonged stop, 034 start after overhaul, 034 start up and safety valve, 161, 1617, 1622 starting air distributor, 049, 212, 213 starting air system, 012, 211 starting air vessel, 215

M
main bearing, 002, 013, 062, 101 assembling a main bearing, 106 dismantling a main bearing, 101 inspection of main bearings and journals, 106 main bearing tools, 0521 maintenance of main bearings, 101 main bearing screw, 079 main starting valve, 048, 211, 212, 217

46 02 30

Alphabetical index

91461

starting valve, 073, 1222, 214 stop, 031, 035 automatic stop, 035 local stop, 035 remote stop, 035

valve mechanism, 049, 0410, 128, 141 assembling the valve mechanism, 144 dismantling the valve mechanism, 142 inspection of the valve mechanism, 144 maintenance of the valve mechanism, 141 valve rotator, 048, 1220 valve seat, 049, 064, 121, 1211, 1216 fitting a new exhaust valve seat ring, 1218 fitting a new inlet valve seat ring, 1217 removing an old seat ring, 1216 valve stem, 064, 1212 valve tappet, 066, 141, 143, 144 valves, 004, 013, 044, 045, 047, 048, 0410, 073, 128, 1221, 1222, 1612, 212, 214 adjusting valve clearance, 127 assembling of valves, 1215 checking and reconditioning valves and seats, 1211 dismantling of valves, 129 lapping, 1615 machine grinding, 1212 vibration damper, 049, 1410 vibrations, 088

T
thermostatic valve, 048 htwater thermostatic valve, 048 ltwater thermostatic valve, 048 thrust bearing screw, 079 turbocharger, 042, 043, 044, 045, 046, 0410, 077, 151, 152 allowable operation with damaged turbocharger, 154 turbocharger fastening screws, 0710 turbocharger maintenance, 152 water cleaning of compressor during operation, 154 water cleaning of turbine during operation, 152 turning device, 031 maintenance of turning device, 032

W V
valve guide, 048, 064, 066, 121, 129, 1212 wastegate, 043, 159, 1510, 203, 219 water separator, 155 WECS, 221, 231

91461

Alphabetical index

46 02 30

46 02 30

Table of Contents

91461

Chapter 0. Contents, instruction, terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0.1. 0.2. 0.3. Contents of the instruction book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page 001
001 001 002

1. Main data, operating data and general design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Main data for WRTSILR 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recommended operating data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General engine design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

011
011 012 012 013

2. Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.1. Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1. Fuel, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2. Fuel treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2.1. Purification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2.2. Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2.3. Viscosity control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3. Maximum limits of fuel characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4. Comments on fuel characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.5. Measures to avoid difficulties when running on heavy fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6. General advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Lubricating oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1. Lubricating oil, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2. Lubricating oil qualities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3. Maintenance and control of the lubricating oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4. Lubricating oil for the governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5. Lubricating oils for turbochargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.6. Lubricating oils for turning device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. Cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1. Cooling water, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2. Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3. Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

021
021 021 021 021 022 024 024 026 0210 0210 0211 0211 0212 0213 0215 0215 0216 0216 0216 0216 0218

3. Start, stop and operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.3. 3.3.1. 3.4. 3.5. 3.5.1. 3.5.2. 3.5.3. 3.5.4. 3.5.5. Turning of the crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turning of the crankshaft, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of turning device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Start, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote and automatic start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Start after a prolonged stop (more than 8 h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local start after a prolonged stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Start after overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooling water pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

031
031 031 032 032 032 032 033 034 034 034 035 035 035 035 035 035

91461

Table of Contents

46 02 30

Chapter
3.6. 3.6.1. 3.6.2. 3.6.3. 3.6.4. 3.6.5. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. Normal operation supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal operation supervision, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Every second day or after every 50 running hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Every second week or after every 250 running hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Once a month or after every 500 running hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In connection with maintenance work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation supervision after overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Runningin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page
036 036 036 037 038 038 039 0310 0311

4. Maintenance schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1. 4.2. Maintenance schedule, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance schedule for HFO operation, Common rail engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

041
041 042

5. Maintenance tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1. 5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.7. 5.8. 5.9. 5.10. 5.11. Maintenance tools, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of this list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ordering of maintenance tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous tools for air cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optional tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

051
051 051 051 052 0511 0514 0518 0521 0527 0534 0536 0542 0543

6. Adjustments, clearances and wear limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6.1. 6.2. 6.2.1. Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearances and wear limits (at 20_C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearances and wear limits for V46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

061
061 062 062

7. Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


7.1. 7.1.1. 7.1.2. 7.1.3. 7.1.4. 7.1.5. 7.1.6. 7.1.7. 7.1.8. 7.1.9. 7.2. 7.3. 7.3.1. 7.3.2. 7.3.3. 7.3.4. 7.3.5. Tightening torques for screws and nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common rail equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine driven lub. oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other tightening torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of locking fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulically tightened connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulically tightened connections, Vengines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dismantling hydraulically tightened screw connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reassembling hydraulically tightened screw connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of high pressure tool set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

071
071 071 072 073 074 076 076 077 077 078 078 078 078 079 0711 0712 0712

46 02 30

Table of Contents

91461

Chapter
7.4. 7.5. 7.6. Use of hydraulic extractor cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of low pressure pump for lifting purposes in the crankcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torque calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page
0713 0714 0715

8. Operating problems, emergency operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


8.1. 8.2. 8.2.1. 8.2.2. 8.2.3. 8.2.4. 8.2.5. Problem, possible reason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation with defective air cooler(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation with defective turbocharger(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation with defective cams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation with removed piston and connecting rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torsional vibrations and other vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

081
081 086 086 086 087 087 088

9. Specific installation data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1. 10.2. 10.2.1. 10.2.2. 10.2.3. 10.2.4. 10.3. 10.3.1. 10.3.2. 10.3.3. 10.4. 10.4.1. 10.4.2. 10.4.3. 10.4.4. 10.5. 10.5.1. 10.5.2. 10.5.3. 10.5.4. 10.5.5. Engine block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of the main bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dismantling of a main bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection of main bearings and journals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assembling the main bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flywheel / thrust bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of flywheel / thrust bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dismantling of flywheel / thrust bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assembling the flywheel / thrust bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Camshaft bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of camshaft bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection of the camshaft bearing bushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing the camshaft bearing bushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mounting of camshaft bearing bushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of the cylinder liner and antipolishing ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing the cylinder liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mounting the cylinder liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Honing of the cylinder liner bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning of the cylinder liner water side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

091 101
101 101 101 101 106 106 1010 1010 1010 1014 1019 1019 1019 1019 1020 1023 1023 1023 1027 1029 1029

11. Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston . . . . . . . . . . . .


11.1. Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1. Crankshaft alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.2. Measurement of thrust bearing axial clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2. Connecting rod and piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1. Removing and dismantling of piston and connecting rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2. Inspection and maintenance of piston rings and gudgeon pin bearing . . . . . . . . . 11.2.3. Assembling and mounting of piston and connecting rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.3.1. Assembly of a piston having the upper part fastened with studs . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.3.2. Assembly of a piston having the upper part fastened with screws . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.3.3. Assembling of the piston and connecting rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3. Big end bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1. Removing the big end bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2. Inspection of the big end bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.3. Mounting of the big end bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111
111 111 113 113 115 119 1110 1111 1113 1114 1119 1119 1122 1123

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Chapter 12. Cylinder head with valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


12.1. 12.2. 12.2.1. 12.2.2. 12.2.3. 12.2.4. 12.2.5. 12.3. 12.3.1. 12.3.2. 12.3.3. 12.3.4. 12.4. 12.4.1. 12.4.2. 12.4.3. 12.5. 12.5.1. 12.6. 12.6.1. 12.7. 12.8. 12.9. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General maintenance of the cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing the cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mounting the cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusting valve clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking of cylinder tightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust and inlet valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dismantling the valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking and reconditioning valves and seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assembling of valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing an old seat ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting a new inlet valve seat ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fitting a new exhaust valve seat ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve rotator (Rotocap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotocap maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indicator valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indicator valve, operation and maintenance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page 121
121 121 121 121 124 127 128 128 129 1211 1212 1215 1216 1216 1217 1218 1220 1220 1221 1221 1222 1222 1222

13. Camshaft driving gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


13.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2. Intermediate gear and camshaft gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.1. Intermediate gear and camshaft gear maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.2. Removing the camshaft gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.3. Mounting the camshaft gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3. Split gear wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3.1. Split gear wheel maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3.2. Removing the split gear wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3.3. Mounting of the split gear wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3.4. Removing only the split gear wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

131
131 131 131 133 139 1315 1316 1316 1316 1317

14. Valve mechanism and camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


14.1. Valve mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1. Maintenance of valve mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.2. Dismantling of valve mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.3. Inspection of valve mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.4. Assembling of valve mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2. Description of camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.1. Maintenance of camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.2. Removing the camshaft piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.3. Mounting the camshaft piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.4. Vibration damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

141
141 141 142 144 144 145 147 147 148 1410

15. Turbocharging and air cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


15.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151
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Chapter
15.2. 15.2.1. 15.2.2. 15.3. 15.3.1. 15.3.2. 15.3.3. 15.4. 15.4.1. 15.5. 15.6. 15.6.1. 15.6.2. 15.7. 15.7.1. 15.7.2. 15.8. 15.8.1. 15.8.2. 15.8.3. 15.8.4. Turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description (TPLturbocharger) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbocharger maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water cleaning of turbine during operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning device for turbine and compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water cleaning of compressor during operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable operation with damaged turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of charge air cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning cooler inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waste Gate valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waste gate and waste gate control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of the Waste Gate valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charge air Bypass valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bypass control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing of the bypass system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page
152 152 152 152 152 153 153 154 154 154 154 155 156 159 1510 1512 1513 1513 1513 1513 1514

16. Injection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


16.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2. Fuel injection pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.2. Maintenance of fuel injection pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.2.1. Removing of fuel injection pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.2.2. Removing the fuel injection pump element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.2.3. Mounting the fuel injection pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.2.4. Mounting the fuel injection pump element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3. Injection line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.1. Preparations before any work with the high pressure pipe system . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.2. Removing the high pressure fuel pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.3. Checking the high pressure fuel pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.4. Mounting the high pressure fuel pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4. Injection valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.1. General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2. Maintenance of fuel injection valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.1. Removing the fuel injection valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.2. Changing of fuel injection nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.3. Mounting of fuel injection valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5. Testing of fuel injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5.1. Checking the maximum needle lift of the nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6. Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.1. Leakage detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.2. Accumulator maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.2.1. Removing the accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6.2.2. Mounting the accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

161
161 161 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 1610 1612 1612 1613 1614 1615 1615 1616 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621

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Chapter
16.7. Start up and safety valve (SSV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7.1. Maintenance of the SSV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7.1.1. Removing the SSV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7.1.2. Dismantling and assembling the SSV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7.1.3. Replacing the solenoid valve without removing the complete SSV . . . . . . . . . . 16.7.1.4. Replacing the SSV air bottle without removing the complete SSV . . . . . . . . . . 16.7.1.5. Mounting the SSV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page
1622 1623 1623 1623 1624 1624 1625

17. Fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


17.1. 17.2. 17.2.1. 17.2.2. 17.2.3. 17.3. 17.4. 17.5. 17.5.1. 17.5.2. 17.5.3. 17.5.4. 17.5.5. 17.6. 17.6.1. General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Draining of fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Venting of fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment of pressure control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low pressure system (preheating system) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control oil system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of control oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing of control oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mounting of control oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Replacing or checking the condition of pressure adjusting unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control devices for fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

171
171 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 175 176 178 178 178 179 179

18. Lubricating oil system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


18.1. 18.1.1. 18.1.2. 18.2. 18.2.1. 18.2.2. 18.3. 18.3.1. 18.4. 18.5. 18.5.1. 18.5.2. 18.5.3. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The engine lubricating oil circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating oil pressure regulating valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centrifugal filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Runningin filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine driven lubricating oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil pump maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing the pump from the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mounting the pump to the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181
181 183 187 187 187 189 1810 1811 1812 1812 1813 1813 1814

19. Cooling water system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


19.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.1. HTcircuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.2. LTcircuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.3. Venting and pressure control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.4. Preheating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.5. Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.6. Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2. Water pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2.1. Water pump maintenance (WD200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

191
191 193 193 194 194 194 195 196 196

20. Exhaust system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


20.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1.1. SPEXpiping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

201
201 201

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20.2. Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.1. Change of expansion bellows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.2. Assembling the expansion bellows between turbocharger and exhaust pipe . . . 20.2.3. Suspension of the insulation box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.4. Waste gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.5. Charge air bypass valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page
202 202 202 203 203 203

21. Starting air system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


21.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2. Main starting valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3. Starting air distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3.2. Starting air distributor maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4. Starting valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4.1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4.2. Starting valve maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.5. Starting air vessel and pipings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6. Pneumatic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6.1. General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6.2. Maintenance of the pneumatic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6.2.1. Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6.2.2. Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.7. Waste gate control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.8. Bypass control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

211
211 212 213 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 218 218 218 219 219

22. Control mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

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23 Instrumentation and automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
23.1 WECS 2000, Control and monitoring system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3 23.1.1 General about WECS 2000, Control and monitoring system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3 23.1.2 Description of the system in general, WECS 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3 23.1.3 Functional descriptions, WECS 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-4 23.1.3.1 Speed measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-4 23.1.3.2 Safety system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5 23.1.3.2.1 Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5 23.1.3.2.2 Stopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-6 23.1.3.2.3 Start blockings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-6 23.1.3.2.4 Shut-downs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-6 23.1.3.2.5 Shut-down backup system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-7 23.1.3.2.6 Load reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-7 23.1.3.3 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-8 23.1.3.3.1 Local Display Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-8 23.1.3.3.1.1 Meter page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-9 23.1.3.3.1.2 History page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-11 23.1.3.3.1.3 Status pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-12 23.1.3.3.2 Backup instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-13 23.1.3.3.3 Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-13 23.1.3.4 WEnCoM-functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-15 23.1.3.5 Modbus communication link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-17 23.1.4 Functional testing, WECS 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-18 23.1.4.1 Testing of overspeed trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-18 23.1.4.1.1 Testing of the overspeed trip by running the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-18 23.1.4.1.2 Testing of the overspeed trip by using a signal generator . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-19 23.1.4.2 Testing of pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-20 23.1.5 Hardware, WECS 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-20 23.1.5.1 External Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-20 23.1.5.1.1 Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-21 23.1.5.1.2 Hardwired connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-22 23.1.5.2 WECS System Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-22 23.1.5.2.1 WECS cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-23 23.1.5.2.1.1 WECS 2000 Main Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-24 23.1.5.2.1.2 Main Control Unit (MCU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-25 23.1.5.2.1.2.1 Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-25 23.1.5.2.1.2.2 Mother Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-26 23.1.5.2.1.2.3 DC/DC Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-27 23.1.5.2.1.2.4 Processor Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-29 23.1.5.2.1.2.5 Memory Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-30 23.1.5.2.1.2.6 LAN Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-31 23.1.5.2.1.2.7 Interface Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-33 23.1.5.2.1.3 Relay Module (RM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-35 23.1.5.2.1.3.1 Indicator LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-36 23.1.5.2.1.4 Local Display Unit (LDU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-38

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23.1.5.2.1.5 Local Control Panel and Back Up Insrtruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-39 23.1.5.2.1.5.1 Connectors for external systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-40 23.1.5.2.2 Distribution Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-40 23.1.5.2.2.1 SMU board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-41 23.1.5.2.2.2 DCU Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-44 23.1.5.2.3 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-46 23.1.5.2.3.1 Sensors for monitoring and alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-46 23.1.5.3 Engine Speed Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-47 23.1.5.4 ABB TPL Turbocharger Speed Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-48 23.1.6 Software, WECS 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-49 23.1.6.1 Standard start/ stop sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-51 23.2 WECS 7500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-52 23.2.1 WECS 7500 System layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-52 23.2.2 WECS 7500 Structure and modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-54 23.2.2.1 Module location and wiring harness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-54 23.2.2.2 Main controller (MCM 700) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-55 23.2.2.3 Rail pressure controller (CCM 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-55 23.2.2.4 Cylinder controller (CCM 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-56 23.2.2.5 Power module (PMOD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-56 23.2.2.6 Communication module (CMOD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-58 23.2.3 Common Rail control functionality, WECS 7500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-59 23.2.3.1 General about the Common Rail functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-60 23.2.3.2 Engine in Stop mode, WECS 7500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-62 23.2.3.3 Engine in Start mode, WECS 7500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-62 23.2.3.4 Engine in run mode, WECS 7500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-63 23.2.3.4.1 Fuel injection quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-63 23.2.3.4.2 Fuel injection timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-65 23.2.3.4.3 Common Rail fuel pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-65 23.2.3.5 Engine in stop, shutdown and emergency stop mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-67 23.2.3.5.1 Engine stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-67 23.2.3.5.2 Engine shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-68 23.2.3.5.3 Engine emergency stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-68 23.2.3.6 PWM control of injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-70 23.2.3.7 Speed measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-70 23.3 Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-74 23.3.1 Resistance versus temperature relationship for platinum resistance element Pt 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-74 23.3.2 Electromotive forces of thermocouple Nickel Chromium / NickelAluminium (NiCrNiAl) Type K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-75 23.4 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-77

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Chapter

Page

10

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Contents, instruction, terminology

00

0. Contents, instruction, terminology


0.1. Contents of the instruction book
1. This Instruction Book contains data and instructions for operation and maintenance of the engine. Basic general knowledge has not been entered. Consequently, it is assumed that the engine room staff are well informed as to the care of diesel engines. 2. Wrtsil reserves the right to minor alterations and improvements due to engine development without being obliged to enter the corre sponding changes in this Instruction Book. 3. The diesel engines will be equipped as agreed upon in the sales docu ments. No claim can be made on the basis of this Instruction Book as herein are described some components not included in every delivery. 4. Exact engine construction details are defined by the specification number on the name plate located on the engine. In all correspondence or when ordering spare parts, be careful to state engine type and engine number. 5. This Instruction Book is complemented by the Spare Part Catalogue which includes sectional drawings or exterior views of all components (partial assemblies).

0.2.

General rules
1. Before any steps are taken, carefully read the corresponding section in this Instruction Book. 2. Keep an engine log book for every engine. 3. During all maintenance work, observe the utmost cleanliness and or der. 4. Before dismantling, check that all pipe systems concerned are drained or the pressure released. After dismantling, cover immediately holes for lubricating oil, fuel oil and air with tape or plugs. 5. When exchanging a worn-out or damaged part provided with an identification mark stating cylinder or bearing number, mark the new part with the same number on the same spot. Every exchange should be entered in the engine log book and the reason should be clearly stated. 6. After reassembling, check that all screws and nuts are tightened and locked, if necessary.

001

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Contents, instruction, terminology

46 98 48

0.3.

Terminology
The most important terms used in this manual are defined as follows: Manoeuvring side: The longitudinal side of the engine where the oper ating devices are located (start and stop, instrument panel, speed gover nor). Rear side: The longitudinal side of the engine opposite the manoeu vring side. Driving end: The end of the engine where the flywheel is located. Free end: The end opposite the driving end. Designation of cylinders: According to ISO recommendation 932 and DIN 6265 the designation of cylinders begins at the driving end. In a Vengine the cylinders in the left bank, seen from the driving end, are termed A1, A2 etc. and in the right bank B1, B2 etc., see below:

Terminology

Fig. 0.1.

Designation of bearings
S Main bearings. The flywheel bearing is No. 0, the first standard main bearing is No. 1, the second No. 2 etc. S The thrust bearing rails are located in the flywheel bearing. The outer rails close to the flywheel are marked with "00" and the inner rails with "0". S The camshaft bearings are designated the same as the main bearings and the thrust bearing bushings are designated "00" (outer) and "0". S Camshaft gear bearings: The bearings located on the flywheel side are designated "00" and the inner bearings "0". S Upper and lower bearings shells: In bearings where both shells are identical, the upper one is marked with "UP". 00 2
002

46 98 48

Contents, instruction, terminology

00

Designation of bearings

Fig. 0.2.

Manoeuvring side and rear side. Details located on the manoeuvring side may be marked with "M" and correspondingly "B" for the back of the engine (B-bank on a V-engine).
Clockwise rotating engine. When looking at the engine from the driv ing end the shaft rotates clockwise. Counterclockwise rotating engine. When looking at the engine from the driving end the shaft rotates counter-clockwise. Bottom dead centre, abbreviated BDC , is the bottom turning point of the piston in the cylinder. Top dead centre, abbreviated TDC , is the top turning point of the pis ton in the cylinder. TDC for every cylinder is marked on the graduation of the flywheel. Top dead centre at firing: During a complete working cycle, consisting of two crankshaft revolutions in a four-stroke engine, the piston reach es TDC twice: a) For the first time when the exhaust stroke of the previous working cycle ends and the suction stroke of the following one begins. Exhaust valves as well as inlet valves are then partially open and scavenging takes place. If the crankshaft is turned backwards and forwards from TDC position, both exhaust and inlet valves will move, a fact that indi cates that the crankshaft is near the position which is called TDC at scavenging. b)The second time is after the compression stroke and before the work ing stroke. Slightly before this TDC the fuel injection takes place (on an
003

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Contents, instruction, terminology

46 98 48

engine in operation) and this TDC can therefore be defined TDC at firing. In this case, all valves are closed and do not move if the crankshaft is turned. When watching the camshaft and the injection pump it is pos sible to note that the pump tappet roller is on the lifting side of the fuel cam.

Designation of valves
Air in Exhaust out

Fig. 0.3. Inlet valves A and B, exhaust valves C and D. Marking of the flywheel: The flywheel is provided with a 360_ scale, starting from TDC at firing for cylinder 1. TDC at firing for every cylin der is marked on the flywheel. There is a common marking for the cylin ders in engines with even cylinder numbers, one cylinder is at TDC at firing and the other is at TDC at scavenging. See also the firing order in chapter NO TAG Firing intervals of an in-line engine (in cran kangles) can be determined by dividing 720_ with the number of cylin ders. In V-engines the scale starts from TDC at firing for cylinder A1. TDC at firing for cylinder B1 is consequently at 45_. Firing intervals in a bank of a V-engine can be determined by dividing 720_ with the num ber of cylinders of the bank.

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46 98 48

Contents, instruction, terminology

00

Example of reading the flywheel

Fig. 0.4.

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Contents, instruction, terminology

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Risk Reduction

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00A Risk Reduction

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Risk Reduction

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00A-2

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00A.1

General
Read the engine manual including this appendix before installing, operating or servicing the engine and/or related equipment. Failure to follow the instructions can cause personal injury, loss of life and/or property damage. Proper personal safety equipment include proper work clothing, e.g. overalls, gloves, hard hat, safety glasses and ear protection must be used in all circumstances. Missing, imperfect or defective safety equipment might cause serious personal injury or loss of life. This appendix contains listed general identified hazards, hazardous situations or events, which are to be noticed during normal operation and maintenance work.

00A-3

W46 02 16 A

Risk Reduction

00A

00A.2

Identified hazard, hazardous situation or event


Chapter of engine manual 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Identified hazard, hazardous situation or event Dropping parts during maintenance work Turning device engaged during maintenance work 1) Crankcase safety expl. valves will open if crank-case explosion Noise level Running engine without covers In case of major failure, risk of ejected parts Contact with electricity during maintenance work if power not disconnected Electrical hazard if grounding of electrical equipment is incorrect Ejection of components / high pressure gas due to high firing pressures Risk of ejected parts due to break down of turbo-charger Overspeed or explosion due to air-gas mixture in the charge air 2) Ejection of fuel injector if not fastened and turning device engaged Fire or explosion due to leakage on fuel / gas line or lube oil system Inhalation of exhaust gases due to leakage 3) Inhalation of exhaust gas dust Explosion or fire if flammable gas or vapor is leaking into the insulation box. 4) Touching of moving parts
1) 2) 3) 4)

4 X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X v X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

Warning light when turning device engaged. Suction air to be taken from gas free space. Require proper ventilation of engine room and plant.

Require proper ventilation and/or gas detector in the engine space and the engine room.

00A-4

W46 02 16 A

Risk Reduction

00A

00A.3

General identified hazards, hazardous situations or events


Hazards that may be due to moving parts
Running engine without covers, coming in contact with moving parts Touching pump parts during unintentional start of el. driven pump motor Charger starts to rotate due to draft if not locked during mainteance Somebody sticks his hand into the compressor housing when the silencer is removed and engine running Unexpected movement of valve or fuel rack(s) due to broken wire or soft / hardware failure in the control system Unexpected movement of components Turning device engaged during maintenance work Turning device not engaged e.g. Turning device removed for overhaul, during maintenance work could cause rotating crankshaft Mechanical breakage (of e.g. speed sensor) due to erratic actuator assembly to engine or electrical connections

00A.3.1

00A.3.2

Hazards that may be due to incorrect operating conditions


Overspeed or explosion due to air-gas mixture in the charge air Overspeeding due to air-oil mist mixture in the charge air Malfunction of crankcase ventilation Oil mist detector will trip if water is present in lubricating oil Crankcase explosion if oil mist is mixed with fresh air during inspection after an oil mist shut down Crankcase safety explosion valves will open if there is a crankcase explosion

00A.3.3

Hazards that may be due to leakage, break-down or improper assembly of components


Fuel or gas pipe will burst and spray fuel / gas Leakage of: Fuel in joints on low and/or high pressure side Lube oil High pressure water on DWI engines HT water

00A-5

W46 02 16 A Charge air Exhaust gas

Risk Reduction

00A

Pressurized air from air container, main manifold or pipes High pressure gas and sealing oil on GD engines

Fire or explosion due to leakage on fuel line Fire due to oil, fuel or gas leakage Explosion or fire if flammable gas or vapor is leaking into the insulation box Inhalation of exhaust gases or fuel gases due to leakage Failure of pneumatic stop Ejected components due to: Breakdown of hydraulic tool Breakdown of hydraulic bolt Breakdown of turbocharger High firing pressures Major failure

Ejection of: Pressurized liquids and gases from the block and pipings High pressure fluid due to breakdown of hydraulic tool Gas due to high firing pressures Pressurized gases from high pressure gas system High pressure fluid due to breakdown of HP sealing oil pipe High pressure air during maintenance of oil mist detector main air supply piping Cooling water, fuel or lube oil if sensor is loosened while the circuit is pressurized Springs during maintenance work

Oil spray if running without covers Ejection of fuel injector if not fastened and turning device en gaged

00A.3.4

Hazards that may be due to electricity or incorrect connections within electrical components
Fire or sparks due to damage or short circuit in electrical equipment Contact with electricity during maintenance work if power not disconnected Electrical hazard if grounding of electrical equipment is incorrect

00A-6

W46 02 16 A

Risk Reduction

00A

Electrical shock if electrical equipment has a lead isolation break or connector damage or is dismantled with power connected Overheating of control system component due to erratic electrical connections Incorrectly wired or disconnected emergency stop switch Overload of control system components due to damaged control circuitry or incorrect voltage Engine not controllable if failure in the shutdown circuitry Unexpected start up or overrun Crankcase explosion if: Engine not safeguarded at high oil mist levels, due to energy supply failure Engine not (fully) safeguarded at high oil mist levels, due to failure in oil mist detector circuitry Engine not (fully) safeguarded at high oil mist levels, due to erratic electrical connector or leakage in pipe connection

00A.3.5

Other hazards and hazardous situations where it!s especially important to use personal safety equipment
Slip, trip and fall, Incorrect lifting methods Water additives and treatment products (see 02A. Environmental Hazards) Touching the insulation box, turbo-charger, pipes, exhaust manifold or (other) unprotected parts without protection during engine operation Dropping parts during maintenance work Starting maintenance work too early i.e. causing risk when handling hot components Neglecting use of cranes and/or lifting tools Not using proper tools during e.g. maintenance work Contact with fuel oil or oily parts during maintenance work (see appendix 02A) Noise level Touching or removing Turbocharger insulation Preloaded fixation springs during check / replacement of sensor

00A-7

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Risk Reduction

00A

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00A-8

W46 02 17 B

Welding Precautions

00B

00B Welding Precautions

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Welding Precautions

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00B-2

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Welding Precautions

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00B.1

Precautions General
Main principles: Prevent uncontrolled current loops Prevent radiation Prevent sparks and hot metal slag hazards

CAUTION! If convenient, disconnect all global signals like power supply, data communication etc.

00B-3

W46 02 17 B

Welding Precautions

00B

00B.2

Preventing uncontrolled current loops


Welding current path must always be checked, there should be a direct route from the welding point to the return connection of the welding apparatus. The highest current is always following the path of lowest resistance. In certain cases the return current can therefore proceed via grounding wires and electronic components in the control system. To avoid this, the distance between the welding point and the return connection clamp of the welding apparatus should always be shortest possible and without electronic components in the returning loop path. Attention must be paid to the security of the return connection clamp, a bad contact may also cause sparks and radiation.

00B-4

W46 02 17 B

Welding Precautions

00B

00B.3

Preventing Radiation
The welding current and the arc emits a wide spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. This may cause damages to sensitive electronic equipment. To avoid this damage, all cabinets and terminal boxes must be kept closed during welding procedures. Sensitive equipment can also be protected by means of shielding with a conductive metal plate. Also avoid having the cables of the welding apparatus laying in parallel with wires and cables of the control system. The high welding current is easily inducting secondary currents in other conductive materials.

00B-5

W46 02 17 B

Welding Precautions

00B

00B.4

Preventing damage due to sparks


Sparks are commonly projected around from the welding arc. Few materials withstand the heat from these sparks. Therefore all cabinets and terminal boxes should be kept closed during welding procedures. Sensors, actuators, cables and other equipment out on the engine must be protected by means of proper protection. Sparks can also be a problem after they have cooled down, i.e. causing short circuits, sealing problems etc.

00B-6

W46 02 17 B

Welding Precautions

00B

00B.5
00B.5.1

Precaution checklists
Checklists General
The checklists (preferable glued to a plastic plate) in this chapter should be put into the engines cabinet for respective system type. The checklist must be easily visible and accessible when opening the cabinet.

00B.5.2

Basic ECU (Despemes/Spemos) checklist


The following precautions must be paid attention to before welding in the vicinity of a basic ECU system: Close the cover of the cabinet Deactive the system by disconnecting all external connectors (X1...X4) If convenient, protect cables, sensors and other equipment from sparks with a proper metal sheet

00B.5.3

WECS 2000 checklist


The following precautions must be followed before welding in the vicinity of a WECS 2000 control system: Close the covers of the cabinet and all the distributed units Deactivate the system by disconnecting all external connectors (X1...X6) If convenient, protect cables, sensors and other equipment from sparks with a proper metal sheet

00B.5.4

WECS 3000 checklist


The following precautions must be followed before welding in the vicinity of a WECS 3000 control system: Deactive the system by disconnecting all external connectors (X1...X5) Do not connect the welding apparatus return line to the aluminium profile containing CCUs, KDUs and ignition modules

The profile is used as a common ground for these modules. Open all terminal fuses (F1...F20) in the cabinet Close the covers of the cabinet and all the distributed units If convenient, protect cables, sensors and other equipment from sparks with proper metal sheet

00B-7

W46 02 17 B

Welding Precautions

00B

00B.5.5

WECS 7000/8000 checklist


The following precautions must be followed before welding in the vicinity of a WECS 7000 or 8000 control system: Deactive the system by disconnecting all external connectors (X1...X6) If the welding point is close to (approximately within a radius of 2 m) an electronic module (SSM-701, SSM-558, CCD/PDM, Cense etc.) disconnect all connectors of the unit Close the covers of the cabinet Disconnect the interconnections between the harnesses and the cabinet If convenient, protect harnesses, cables, sensors and other equipment from sparks with a proper metal sheet

00B-8

46 02 30

Main data, operating data and general design

01

1. Main data, operating data and general design


1.1. Main data for WRTSILR 46
Cylinder bore Stroke Piston displacement per cylinder Firing order Engine type 4L46 6L46 8L46 9L46 12V46 16V46 18V46 Clockwise rotation 1342 153624 13258674 124689753 A1B1A5B5A3B3A6B6A2 B2A4B4 A1B1A3B3A2B2A5B5A8 B8A6B6A7B7A4B4 A1B8A7B6A4B3A2B9A8 B5A6B1A3B7A9B4A5B2 Counterclockwise rotation 1243 142635 14768523 135798642 A1B4A4B2A2B6A6B3A3 B5A5B1 A1B4A4B7A7B6A6B8A8 B5A5B2A2B3A3B1 A1B2A5B4A9B7A3B1A6 B5A8B9A2B3A4B6A7B8 460 mm 580 mm 96.4 l

011

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Main data, operating data and general design

46 02 30

1.2.

Recommended operating data


Apply to normal operation at nominal speed. Normal values Temperatures,_C Limits Alarm Stop 80 (xx) 110

Lub. oil before engine Lub. oil differential high, after engine HT water after engine HT water differential low, before engine HT water, rise over turbocharger (only VTR and Napierchargers) LT water before engine Charge air in air receiver Exhaust gas after cylinder Preheating of HT water Gauge pressures (bar) Lub. oil before engine Lub. oil before turbocharger: VTR TPL Napier

6065 1013 8595 515 812 2838 4060 See test records 70 4,0 0,51,5 1,252,25 2,33,3 3,04,5 (x) 3,04,5 (x) 910 max. 30 See test records Other pressures (bar) See test records 250

70 105

75 490 550 (xx)

3,0 0,4 1,0 2,1 2.0 2.0 4,0 18

2,0

HT water before engine LT water before charge air cooler Fuel before engine Starting air Charge air Fuel in common rail Control oil (xx) Load reduction

225

(x) Depending on engine speed and installation.

1.3.

Reference conditions
Reference conditions according to ISO 3046/I: Air pressure Ambient temperature Relative air humidity 100 kPa (1.0 bar) 298 K (25_C) 30 %

Cooling water temperature before charge air cooler 298 K (25_C) Should the engine be designated to operate outside of the above stated conditions, the output will be as per the sales contract. The engine manufacturer can give ad01 2
012

46 02 30

Main data, operating data and general design

01

vice about the correct output reduction. As a guideline, the derating calculation is as follows:

(a + b + c) x Rated Output
a = 0.5 % for every _C the ambient temperature exceeds stated value in the sales documents. b = 1 % for every 100 m level difference above stated value in the sales documents. c = 0.4 % for every _C the cooling water of the charge air cooler exceeds stated value in the sales documents.

1.4.

General engine design


The engine is a turbocharged intercooled 4stroke diesel engine with direct fuel injection. The engine block is cast in one piece. The main bearings are underslung. The main bearing cap is supported by two hydraulically tensioned main bearing screws and two horizontal side screws. The cooling water header is cast into the engine block. The crankcase covers, made of light weight metal, are sealed against the engine block by means of rubber seals. The lubricating oil sump is welded. The cylinder liners are designed with high collars and drilled cooling holes. The cooling effect is optimized to maintain the correct temperature on the inner surface. The main bearings are 3metal bearings and can be removed by lowering the main bearing cap. A hydraulic jack is provided for every main bearing to lower and lift the main bearing cap. The crankshaft is forged in one piece and balanced by counterweights as required. The connecting rods are drop forged. The design is a three piece marine design. The small end bearing is stepped to achieve large bearing surfaces. The big end bearings are 3metal bearings. The piston upper part ring grooves are hardened. Cooling oil enters the cooling space through the connecting rod. The cooling spaces are designed to give an optimal shaker effect. Part of the oil going to the cooling space is led to piston skirt lubrication through nozzles situated in the piston. The piston ring set consists of two chromeplated compression rings and one chrome plated, springloaded oil scraper ring. The cylinder head, made of special cast iron, is fixed by four hydraulically tensioned screws. The head is of the double deck design and cooling water is forced from the periphery towards the centre thereby ensuring efficient cooling to the important areas. The inlet valves are stellite plated and the stems are chromium plated. The valve seat rings are made of a special cast iron alloy and are changeable. The exhaust valves seal against the directly cooled valve seat rings. The valves are made of Nimonic in engines using HFO as fuel or they have Stellite seats and chromiumplated stems in case of using MDO.
013

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Main data, operating data and general design

46 02 30

The seat rings, made of a corrosion and pitting resistant material, are replaceable. The camshafts are made up from onecylinder sections with integrated cams. The bearing journals are separate pieces and thus it is possible to remove a camshaft piece sideways. The injection pumps have separated roller followers. The pumps and pipings are located in a closed space, so called hot box, for heavy fuel operation. The charge air coolers are equipped with removable inserts. The internal lubricating oil system is provided with a welded oil sump, lubricating oil connections and a centrifugal type filter. The starting system: The air supply to the cylinders is controlled by the starting air distributor which in turn is operated by the camshaft.

01 4

014

46 02 22

Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

2. Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water


2.1. Fuel
2.1.1. Fuel, general

The engine is designed to operate on heavy fuel (residual fuel) with a maximum viscosity of 55cSt at 100_C (approx. 730cSt at 50_C, approx. 7200 Redwood No. 1 seconds at 100_F) and will operate satisfactorily on blended (intermediate) fuels of lower viscosity as well as on distillate fuel. Avoid the use of fuels having a lower viscosity than 2.8 cSt at engine inlet as such fuels may cause fuel injection pump plunger or fuel nozzle needle seizure. The maximum limits of fuel characteristics for a certain engine are stated in the documentation delivered with the engine. Blended fuels (residuals and distillate) with a viscosity between approx. 4 and 7cSt at 100_C (12 and 30cSt at 50_C, 75 and 200 Redwood No. 1 seconds at 100_F) containing between 30 and 60% distillate should, however, be avoided due to the risk of precipitation of heavy components in the blend, with filter clogging and large amount of centrifuge sludge as a consequence. When difficulties with filter clogging are experienced, fuel incompatibility can be tested by the ASTM D474093 or the ISO 103072/83 test method.

2.1.2.
2.1.2.1.

Fuel treatment
Purification

Heavy fuel (residuals, and mixtures of residuals and distillate) must be purified in an efficient centrifuge before entering the day tank. The fuel is to be heated before centrifuging. Recommended temperatures, depending on the fuel viscosity, are stated in the diagram. (Fig. 2.1.) Be sure that the correct gravity disc is used. Never exceed the flow rates recommended for the centrifuge for the grade of fuel in use. The lower the flow rate the better the efficiency. Recommended centrifuge flow rate Fuel in use Max. viscosity (cSt at 100_C) Approx. viscosity (cSt at 50_C) Centrifuge flow rate (% of rated capacity) 10 50 60 15 90 40 25 205 30 35 350 25 45 530 20 55 730 15

NOTE !

Recommended centrifuge flow rates, see separator manufacturers instruction manual.

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02 1

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

In case pure distillate fuel is used, centrifuging is still recommended as fuel may be contaminated in the storage tanks. Rated capacity of the centrifuge may be used provided the fuel viscosity is less than 12 cSt at centrifuging temperature. Marine Gas Oil viscosity is normally less than 12cSt at 15_C.

2.1.2.2.

Heating

See diagram, Fig.2.1. Keep the fuel temperature about 10_C above the minimum storage temperature indicated in the diagram in order to minimize the risk for wax formation, and the temperature after the final heater 5 to 10_C above the recommended temperature before injection pumps to compensate for heat losses between heater and engine.

02 2

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46 02 22

Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

Fuel oil viscositytemperature diagram


Centistokes 5000 2000 1000 600 400 300 200 100 80 60 50 40 30 25 20 16 14 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 11 cSt at 40oC 3 10
460252

APPROX. PUMPING LIMIT H G A MINIMUM STORAGE TEMPERATURE C K F RECOMMENDED D B 380 cSt at 50oC CENTRIFUGING TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY BEFORE FUEL PUMPS 700 cSt at 50oC

GAS OIL MARINE DIESEL OIL

E MAX. TEMP 180 cSt at 50oC 5.5 cSt at 40oC 80 cSt at 50oC 40 cSt at 50oC

14 cSt at 40oC 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150


oC

Fig. 2.1. Example: A fuel oil with a viscosity of 380 cSt (A) at 50_C (B) or 80_C at 80_C (C) must be preheated to 115140_C (DE) before the fuel injection pumps, to 98_C (F) at the centrifuge and to minimum 40_C (G) in storage tanks. The fuel oil may not be pumpable below 36_C (H). To obtain temperatures for intermediate viscosities, draw a line from the known viscosity/temperature point in parallel to the nearest viscosity/temperature line in diagram. Example: Known viscosity 60 cSt at 50_C (K). The following can be read along the dotted line: viscosity at 80_C = 20 cSt, temperature at fuel injection pumps 7497_C, centrifuging temperature 86_C, minimum storage tank temperature 28_C. Conversion from various current and obsolete viscosity units to centistokes can be made in the diagram, Fig. 2.2. The diagram should be used only for conversion of viscosities at the same temperature. The same temperatures should then be used when entering the viscosity/temperature point into the diagram (See Fig. 2.1.)
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02 3

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

Viscosity conversion diagram


Centistokes 5000 2000 1000 600 400 300 200 100 80 60 50 40 30 25 20 16 14 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 10 20 50 Sec. Saybolt Furol 1 o Engler 2 5 100 10 100 200 20 200 200 500 50 500 500 1000 100 1000 1000 2000 200 2000 2000 5000 10000 500 1000

10 20 50 Sec.Redwood I

5000 10000 5000 10000


460253

10 20 50 100 Sec. Saybolt Universal

Fig. 2.2. When converting viscosities from one of the units on the abscissa to centistokes or viceversa, keep in mind that the result obtained is valid only at one and the same temperature. When converting the viscosity in any unit at a given temperature to a viscosity at another temperature a viscositytemperature diagram or conversion rule must be used.

2.1.2.3.

Viscosity control

An automatic viscosity controller, or a viscosimeter, at least, should be installed in order to keep the correct viscosity of the fuel before the fuel enters the engine fuel system.

2.1.3.

Maximum limits of fuel characteristics

The WRTSILR 46 diesel engine is designed and developed for continuous operation, without reduction in the rated output, on fuels with the following properties: 02 4
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46 02 22

Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water Fuel characteristics, maximum limits Kinematic viscosity cSt at 100_C cSt at 50_C Redwood No. 1 sec. at 100_F cSt at engine inlet kg/m3 at 15oC kg/m3 at 15oC % volume % volume _C _C % mass

02

55 730 7200 2.8 0.991 1.010 1) 1.0 0.3 60 30 0.10

Kinematic viscosity, min. Density Density Water Water, before engine Flash point, min. (PMCC) Pour point Total Sediment Potential S S S

The limits above also correspond to the demands of: ISO 8217: 1996(E), ISOFRMH 55 and RMK 55 BS MA 100: 1996, RMH 55 and RMK 55 CIMAC 1990, H 55 and K 55 the fuel treatment system can remove water and solids.

1) Provided

Four types of fuels are defined for the WRTSILR 46 engine: S S S S HFO 1, heavy fuel oil of normal quality HFO 2, heavy fuel oil below normal standard quality DO, diesel oil or LFO, light fuel oil NG, natural gas

The maintenance intervals are decided by the characteristics of the used fuel, see chapter 4. Maintenance Schedule. The differences between HFO 1 and HFO 2 are seen below: Fuel characteristics, maximum limits HFO 1 Sulphur Ash Vanadium Sodium Sodium, before engine Aluminium + Silicon Aluminium + Silicon before engine Conradson carbon residue Asphaltenes CCAI % mass % mass mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg % mass % mass 2.0 0.05 100 50 30 30 15 15 8 850
025

HFO 2 2.05.0 0.050.20 100600 50100 30 3080 15 1522 814 850870 02 5

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

Foreign substances or chemical waste, hazardous to the safety of the installation or detrimental to the performance of the engines, should not be contained in the fuel.

NOTE !

If any of specified fuel properties exceed the maximum value of HFO 1, the fuel should be classified as HFO 2.

2.1.4.

Comments on fuel characteristics

a) The viscosity is not a measure of the fuel quality, but determines the complexity of the fuel heating and handling system, as a heavy fuel oil has to be heated to reach a viscosity of 1624cSt at the point of injection. At low viscosities, the flow past the plunger in the injection pump increases. This leads to a decrease in the amount of injected fuel, which in bad cases might make it impossible to reach full engine output. The standard engine fuel system is laid out for max. 55cSt at 100_C fuel (approx. 730cSt at 50_C, approx. 7200 Redwood No.1 seconds at 100_F). b) The density influences mainly on the fuel separation. Separators can remove water and to some extent solid particles from fuels having densities up to 991kg/m3 at 15_C. There are also separators on the market that can clean fuels with densities of up to 1010kg/m3 at 15_C. The separator capability must be checked before purchasing a fuel with a very high density, as a bad separation will lead to abnormal wear due to unremoved particles and water. The separator disc must be chosen according to the fuel density.

CAUTION !

Fuels having a low viscosity in combination with a high density usually have bad ignition properties.

c) Ignition quality. Heavy fuels may have very low ignition quality. This may cause trouble at start and low load operation, particularly if the engine is not sufficiently preheated. Low ignition quality may also result in a long ignition delay and can cause a fast pressure rise and very high maximum pressures. This increases the mechanical load and can even damage engine components such as e.g. piston rings and bearings severely. Deposits on the piston top, on the exhaust valves, in the exhaust system, on the turbine nozzle ring and turbine blades can also be expected. The turbocharger fouling will lead to decreased turbocharger efficiency, and increased thermal load. A symptom of low ignition quality is Diesel knock, i.e. hard, high pitched combustion noise. The effects of diesel knock are increased mechanical load on components surrounding the combustion space, increased thermal load, increased lubricating oil consumption and contamination.

CAUTION !

Although low ignition quality produces long ignition delay, advancing the injection timing makes things only worse; fuel is injected at a lower compression temperature and this will produce an even longer ignition delay!
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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

Ignition quality is not defined, nor limited, in marine residual fuel standards. The same applies to ISOFDMC marine distillate fuel. The ignition quality of a distillate fuel can be determined by several methods, i.e. Diesel Index, Cetane Index, Cetane Number. The ignition quality of a heavy fuel oil can be roughly determined by calculating the Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index (CCAI) from the viscosity and density of a fuel.

Determining of CCAI (Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index):


CCAI = 81141log10log10(k+0.85) where = density (kg/m3 at 15_C) k = kinematic viscosity (cSt at 50_C)

NOTE !

An increased CCAI value indicates decreased ignition quality.

CCAI can also be determined (but with limited accuracy) by the nomogram. (Fig. 2.3.) Straight run fuels show CCAI values in the 770 to 840 range, and are very good igniters. Cracked residues delivered as bunkers may range from 840 to over 900, while most bunkers remain in the 840 to 870 range at present. The CCAI is not an exact tool for judging fuel ignition properties. Following rough guidelines can however be given: S Engines running at constant speed and load over 50% can without difficulty use fuels with CCAIvalues up to 870. S Engines running at variable speeds and load can without difficulty use fuels with CCAIvalues up to 860. To avoid difficulties with poor ignition quality fuels the following should be noted: S S Sufficient preheating of the engine before start. Proper function of the inverse cooling system.

S Proper function of the injection system, especially the injection nozzle condition must be good.

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02 7

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

Nomogram for deriving CCAI


VISCOSITY cSt (mm2/s) DENSITY (kg/m3 at 15oC) 820 CCAI

50oC 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

100oC

840

860

800 810 820

880

900 3 920 4 840 940 5 850 860 870 980 880 1000 890 830

15 20 6 25 30 35 40 50 75 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 750 1000 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 7 8 9 10

960

1020

900 910 920 930

1040

460259

Fig. 2.3. d) The water content of heavy fuels varies widely. Water may come from several different sources, it can either fresh or salt. It can also originate from e.g. condensation in the installations bunker tanks. S If the water is sweet and very well emulsified in the fuel, the effective energy content of the fuel decreases with increasing water content, leading to an increase in fuel consumption. S If the fuel is contaminated with seawater, the chlorine in the salt will cause corrosion of the fuel handling system, including the injection equipment. The effects of sodium, that also originates from salt, are described more in detail below. To avoid difficulties in the engine fuel injection system, the water content must be reduced to a max. 0.3% prior to the engine. 02 8
028

46 02 22

Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

e) Sulphur in the fuel may cause cold corrosion and corrosive wear, especially at low loads. Sulphur also contributes to deposit formation in the exhaust system, normally together with vanadium and/or sodium in the form of sulphates. The deposits can also cause high temperature corrosion as described below. f) A high ash content may be detrimental in several ways. Different ash constituents can cause different problems: S Aluminium and silicon oxides originate from the refining process, and can cause severe abrasive wear mainly of the injection pumps and nozzles, but also of cylinder liner and piston rings. An efficient fuel separation is a must for minimizing wear. S Oxides of vanadium and sodium, mainly sodium vanadyl vanadates, are formed during the combustion, and mix or react with oxides and vanadates of other ash constituents, e.g. nickel, calcium, silicon and sulphur. The sticking temperature of the mixture may be such, that a deposit is formed on a valve, in the exhaust gas system, or in the turbocharger. This deposit is highly corrosive in the molten salt, destroying the protective oxide layer on e.g. an exhaust valve, and leading to hot corrosion and a burned valve. Deposits and hot corrosion in the turbocharger, especially on the nozzle ring and turbine blades will cause a decreased turbocharger efficiency. The gas exchange will be disturbed, less air flows through the engine, and thus the thermal load on the engine increases. The deposit formation increases at increased temperatures and engine outputs. To avoid the above mentioned problems when running on high ash fuels, it is important to: S S Have an efficient fuel separation. Clean the turbocharger regularly with water, see section 15.3.

S Have a strict quality control of the bunkered fuel, i.e. to see that the amounts of ash and dangerous ash constituents stay low. S Maintain clean air filters and charge air coolers by regular cleaning based on pressure drop monitoring. g) High carbon residue content may lead to deposit formation in the combustion chamber and in the exhaust system, especially at low loads. S Deposit formation on injection nozzle tips will disturb the fuel atomization and deform the fuel sprays, decreasing the combustion process efficiency, and even leading to locally increased thermal loads. S Deposits in the piston ring grooves and on the rings will hinder the movement of the rings, causing e.g. increased blowby of combustion gases down to crankcase, which in turn increases the fouling of the lubricating oil. S Deposits in the exhaust gas system and in the turbocharger will disturb the gas exchange and increase the thermal load. h) High asphaltene content may contribute to deposit formation in the combustion chamber and in the exhaust system, especially at low loads. Asphaltenes are complex, highly aromatic compounds with a high molecular weight, that usually contain sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen, as well as metals like vanadium, nickel and iron (see Ash above). A high asphaltene content indicates that a fuel may be difficult to ignite and it burns slowly.
029

02 9

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

If the fuel is unstable, the asphaltenes may precipitate from the fuel and block filters and/or cause deposits in the fuel system, as well as excessive centrifuge sludge. i) A low flash point (high vapour pressure) is often seen especially for crude oils. The low flash point will not influence on the combustion, but the fuel can be dangerous to handle and store. This is especially the case if the pour point is high, and the fuel has to be heated due to this. Special explosion proof equipment and separators can be used in extreme cases. A high vapour pressure (low flash point) can also cause cavitation and gas pockets in the fuel pipes. These can be avoided by using an elevated pressure in the fuel handling system. It is to be noted that some insurance companies demand the use of fuels having a flash point higher than 60_C. j) The pour point tells below which temperature the fuel does not flow, and determines how easy it will be to handle the fuel. The whole fuel handling system, including tanks and pipes, must be heated to a temperature at least 1015_C above the pour point. k) Total sediment potential tells something about the fuels stability. If TSP is high, the danger of sediment and sludge formation in tanks and fuel handling system increase, as well as the probability for filter clogging. TSP can also be used as a check for the compatibility of two different fuels: The two fuels are mixed, and if the TSP for the mixture remains low, the fuels are compatible.

2.1.5. Measures to avoid difficulties when running on heavy fuel


Poor fuel quality will influence on wear, engine component life time and maintenance intervals adversely. In order to obtain maximum operating economy it is recommendable: a) To limit maximum continuous output as much as operating conditions allow if fuel is known or suspected to have high vanadium content (above 200 ppm) and sodium content. b) To limit low load operation as much as operating conditions allow if fuel is known or suspected to have high sulphur content (above 3 mass%), Conradson carbon residue (above 12 mass%) and/or asphaltene content (above 8 mass%). Operating below 20% of rated output should be limited to max. 100 hours continuously, by loading the engine above 70% of rated load for one hour before continuing the low load operation or shutting down the engine. Idling (i.e. main engine declutched, generator set disconnected) should be limited as much a possible. Warmingup of the engine at no load for more than 3 minutes before loading, as well as idling for more than 3 minutes before stopping is unnecessary and should be avoided.

2.1.6.

General advice

To avoid stability and incompatibility problems (precipitation of heavy components in the fuel), avoid if possible blending of fuels from different bunker stations unless the fuels are known to be compatible. 02 10
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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

If stability and compatibility problems occur, never add distillate fuel, as this will probably increase precipitation. A fuel additive with highly powerful dispersing characteristics can be of help until a new fuel delivery takes place. Take a sample of every bunker batch for future reference and possible analyzing. Every time when troubles with fuel are suspected, have the sample analyzed in an independent qualified laboratory. The characteristics of heavy fuels blended from residuals from modern refinery processes like catalytic cracking and visbreaking may approach at least some of the limits of fuel characteristics given in the table in section 2.1.3. Compared with traditional heavy fuels blended from straight run residuals, the modern heavy fuels may have reduced ignition and combustion quality. Fuels blended from catalytic cracking residuals may contain very abrasive catalytic fines (silicon and aluminium oxides) which, if allowed to enter the injection system, may wear down injection pumps and nozzles in a few hours. Some of the difficulties that may occur when operating on heavy fuels blended from cracked residuals can be avoided by: S Sufficient centrifuging capacity. The best and most disturbancefree results are obtained with the purifier and clarifier in series. Alternatively the main and standby separators may be run in parallel, but this makes heavier demands on correct gravity disc choice and constant flow and temperature control to achieve optimum results. Flow rate through the centrifuges should not exceed the maximum fuel consumption by more than 10%. S Sufficient heating capacity to keep centrifuging and injection temperatures at recommended levels. It is important that the temperature fluctuations are as low as possible ("2_C before centrifuge) when centrifuging high viscosity fuels with densities approaching or exceeding 991 kg/m3 at 15_C. S Sufficient preheating of the engine and the fuel system before starting the engine. S Keeping fuel injection equipment and the inverse cooling system in good condition.

2.2.

Lubricating oil
2.2.1. Lubricating oil, general

Viscosity. Viscosity class SAE 40. Alkalinity. The required lubricating oil alkalinity is tied to the fuel specified for the engine. This is shown in the table Fuel standards and lubricating oil requirements.

0211

02 11

02

Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water Fuel standards and lubricating oil requirements Category A ASTM D 97594 BS MA 100: 1996 CIMAC 1990 ISO 8217: 1996(E) ASTM D 97594 BS MA 100: 1996 CIMAC 1990 ISO 8217: 1996(E) ASTM D 39694 BS MA 100: 1996 CIMAC 1990 ISO8217: 1996(E) Fuel standard GRADE 1D, 2D DMX,DMA DX, DA ISOFDMX, DMA GRADE 4D DMB DB ISOFDMB GRADE NO 46 DMC, RMA10RMK55 DC, A10K55 ISOFDMC, RMA10RMK55

46 02 22

Lube oil BN 1030

1530

3055

It is recommended to use BN 40 lubricants with category C fuels. The use of high BN (5055) lubricants in heavy fuel installations is recommended if the use of BN 40 lubricants is causing short oil change intervals. If very low sulphur residual fuel is used, BN 30 lubricants can be used. BN 30 lubricants can also be used if experience shows that the lubricating oil BN equilibrium remains at an acceptable level. Additives. The oils should contain additives that give good oxidation stability, corrosion protection, load carrying capacity, neutralization of acid combustion and oxidation residues, and prevent deposit formation on internal engine parts (hot and cool surfaces). Foaming characteristics. Fresh lubricating oil should meet the following limits for foaming tendency and stability (according to the ASTM D 89292 test method): Sequence I: Sequence II: Sequence III: 100/0 ml 100/0 ml 100/0 ml

In this test a certain amount of air is blown through the lubricating oil sample. The first number in the results is the foam volume after a blowing period of 5 minutes and should be 100 ml or less. The second number is the foam volume after a settling period of 10 minutes and should always be 0 ml. Sequences I and III are performed at a temperature of 24C and sequence II at a temperature of 93.5C.

2.2.2.

Lubricating oil qualities

Lubricating oil is an integrated engine component and thus the quality of it is upmost important. All lubricating oils, which have been approved for use in WRTSILR 46 engine type, have gone through an approval test according to the engine manufacturer s procedure. The use of approved lubricating oil qualities during the warranty period is mandatory and is also strongly recommended after the warranty period. 02 12
0212

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

The list of approved lubricating oils can be found in the end of this chapter.

NOTE !

Never blend different oil brands unless approved by the oil supplier, and during the warranty period, by the engine manufacturer!

NOTE !

Before using a lubricating oil not listed in the table, the engine manufacturer must be contacted. Lubricating oils that are not approved, have to be tested according to the engine manufacturers procedure!

2.2.3. oil

Maintenance and control of the lubricating

1 Centrifuging of the system oil is recommended in order to separate water and insolubles from the oil. Water must not be added when centrifuging (washing). The oil should be preheated to 90...95_C. Many oil manufacturers recommend a separation temperature of 85...95_C for an effective separation. Please check with the supplier of your lubricating oil what the optimal temperature is. For efficient centrifuging, use only about 20% of the rated flow capacity of the separator. For optimum conditions the centrifuge should be capable of passing the entire oil quantity in circulation 45 times every 24 hours at 20% of rated flow. It is recommended to run separators continuously (24h/d). The gravity disc has to be chosen according to the recommendations from the separator manufacturer.

NOTE !

Defects on automatic, selfcleaning separators can quickly increase the water content of the oil under certain circumstances! (The water control valve fails.)

2 Take a sample of lubricating oil every 500 operating hours and have a sample analyzed in a qualified laboratory every 1000 operating hours. (See chapter 4.) 3 During the first year of operation it is advisable to take samples of lubricating oil for analysis at oil supplier after about 500, 1000 and 2000 operating hours. On the basis of the results it is possible to determine suitable intervals between oil changes. After that oil can be analyzed as described above. Take a sample for analyzing also immediately after changing to a new lubricating oil brand or in a new installation immediately after filling. To be representative of the oil in circulation, the sample should be taken from the engine in operation from the sampling cock located immediately after the oil filter on the engine, in a clean container holding 0.75...1 litre. Take samples before, not after adding new oil to compensate for consumption. Before filling the container, rinse it with the oil from which sample is to be taken. In order to make a complete assessment of the condition of the oil in service, the following details should be furnished with the sample: Installation, engine
0213

02 13

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

number, oil brand, engine operating hours, number of hours the oil has been in use, where in the system sample was drawn, type of fuel, and any special remarks. Oil samples with no information except installation and engine number are essentially worthless.

When estimating the condition of the used oil, the following properties should be observed:
Compare with guidance values (type analysis) for new oil of the brand used. Viscosity should not rise by more than 25% above the guidance value at 100_C. Maximum permissible viscosity for a SAE 40 grade oil is 212 cSt at 40_C and 19 cSt at 100_C. Minimum permissible viscosity is 110 cSt at 40_C and 11.0 cSt at 100_C Flash point should not fall by more than 50_C below the guidance value. Min. permissible flash point (open cup) is 170_C. At 150_C a risk of a crankcase explosion occurs. Water content should not exceed 0.3 %. At 0.5 % steps must be taken, either by centrifuging or changing the oil. BN (Base Number): S Fuel categories B and C: For lubricating oils with a nominal BNvalue above 40 the minimum allowable BNvalue of used oil is BN 20. For lubricating oils with a nominal BNvalue between 30 and 40 the minimum allowable BNvalue of used oil is 50% of the nominal value of new oil. For lubricating oils with a nominal BNvalue between 24 and 30 the minimum allowable value of used oil is BN 15. S Fuel category A: The minimum allowable BNvalue of used oil is 50% of the nominal value of new oil. Insolubles. The quantity allowed depends on various factors. The oil suppliers recommendations should be followed. However, an npentane insoluble value above 1.5% calls for attention. A value higher than 2% cannot be accepted for longer periods. In general it can be said that the changes in the analyses give a better basis of estimation than the absolute values. Rapid and great changes may indicate abnormal operation of the engine or the system. 4 Compensate for oil consumption by adding max. 10% new oil at a time. Adding larger quantities can disturb the balance of the used oil causing, for example, precipitation of insolubles. Measure and record the quantity added and the oil volume in the circulation tank or oil sump (in wet sump installations). Attention to the lubricating oil consumption may give valuable information about the engine condition. A continuous increase may indicate that piston rings, pistons or cylinder liners are getting worn, and a sudden increase gives rise to pull the pistons, if no other reason for increasing oil consumption is found. 5 Oil change intervals are influenced by system size (oil volume), operating conditions, fuel quality, centrifuging efficiency and total oil consumption. Effi02 14
0214

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

cient centrifuging and large systems (dry sump operation) generally allow long intervals between changes. Oil should be changed when the properties of the oil used exceed the acceptable limits mentioned above. It is recommended to follow up that especially the BNvalue of the lubricating oil keeps within the limits given by Wrtsil during the whole oil change interval.

When changing oil the following procedure is recommended:


6 Empty oil system while oil is still hot. Be sure that oil filters and coolers are also emptied. 7 Clean oil spaces, including filters and camshaft compartment. Clean filter cartridges of the safety/indicator filter. 8 Fill a small quantity of new oil in the oil sump and circulate with the prelubricating pump. Drain! 9 Fill required quantity of oil in the system. Oil samples taken at regular intervals, analyzed by the oil supplier and the analysis results plotted as a function of operating hours is an efficient way of predicting oil change intervals. Ask the oil supplier to send copies of oil analyses to the engine manufacturer who will then assist in the evaluation.

2.2.4.

Lubricating oil for the governor

See the Instruction Book for the governor. An oil of viscosity class SAE 40 is normally suitable and usually the same oil can be used as in the engine system, or the same oil as in the turbocharger. Oil change interval: 2000 h service. When starting the engine in low ambient temperature, it may be necessary to use multigrade oil (e.g. SAE 5W40) in the governor or actuator to get a good control during startup.

NOTE !

If you use different oils in the governor and in the engine, take care not to mix the oils together. Only a small quantity of e.g. turbocharger oil in engine oil can cause heavy foaming.

2.2.5.

Lubricating oils for turbochargers

Please note that different types of turbochargers can be used for the engine. The lubricating oil system is different for the different turbocharger. One type of chargers has a common lubricating oil system with the engine, while the other type has an internal lubricating oil system for the bearings, see chapter 15. See the instruction book of the turbocharger.

NOTE !

In the ABB VTR...4 series turbochargers the use of special low friction synthetic lubricating oils is mandatory!

Oil change interval is either 1500 or 2500 service hours depending on the lubricating oil brand.
0215

02 15

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

CAUTION !

Take care that the turbine oil is not mixed with engine lubricating oil. Only a small quantity may cause heavy foaming!
The list of approved lubricating oils for the ABB VTR..4 series turbochargers can be found in the end of this chapter. These lubricating oils are, regarding viscosity and quality, according to the recommendations.

2.2.6.

Lubricating oils for turning device

It is recommended to use EPgear oils, viscosity 400500cSt at 40 _C = ISO VG 460 as lubricating oils for turning device. The list of lubricating oils for the engine turning device approved by the turning device manufacturer can be found in the end of this chapter.

2.3.

Cooling water
2.3.1. Cooling water, general

In order to prevent corrosion, scale deposits or other deposits in closed circulating water systems, the water must be treated with additives. Before treatment, the water must be clear and have a hardness below 10dH, a chloride content of less than 80 mg/l and a pHvalue above 7. Further the use of approved cooling water additives is mandatory.

NOTE !

Distilled water without additives absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, which increases the risk of corrosion.

Sea water will cause severe corrosion, and deposit formation, even if supplied to the system in small amounts. Rain water has a high oxygen and carbon dioxide content: great risk of corrosion; unsuitable as cooling water.

NOTE !

Use of glycol in the cooling water is not recommended, unless it is necessary.

2.3.2.

Additives

As additives, use products from wellknown and reliable suppliers with vast distribution networks. Follow thoroughly the instructions of the supplier.

NOTE !

The use of emulsion oils, phosphates and borates (solely) is not accepted.

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

02

The table below shows examples of the most common cooling water additive types. In an emergency, if compounded additives are not available, treat the cooling water with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in portions of 5 kg/m3. To obtain a pHvalue of 9, add caustic soda (NaOH), if necessary.

CAUTION !

Sodium nitrite is toxic.

Summary of the most common cooling water additive types Additive Sodium nitrite Advantages good efficiency, if dosage is controlled carefully small active quantities, 0.5% by mass cheap Disadvantages suitable as additive except in air cooled heat exchangers with large soft solder surfaces toxic risk of spot corrosion when too low concentration tendency to attack against zinc coatings and soft solderings toxic: lethal dosage 3...4 g solid nitrite risk of spot corrosion, when too low concentration not active when water velocity exceeds 2 m/s commercial products very expensive increased risk of spot corrosion when too low concentration limited suitability more expensive than toxic additives increased risk of corrosion if unsufficiently dosed may cause deposit formation (molybdates can collect to ferrous sulphates) more expensive than sodium nitrite and molybdate based additives big active quantities by mass
0217

Nitrite and borate

no increased risk of corrosion at overdoses innocuous for the skin

Sodium silicate

not toxic harmless to handle

Sodium molybdate

not toxic harmless to handle

Organic not toxic and inorganic synergistic based

02 17

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Fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water

46 02 22

2.3.3.

Treatment

When changing the additive or when adding additive to a system where untreated water has been used, the complete system must be cleaned (chemically) and rinsed before fresh treated water is poured into the system. If, against our recommendations, an emulsion oil has been used, the complete system must be absolutely cleaned of oil and greasy deposits. Evaporated water should be compensated by untreated water; if treated water is used the content of additives may gradually become too high. To compensate for leakage or other losses, add treated water. In connection with maintenance work calling for drainage of the water system, take care of and reuse the treated water. The list of approved cooling water additives and treatment systems can be found in the end of this chapter.

NOTE !

Ask the supplier of the treatment product for instructions about treatment procedure, dosage and concentration control.

Most suppliers will provide a test kit for the concentration control. In addition to the checking intervals stated in chapter 4. it is advisable to take a sample of cooling water at 10001500 operating hour intervals for analysis in a qualified laboratory (observe additive suppliers instructions). It is also recommended to analyze water after every major fill or overhaul of cylinders.

02 18

0218

W46 02 16 A

Environmental Hazards

02A

02A Environmental Hazards

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02A

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02A-2

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Environmental Hazards

02A

02A.1

General
Fuel oils, lubricating oils and cooling water additives may be environmentally hazardous. Take great care when handling these products or systems containing these products. Detailed information and handling instructions can be found in the text below.

02A-3

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Environmental Hazards

02A

02A.2

Fuel oils
Prolonged or repetitive contact with the skin may cause irritation and increase the risk of skin cancer (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.). Fumes, like hydrogen sulphide or light hydrocarbons, that are irritating for eyes and respiratory organs may be released during loading / bunkering. Fuel oils are mainly non-volatile burning fluids, but may also contain volatile fractions. Risk for fire and explosion. May cause long-term harm and damages in water environments. Risk of contamination of the soil and the ground water. Take every appropriate measure to prevent water and soil contamination.

02A.2.1

Handling
Isolate from ignition sources, for example sparks from static electricity Avoid breathing fumes (may contain hydrogen sulphide, etc.) for example during pumping and opening of storage tanks. Use gas mask if necessary The handling and storage temperatures must not exceed the flash point of the product. Should be stored in tanks or containers designed for flammable fluids. Must not be let into the sewage system, water systems or onto the ground Methane may during long-term storage be formed in tanks, due to bacterial activities. For example risk of explosions during unloading or storage tank opening. Cloths, paper or any other absorbent material used to soak up spills are fire hazards. Do not allow these to accumulate. Waste that contains the product is hazardous and has to be disposed of according to directives issued by the local or national environmental authorities. Collection, regeneration and burning should be handled by authorized disposal plants.

02A.2.2

Personal protection equipment


Respiratory organs protection: Oil mist: Use respirator, combined particle and gas filter Evaporated fumes (hydrogen sulfide, etc.): Use respirator, inorganic gas filter.

Hands protection: Strong, heat and hydrocarbon resistant gloves (nitrile rubber for example). Eye protection: Wear goggles if splash risk exists.

02A-4

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02A

Skin and body protection: Wear facial screen and covering clothing as required. Use safety footwear when handling barrels. Wear protecting clothes if hot product is handled.

02A.2.3

First aid measures


Inhalation of fumes: Move victim to fresh air, keep warm and lying still. Give oxygen or mouth to mouth resuscitation as needed. Seek medical advice after significant exposures. Inhalation of oil mist: Seek medical advice. Skin contact: Hot oil on the skin should be cooled immediately with plenty of cold water. Wash immediately with plenty of water and soap. Do not use solvents, the oil is spread and may be absorbed into the skin. Remove contaminated clothing. Seek medical advice if irritation develops. Eye contact: Rinse immediately with plenty of water, for at least 15 minutes and seek medical advice. If possible, keep rinsing until eye specialist has been reached. Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water. Do not induce vomiting, in order not to risk aspiration into respiratory organs. Seek medical advice.

NOTE! Complete safety data sheets for the specific products used at your installation should be available from the fuel oil delivering company.

02A-5

W46 02 16 A

Environmental Hazards

02A

02A.3

Lubricating oils
Fresh lubricating oils normally present no particular toxic hazard, but all lubricants should always be handled with great care. Used lubricating oils may contain significant amounts of harmful metal and PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) compounds. Avoid prolonged or repetitive contact with the skin. Prevent any risk of splashing and keep away from heat, ignition sources and oxidizing agents. Risk of long term contamination of the soil and the ground water. Take every appropriate measure to prevent water and soil contamination.

02A.3.1

Handling
Ensure adequate ventilation if there is a risk of release of vapors, mists or aerosols. Do not breathe vapors, fumes or mist. Keep away from flammable materials and oxidants. Keep away from food and drinks. Do not eat, drink or smoke while handling. Use only containers, piping, etc. which are resistant to hydrocarbons. Open the containers in well ventilated surroundings. Immediately take off all contaminated clothing. Empty packaging may contain flammable or potentially explosive vapors. Cloths, paper or any other absorbent material used to recover spills are fire hazards. Do not allow these to accumulate. Keep waste products in closed containers. Waste that contains the product is hazardous and has to be disposed of according to directives issued by the local or national environmental authorities. Collection, regeneration and burning should be handled by authorized disposal plants.

02A.3.2

Personal protection equipment


Hand protection: Impermeable and hydrocarbon resistant gloves (nitrile rubber for example). Eye protection: Wear goggles if splash risk exists. Skin and body protection: Wear facial screen and covering clothing as required. Use safety footwear when handling barrels. Wear protecting clothes if hot product is handled.

02A-6

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Environmental Hazards

02A

02A.3.3

First aid measures


Inhalation of fumes: Move victim to fresh air, keep warm and lying still. Skin contact: Wash immediately with plenty of water and soap or cleaning agent. Do not use solvents (the oil is spread and may be absorbed into the skin). Remove contaminated clothing. Seek medical advice if irritation develops. Eye contact: Rinse immediately with plenty of water, continue for at least 15 minutes and seek medical advice. Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting, in order not to risk aspiration into respiratory organs. Seek medical advice immediately. Aspiration of liquid product: If aspiration into the lungs is suspected (during vomiting for example) seek medical advice immediately.

NOTE! Complete safety data sheets for the specific products used at your installation should be available from the lubricating oil manufacturer or your local dealer.

02A-7

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02A

02A.4

Cooling water additives, nitrite based


The products may be toxic if swallowed. Concentrated product may cause serious toxic symptoms, pain giddiness and headache. Significant intake results in greyish/blue discoloration of the skin and mucus membranes and a decreasing blood pressure. Skin and eye contact of the undiluted product can produce intense irritation. Diluted solutions may be moderately irritating.

02A.4.1

Handling
Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Keep away from food and drinks. Do not eat, drink or smoke while handling. Keep in well ventilated place with access to safety shower and eye shower. Soak liquid spills in absorbent material and collect solids in a container. Wash floor with water as spillage may be slippery. Contact appropriate authorities in case of bigger spills. Bulk material can be land dumped at an appropriate site in accordance with local regulations.

02A.4.2

Personal protection equipment


Respiratory protection: Not normally required. Avoid exposure to product mists. Hands protection: Rubber gloves should be worn (PVC or natural rubber for example). Eye protection: Eye goggles should be worn. Skin and body protection: Use protective clothing and take care to minimize splashing. Use safety footwear when handling barrels.

02A.4.3

First aid measures


Inhalation: In the event of over exposure to spray mists move victim to fresh air, keep warm and lying still. If signs and symptoms persist, seek medical advice. Skin contact: Wash immediately with plenty of water and soap. Remove contaminated clothing. If irritation persists, seek medical advice. Eye contact: Rinse immediately with plenty of clean water and seek medical advice. If possible, keep rinsing until eye specialist has been reached.

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02A

Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water. Drink milk, fruit juice or water. Do not induce vomiting without medical advice. Immediately seek medical advice. Do not give anything to drink to an unconscious person.

NOTE! Complete safety data sheets for the specific products used at your installation should be available from the cooling water additive manufacturer or local representative.

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02A

02A.5
02A.5.1

Handling of oil samples


General

CAUTION! Observe personal safety precautions when taking and handling fuel oil and lubricating oil samples. Avoid breathing oil fumes and mist and use respirator if necessary. Use strong, heat and hydrocarbon resistant gloves (nitrile rubber for example). Wear eye goggles if splash risk exists. Wear facial screen and protecting clothes if hot product is handled.

When taking fuel oil or lubricating oil samples the importance of proper sampling can not be over-emphasised. The accuracy of the analysis results is totally dependent on proper sampling and the results will only be as good as the submitted sample. Use clean sample containers holding approximately 1 litre. Clean sample containers and accessories (IATA carton boxes for transportation, ready made address labels, etc.) are available for example from Wrtsil local network office. Close the bottles tightly using the screw caps provided. Seal all bottles and record all the separate seal numbers carefully. Put the bottles to be sent for analyzing in "Ziploc" plastic bags to prevent any spillage. Gently squeeze the Ziploc bag to minimize any air content prior to sealing. The background information for the fuel/oil sample is as important as the sample itself. Oil samples with no background information are of very limited value. The following data are essential to note when taking the sample: Installation name Engine type and number Engine operating hours Lubricating oil brand/fuel oil type Lubricating oil operating hours Where in the system the lubricating oil/fuel oil sample was taken Sampling date and seal number of the separate samples if seals are available Reason for taking and analyzing the sample Contact information: Name (of the person who took the sample), telephone, fax, e-mail, etc.

Use for example the ready made "Oil Analyses Application" form, see Instruction Manual attachments.

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02A

02A.5.2

Dispatch and transportation


Place the bottle with the "Ziploc" bag inside the IATA carton box and fold the box according to the assembly instructions given on the box. Enclose a copy of the "Bunker Receipt", if available, before closing the last flap on the IATA carton. Check the DNVPS Air Courier Directory and use appropriate label for the IATA carton box to ensure that the sample is forwarded to the nearest DNVPS laboratory. Complete the courier dispatch instructions on the side of the IATA carton. Fill in the DNVPS universal account number (950 500 010) to prevent rejection from the courier company (DHL). Complete the Proforma Invoice Form and tape it to the outside of the IATA carton. Call the air courier directly at the number as indicated in the Air Courier Directory and request urgent pick-up. When the courier arrives you will need to complete an Airway Bill. It is recommendable to handle the dispatching of the fuel oil and lubricating oil samples at site. The results will be achieved faster when the dispatching is handled at site and additionally it is illegal to carry fuel oil samples as personal luggage on normal aeroplanes. Support with interpreting of the analysis results and advice on possible corrective actions is available from Wrtsil, if needed.

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02A-12

Wrtsil Corporation Finland


Technology Product WRTSIL 46 Changed by: JUE

1.2

Lubricating oil system

This doc is the property of Wrtsil Corp. and shall neither be copied, shown or communicated to a third party without the consent of the owner.

Subtitle Requirements and oil quality Revised date: 04.09.2001

Made Appd.

12.12.97 01.04.99

KJi/JUE JJL/J.Leppnen

Page 1 (6)

Document No

Rev

4V92A0670

Approved by: JJL

D-message No.: 36926

1.2.5

REQUIREMENTS AND OIL QUALITY

SYSTEM OIL REQUIREMENTS AND QUALITY FOR WRTSIL 46 ENGINES Viscosity Viscosity class SAE 40 Viscosity Index (VI) Min. 95 Alkalinity (BN) The required lubricating oil alkalinity is tied to the fuel specified for the engine, which is shown in the table below. FUEL STANDARDS AND LUBRICATING OIL REQUIREMENTS Category Fuel standard Lube oil BN ASTM D 975-94, GRADE 1D, 2D A BS MA 100: 1996 DMX, DMA 10 - 30 CIMAC 1990 DX, DA ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMX, DMA ASTM D 975-94, GRADE 4D B BS MA 100: 1996 DMB 15 - 30 CIMAC 1990 DB ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMB ASTM D 396-94, GRADE NO 4-6 C BS MA 100: 1996 DMC, RMA10-RMK55 30 - 55 CIMAC 1990, DC, A10-K55 ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMC, RMA10RMK55 D Crude oil (CRO) 30 E Orimulsion (ORI) 40 - 55 It is recommended to use in the first place BN 50-55 lubricants when operating on heavy fuel, and on Orimulsion. This recommendation is valid especially for engines having wet lubricating oil sump and using Orimulsion or heavy fuel with sulphur contents above 2.0 % mass. BN 40 lubricants can be used when operating on heavy fuel as well if experience shows that the lubricating oil BN equilibrium remains at an acceptable level. BN 30 lubricants are recommended to be used only in special cases, such as installations equipped with an SCR catalyst. Lower BN products eventually have a positive influence on cleanliness of the SCR catalyst. With BN 30 oils lubricating oil change intervals may be rather short, but lower total operating costs may be achieved because of better plant availability provided that the maintenance intervals of the SCR catalyst can be increased.

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BN 30 oils are also a recommended alternative when operating on crude oil. Though crude oils many times have low sulphur content, they can contain other acid compounds and thus an adequate alkali reserve is important. The intervals between lubricating oil changes may be extended by adding oil daily to keep the oil level constantly close to the maximum level. Additives The oils should contain additives that give good oxidation stability, corrosion protection, load carrying capacity, neutralisation of acid combustion and oxidation residues and should prevent deposit formation on internal engine parts (piston cooling gallery, piston ring zone and bearing surfaces in particular). Foaming characteristics Fresh lubricating oil should meet the following limits for foaming tendency and stability, according to the ASTM D 892-92 test method: Sequence I: Sequence II: Sequence III: 100/0 ml 100/0 ml 100/0 ml

Base oils Use of virgin base stocks only is allowed, i.e. recycled or re-refined base oils are not allowed.

CONDEMNING LIMITS FOR USED LUBRICATING OIL


When estimating the condition of used lubricating oil, the following properties along with the corresponding limit values must be noted. If the limits are exceeded, measures must be taken. Compare also with guidance values for fresh lubricating of the brand used. Property Viscosity Limit max. 25% decrease max. 45% increase Viscosity cSt at 100 C max. 20% decrease max. 25% increase Water vol-% max. 0.30 Base Number mg KOH/g min. 20 in HFO operation, max. 50% depletion in LFO operation Insolubles w-% in n-Pentane max. 2.0 Flash Point, PMCC C min. 170 Flash Point, COC C min. 190 Unit cSt at 40 C Test method ASTM D 445 ASTM D 445 ASTM D 95 or D 1744 ASTM D 2896

ASTM D 893b ASTM D 93 ASTM D 92

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4V92A0670

APPROVED LUBRICATING OIL QUALITIES FOR WRTSIL 46 ENGINES


Should unapproved lubricating oils be used during the engine warranty period, and there exist no agreement with the engine manufacturer about testing, the engine guarantee does not hold. GAS OIL AND MARINE DIESEL OIL OPERATION If gas oil or marine diesel oil is used as fuel, lubricating oils with a BN of 10-25 are recommended to be used. Also BN 30 lubricating oils included in Table 3 can be used in gas oil and marine diesel oil fuelled engines. Table 1. Approved system oils - fuel categories A and B, recommended in the first place in gas oil or marine diesel oil installations: SUPPLIER BP Caltex Castrol BRAND NAME Energol HPDX 40 Delo 1000 Marine SAE 40 Delo 2000 Marine SAE 40 MHP 154 Seamax Extra 40 TLX 204 Delo 1000 Marine 40 Delo 2000 Marine 40 Mobilgard ADL 40 Mobilgard 412 Delo 1000 Marine 40 Taro 20 DP 40 Gadinia Oil 40 Sirius FB Oil 40 MarWay SP40 Taro 12 XD 40 Taro 20 DP 40 Caprano S 412 Stellano S 420 VISCOSITY SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 BN 12 12 20 15 15 20 12 20 15 15 12 20 12 13 12 12 20 12 20 FUEL CATEG. A A A,B A,B A,B A,B A A,B A,B A,B A A,B A A A A A,B A A,B

Chevron ExxonMobil FAMM Shell Statoil Texaco TotalFinaElf

HEAVY FUEL, CRUDE OIL AND ORIMULSION OPERATION Todays modern trunk piston diesel engines are stressing the lubricating oils heavily due to a.o. low specific lubricating oil consumption. Also ingress of residual fuel combustion products into the lubricating oil can cause deposit formation on the surface of certain engine components resulting in severe operating problems. Due to this many lubricating oil suppliers have developed new lubricating oil formulations with better fuel and lubricating oil

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compatibility. The lubricating oils mentioned in Table 2 are representing new detergent/ dispersant additive chemistries and have shown good performance in Wrtsil engines. Table 2. Approved system oils - fuel category C and E, recommended in the first place when operating on heavy fuel and Orimulsion in order to reach full service intervals, BN 50-55 lubricating oils preferred in the first place: LUBRICATING OILS WITH IMPROVED DETERGENT/DISPERSANT ADDITIVE CHEMISTRY BRAND NAME VISCOSITY BN Energol IC-HFX 404 Energol IC-HFX 504 Delo 3400 Marine SAE 40 Delo 3550 Marine SAE 40 TLX 404 TLX 504 TLX 554 Delo 3400 Marine 40 Delo 3550 Marine 40 Exxmar 40 TP 40 Exxmar 50 TP 40 Mobilgard 440 Mobilgard 50 M Mobilgard SP 55 Taro 40 XL 40 Taro 50 XL 40 Petromar XC 4040 Petromar XC 5540 Neptuno W NT 4000 SAE 40 Neptuno W NT 5500 SAE 40 Argina X 40 Argina XL 40 MarWay 4040 MarWay 5040 Taro 40 XL 40 Taro 50 XL 40 Aurelia XT 4040 Aurelia XT 4055 Stellano S 440 Stellano S 450 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 40 50 40 55 40 50 55 40 55 40 50 40 50 55 40 50 40 55 40 55 40 50 40 50 40 50 40 55 40 50

SUPPLIER BP Caltex Castrol

Chevron ExxonMobil

FAMM Petron Repsol YPF Shell Statoil Texaco TotalFinaElf

FUEL CATEG. C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E C,E

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Table 3. Approved system oils - fuel category A, B, C and D. Lubricating oils with BN 30 included in Table 3 are designed to be used when operating on crude oil and in special cases when operating on heavy fuel, e.g. in installations equipped with an SCR catalyst. BN 30 LUBRICATING OILS WITH IMPROVED DETERGENT/DISPERSANT ADDITIVE CHEMISTRY BRAND NAME VISCOSITY BN Energol IC-HFX 304 Delo 3000 Marine SAE 40 TLX 304 Delo 3000 Marine 40 Exxmar 30 TP 40 Mobilgard 430 Taro 30 DP 40 Petromar XC 3040 Argina T 40 MarWay 3040 Taro 30 DP 40 Aurelia 4030 Stellano S 430 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

SUPPLIER BP Caltex Castrol Chevron ExxonMobil FAMM Petron Shell Statoil Texaco TotalFinaElf

FUEL CATEG. A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D A,B,C,D

Before using a lubricating oil not listed in Tables 1-3, the engine manufacturer must be contacted. Lubricating oils that are not approved have to be tested according to engine manufacturers procedures. APPROVED LUBRICATING OILS FOR ABB VTR-TURBOCHARGERS SPECIAL LOW FRICTION SYNTHETIC OILS: CHANGE INTERVAL: 1500 hours (ABBs List 2b) MANUFACTURER BRAND NAME VISCOSITY VISCOSITY VI cSt at 40 C cSt at 100 C Shell Corena AP 68 68 8.5 94

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SPECIAL LOW FRICTION SYNTHETIC OILS: CHANGE INTERVAL: 2500 hours (ABBs List 3b) MANUFACTURER BRAND NAME VISCOSITY VISCOSITY VI cSt at 40 C cSt at 100 C Agip Dicrea SX 68 71.6 10.5 134 BP Enersyn TC-S 68 68 8.5 98 Caltex Cetus PAO 68 68 10.3 138 Castrol Aircol SR 68 68 10.5 142 ExxonMobil Compressor Oil RS 68 67 10 135 Rarus SHC 1026 66.8 10.4 144 SHC 626 69.9 10.9 147 Shell Corena AS 68 67.8 10.1 145 Texaco Cetus PAO 68 68 10.3 138 TotalFinaElf Barelf SM 68 73.8 11.4 147

APPROVED LUBRICATING OILS FOR ENGINE TURNING DEVICE LUBRICATING OILS FOR ENGINE TURNING DEVICE BRAND NAME VISCOSITY VISCOSITY VISCOSITY cSt at 40 C cSt at 100 C INDEX (VI) Blasia 300 23.0 95 Energol GR-XP 460 425 27.0 88 Alpha SP 460 460 30.5 95 Spartan EP 460 460 30.8 96 Mobilgear 634 437 27.8 96 Omala Oil 460 460 30.8 97 Meropa 460 460 31.6 100 Epona Z 460 470 30.3 93

SUPPLIER Agip BP Castrol ExxonMobil Shell Texaco TotalFinaElf

Wrtsil NSD Corporation Finland

Technology

RAW WATER QUALITY AND APPROVED COOLING WATER ADDITIVES


Made Appd. 9.10.1998 12.10.1998 KJi / HPH/Hanstn EFl / Fontell Page 1 (4) Document No Rev

This doc is the property of Wrtsil NSD Corp. and shall neither be copied, shown or communicated to a third party without the consent of the owner.

Subtitle D25696 / HPH / 18.2.1999

Product 20,32,46,64

4V92A0765

RAW WATER QUALITY, APPROVED COOLING WATER ADDITIVES AND TREATMENT SYSTEMS
FOR

W20, 32, 32LN, 32LNGD, W32, 34SG, 32DF, W46 AND W64 ENGINES.

RAW WATER QUALITY Raw water quality to be used in the closed cooling water circuits of engines has to meet the following specification. Property pH Hardness Chlorides Sulphates Limit min. 6.5 max. 10 dH max. 80 mg/l max. 150 mg/l

APPROVED COOLING WATER ADDITIVES The use of approved cooling water additives during the warranty period of engines is mandatory and is also strongly recommended after the warranty period. The list of approved cooling water additives can be found below. Approved cooling water treatment products Supplier Product designation S.A. Arteco N.V. Havoline XLi Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 2 B-9052 Ghent/Zwijnaarde, Belgium BetzDearborn Europe CorrShield NT 4293 Interleuvenlaan 25 (ex-Dearborn 547) B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Drew Ameroid Marine Division DEWT-NC powder Ashland Chemical Company Drewgard 4109 One Drew Plaza Liquidewt Boonton, NJ 07005, USA Maxigard Vecom CWT Diesel QC-2

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Approved cooling water treatment products Supplier Product designation Houseman Ltd Cooltreat 651 The Priory, Burnham Slough SL1 7LS, UK Maritech AB Marisol CW Box 143 S-29122 Kristianstad, Sweden Nalco Chemical Company Nalco 39 (L) One Nalco Centre Nalcool 2000 Naperville, Illinois 60566-1024 USA Nalfleet Marine Chemicals Nalcool 2000 PO Box 11 Nalfleet EWT 9-108 Winnington Avenue, Northwich Nalfleet CWT 9-131C Cheshire, CW8 4DX, UK Rohm & Haas RD11 La Tour de Lyon RD11M 185, Rue de Bercy RD25 75579 Paris, Cedex 12, France Tampereen Prosessi-Insinrit Oy Ruostop XM Keisarinviitta 22 33960 Pirkkala, Finland Texaco Global Products, LLC Havoline XLi 1111 Bagby Houston, TX 77002 Unitor ASA Dieselguard NB P.O. Box 300 Skyen Rocor NB liquid N-0212 Oslo, Norway Vecom Holding BV Vecom CWT Diesel QC-2 PO Box 27 3140 AA Maassluis, The Netherlands

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In order to prevent corrosion in the cooling water system, the instructions of right dosage and concentration of active corrosion inhibitors should always be followed. The information can be found in the table below.

Approved cooling water treatment products Product designation Dosage per 1 Concentration of active m of system corrosion inhibitor capacity CorrShield NT 4293 10 litres 670-1000 ppm as NO2 (ex-Dearborn 547) DEWT-NC powder 3-4.5 kg 1500-2250 ppm as NO2 1100-2000 ppm as NO2 Drewgard 4109 16-29 litres 470-700 ppm as NO2 Liquidewt 8-12 litres 1100-2000 ppm as NO2 Maxigard 16-29 litres Cooltreat 651 5 litres 800 ppm as NO2 Marisol CW 8-16 litres 1000-2000 ppm as NO2 Nalco 39 (L) 16-36 litres 550-1200 ppm as NO2 1000-1500 ppm as NO2 Nalcool 2000 32-48 litres Nalfleet EWT 9-108 2.2-3.4 litres 1000-1500 ppm as NO2 1000-1500 ppm as NO2 Nalfleet CWT 9-131C 8-12 litres RD11 = RD11M 5 kg 1250 ppm as NO2 RD25 50 litres 710 ppm as Mo Ruostop XM 20 litres 120 ppm as Mo Havoline XLI 50-100 litres 1.6-3.2 w-% of active (ex-ETX 6282) compounds measured with a suppliers refractometer Dieselguard NB 2-4.8 kg 1500 ppm as NO2 Rocor NB liquid 10-24 litres 1500 ppm as NO2 Vecom CWT Diesel QC-2 6-10 litres 1500-2500 ppm as NO2 Note: For some products the recommended minimum and maximum limits are listed in the table above. Since the amount of active corrosion inhibitors, especially nitrites, is decreasing during the service of the engines, the engine manufacturer recommends to start the dosage from the upper level.

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APPROVED COOLING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS As an alternative to the approved cooling water additives, the Elysator cooling water treatment system can also be used. The Elysator protects the engine from corrosion without any chemicals. It provides a cathodic protection to engines cooling water system by letting magnesium anodes corrode instead of engine itself. Raw water quality specification is the same as in connection with cooling water additives. The Elysator can not be used if glycol is used in the cooling water system. The Elysator must be installed so that the water inlet temperature to the Elysator does not exceed 120 C and that the inlet temperature does not exceed 6 bar (abs.). One Elysator unit has to be installed to each separate cooling water circuit and the right type must be chosen according to the volume of each cooling water system. The Elysator must be drained at least once a week in order to remove deposits from the bottom of the equipment. The service interval of the Mg anode is minimum three years. However, it is important to follow continuously the functioning of the Elysator. Frequent operation of the engine will render the circulation rate of cooling water through the Elysator. If the engine is not in service for a longer period of time, water circulation in the closed cooling water circuit can be slow and a special attention has to be paid to that corrosion of the system will not occur in such cases. The list of the Elysator types along with the corresponding water flows through the Elysator and the maxmium water volumes can be found in the table below. Elysator type 10 25 50 100 260 Water flow through Elysator (l/min) 1-2 3-6 5-10 10-20 20-50 Max. water volume (m) 1.5 5 10 30 70

The installation instructions of the manufacturer should always be followed. The contact information can be found in the table below. Manufacturer International Watertreatment Maritime AS N-3470 Slemmestad Norway Treatment system Elysator

46 02 30

Start, stop and operation

03

3. Start, stop and operation


3.1. Turning of the crankshaft
3.1.1. Turning of the crankshaft, general

Turning is performed by means of an electrically driven turning device built on the engine. The turning device consists of an electric motor which drives the turning gear through a gear drive and a worm gear. There is a control box, including a cable, which allows the turning to be accomplished from any position near the engine. The turning speed is about 1/3 rev/min. The engaging and disengaging of the turning gear is done by the lever (1). The lever is secured by a locking pin (6). (Fig. 3.1.) The turning device is provided with a stop valve which prevents the engine from starting in case the turning gear is engaged. (See chapter 21.) For careful adjustment of the crankshaft position there is a hand wheel (2) with which it is possible to perform manual turning.

Electrically driven turning device


1 3 5 6 6 2 4
031

3 5 1

2
030103

Inline engines Fig. 3.1.

Vengines

031

03 1

03

Start, stop and operation

46 02 30

3.1.2.

Maintenance of turning device

Secondary shaft
Grease the secondary shaft of the turning gear with water resistant grease according to the maintenance schedule in chapter 4. The greasing takes place with the turning gear engaged (the secondary shaft in the inposition), when the extra grease comes out from the locking pin bore in the other end of the shaft. Excessive greasing is to be avoided.

Oil change
Change the gear box lubricating oil once during the first year of operation. For approved lubricating oils, see chapter 2. After that, oil should be changed according to chapter 4. Check also that the vent hole (3) is open. 1 Drain old oil, preferably when warm, through the drain hole (4). 2 Rinse the gear box with clean, thin fluid oil. 3 Fill the gear box with oil (according to the table in chapter 2.) through the filling hole (5) until the oil level reaches the level screw. Utmost cleanliness must be observed. 4 Close the oil holes and drive the turning device a few revolutions. 5 Check the oil level and fill, if necessary.

3.2.

Start
3.2.1. Start, general
Before starting the engine, check that: S the fuel system is in running order (correct preheating, correct pressure, sufficient precirculation to heat the fuel injection pumps), S the LT and HTcirculating systems and the raw water system are in running order (correct pressures, circulating water preheated and precirculated sufficiently to heat the engine), S S the oil level in the turbocharger is correct, the oil level in the governor is correct,

S the starting air pressure exceeds 15 bar (normally, 10 bar is still sufficient to start the engine), S S the starting air system is drained of condensate. the 90V injection and 24V control voltages are switched on

3.2.2.

Local start

1 Keep the fuel equipment preheating circulation running for about 0,5h before start with the HotBox covers closed. Check that the accumulators warm up equally. 03 2
032

46 02 30

Start, stop and operation

03

2 Start the prelubricating oil pump to obtain a lubricating oil pressure, min. about 0.5 bar. Or if full flow electric lubricating pumps are installed, adjust the pressure to nominal. (See section 1.2.) 3 Shut the indicator valves. 4 Disengage the turning gear from the flywheel. 5 Check that the automatic alarm and stop devices in the installation are set in operation. 6 Switch the engine on local control. (See Fig. 3.2.)

Local manoeuvring panel

Fig. 3.2. 7 Push the start button on local manoeuvring panel. If the engine has not been running during last 30 minutes it will do automatic slowturning and the engine turns slowly two turns. When slow turning is over the engine immediately takes a full start. The start signal is automatically on for 12 seconds or until the engine has reached the adjusted speed. (More detailed information in chapter 23.)

NOTE !

If the engine stops during the slow turning period do not try to start again. The engine must be inspected to find the reason for stopping.

8 Check immediately after start that the pressure and temperature values are normal. (See section 1.2.)

3.2.3.

Remote and automatic start

See installation specific instructions.

033

03 3

03

Start, stop and operation

46 02 30

3.3.

Start after a prolonged stop (more than 8 h)


3.3.1.
1 Check S S S S S S S S S the lubricating oil level in the oil tank the lubricating oil pressure the circulating water level in the expansion tank the LT/HT water pressure the raw water supply the fuel oil level in the day tank the control oil pressure the fuel oil pressure the starting air pressure (min. 15 bar)

Local start after a prolonged stop

2 Observe section 3.2.2. 3 After starting check S the control oil pressure S that the starting air distributing pipes are not hot at any cylinder (leakage from the starting valve). S S the lubricating oil pressure exhaust gas temperatures after each cylinder (all fuel pumps are operating)

3.4.

Start after overhaul


1 Check the cooling water system for leakage, especially: S S S the lower part of the cylinder liner the oil cooler (installation) the charge air cooler(s)

2 Check and adjust the valve clearances. If the camshaft or its driving mechanism have been touched, check, at least, the valve timing of one cylinder (V engines: on each cylinder bank). (For guidance values see chapter 6.) 3 Start the priming pump. Adjust the pressure so that oil appears from all the bearings and lubricating nozzles, from the piston cooling oil outlet and from the valve mechanism. Adjust the oil pressure to nominal (see section 1.2.) and check that there is no leakage from the pipe connections inside or outside the engine. 4 Rags or tools left in the crankcase untensioned or unlocked screws or nuts (those which are to be locked), wornout selflocking nuts, MAY CAUSE TOTAL BREAKDOWN. Well cleaned oil spaces (oil sump and camshaft spaces) help protect the oil pump and oil filter. 03 4
034

46 02 30

Start, stop and operation 5 When starting see the instructions in sections 3.2.2. and 3.3.

03

3.5.

Stop
3.5.1. Stop, general

The engine can always be stopped manually independent of the remote control or automation system.

When overhauling the engine, make absolutely sure that the automatic start and the priming pump are inoperative and that the 90V injection and 24V control voltages are switched off. Close the starting air shutoff valve located before the solenoid valve. If the engine is to be stopped for a long time, close the indicator valves. It is also advisable to cover the exhaust pipe opening.
The lubricating oil system on a stopped engine should be filled with oil every second day by priming the engine. At the same time, turn the crankshaft into a new position. This reduces the risk of CORROSION on journals and bearings when the engine is exposed to vibrations. Start the engine once a week to check that everything is in order.

3.5.2.

Cooling water pumps

If the engine is provided with engine driven cooling water pumps, idle the engine 5...7 min before stopping. If the engine is provided with separate cooling water pumps, idle the engine 3...5 min before stopping and let the cooling water pumps run for 5 more minutes. The time of slowing down offers a good opportunity to detect possible abnormal sounds.

3.5.3.

Local stop

1 See section 3.5.2. 2 Switch the engine to local control. 3

Stop the engine by pushing the stop button at the local manoeuvring panel.

(For more detailed information see chapter 23.)

3.5.4.

Remote stop

1 See section 3.5.2.1. 2 To energize the remote stop see the manual for installation. Function on the engine is the same as when using local stop.

3.5.5.

Automatic stop

The automatic shut down system is activated by some disturbance in the system.
035

03 5

03

Start, stop and operation

46 02 30

3.6.

Normal operation supervision


3.6.1. Normal operation supervision, general

1 There is no automatic supervision or control arrangement that could replace an experienced engineers observations. LOOK and LISTEN to the engine. 2 Strong gas blowby past the pistons is one of the most dangerous things that can occur in a diesel engine. If gas blowby is suspected (e.g. because of a sudden increase of the lubricating oil consumption) check the crankcase pressure. If the pressure exceeds 30 mm H2O, check the crankcase venting system. If that is in good working condition, pull the pistons! 3 Operation at loads below 20 % of rated output should be limited to maximum 100 hours continuously when operating on heavy fuel by loading the engine above 70 % of rated load for one hour before continuing the low load operation. Idling (i.e. main engine declutched, generator disconnected) should be limited as much as possible. Warmingup of the engine for more than 3...5 minutes before loading, as well as idling more than 3...5 minutes before stopping is unnecessary and should be avoided.

3.6.2. hours

Every second day or after every 50 running

1 Read all thermometers and pressure gauges and, at the same time, the load of the engine. All temperatures are more or less depending on the load whereas the lubricating oil and circulating water pressures (when using enginemounted pumps) are depending on the engine speed. Therefore, always compare the values read with those at corresponding load and speed in the Acceptance Test Records and curves. Guidance values are stated in chapter 1. 2 Check the oil level in the oil tank. Estimate the appearance and consistency of the oil. A simple check of the water content is to place a drop of oil on a hot surface (about 150_ C). If the drop keeps quiet, it does not contain water; if it frizzles it contains water. Compensate for oil consumption by adding max. 10% fresh oil at a time. 3 Check that the ventilation (deaerating) of the engine circulating water system (the expansion tank) is working. 4 5

Check the quantity of leakfuel from the draining pipes. Check that the charge air condense water drain pipes are open.

6 Clean the compressor side of the turbocharger by injecting water. See chapter 15. and the instruction manual of the turbocharger. 7 Marine engines (propulsion engines): On a stopped engine, prime the engine and turn the crankshaft into a new position. This reduces the risk of crankshaft and bearing damage due to vibrations. 03 6
036

46 02 30

Start, stop and operation

03

Condensation in charge air coolers


AMB air temperature oC

f = Relative humidity (%)

P = Air manifold pressure (bar abs.)

Water dewpoint oC WATER CONTENT (kg water / kg dry air)

Fig. 3.3. Example: If the ambient air temperature is 35_C and the relative humidity is 80%, the water content in air can be read from the diagram (0.029 kg water/kg dry air). If the air manifold pressure (receiver pressure) under these conditions is 2.5 bar, i.e. absolute air pressure in the air manifold is abt. 3.5 bar (ambient pressure + air manifold pressure), the dew point will be 55_C (from diag.). If the air temperature in the air manifold is only 45_C, the air can only contain 0.018 kg/kg (from diag.). The difference, 0.011 kg/kg (0.0290.018) will appear as condensed water.

3.6.3. Every second week or after every 250 running hours


1 Clean the centrifugal lubricating oil filter. 2 Clean the turbine side of the turbocharger by injecting water. See chapter 15. and the instruction book of the turbocharger.
037

03 7

03

Start, stop and operation

46 02 30

3.6.4. hours
1

Once a month or after every 500 running

Check the content of additives in the circulating water.

2 Check the cylinder pressures. At the same time, note the load of the engine. Fuel rack position, turbine speed, charge air pressure and inlet air temperature all offer an accurate estimation of the engine load.

NOTE !

Measurement of cylinder pressures without simultaneous measurement of the engine load is practically worthless.

3.6.5.

In connection with maintenance work

1 Record the following steps and the running hours in the engine log: S lubricating oil sampling (record also operating time of oil). Lubricating oil analyzes without statement of operating time is of limited value (go no go only). S S S S lubricating oil changes cleaning of centrifugal lubricating oil filters cleaning of lubricating and fuel oil filter cartridges change of parts in connection with maintenance according to chapter 4.

03 8

038

46 02 30

Start, stop and operation

03

3.7.

Operation supervision after overhaul


1 At the first start, listen carefully for possible jarring sounds. If anything is suspected, stop the engine immediately, otherwise stop the engine after 5 minutes idling at normal speed. Check at least the temperatures of the main and big end bearing and of all other bearings which have been opened. Make visual inspection from below to the cylinder liners and piston skirts which have been opened. If everything is in order, restart. 2 Check that there is no leakage of gas, water, fuel, cooling oil or lubricating oil. Especially observe the fuel lines, injection pumps and injection valves. Watch the quantities emerging from the leak oil pipes!

CAUTION !

Check that the starting air distributing pipe is not hot at any cylinder (leaky starting valve). May cause explosion!
3 After overhauling, the following instructions are especially important: S S S S S S S S S S S S Check pressures and temperatures. Check the automatic alarm and stop devices. Check the pressure drop over the fuel filter and lubricating oil filter. Check the ventilation (deaerating) of the engine circulating water system. Check the control oil pressure. Check the quantity of leak fuel. Check the gossip holes of the coolers. Check the content of additives in the circulating water. Check the cylinder pressures. Listen for jarring sounds. Check the crankcase pressure. Check the starting air pipes.

S Check the oil level in the oil sump/oil tank. Estimate the condition of the oil.

039

03 9

03

Start, stop and operation

46 02 30

3.8.

Runningin
1 After piston overhaul, follow program A in Fig. 3.4. as closely as possible. The piston rings have slid into new positions and need time to bedin. If the program cannot be followed, do not load the engine fully for 4 h, at least. 2 After changing piston rings, pistons or cylinder liners and after honing of cylinder liners follow program B in Fig. 3.4. as closely as possible. If the program cannot be followed, do not load the engine fully for 10 h, at least.

CAUTION !

Avoid runningin at continuous and constant low load


The important thing is to vary the load several times. The ring groove will have a different tilting angle at each load stage, and consequently the piston ring a different contact line to the cylinder liner. The runningin may be performed either on distillate or heavy fuel, using the normal lubricating oil specified for the engine. For use of runningin filters see chapter 18.

Runningin programme

Fig. 3.4. A ............ After piston overhaul B ______ After change of piston rings, pistons or cylinder liners, after honing of cylinder liners 1. Stop. Check big end bearing temperatures and inspect the cylinder liners and pistons from below. 2. End of runningin programme. Engine may be put on normal load. 03 10
0310

46 02 30

Start, stop and operation

03

3.9.

Loading
(See Fig. 3.5.) The loading of the engine is subjected to a heated engine with HTwater temperatures 70_C. Lubrication oil temperatures 40_C. If the temperatures are lower the loading time must be twice as long. Normally the loading is automatically controlled by the engine control system.

Engine loading curve


ngine load % 100

75

50

25

0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 300 360 Time (s)

Normal max. loading in operating condition (HTwater and lub. oil temperature at nominal level) Emergency loading Load acceptance with preheated engine in standby condition (HTwater temperature min. 70C, lub. oil temperature min. 40C

Fig. 3.5.

0311

03 11

03

Start, stop and operation

46 02 30

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03 12

0312

46 02 30

Maintenance schedule

04

4. Maintenance schedule
4.1. Maintenance schedule, general
The maintenance necessary for the engine depends primarily on the operating conditions. The periods stated in this schedule are guidance values only but must not be exceeded during the guarantee period. See also the instruction books of the turbocharger and the speed governor, separate instructions for additional equipment and chapter 3. 1 Before any steps are taken, carefully read the corresponding section in this manual detailed in the last column of the table. 2 During all maintenance work, observe the utmost cleanliness and order. 3 Before dismantling, check that all pipe systems concerned are drained or pressure released. After dismantling, cover immediately holes for lubricating oil, fuel oil and air with tape or plugs. 4 When exchanging a wornout or damaged part that has an identification mark stating cylinder or bearing number, mark the new part with the same number on the same spot. Every exchange should be entered in the engine log and the reason should be clearly stated. 5 After reassembling, check that all bolts and nuts are tightened and locked, if necessary.

Whenever overhauling the engine, make absolutely sure that:


S The starting air shutoff valve located before the main starting valve is closed. S S S The main starting air line on the engine is drained. The automatic start is disconnected. The prelubrication oil pump is stopped.

NOTE !

If the above mentioned is neglected, it may cause engine damage and/or personal injury.

041

04 1

04

Maintenance schedule

46 02 30

4.2.

Maintenance schedule for HFO operation, Common rail engines


Daily routine checks

Air coolers

Check draining of air coolers Check that the draining pipe is open, check for any leakage. Check pressure drop indicators Change filter cartridges if high pressure drop is indicated.

3.6.2. 15. 3.6.2. 17. 18.

Charge air coolers, charge air filters, fuel and lub. oil filters Gauges and indicators

Take readings 3.6.2. Read and record all temperature and pressure gauges, at the same time and at the same load of the engine. (Use eg. Operation data record in ATTACHMENTS)
3.6.2. 17. 15. 15. 2. 19.

Injection and fuel system Check leak fuel quantity Check the amount of leak fuel from the injection pumps and nozzles. Turbocharger Water cleaning of compressor Clean the compressor by injecting water.

Check turbocharger oil levels Check oil level, and look for leaks.
Cooling water system

Check water level in cooling system Check the water level in the expansion tank(s) and/or the static pressure in the engine cooling circuits.
Check lubricating oil level. Observe normal operation Drain condensated water Check for free movement

Lubricating oil system Oil mist detector Pneumatic system Control mechanism

18. 21.5. 22.

Every second day, irrespective of the engine being in operation or not Crankshaft

Marine engine: In a stopped engine, turn the crankshaft into a new position.

3.

Once a week irrespective of the engine being in operation or not Start process

Test start (if the engine on standby).

3.

Interval: 100 operating hours Turbocharger (TPL)

Water cleaning of turbine Clean the turbine by injecting water, more often if necessary.
042

15.

04 2

46 02 30

Maintenance schedule

04

Interval: 250 operating hours Turbocharger (VTR, Napier) Air filter(s) (Napierturbochargers) Centrifugal filter (optional)

Water cleaning of turbine Clean the turbine by injecting water, more often if necessary. Clean turbocharger air filter(s) Remove the filter(s) and clean according to the manufacturer s instructions. (More often, if necessary.) Clean centrifugal filter Clean more often if necessary. Remember to open the valve before the filter after cleaning.

15.

15.

18.

Interval: 500 operating hours Cooling water Cylinder pressure

Check water quality Check content of additives.

19. 2.

Check cylinder pressure 12. Record firing pressures of all cylinders and record the run- 3.6.4. ning parameters simultaneously.
Take a sample of lubricating oil for laboratory analysis 2.2.3. Take a sample for analyzing also immediately after filling in a new installation or after changing to a new lubricating oil brand. Check air pressure in the low pressure accumulator, if installed. (Lubricating oil system.) 18. 15. 15.

Lubricating oil

Low pressure accumulator (optional) Waste gate valve (optional) Bypass valve (optional) Oil mist detector

Function check Function check


Function check

Interval: 1000 operating hours Air filter(s) (VTR turbochargers) Engine holding down bolts

Clean turbocharger air filter(s) Remove the filter(s) and clean according to instructions of the manufacturer (more often, if necessary). Check the tightness Check to be done on new installations.

15.

Interval: 1500 operating hours Turbocharger (if separate Change lubricating oil in turbocharger(s) 2. lub.oil system) Change lubricating oil in the turbocharger. Take care that 15. the turbine oil is not mixed with the engine lubricating oil. Check change interval according to lubricating oil type. 2.
043

04 3

04

Maintenance schedule

46 02 30

Interval: 2000 operating hours Measuring instruments

Check gauges and engine instrumentation Check pressure and temperature gauges, sensors and cabling. Replace faulty ones.
Functional check of control systems. Check function of the alarm and automatic stop devices.

23.

Safety and control systems Valves Valve rotators Oil mist detector

23. 1. 6., 12. 12.

Check yoke and valve clearances


Visual inspection Change fresh air filter

Interval: 2500 operating hours Turbocharger (if separate Change lubricating oil in turbocharger(s) 2. lub.oil system) Change lubricating oil in the turbocharger. Take care that 15. the turbine oil is not mixed with the engine lubricating oil. Check change interval according to lubricating oil type. 2.

Interval: 3000 operating hours Injection valves Test fuel injectors. Test the opening pressure of the fuel nozzle. Replace outside orings. 16.5.

Interval: 4000 operating hours Crankshaft

Check crankshaft alignment Check alignment, use form No. 4611V005. Alignment check is performed on a warm engine.
Check the condition of the membrane in the low pressure accumulator, if installed. (Lub.oil system)

11.

Low pressure accumulator (optional) Flexible mounting (if used)

18.

Check the alignment Technical docuCheck tightness of the thrust rubber elements. Inspection according to maintenance instructions for resil- ments ient installation.

04 4

044

46 02 30

Maintenance schedule Interval: 6000 operating hours

04

Air coolers

Clean the charge air cooler(s). More often if necessary. Cleaning interval is based on pressure drop measurement

15.

Injection valves

Inspect injection valves. 16.4. Change the main nozzles to new ones or reconditioned ones. Check the effective needle lift. Check the springs. Replace the Orings. Test the nozzle opening pressure in a test pump. Replace the complete injection valve if necessary. Check expansion bellows. Replace if necessary. Check supports of the exhaust system. Inspect flexible pipe connections Replace if necessary.
20.

Exhaust manifold

Flexible pipe connections

Interval: 8000 operating hours Turning device Napier turbochargers

Grease the secondary shaft of the turning gear Dismantle and clean complete turbocharger Inspect turbocharger cooling water ducts for possible deposits and clean if the deposits are thicker than 1 mm. Check turbocharger bearings, replace if necessary. See manufacturer s instructions.
Check the adjustment of the pressure control valve Replace oil mist detector supply air filter

3.1.2. 15. 19.

Fuel system Oil mist detector

17.

045

04 5

04

Maintenance schedule Interval: 12000 operating hours

46 02 30

Cylinder liners

Inspect the cylinder liners 10. Measure the bore using form No. 4610V001, replace liners 6. if wear limits are exceeded. Hone the liners. Check the deposits from cooling bores. If the deposits are thicker than 1 mm, clean. Change the antipolishing rings. Inspect big end bearing, one / bank Dismantle the big end bearing. Inspect mating surfaces. If defects found, open all big end bearings. Change bearing shells, if necessary. Measurement records 4611V008 and 4611V003. Check a small end bearing and piston pin, one / bank If defects found, open all and replace if needed. Measurement record 4611V004.
11. 6.

Connecting rods

Piston

Check the cooling gallery deposit, one piston / bank. If 11. the deposition exceeds 0.3 mm, open all piston tops. Measure the height of piston ring grooves (measurement records 4611V009 and 4611V002). Check the retainer rings of the gudgeon pins.
Inspect the piston skirt, clean lubricating oil nozzles 11.2.3. 11. Replace piston rings. Note the runningin programme.

Piston rings Cylinder heads

Overhaul of cylinder heads 2.3. 12. Dismantle and clean the inner side, inlet and exhaust valves and ports. Inspect cooling water spaces and clean, if 19. the deposits are thicker than 1 mm. If cylinder head cooling water spaces are dirty, check also the cooling water spaces in liners and engine block and clean them all, if the deposits are thicker than 1 mm. Improve the cooling water treatment. Grind all the seats. Grind the valves. Replace the Orings in the valve guides. Check the starting valves. Replace parts if necessary. Check the safety valves.
Dismantle, inspect and clean 12.5. 13. 6.

Valve rotators Camshaft driving gear VTR turbochargers

Inspect camshaft driving gears Inspect teeth surfaces and running pattern.

Inspect and clean 15. 19. Clean the compressor and turbine mechanically if necessary. Inspect turbocharger cooling water ducts for possible deposits and clean if the deposits are thicker than 1 mm.
Replace turbocharger bearings See manufacturer s instructions.

VTR turbochargers with roller bearings

Turbochargers with plain Inspect turbocharger bearings bearings See manufacturer s instructions.

04 6

046

46 02 30

Maintenance schedule Interval: 12000 operating hours

04

TPLturbochargers

Dismount and clean Check tolerances Inspect and assess the shaft and the bearing parts Clean turbine and compressor casings and check for any cracks and erosion / corrosion Clean nozzle ring and check for any cracks and erosion

15.

Fuel injection pump Injection valves Lub. oil pump driving gear (if pump installed)

Overhaul of injection pumps Clean and inspect injection pumps, replace worn parts.
Send the complete injection valves to Wrtsil for solenoid recalibration.

16. 16.5. 18. 6. 16. 6. 19. 6. 19. 6. 21.

Inspect lube oil pump driving gear Replace parts if necessary.

Control oil pump driving Inspect control oil pump driving gear gear Replace parts if necessary. HTwater pump driving gear (if pump installed) LTwater pump driving gear (if pump installed) Air filter (in pneumatic system) Flexible pipe connections

Inspect HTwater pump driving gear Replace parts if necessary. Inspect LTwater pump driving gear Replace parts if necessary. Clean the insert and inside of the filter.
Replace flexible pipe connections with new ones Depending on the condition of the connection and the target of usage these can be used even longer.

Interval: 18000 operating hours Turning device Crankshaft

Change lubricating oil in the turning device Inspect one main bearing Check condition. Note the type of bearings in use and do the inspection accordingly. If defects are found, open all including the flywheel bearing. Check thrust bearing clearance Check axial clearance.

3. 2. 10. 6.

11. 6. 7., 14. 18. 19. 19. 7.


047

Vibration damper in camshaft free end (viscous type) (optional) Lub. oil pump (optional) HTwater pump (optional) LTwater pump (optional) Engine fastening bolts

Take oil sample for damper condition evaluation See manufacturer s instructions.

Inspect the lubricating oil pump. Replace bearings and shaft sealing. Inspect HTwater pump Dismantle and check. Replace bearings and shaft sealing. Inspect LTwater pump Dismantle and check. Replace bearings and shaft sealing. Check tightening of engine fastening bolts

04 7

04

Maintenance schedule

46 02 30

Interval: 24000 operating hours Piston Valves Valve rotators and valve guides Napier turbochargers

Inspect the piston cooling gallery, all cylinders Clean if needed. Change inlet and exhaust valves.
Change valve rotators and valve guides. Rotor shaft balance check Check the rotor shaft balance of the turbocharger at the latest every 32000 h or every 4 years. It is advisable to contact the engine or turbocharger manufacturer. Change injection pump elements.

11. 12.3. 12.3.

Fuel injection pump Lubricating oil thermostatic valve (optional) HTwater thermostatic valve (optional) LTwater thermostatic valve (optional) Exhaust manifold Main starting valve

16.

Clean and inspect oil thermostatic valve 18. Clean and check the thermostatic element, valve conecasing and sealings. Clean and inspect HTwater thermostatic valve Clean and check the thermostatic element, valve cone casing and sealings.
19.

Clean and inspect LTwater thermostatic valve 19. Clean and check the thermostatic element, valve conecasing, indicator pin and sealings.
Change expansion bellows between exhaust pipe sections, after the cylinder head and before the turbocharger. 20. 21.

General overhaul of main starting valve Replace worn parts.

04 8

048

46 02 30

Maintenance schedule Interval: 36000 operating hours

04

Main bearings Crankshaft Vibration damper in crankshaft free end (spring type) (optional) Cylinder liners Connecting rods Valve mechanism

Change main bearing shells, flywheel bearing shells and 10. thrust bearing halves.
Change crankshaft seal. 11. 7., 11. 10. 11. 14. 12. 6.

Dismantle the damper, check condition (only to be opened by authorized personnel, contact the engine manufacturer)
Clean cylinder liner cooling water spaces and change liner orings.

Change big end and small end bearing shells. Check bearing clearances in the tappets and rocker arms. Dismantle one rocker arm assembly for inspection, proceed with other rocker arm bearings if defects are found. Change valve tappet roller bearing bushes. Change inlet and exhaust valve seats. Inspect camshaft bearing bush, one / bank. If defects are found, inspect all including driving end and thrust bearing. Replace if necessary. Measurement record 4610V003. Dismantle the damper, check condition (only to be opened by authorized personnel, contact the engine manufacturer)
General overhaul of the elastic coupling (Opening is strongly recommended to be done by authorized personnel only, contact the engine manufacturer) Change bearings. See manufacturer s instructions. Change charge air cooler(s). Change exhaust pipe support plates.

Valve seats Camshaft

12.4. 10.4. 6.

Vibration damper in camshaft free end (spring type) (optional) Elastic coupling in camshaft driving end (optional) Turbocharger with plain bearings Air cooler Exhaust manifold Starting air distributor

7., 14. 7., 14.

15. 21.3.

General overhaul of starting air distributor. Replace worn parts.

Interval HFO 2: 36000 operating hours Piston Change piston crowns.

Interval HFO 1: 48000 operating hours 11.2.

For difference between HFO 1 and HFO 2 see section 2.1.3.

049

04 9

04

Maintenance schedule Interval: 48000 operating hours

46 02 30

VTRturbochargers (with light alloy compressor wheel) Charge air bellow

Replace compressor wheel See manufacturer s instructions.


Change expansion bellow(s) between the turbocharger and air inlet box.

Interval: 60000 operating hours Camshaft bearings Change camshaft bearings. Change camshaft driving end bearing bush and camshaft thrust bearings Change: Thrust bearing and bearing bushes of intermediate gear. Change: piston skirts and gudgeon pins. Change cylinder heads. Change rocker arm bearing bushes. Change: injection pipes Change injection valves Change rubber elements. 10., 13.

Intermediate gear Piston Cylinder heads Valve mechanism Fuel system Injection valves Flexible mounting (if used)

13. 11. 12. 12. 16.3. 16.4. Technical documents

Interval HFO 2: 72000 operating hours Cylinder liners Change cylinder liners.

Interval HFO 1: 96000 operating hours 10. 6.

For difference between HFO 1 and HFO 2 see section 2.1.3.

04 10

0410

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

5. Maintenance tools
5.1. Maintenance tools, general
Maintenance of a diesel engine requires some special tools developed in the course of engine design. Some of these tools are supplied with the engine and others are available through our service stations or for direct purchase by the customer. Tool requirements for a particular installation may vary greatly depending on the use and service area. Standard tool sets are therefore selected to meet basic requirements. This list represents a comprehensive selection of tools for the WRTSIL R 46 engine. Tool sets are grouped in order to facilitate selection for specific service operations. This makes the job of the enduser much easier.

5.1.1.

Use of this list

1 Read the corresponding item in this Instruction Manual before any maintenance work is started. 2 Check with list below that all the maintenance tools are available. 3 Check that necessary spare parts and consumable parts are available.

5.1.2.

Ordering of maintenance tools

1 Find the tools that interests you in the following pages. 2 Select the tool or parts required. You should use the code number in the list when ordering. 3 Make a note of the specifications and other information as required for the order. 4 Send the order to your local service station.When possible, state the installation name and engine number(s) when ordering.

051

05 1

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

5.2.

Cylinder cover
(Chapter 12)
Description Code No 860100 860175 Weight (kg) 30 Dimensions

Hydraulic pump with hoses Hydraulic pump 1000 bar

Flexible hose, short

861011

0,7

Flexible hose, long

861012

2,0

Quick coupling, male Quick coupling, female

860177 860176

Description Pin for hydraulic tensioning tool

Code No 861146

Weight (kg) 0,6

Dimensions

05 2

052

46 02 30 Description Hydraulic tightening tool for M90x6 screws

Maintenance tools Code No 861143 Weight (kg) 90 Dimensions

05

Description Lifting tool for hydr. tightening tools

Code No 834045

Weight (kg) 119

Dimensions

053

05 3

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

Description Lifting tool for cylinder cover

Code No 832001

Weight (kg) 20,5

Dimensions

Description Assembly tool for valves

Code No 834001

Weight (kg) 38

Dimensions

05 4

054

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

Description Turning tool for grinding valves

Code No 841010

Weight (kg) 4

Dimensions

Description Holding tool for valves

Code No 834002

Weight (kg) 1.5

Dimensions

055

05 5

05 Description Valve clearance feeler gauge

Maintenance tools Code No 848001 Weight (kg) 0.035 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Thandle for cylinder ind. valve

Code No 808001

Weight (kg) 0.45

Dimensions

Description Spindle for removing valve seat rings

Code No 845001

Weight (kg) 1.4

Dimensions

Description Extraction tool for exhaust valve seat rings

Code No 845002

Weight (kg) 4,8

Dimensions

05 6

056

46 02 30 Description Extraction tool for inlet valve seat rings

Maintenance tools Code No 845003 Weight (kg) 4,6 Dimensions

05

Description Spindle for valve guide removing tool

Code No 845004

Weight (kg) 5

Dimensions

Description Bed for tension cylinder

Code No 845005

Weight (kg) 5,2

Dimensions

Description Bed for tension cylinder

Code No 845011

Weight (kg) 5,6

Dimensions

Description Fitting tool for inlet valve seat ring

Code No 845012

Weight (kg) 5

Dimensions

057

05 7

05 Description Fitting tool for exhaust valve seat ring

Maintenance tools Code No 845006 Weight (kg) 7 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Lapping tool for injection valve sealing surface

Code No 840001

Weight (kg) 4.3

Dimensions

(700) 120

0515ah22002

Description Lapping tool for starting valve sealing surface

Code No 840003

Weight (kg) 2.7

Dimensions

05 8

058

46 02 30 Description Lapping tool for safety valve sealing surface

Maintenance tools Code No 840004 Weight (kg) 0.4 Dimensions

05

Description Grinding device for valve seats

Code No 842015

Weight (kg) 18

Dimensions

Description Flange for removing tool

Code No 845031

Weight (kg) 13

Dimensions

059

05 9

05 Description Lifting tool for rocker arms

Maintenance tools Code No 836031 Weight (kg) 2 Dimensions

46 02 30

05 10

0510

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

5.3.

Piston
(Chapter 11)
Description Code No 835001 Weight (kg) 16 Dimensions

Lifting tool for piston

Description Tap M16

Code No 802001

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

Description Piston assembly ring for liner with antipolishing ring

Code No 845010

Weight (kg) 10

Dimensions

0511

05 11

05 Description Protecting sleeve for connecting rod

Maintenance tools Code No 835005 Weight (kg) 4.0 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Assembly guide for connecting rod and piston

Code No 836008

Weight (kg) 3.1

Dimensions

Description Pliers for piston rings

Code No 800002

Weight (kg) 0.5

Dimensions

05 12

0512

46 02 30 Description Pliers for securing ring

Maintenance tools Code No 800001 Weight (kg) 1.3 Dimensions

05

Description Clamp device for piston rings

Code No 843001

Weight (kg) 1.5

Dimensions

Description Guide lever for piston assembly

Code No 835002

Weight (kg) 1.2

Dimensions

0513

05 13

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

5.4.

Connecting rod
(Chapter 11)
Description Code No 861142 Weight (kg) 66 Dimensions

Hydraulic tightening tool for M72x6 screws

Description Pin for hydraulic tensioning tool

Code No 861028

Weight (kg) 0.05

Dimensions

Description Hydraulic tightening tool for M42 srcews

Code No 861120

Weight (kg) 10

Dimensions

05 14

0514

46 02 30 Description Distance sleeve

Maintenance tools Code No 861027 Weight (kg) 2.3 Dimensions

05

Description Stud remover (M42)

Code No 803001

Weight (kg) 0.5

Dimensions

Description Stud remover (M72x6, M90x6)

Code No 803003

Weight (kg) 0.8

Dimensions

0515

05 15

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

Description Mounting device for big end bearing, complete Mounting device for big end bearing upper half 1. Frame 2. Car

Code No 836010

Weight (kg) 150

Dimensions

100

836038

Mounting device for big end bearing lower half 1.Outside support 2. Inside support Clip Plate Shaft 3. Rod

50 836006

836007

05 16

0516

46 02 30 Description Combined big end bearing lock and foot support

Maintenance tools Code No 846008 Weight (kg) 3.1 Dimensions

05

Description Guide lever for positioning the big end bearing at the piston assembly.

Code No 846012

Weight (kg) 5

Dimensions

Description Removing and assembling tool for gudgeon pin bearing

Code No 834012

Weight (kg) 46

Dimensions

0517

05 17

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

5.5.

Cylinder liner
(Chapter 10)
Description Code No 836009 Weight (kg) 20 Dimensions

Lifting tool for cylinder liner

Description Yoke for lifting the cylinder liner

Code No 836039

Weight (kg) 15

Dimensions

Description Measuring rail for cylinder bore

Code No 847001

Weight (kg) 2.0

Dimensions

05 18

0518

46 02 30 Description Inside micrometer for cylinder bore

Maintenance tools Code No 848012 Weight (kg) 0.6 Dimensions

05

Description Support for cylinder liner lifting device

Code No 836033

Weight (kg) 41.8 (36)

Dimensions

Description Cylinder liner honing tools

Code No 842014

Weight (kg) 18

Dimensions 485 x 305 x 75

0519

05 19

05 Description Dismantling tool for antipolishing ring

Maintenance tools Code No 836043 Weight (kg) 4 Dimensions

46 02 30

05 20

0520

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

5.6.

Main bearing
(Chapter 10)
Description Code No 803004 Weight (kg) 0.9 Dimensions

Stud remover screw for mounting and dismantling device (M56)

Description Turning tool for main bearing shell

Code No 851001

Weight (kg) 0.5

Dimensions

0521

05 21

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

Description Turning tool for thrust washer and bearing shell

Code No 851020

Weight (kg) 3.4

Dimensions

Description Hydraulic pump, complete Hydraulic pump, low pressure (Max. 150 bar)

Code No 860050 860181

Weight (kg) 12.4

Dimensions

Quick coupling, male

860172

Flexible hose, long

861012

2.0

Straight male stud Quick coupling, female

860174 860173

05 22

0522

46 02 30 Description Mounting device for hydraulic cylinder

Maintenance tools Code No 861041 Weight (kg) 6.2 Dimensions

05

0523

05 23

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

Description Hydraulic tightening tool for M56 screws

Code No 861100

Weight (kg) 13

Dimensions

Description Distance sleeve

Code No 861009

Weight (kg) 4.5

Dimensions

Description Pin for tightening nuts

Code No 861010

Weight (kg) 0.05

Dimensions

05 24

0524

46 02 30 Description Bar for lifting tool

Maintenance tools Code No 831003 Weight (kg) 16.5 Dimensions

05

Description Lifting tool 1000 kg

Code No 836001

Weight (kg) 10

Dimensions

0525

05 25

05 Description Transport device

Maintenance tools Code No 836030 Weight (kg) 0.6 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Transport device into crankcase

Code No 836041

Weight (kg) 16

Dimensions

05 26

0526

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

5.7.

Injection equipment
(Chapter 16)
Description Code No 806052 Weight (kg) 0.13 Dimensions

Flare nut Wrench (32 mm)

Description Open end wrench (46 mm)

Code No 806058

Weight (kg) 3.5

Dimensions

Description Open end wrench (41 mm)

Code No 806078

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

0527

05 27

05 Description Box insert tool for pilot nozzle cap nut (36 mm)

Maintenance tools Code No 806055 Weight (kg) 0.2 Dimensions

46 02 30

05 28

0528

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

Description Special socket wrench for main fuel valve connection piece (36 mm)

Code No 809032

Weight (kg) 0.1

Dimensions

Description Testing device for nozzle equipment (CR)

Code No 864001

Weight (kg) 13

Dimensions

300 450

0540ah07003

Description Lifting tool for injection pump

Code No 831004

Weight (kg) 4

Dimensions 285

73
0540ah08003

0529

05 29

05 Description Lifting tool for injection valve (CR)

Maintenance tools Code No 831008 Weight (kg) 3 Dimensions

46 02 30

235

190

0540ah11003

Description Socket wrench 74mm (CR)

Code No 806054

Weight (kg)

Dimensions CAP 74

175

0540ah15001

Description Wrench for main nozzle 90mm (CR)

Code No 806076

Weight (kg) 3

Dimensions

225

150 25
0540ah16001

05 30

0530

46 02 30 Description Box head wrench 732/40 41 (CR)

Maintenance tools Code No 806077 Weight (kg) Dimensions

05

Description Lifting tool for accumulator with SSV (CR)

Code No 831009

Weight (kg) 6

Dimensions

235

340

0540ah18001

Description Dismounting and mounting tools for injection valve (CR)

Code No 846601

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

314

0540ah19002

0531

05 31

05 Description Turning tool for flow control valve (CR)

Maintenance tools Code No 844001 80 Weight (kg) Dimensions

46 02 30

75
0540ah21001

05 32

0532

46 02 30 Description Turning device for CRpump and accumulator (CR)

Maintenance tools Code No 864010 Weight (kg) 350 Dimensions

05

1177

1055 820 Description Mounting tool for injection pump tappet (CR) Code No 834060 Weight (kg) Dimensions
0540ah23001

1721

1055 820
0540ah24001

0533

05 33

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

5.8.

Camshaft
Description Code No 834053 Weight (kg) 14 Dimensions

Locking device for camshaft

Description Locking bar for valve tappet

Code No 845013

Weight (kg) 0.4

Dimensions

Description Locking bar for injection pump tappet

Code No 845014

Weight (kg) 0.4

Dimensions

05 34

0534

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

Description Mounting and removing device for camshaft bearings

Code No 834010

Weight (kg) 70

Dimensions

Description Camshaft piece mounting device

Code No 845020

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

0535

05 35

05

Maintenance tools

46 02 30

5.9.

Miscellaneous tools
Description Code No 848111 Weight (kg) 4,3 Dimensions

Deflection indicator for crankshaft

Description Hydraulic tension cylinder

Code No 834050

Weight (kg) 19

Dimensions

05 36

0536

46 02 30 Description Checking device for cylinder

Maintenance tools Code No 848020 Weight (kg) 4.5 Dimensions

05

Description Mounting device for overspeed cylinder and elastic link rod

Code No 837020

Weight (kg) 0.5

Dimensions

Description Stud remover M20

Code No 837039

Weight (kg) 0.2

Dimensions

0537

05 37

05 Description Universal puller

Maintenance tools Code No 837038 Weight (kg) 4.3 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Guiding mandrel for assembly of HT pipe sealing

Code No 846160

Weight (kg) 7.2

Dimensions

Description Torque wrench 730R/20 (Max 200 Nm)

Code No 820008

Weight (kg) 1.5

Dimensions

05 38

0538

46 02 30 Description Torque wrench 721/80 (Max 800 Nm)

Maintenance tools Code No 820009 Weight (kg) 4.8 Dimensions

05

Description Torque wrench

Code No 820010

Weight (kg) 0.8

Dimensions

Description Torque wrench 2002000Nm (CR)

Code No 820011

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

Description Torque wrench 75400Nm (CR)

Code No 820012

Weight (kg) 2.3

Dimensions

0539

05 39

05 Description Air operated hydraulic pressure unit

Maintenance tools Code No 860170 Weight (kg) 15 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Eyebolt screw (M10)

Code No 831005

Weight (kg) 0.1

Dimensions

Description Eyebolt screw (M12)

Code No 831002

Weight (kg) 0.18

Dimensions

Description Eyebolt screw (M16)

Code No 831006

Weight (kg) 0.3

Dimensions

05 40

0540

46 02 30 Description Shackle A 0.4

Maintenance tools Code No 833002 Weight (kg) 0.1 Dimensions

05

Description Shackle A 0.6

Code No 833003

Weight (kg) 0.2

Dimensions

Description Shackle A 1.6

Code No 833004

Weight (kg) 0.4

Dimensions

Description Lifting bend, 500 kg

Code No 833005

Weight (kg) 1 1500 mm

Dimensions

0541

05 41

05 Description Hydraulic tightening tool for M30 screws

Maintenance tools Code No 861164 Weight (kg) 6.1 Dimensions 130

46 02 30

168
0545ah28001

Description Distance ring

Code No 861165

Weight (kg) 0.1

Dimensions 68

0545ah29001

5.10.

Miscellaneous tools for air cooler


Description Code No 846053 Weight (kg) 92 Dimensions

Mounting device for air cooler

05 42

0542

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

5.11.

Optional tools
Description Code No 836024 Weight (kg) 34.6 Dimensions

Lifting tool for camshaft pieces

Description Lifting tool for drive gear

Code No 836023

Weight (kg) 16.5

Dimensions

Description Lifting bar for drive gear

Code No 836034

Weight (kg) 16.5

Dimensions

Description Connecting piece for camshaft extension piece lifting tool

Code No 836019

Weight (kg) 18.0

Dimensions

0543

05 43

05 Description Lifting device for end piece of camshaft

Maintenance tools Code No 836018 Weight (kg) 6.5 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Lifting device for camshaft piece

Code No 836029

Weight (kg) 12.7

Dimensions

Description Lifting device for bigger intermediate gear

Code No 836021

Weight (kg) 1.7

Dimensions

Description Lifting device for end piece of camshaft

Code No 836017

Weight (kg) 14.5

Dimensions

05 44

0544

46 02 30

Maintenance tools

05

Description Lifting device for camshaft drive gear

Code No 836020

Weight (kg) 12

Dimensions

Description Lifting device for smaller intermediate gear

Code No 836022

Weight (kg) 8.4

Dimensions

Description Guide shaft extension for heat exchanger plates

Code No 845009

Weight (kg) 4.3

Dimensions

Description Pressure testing flange for cylinder head

Code No 848021

Weight (kg) 78

Dimensions

0545

05 45

05 Description Pressure test flange

Maintenance tools Code No 847012 Weight (kg) 4 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Honing machine with crane

Code No 842010

Weight (kg) 45

Dimensions

Description Assembly rig for cylinder head

Code No 847002

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

05 46

0546

46 02 30 Description Assembly trestle for injection pump

Maintenance tools Code No 862023 Weight (kg) Dimensions

05

Description Distance sleeve

Code No 861122

Weight (kg) 4

Dimensions

Description Hydraulic tightening tool for M48x3 screws

Code No 861121

Weight (kg) 13

Dimensions

0547

05 47

05 Description Extractor for water pump WD200L impeller

Maintenance tools Code No 837001 Weight (kg) Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Assembling tool for WD200L water pump bearing

Code No 846030

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

Description Assembling tool for water pump WD200L sealings

Code No 846031

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

Description Extractor for water pump WD125L impeller

Code No 837005

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

05 48

0548

46 02 30 Description Assembling tool for WD125L water pump front bearing

Maintenance tools Code No 846002 Weight (kg) Dimensions

05

Description Assembling tool for water pump WD125L sealings

Code No 846004

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

Description Assembling tool for WD125L water pump back bearing

Code No 846003

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

0549

05 49

05 Description Lifting tool for lubricating oil pump (Leistritz)

Maintenance tools Code No 836046 Weight (kg) 64 Dimensions

46 02 30

Description Lifting tool for cooling water pump

Code No 836054

Weight (kg)

Dimensions

05 50

0550

46 02 33

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

06

6. Adjustments, clearances and wear limits


6.1. Adjustments
Valve timing (Miller, Ftiming) Valve Inlet valve Exhaust valve opens 44_ before TDC 53_ before BDC closes 10_ before BDC 40_ after TDC

Valve clearances, cold engine Inlet valves Exhaust valves Other adjustments Opening pressure of safety valve on lub.oil pump Fuel delivery commencement 68 bar see test records 1 mm 1,5 mm

Tripping speed of electrical overspeed trip device Nominal speed (rpm) Marine 514 Electrical tripping speed (rpm) 590

061

06 1

06

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

46 02 33

6.2.

Clearances and wear limits (at 20_C)


6.2.1. Clearances and wear limits for V46
Drawing dimension (mm) Min. Max. 450.000 0.020 0.020/100 9.825 9.845 470.040 24.720 299.968 9.875 320.000 300.260 24.750 300.000 9.890 320.036 300.330 300.370 0.2600.362 0.400 230.000 210.000 210.200 60.000 29.980 230.029 210.029 210.260 60.060 30.020 0.2000.290 0.350 0.2800.440 0.700 460.000 460.063 0.03 14.820 14.850 0.30 210.300 450.405 450.450 450.485 450.530 0.4050.525 0.4500.570 0.4701.050 1.500 24.50 0.030 0.025/100 9.800 449.960 Nominal clearance (mm) Wear limit (mm)

Part, measuring point

10

Crankshaft journal, diameter Crankshaft journal, ovality Crankshaft journal, taper Main bearing shell thickness Bore of main bearing housing Assembled bearing bore Main bearing clearance (also flywheel bearing) Thrust bearing, axial clearance Thrust washer thickness Camshaft diameter Camshaft bearing bush thickness Camshaft bearing housing bore Assembled bearing bore Camshaft bearing clearance Camshaft thrust bearing housing, bore Camshaft thrust bearing diameter Assembled bearing bore Camshaft thrust bearing width housing shaft Camshaft thrust bearing clearance Camshaft thrust bearing, axial clearance Cylinder liner diameter Cylinder liner ovality at TDC Thrust bearing thickness

Measurement record 4610V004GB: Main bearing shell

Measurement record 4610V003GB: Camshaft bearing bore

Measurement records 4610V001GB and 4610V002GB: Cylinder liner

06 2

062

46 02 33

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits Part, measuring point Drawing dimension (mm) Min. Max. 450.000 0.020 0.020/100 9.820 470.000 9.840 470.040 0.020 450.540 450.460 0.4200.580 0.3400.500 219.980 250.000 220.150 220.000 250.046 220.226 0.1500.246 Measurement record 4611V008GB: Big end bearing shell 449.960 Nominal clearance (mm)

06 Wear limit (mm) 0.030 0.030/100

11

Crank pin, diameter Crank pin, ovality Crank pin, taper Big end bearing shell thickness Big end bore diameter Ovality Assembled bearing bore Big end bearing clearance Gudgeon pin diameter Small end bore Assembled bearing bore Gudgeon pin bearing clearance Connecting rod axial clearance in piston Small end bearing bush, thickness Clearance gudgeon pin piston Bore diameter in piston Piston ring gap (clamped 460) Compression ring 1 Compression ring 2 Oil scraper ring Piston ring axial clearance: Compression ring 1 Compression ring 2 Oil scraper ring Piston ring groove height: Groove I and II Groove III Piston clearance at bottom in cross direction of engine Corresponding piston diameter

0.10

Measurement record 4611V003GB: Big end bearing bore 450.420 450.340

220.260

Measurement record 4611V004GB: Gudgeon pin 14.920 220.06 14.935 0.060.10 220.08 1.101.50 2.002.60 1.401.95 3.0 3.0 3.0

Measurement record 4611V007GB: Piston rings 0.2230.265 0.7 0.2230.265 0.7 0.0630.105 0.3

Measurement records 4611V001GB and 4611V002GB for axial clearance 10.110 8.050 10.130 8.070 0.2500.290 459.710 459.750 10.6 8.3

Measurement record 4611V009GB: Piston ring groove height

063

06 3

06

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits Part, measuring point Drawing dimension (mm) Min. Max. 34.174 34.000 34.147 33.975 Nominal clearance (mm)

46 02 33 Wear limit (mm) 34.350 33.900 0.1470.199 0.450

12

Valve guide diameter assembled Valve stem diameter Valve stem clearance Valve seat radial deviation in relation to valve guide (max. value) Inlet valve seat bore in cylinder head Exhaust valve seat bore in cylinder head: outer bore inner bore

Measurement record 4612V002GB: Valve guides Measurement record 4612V001GB: Valves 0.10 172.000 180.000 162.00 172.025 180.029 162.025

06 4

064

46 02 33

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

06

Part, measuring point

Drawing dimension (mm) Min. Max.

Nominal clearance (mm) 0.2000.350 0.330.52

Wear limit (mm) 0.5

13

Intermediate gear of camshaft drive bearing clearance 1 (see Fig. 6.1.) axial clearance 2 Bearing diameter, in situ Bearing journal diameter Camshaft driving gear backlash: Crankshaft gear wheel intermediate gear wheel Small intermediate gear wheel camshaft gear wheel 210.200 209.971 210.320 210.000

0.3000.904 0.3890.754

Fig. 6.1.

065

06 5

06

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits Part, measuring point Drawing dimension (mm) Min. Max. 159.915 160.063 0.0850.248 60.000 60.090 59.971 60.030 60.120 59.990 0.0100.059 0.1000.149 70.000 69.870 109.966 110.088 41.904 42.000 70.030 69.900 0.1000.160 109.988 110.154 0.1000.188 41.920 42.025 0.1210.080 159.815 160.00 Nominal clearance (mm)

46 02 33 Wear limit (mm)

14

Valve tappet diameter 1 (see Fig. 6.2.) Guide diameter 2 Diameter clearance 3 Roller pin bore in the tappet 4 Bearing bush bore diameter 5 Tappet pin diameter Bearing clearance tappettappet pin 6 bearing bushtappet pin 7 Roller bore diameter 12 Bearing bush outer diameter 13 Diameter clearance 14 Bearing journal diameter 8 (see Fig. 6.3.) Rocker arm bearing diameter, in situ 9 Bearing clearance Yoke pin diameter 10 Yoke bore diameter 11 Diameter clearance

60.200

69.800

110.500

Section AA

Fig. 6.2.

Section BB

Fig. 6.3. 06 6
066

46 02 33

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits Part, measuring point Drawing dimension (mm) Min. Max. 1.05 Nominal clearance (mm)

06 Wear limit (mm) 1.15

16

Nozzle needle lift (see Fig. 6.4.) main injection nozzle

1.00

066

Fig. 6.4. Part, measuring point Drawing dimension (mm) Min. 16 Injection tappet diameter 1 (see Fig. 6.5.) Guide diameter 2 Diameter clearance 3 Roller pin bore in the tappet 4 Bearing bush bore diameter 5 Tappet pin diameter Bearing clearance tappettappet pin 6 bearing bushtappet pin 7 1, 2 3 70.000 69.600 69.971 70.030 69.700 69.990 0.0100.059 0.2710.390 69.800 154.875 155.000 Max. 154.915 155.063 0.0850.188 Nominal clearance (mm) Wear limit (mm)

12

6 Fig. 6.5.

061102p

067

06 7

06

Adjustments, clearances and wear limits Part, measuring point Drawing dimension (mm) Min. Max. 60,000 0,4220,731 59, 970 Nominal clearance (mm)

46 02 33

18

Lubricating oil pump, diameter of shaft Backlash for driving gear

Fig. 6.6.

06 8

068

46 02 33

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07

7. Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools


7.1. Tightening torques for screws and nuts
Threads and contact faces of nuts and screw heads should be oiled with lubricating oil unless otherwise stated. Note that locking fluids are used in certain cases. Due to the risk of overtensioning the screws Molykote or similar low friction lubricants must not be used for any screws or nuts unless otherwise advised. 1 Nm = 0.102 kpm

NOTE !

The position numbers of components in this chapter are not necessarily the same as those to be found in the assembly instructions in chapters 1023. This is to be taken in consideration when looking for torque values.

7.1.1.
Pos. 1 2 47

Camshaft
Camshaft (see Fig. 7.1.) Torque Nm 550"24 200 575"25 575"25

Camshaft flange connection nuts (M20) Pretightening before final tightening Camshaft gear flange connection screws (M20) Vibration damper connection screws (M20)

Fig. 7.1.

071

07 1

07

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

46 02 33

7.1.2.
Pos. 7 8 12 13 48 67 82

Cylinder head
Cylinder head (see Fig. 7.2.) Torque Nm 200"5 125 600"25 30"5 400"25 170"5 120

Connection piece to nozzle holder (Molykote Grapid to thread and sealing cone.) Main injection valve fastening nuts Rocker arm console fastening screw (M24) Locking screw for valve clearance adjusting screw (M12) Locking nut for adjusting screw of yoke (M24x2) Clamp tightening screw (M16) Fastening screws for connection piece sealing flange (M12) To be tightened in steps: By hand (check that the flange is in right angle) 10 50 80 120

070416

Fig. 7.2.

07 2

072

46 02 33 Pos. 14 15 16

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools Starting valve, safety valve (see Fig. 7.3.)

07 Torque Nm 85"5 150"5 45"2

Fastening nuts for cylinder head safety valve (M16) Fastening nuts for starting valve (M16) Nut for starting valve spindle (M12)

Fig. 7.3.

7.1.3.
Pos. 17

Crankshaft
Crankshaft (see Fig. 7.4.) Torque Nm 1900"100 3160"150

Split gear screws on crankshaft (M30) 10.9 (M36) 10.9 Apply Loctite 243 on threads M36. (See section 7.2.) Flywheel fastening screws and flywheel fitting bolts In case you need the tightening torque for these screws, please contact the nearest Wrtsil service office. Tightening screws of vibration damper or gear wheel for engine driven pumps (M39x3) (optional) Fitting bolts of vibration damper or gear wheel for engine driven pumps (M39x3) (optional)

18, 19

44 45

2800 2200

Fig. 7.4.
073

07 3

07

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

46 02 33

7.1.4.

Common rail equipment

Use engine lubricating oil in threads of high pressure pipes and Molykote Gn plus in sealing cones. Pos. 71 72 77 10 76 Common rail equipment (see Fig. 7.5.) High pressure pipe (between accumulators) (or plug) High pressure pipe (from pump to accumulator) (or plug) Injection pipe fastening nut to accumulator (or plug) Injection pipe fastening nut to cylinder cover Pump head bolts To be tightened in steps (by hand50100150180) crosswise. Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. Delivery valve housing bolts To be tightened in steps (by hand4080116) crosswise Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. Fuel pump fastening screws Accumulator fastening screws (To be tightened crosswise.) (To be tightened crosswise.) Torque Nm 280 360 450 330 180

102

116

73 74 95

460"20 200 610

Accumulator topcap and bottomcap screws. To be tightened in steps (by hand200400610) and crosswise (tightening order: 15372648). Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. Flow fuse housing fastening screws. To be tightened in steps (by hand80160240) and crosswise (tightening order: 1574632). Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. SSV fastening screws To be tightened in steps (by hand275473) and crosswise (tightening order: 15372648). Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. SSV top cap fastening screws Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. SSV solenoid valve fastening nut Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. SSV air bottle and air bottle cap SSV air bottle clamp bolts Drain pipe fittings Leakage indication ring fastening screws Pressure sensor M14

98

240

75

73

97 78 79 80 99 100 101

73 30 100 42 60 6 30"3

07 4

074

46 02 33

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07

76 75 99 102 10 77 95 71 72 97 79 73 72 101 78 71 98

74

80 100
071802p.ai

Fig. 7.5.

075

07 5

07

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

46 02 33

7.1.5.
Pos. 28 68 69 70 94

Injection valves
Injection valves (see Fig. 7.6.) Torque Nm 1150"40 1600"50 2 (max.) 70 120"5 70 68 69 94

Main injection nozzle cap nut Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. Injection valve upper nut Use Molykote Gn plus lubricant on the threads. Solenoid cable fastening nuts Clamping plate fastening screws Solenoid assembly

28

071108p.ai

Fig. 7.6.

7.1.6.
Pos. 81

Control oil pump


Control oil pump (see Fig. 7.7.) Torque Nm 35

Control oil pump gear fastening screws 81

071001p.ai

Fig. 7.7. 07 6
076

46 02 33

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07

7.1.7.
Pos. 30

Engine driven lub. oil pump


Torque Nm 41"4

Engine driven lube oil pump (see Fig. 7.8.) Lube oil pump gear fastening screws

Fig. 7.8.

7.1.8.
Pos. 31

Other tightening torques


Screw connection (see Fig. 7.9. ) Torque Nm 1600 "100

Turbocharger fastening screws (M30), TPL77

071501

Fig. 7.9.

077

07 7

07

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

46 02 33

7.1.9.

General torques

We recommend the use of torque measuring tools also when tightening other screws and nuts. The following torque values apply to screws of the strength class 8.8; when oiled with lubricating oil or treated with Loctite. Screw dimension M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 Width across flats of hexagon screws 13 17 19 24 30 36 Key width of hexagon socket head screws 6 8 10 14 17 19 Torque Nm 25 50 85 190 370 640 Torque kpm 2.5 5.0 8.5 19.0 37.5 65

7.2.

Use of locking fluids


When using locking fluid (Loctite), clean parts carefully in degreasing fluid and let them dry completely before applying locking fluid.

7.3.

Hydraulically tightened connections


7.3.1. General

The screws will be overloaded if the maximum hydraulic pressure is exceeded. In case it is impossible to turn the nuts, when the maximum hydraulic pressure is reached, check is there corrosion in the threads and are the tools and manometers operational. When tightening hydraulic bolt connections, follow the instructions given in section 7.3.4.

07 8

078

46 02 33

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07

7.3.2. gines
Pos. Screw connection (see Fig. 7.10.)

Hydraulically tightened connections, VenHydraulic pressure when tightening (bar) ("3%) Stage I Stage II 450 815 600 600 800 760 650 815 700 400 "40 400 "40 300 "30 By hand 400" 40 150" 10 400" 40 400" 40 By hand 861143 861143 861100 861100 861142 861120 861142 861143 861120 300 400 400 300 400 400 300 400 300 Tightening torque for stud (Nm) Hydraulic cylinder

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 49

Cylinder head bolts M90 x 6 Main bearing bolts M90 x 6 Thrust bearing bolts M56 Lateral bolts of main bearings and thrust bearing M56 Big end bearing bolts M72x6 Connecting rod bolts M42 Counterweight bolts M72x6 Central bolts for intermediate gears M90x6 Fixing bolts M42 (resilient mounting)

Fig. 7.10.
079

07 9

07 Pos.

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools Screw connection (see Fig. 7.11.) Hydraulic pressure when tightening (bar) ("3%) Stage I Stage II 500 By hand 200 Tightening torque for stud (Nm)

46 02 33 Hydraulic cylinder

31

Turbocharger fastening screws M30

861164

071501

Fig. 7.11.

07 10

0710

46 02 33

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07

Use of hydraulic cylinders:

7.3.3. Dismantling hydraulically tightened screw connections


1 Attach distance sleeves and hydraulic cylinders to the nuts according to Fig. 7.12. A. Screw on the cylinders by hand. 2 Connect the hoses to the pump and cylinders according to scheme 7.12. B. Open the release valve (2) and screw cylinders in clockwise direction to expel possible oil. 3 Turn the cylinders or distance sleeves in counterclckwise direction about half a revolution (180_), M72 x 6 thread sleeve 3/4 revolution (270_). Otherwise the nuts will be locked by the cylinder and impossible to loosen. 4 Close the release valve and pump pressure to the stated value. (See stage II in section 7.3.2.) Read pressure in both manometers (6) (Fig. 7.12.). 5 Turn the nuts in counterclockwise direction about one revolution with a pin. 6 Open the release valve slowly and remove the hydraulic tool set. 7 Screw off the nuts.

Fig. 7.12.

0711

07 11

07

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

46 02 33

7.3.4. Reassembling hydraulically tightened screw connections


1 Screw on the nuts and attach distance sleeves. Screw on the cylinders by hand. 2 Connect the hoses to the pump and cylinders according to Fig. 7.12. Check that the release valve (2) is open and screw the cylinders in clockwise direction to expel possible oil. 3 Close the release valve (2) and pump the pressure to the value of stage I stated in the table of section 7.3.2. 4 Tighten the nuts with a pin until close contact to face. Keep the pressure constant at the stated value during tightening. 5 Release the pressure. 6 Pump the pressure to the value of stage II and tighten the nuts. Observe, that the nuts turn equally. 7 Open the release valve slowly and remove the hydraulic tool set.

7.3.5.

Maintenance of high pressure tool set

The hydraulic tool set consists of a high pressure hand pump with integrated oil container, hoses fitted with quickconnections and nonreturn valves, cylinders and a pressure gauge mounted on the hand pump and another mounted after the last hydraulic jack. See Fig. 7.12. The components are connected in series, the pressure gauge being the last component thus ensuring that every cylinder is fed with the correct pressure. The nonreturn valves in the hoses are integrated with the quickconnections and are opened by the pins located in the centre of the male and female parts. If these pins get worn the connection must be replaced due to the risk of blocking. S In the high pressure hydraulic tool set it is recommended to use a special hydraulic oil or at least an oil with a viscosity of about 2_E at 20_C. S During the filling of the high pressure pump container, it is recommended to connect the set according to scheme B Fig. 7.12. Before filling, open the release valve (2) and empty the cylinders (4) by pressing piston and cylinder together. After that, the container can be filled through the filling plug (1). S After filling, vent the system by pressing in, with a finger, the centre pin of the female part of the last quickconnection; the connection being disconnected from the pressure gauge. Keep on pumping until airfree oil emerges from the connection. S Check the pressure gauge of the hydraulic tool set regularly. For this purpose a comparison pressure gauge is supplied. This pressure gauge can be connected to the plug hole (7) and the outlet hose of the pump is connected direct to the pressure gauges.

07 12

0712

46 02 33

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07

7.4.

Use of hydraulic extractor cylinder


For some power demanding operations a hydraulic extractor cylinder (834050) is used. In connection with this cylinder the hydraulic high pressure hand pump is utilized. (Connection scheme acc. to Fig. 7.13.)

Fig. 7.13. The effective area of the piston is 58.32 cm 2 which gives the following relation between pressure and force (Fig. 7.14.)

Relation between pressure and force for hydraulic extractor cylinder 834050.
Max. pressure

Fig. 7.14. According to the design of the cylinder, the outer cylinder (1) must not be loaded, but the force is created between the surfaces A and B in Fig. 7.13.
0713

07 13

07

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

46 02 33

The piston is prevented from running out of the cylinder by an expansion ring (2). The strength of this ring is limited and it is recommended that care be taken when operating at the end of the stroke.

7.5.

Use of low pressure pump for lifting purposes in the crankcase


A special low pressure pump (150 bar, 860050) is delivered for lifting the main bearing cap in the crankcase. Normal engine oil, which is used in the engine lubricating system (sump) must be used in this pump if the drain oil from the tools is led to the sump of the engine. However, it is also possible to connect the drain oil back to the pump chamber. (Fig. 7.15.) When lifting the main bearing connect the pressure hose to connection UP, when lowering connect the hose to connection DOWN.

View A

Fig. 7.15.

07 14

0714

46 02 33

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07

7.6.
NOTE !

Torque calculations
Torque wrench settings must be recalculated according to the following formula when using tools (806054) and (806058) together with torque wrench (820009) or (820008).

M1 +

B x M (B ) A )

071702

Fig. 7.16.

Example:
M + 600 Nm A + 272 mm B + 880 mm M1 + 880 x 600 + 458 Nm (880 ) 272)

0715

07 15

07

Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

46 02 33

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07 16

0716

46 94 34

Operating problems, emergency operation

08

8. Operating problems, emergency operation


For preventive action, see chapter 3. and 4. Some possible operating problems require prompt action. Operators should acquire knowledge of this chapter for immediate action when needed.

8.1.

Trouble, possible reason


See chapter, section

1. Crankshaft does not rotate when attempting to start a) Turning device is connected. 3.1., 21.1. NOTE! Engine cannot be started when turning device is connected. However, before starting, always check that turning device is removed. b) Starting air pressure too low, shutoff valve on starting air inlet pipe closed. c) Jamming of starting valve in cylinder head. d) Jamming of starting air distributor piston. e) Starting air solenoid valve faulty. 21.1., 21.6. 21.5. 21.4. 21.6.2.

f) Inlet or exhaust valve jamming when open. Negative valve clearance 12. (strong blowing noise). g) Starting automation outside engine faulty. 2. Crankshaft rotates but engine fails to fire a) Too low speed (1b). b) Automatic shutdown is activated. c) Load limit of control shaft or of governor is set at a too low value. d) Overspeed trip device has tripped. e) Starting fuel limiter wrongly adjusted. f) Some part of fuel control mechanism jamming and prevents fuel ad mission. g) Pipe connections between injection pumps and valves not tightened. h) Fuel filter clogged. i) Threeway cock of fuel filter wrongly set, valve in fuel inlet pipe closed, fuel day tank empty, fuel feed pump not started or faulty. k) Very low air and engine temperatures (preheat circulating water!) in connection with low ignition quality fuel. l) Fuel insufficiently preheated or precirculated. m) Too low compression pressure (1f) 2.1. 2.1., Fig. 2.2. 23. 22.1.3. 22.3., 22.4. 22.1.3., 22.5. 22. 17.2.2. 17.2. 3.2., 23.

08-1

08 1

08

Operating problems, emergency operation

46 94 34 See chapter, section

3. Engine fires irregularly, some cylinders do not fire at all a) See points 1f, 2f, g, h, k, l, 4d. b) Injection pump control rack wrongly adjusted. c) Injection pump control sleeve does not mesh properly with rack (may cause overspeed if set in direction towards increased fuel quantity). 22.1.3. 16.2.5., 16.2.6.

d) Injection pump faulty (plunger or tappet sticking; delivery valve spring 16. broken, delivery valve sticking). e) Injection valve faulty; nozzle holes clogged. f) Piston rings ruined; too low compression pressure. g) 8...18cylinder engines. It may be troublesome to make these fire on all cylinders when idling, due to the small quantity of fuel required. In normal operation this is acceptable. For special cases, when engines have to idle continuously for longer periods (several hours), it is advisable to adjust the rack positions carefully (reduce rack position somewhat on those cylinders having the highest exhaust gas temperatures, increase somewhat on those cylinders not firing). This adjustment should be done in small steps and the difference between rack positions of various cylinders should not exceed 1mm. 4. Engine speed not stable a) Governor adjustment faulty (normally too low compensation). b) See point 2f. c) Fuel feed pressure too low. d) Water in preheated fuel (vapor lock in injection pumps). e) Loading automation (e.g. controllable pitch propeller)outside engine faulty. 5. Knocks or detonations occur in engine (If reason cannot be found immediately, stop the engine) a) Big end bearing clearance excessive (loose screws !). 6.2. table 11, 7.3., 11.2.1. 12., 16. 6.1., 12.2.3. 16.2.4., 14.1.4., 7.1. 1.3. 22. 16. 11.2.1.

b) Valve springs or injection pump tappet spring broken. c) Inlet or exhaust valve jamming when open. d) Excessive valve clearances. e) One or more cylinders badly overloaded (3b, c) f) Injection pump or valve tappet guide block loose. g) Initial phase of piston seizure h) Insufficient preheating of engine in combination with a low ignition quality fuel.

08 2

08-2

46 94 34

Operating problems, emergency operation

08 See chapter, section

6. Dark exhaust gases a) Engine badly overloaded (check injection pump rack positions and exhaust gas temperatures). b) Late injection (wrongly set camshaft drive). c) See points 3b, c, d, e. d) Insufficient charge and scavenging air pressure charge air filter clogged turbocharger compressor dirty charge air cooler clogged on air side turbocharger turbine badly fouled NOTE! Engines starting on heavy fuel may smoke if left idling. 7. Engine exhaust gases bluewhitish or graywhitish a) Excessive lubricating oil consumption due to: gas blowby past piston rings; worn or broken oil scraper rings or worn cylinder liners; sticking compression rings; compression rings turned upsidedown; ring scuffing (burning marks on sliding surfaces). b) Bluewhitish exhaust gases may occasionally occur when engine has been idling for a lengthy time or at low ambient temperature, or for a short time after starting. c) Grey whitish exhaust gases due to water leakage from exhaust gas boiler or turbocharger. 8. Exhaust gas temperature of all cylinders abnormally high a) Engine badly overloaded (check injection pump rack positions). b) See point 6d. c) Charge air temperature too high charge air cooler clogged on water side or dirty on air side water temperature to air cooler too high, water quantity insufficient engine room temperature abnormally high d) Excessive deposits in cylinder head inlet or exhaust ports. e) Exhaust turbine dirty. 9. Exhaust gas temperature of one cylinder above normal a) Faulty exhaust gas thermometer b) Exhaust valve jamming when open negative valve clearance sealing surface blown by (burned) c) Faulty injection valve opening pressure much too low sticking of nozzle needle when open broken spring 6.1. 16.5.4. 15.3. Test Records 3.6.2. Test Records, 15.7.1., 15.7.2. 1.3. 1.3. Test Records 11.2.1. Test Records 15.2.2. 15.2.2. 15.7.2. Test Records 6.1., 16.2.7.

3.6.

08-3

08 3

08

Operating problems, emergency operation

46 94 34 See chapter, section

d) Late injection, refer to engine setting table e) Fuel supply insufficient (fuel filter clogged) f) Injection pump faulty, see points 3b and 3d. 10. Exhaust gas temperature of one cylinder below normal a) Faulty exhaust gas thermometer. b) See points 2f, h, 3b, c, d, e. c) Leaking injection pipe or pipe fittings. d) When idling, see point 3g. 11. Exhaust gas temperatures very unequal a) See points 9a, c, e. b) Too low fuel feed pressure: too small flow injection pumps (see points 2h, i), which may cause great load differences between cylinders al tough injection pump rack positions are the same. Dangerous ! Causes high thermal overload in individual cylinders. c) See points 1f, 6b. d) When idling, see point 3g. e) Exhaust pipe turbine nozzle ring partly clogged. 12. Lubricating oil pressure lacking or too low a) Faulty pressure gauge, gauge pipe clogged b) Lubricating oil level in oil tank too low. c) Lubricating oil pressure control valve out of adjustment or jamming. d) Threeway cock of lubricating oil filter wrongly set e) Leakage in lubricating oil suction pipe connections. f) Lubricating oil badly diluted with diesel oil, viscosity of oil too low. g) Lubricating oil pipes inside engine loose or broken. 13. Too high lubricating oil pressure a) See points 12a and c. 14. Too high lubricating oil temperature a) Faulty thermometer. b) Insufficient cooling water flow through oil cooler (faulty pump, air in system, valve closed), too high LTwater temperature. c) Oil cooler clogged, deposits on tubes. d) Faulty thermostatic valve 15. Abnormally high cooling water outlet temperature, difference between cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures excessive a) One of thermometers faulty. b) Circulating water cooler clogged, deposits on plates (installation).

6.1., 16.2.7.

23., 3.6.2. 16.4.

1.2. 23. 18. (18.) 18.1. 2.2.1., 2.2.3. 18.

1.2. 19. 1.3. (18.) 1.2.

08 4

08-4

46 94 34

Operating problems, emergency operation

08 See chapter, section

c) Insufficient flow of cooling water through engine (circulating water pump faulty), air in system, valves closed. d) Thermostatic valve faulty. 16. Water in lubricating oil a) Leaky oil cooler. b) Leakage at cylinder liner Orings (always pressure test when cooling water system has been drained or cylinder liners have been dismantled). c) Faulty lubricating oil separator (installation). See separator instruction book! 17. Water in charge air receiver (escape through drain pipe in air cooler housing) a) Leaky air coolers. b) Condensation (too low charge air cooling water temperature) 18. Engine looses speed at constant or increased load a) Engine overload, a further increase of fuel supply is prevented by the mechanical load limiter. b) See points 2c, f, g, h, i. c) See points 4c, d, 5g. d) Scavenge air fuel limiter built in the governor is limiting fuel. (Scav enge air pipe between the manifold and governor is leaking, scavenge air pressure too low or the governor wrongly adjusted.) 19. Engine stops a) Shortage of fuel, see points 2h, i. b) Overspeed trip device has tripped. c) Automatic stop device has tripped. d) Faulty governor or governor drive. 20. Engine does not stop although stop level is set in stop position or remote stop signal is given a) Injection pump control rack wrongly set (3b, c). Trip overspeed trip device manually. If the engine does not stop im mediately, block fuel supply as near the engine as possible (e.g. by fuel filter threeway cock). Before restarting the engine, the fault must be located and corrected. Great risk of overspeed. b) Fault in stop automation. Stop by means of stop lever. c) The engine driven by generator or propeller or by another engine con nected to the same reduction gear.

3.6.2., 19. (19.) 2.2.3., 3.6.,

2.2.3. 15.7.1.

3.6.2., Fig. 3.6. 22.1.

22., Governor manual

22.3., 22.4. 22., Governor manual

08-5

08 5

08

Operating problems, emergency operation

46 94 34 See chapter, section

21. Engine overspeed and does not stop although overspeed trip device trips a) Injection pump control rack wrongly set (3b, c). Load the engine, if possible. Block fuel supply, e.g. by means of fuel filter threeway cock. b) An overspeeding engine is hard to stop. Therefore, check regularly the adjustment of the control mechanism (the injection pump rack positions) 1) The stop lever being in stop position or the overspeed trip device be ing tripped and the speed governor at max. fuel admission. 2) the stop lever and the overspeed trip being in work position and the speed governor in stop position. This control should be done always when the control mechanism or the injection pumps have been touched. 22.1.3.

8.2.

Emergency operation
Operation with defective parts:

8.2.1. Operation with defective air cooler(s)


If the water tubes of an air cooler are defective, the cooling water may enter the cylinders. If water or water mist flows out of the drain pipe, check whether it is cooling water or condensate. If condensate, reduce cooling (see chapter 3, Fig. 3.6.). If cooling water, stop the engine as soon as possible and fit a spare cooler. If no spare cooler is available, the fol lowing can be done as an emergency solution:

a) Dismantle the cooler for repair


and blank off the opening in the charge air cooler housing. Shut off water supply and return pipes. Repair the cooler, e.g. by plugging the leaking tubes.

b) If there is not time enough to remove the defective cooler


and repair it, shut off water supply and return pipes.

c) Operating with a partially plugged, shutdown or removed air cooler.


Engine output must be limited so that the normal full load exhaust tem peratures are not exceeded. The turbocharger may surge before the admissible exhaust temperatures are reached. In such a case, engine load must be reduced further to avoid continuous surging.

8.2.2. Operation with defective turbocharger(s)


A defective turbocharger is to be treated in accordance with the service instructions given in the turbocharger instruction book (blocking or removing the rotor etc.) 08 6
08-6

46 94 34

Operating problems, emergency operation

08

Available load from the engine with blocked turbocharger(s) is about 20% of full load. The engine output must, however, be limited so that the normal full load exhaust temperatures are not exceeded. Maximum allowable exhaust gas temperature after cylinder at continuous opera tion with blocked turbocharger is 500_C. (See also section 15.6.)

8.2.3. Operation with defective cams


If the camshaft piece with its damaged cams cannot be removed and replaced by a new one, the engine can be kept running by the following means:

a) Injection pump cams Slight damage:


Set the injection pump control rack to zero position and lock it by using the limiter tool 863001 (See chapter 16.).

Bad damage:
Remove the fuel injection pump and the tappet of the pump. Mount the injection pump and the tappet guiding pin back but leave the tappet out. See chapter 16.

NOTE !

With regards to torsional vibrations and other vibrations, see chapter 08, section 8.2.5.. When operating with a shut-off injection pump over a long period, the valve push rods of the inlet and outlet valves are to be removed. The indicator valve on the respective cylinder is to be opened once an hour to allow any accumulated oil to escape. With one cylinder out of opera tion, reduce load to prevent exhaust temperature of the remaining cylin ders from exceeding normal full load temperatures.

b) Valve cams
Stop fuel injection to the cylinder concerned, see chapter 16. Remove the valve push rods and cam followers of the cylinder. Replace the tubes cov ering the push rods.

NOTE !

With regards to torsional vibrations and other vibrations, see chapter 08, section 8.2.5.. With one cylinder out of operation, reduce load to prevent exhaust tem peratures of the remaining cylinders from exceeding full load tempera tures.

8.2.4. Operation with removed piston and connecting rod


If damage to the piston, connecting rod or big end bearing cannot be repaired, the following can be done to allow emergency operation:
08-7

08 7

08

Operating problems, emergency operation

46 94 34

1 Remove the piston, connecting rod and big end bearing. 2 Cover lubricating oil bore in crank pin with a suitable hose clip, and secure. 3 Fit completely assembled cylinder head but omit valve push rods. 4 Prevent starting air entry to the cylinder head by removing the pilot air pipe. 5 Shut down injection pump (chapter 16.).

NOTE !

With regards to torsional vibrations and other vibrations, see chapter 08, section 8.2.5.. With one cylinder out of operation, reduce load to prevent exhaust tem perature of the remaining cylinders from exceeding normal full load temperatures. If the turbocharger(s) surge, reduce load further to avoid continuous surging. Operation with removed piston and connecting rod, from one or more cylinders, should be performed only in absolute emergency conditions when there are no other means of proceeding under own power.

8.2.5. Torsional vibrations and other vibrations


When running the engine with one cylinder (or more) out of operation, the balance of the engine is disturbed and severe or even dangerous vibrations may occur. The vibration conditions are in practice depen dent on the type of the installation. As a general advice, when there are cylinders out of order: Reduce load as much as possible. Keep the speed in a favorable range (completely depending on the type of the installation). If one or several pistons are removed, the lowest possible speed should be used. It is advisable to contact the engine manufacturer for more instructions.

08 8

08-8

46 94 00

Specific installation data

09

9. Specific installation data


Chapter 09 is reserved for items having no place reserved anywhere else in the manual. (Normally chapter 09 is empty.)

09-1

09 1

09

Specific installation data

46 94 00

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09 2

09-2

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

10. Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump


10.1. Engine block
The nodular cast iron engine block is cast in one piece. The jacket water distributing pipes are incorporated in the engine block. The crankcase covers as well as other covers tighten against the engine block by rubber sealings and four screws each. Some of the crankcase covers are equipped with safety valves which relieve the overpressure in case of a crankcase explosion. The number of relief valves depends on the crank case volume. The crankcase is also provided with a vent pipe including a non-return valve with a drain connection. This vent pipe should be routed away from the engine room.

10.2.

Main bearings
The main bearing caps, which support the underslung crankshaft, are clamped by hydraulically tensioned screws, two from below and two horizontally. The bearing shells are axially guided by lugs to provide a correct assembly. Bearing shells are of tri-metal type. All main bear ings are equipped with temperature sensors.

10.2.1.

Maintenance of the main bearings

For maintenance intervals see chapter 4., Maintenance schedule. If ab normal temperatures appear the suspect bearing has to be inspected by opening it.

10.2.2.

Dismantling of a main bearing

Loosening the side screws:


1. Remove both crankcase covers on each side of the bearing, 2. Remove carefully the main bearing temperature sensor (1) (see Fig. 10.1.) and make sure that it will not be damaged while working with the bearing.

101

10 1

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

Fig. 10.1. 3. Remove the caps from the side screws of the bearing in question. 4. Lift the distance sleeves (861009) into position on the side screws. Both sides can be loosened simultaneously.

Fig. 10.2. 5. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump 860170 according to Fig. 10.3. and open the pump valve.

Fig. 10.3. 10 2
102

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

6. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and cylinder end faces are at the same level. 7. Turn the hydraulic tool back about half a turn (180_). 8. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure. (Section 7.3.2.) 9. Loosen the nut about half a turn with the pin 861010. 10. Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tool. 11. Remove the nuts from the side screws by hand.

Opening the main bearing nuts:


12. Fit the transport device (836041) and tackle (836001) according to (Fig. 10.4.). Fasten the transport device to the threaded holes of the crankcase cover fastening screws. Use e.g. M24 screws from the mounting device for big end bearing (836010).

Fig. 10.4. 13. Lift the hydraulic jack (861143) inside the engine by using the mounting device (861041) connected to the tackle. (See Fig. 10.5.)

103

10 3

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

Fig. 10.5. Screw on the hydraulic jack by using a wrench when at the right posi tion. Repeat the procedure with the other screw by fitting the hydraulic jack from the other side of the engine.

NOTE !

Hydraulic jack can also be lifted in two parts. Use lifting de vice for lifting the cylinder in position and lock it together with the nut by using two pins or bolts (see Fig. 10.6.). The inside part of the hydraulic jack can then be lifted by hand and screwed into position.

CAUTION !

Never turn the crankshaft with hydraulic tools 861143 mounted to the main bearing screws, because then the counterweights do not have enough space to rotate.

Inside part of 861143 Lifted by hand Fig. 10.6. 10 4


104

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

14. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) to hydraulic jacks according to Fig. 10.7. and open the pump valve.

Fig. 10.7. 15. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as long as it rotates. Repeat the procedure few times to get all oil out from the jack. 16. Turn the hydraulic jack back about 3/4 of a turn (270_). 17. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure. (See section 7.3.2.) 18. Loosen the nuts about 3/4 of a turn by using the pin (861010). 19. Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tools. Remove the hydraulic jacks from the crankcase by using the tool (861041) and the tackle.

Lowering the main bearing cap:


20. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860050) to the hydraulic jack, the supplying hose set to the side marked DOWN. From the connection UP, the hose is preferred to be connected back to the pump chamber. See Fig. 10.8. Use clean engine oil.

View A:

Fig. 10.8. 21. Remove the side screws to be able to lower the main bearing cap. Use stud remover (803004).
105

10 5

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

Fig. 10.9. 22. Remove the nuts of the main bearing screws. 23. Lower the main bearing cap by pumping oil pressure to the hydraulic jack with the hydraulic pump if necessary. If the bearing cap comes down without pumping, control the lowering speed with the valves of the pump.

NOTE !

Only the lower part of the hydraulic jack is pulling down.

Removing the bearing shells:


24. Remove the lower bearing shell by hand. 25. Insert the turning tool (851001) into the main bearing journal radial oil hole. (See Fig. 10.10.)

Fig. 10.10. 26. Turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing shell has turned 180_ and can be removed. 27. Cover the two main bearing journal radial oil holes with tape.

NOTE !

Every second main bearing should be in place at the same time to support the crankshaft.

10 6

106

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

10.2.3.

Inspection of main bearings and journals

1. Bearings: Clean the bearing shells and check for wear, scoring and other damage. Main bearing shells are of TRIMETALtype and can be used until the overlay is partially worn off. When the underlaying nickelbarrier or the lining material is exposed in any area, the bearing must be replaced.

CAUTION !

Never reinstall a bearing with the nickel barrier exposed in any part of the bearing shell.
2. Journals: The main bearing journals should be inspected for surface finish. Damaged journals, i.e. rough surface, scratches, marks of shocks etc., should be polished. If, after a longer running period, considerably uneven wear appears (table 10. section 6.2.), the crankshaft may be reground and used together with thicker bearing shells, see Spare Part Catalogue. No scraping or other damage of bearing shells, caps and saddles is al lowed. Burrs should be locally removed, only.

10.2.4.

Assembling the main bearing

Fit the bearing shells:


1. Clean the main bearing shells, the cap and the journal very carefully. 2. Take off the protecting tape from the journal oil holes and lubricate the journal with clean engine oil. 3. Lubricate the bearing surface, back side and end faces of the upper bearing shell with clean lubricating oil.

CAUTION !

The bearing shell can be completely destroyed (deformed) during the assembly, if it is not lubricated properly.
4. Place the end of the bearing shell in the slot between the journal and the bearing bore, with the lug guiding in the oil groove (see Fig. 10.11.), and push it by hand as far as possible (recommended 2/3 of its length).

Push by hand

Detail A

Fig. 10.11.
107

10 7

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

5. Insert the turning tool (851001) into the main bearing journal radial oil hole and turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing shell has turned into position. Take care that the bearing shell lug slides into the oil groove without being damaged.

Fig. 10.12.

CAUTION !

A bearing shell forced into its place can be completely destroyed due to deformation.
6. Remove the turning tool. 7. Lubricate the bearing surface and both ends of the lower bearing shell with clean lubricating oil and place it in the bearing cap.

Lift the bearing cap:


8. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860050) to the hydraulic jack, the supplying hose connected to the side marked UP. (See Fig. 10.13.) View A

Fig. 10.13. From the connection "DOWN" the hose can be connected back to the pump chamber. Grease the guide faces of the main bearing cap. 10 8
108

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

9. Lift the main bearing cap by pumping oil to the hydraulic jack with the hydraulic pump. Screw the main bearing nuts in position by hand. Make sure that the bearing caps and shells are correctly positioned.

Fit the side screws:


10. Clean the sidescrews properly and lubricate the threads (the threads towards the bearing cap). Fit the screws and tighten to bottom by hand or by using the tool (803004). 11. Tighten the side screw nuts by hand.

Pretighten the sidescrews:


12. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the side screw on the rear side of the engine. 13. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100) and connect the hoses. (Fig. 10.14.) 14. Shut the pump valve and pump to the pretightening pressure of 200 bar.

Fig. 10.14. 15. Tighten the nuts by the pin.

Tighten the main bearing:


16. Lift the hydraulic jacks (861143) for main bearings into position by using the mounting device (861041). (See Fig. 10.15.)

109

10 9

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

Fig. 10.15. 17. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) Keep on turning the hydraulic jack as far as it rotates. Shut the pump valve. 18. Pump to stated pressure, (see 7.3.2.) and tighten the nuts by the pin (861010). 19. Remove the tools. 20. Reinstall the temperature sensor.

Final tightening of the side screws:


21. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the side screw on the rear side of the engine. 22. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses and pump to full stated pressure. (See section 7.3.2.) Tighten the nut. 23. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the manoeuvring side screw. 24. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses and pump to full stated pressure. (See section 7.3.2.) Tighten the nut.

10 10

1010

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump Tightening order

10 Tightening pressure

Loosening: Pretightening: Final tightening:

1. Side screw nuts 2. Main bearing nuts 1. Side screw nut on rear side 1. Main bearing nuts 2. Side screw nut on rear side 3. Side screw nut on manoeuvring side

one by one or simultaneously simultaneously 200 bar simultaneously 7.3.2. 7.3.2. 7.3.2.

10.3.

Flywheel / thrust bearings


A combined flywheel/thrust bearing is located at the driving end. The flywheel bearing shells are of the same type as the main bearings, only different size. The two pairs of thrust washers guide the crankshaft axially.

10.3.1.

Maintenance of flywheel / thrust bearings

For maintenance intervals see chapter 4., Maintenance schedule. If ab normal temperatures appear, the bearing has to be inspected.

10.3.2.

Dismantling of flywheel / thrust bearing

Loosening of side screws:


1. Remove the two crankcase covers next to the flywheel end, on both sides of the engine. 2. Remove the caps of the side screws on the flywheel / thrust bearing. 3. Lift the distance sleeves (861009) into position on the side screws. (see 10.16.). Both sides can be loosened simultaneously. (Fig. 10.3.)

Fig. 10.16. 10 11

1011

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

4. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) according to Fig. 10.16. and open the pump valve. 5. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and the cylinder end faces are at the same level. 6. Turn the hydraulic tool back about half a turn (180_). 7. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure. 8. Loosen the nut about half a turn with the pin (861010). 9. Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tool. 10. Remove the nuts from the side screws by hand.

Opening of flywheel / thrust bearing nuts:


11. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the flywheel bearing nut and hang it by inserting the pin (861010), see Fig. 10.17. Screw on the hydraulic tools (861100), connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) according to Fig. 10.18. and open the pump valve.

Fig. 10.17.

Fig. 10.18. 10 12

1012

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

12. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as far as it rotates. 13. Turn the hydraulic tool back about half a turn (180_). 14. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure. (See section 7.3.2.) 15. Loosen the nuts about half a turn with the pins (861010). 16. Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tools.

Lowering the flywheel / thrust bearing cap:


17. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860050) to the hydraulic jack, the supplying hose set to the side marked DOWN. From the connection UP the hose is preferred to be connected back to the pump chamber. (See Fig. 10.19.)

View A:

Fig. 10.19. 18. Remove the side screws of the flywheel/thrust bearing to be able to lower the bearing cap. If necessary, use stud remover (803004).

Fig. 10.20. 19. Remove the nuts of the flywheel / thrust bearing screws. 20. Lower the bearing cap by pumping oil pressure to the hydraulic jack with the hydraulic pump.
1013

10 13

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

NOTE !

Only the lower part of the hydraulic jack is pulling down.

Removing the flywheel/thrust bearing shells


21. Remove the lower bearing shell and the lower thrust washers. To remove the thrust washer next to the driving end an M8 screw or eyebolt can be fitted to each end of the washer to help the removing, see Fig. 10.21. Note the guide pins (c). 22. Insert the turning tool (851020) into the bearing journal radial oil hole to remove the upper bearing shells. (See Fig. 10.22.)

Fig. 10.21.

Fig. 10.22. 23. Turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing shell and the washers have turned 180_and can be removed. Depending on the position of the crankshaft the thrust washers can be quite loose. 10 14
1014

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 24. Cover the two bearing journal radial oil holes with tape.

10

25. Check the bearing in the same way as the main bearings, section 10.2.3.The thrust washers on the same side have to be changed in pairs.

10.3.3.

Assembling the flywheel / thrust bearing

Fitting the flywheel / thrust bearings:


1. Clean the bearing shells, washers, cap and journal very carefully. 2. Take off the protecting tape from the bearing journal radial oil holes and lubricate the journal with clean engine oil. 3. Lubricate the upper bearing shell running surface and place the end of the bearing shell in the slot between the journal and the bearing bore. The axial location of the shell is to be secured by keeping the bearing shell end recesses (A) at the same level with the axial faces (B) of the engine block. (See Fig. 10.23.)

Fig. 10.23.

CAUTION !

The bearing shell can be completely destroyed (deformed) during the assembly, if it is not properly lubricated.
4. Insert the shell by hand as far as possible. (See Fig. 10.24.)

1015

10 15

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

PUSH BY HAND

Fig. 10.24. 5. Insert the turning tool (851020) into the bearing journal radial oil hole and turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing shell has turned into position. 6. Remove the turning tool. 7. Lubricate the running surfaces of the upper thrust washers and push the washers into position by hand. To facilitate the mounting of the washer the crankshaft can be axially moved to each direction.

CAUTION !

A bearing shell forced into its place can be completely destroyed due to deformation.
8. Lubricate the running surfaces of the lower thrust washers and push them into position on the guiding pins (C) in the bearing cap. For mounting the thrust washer next to the driving end an M8 screw can be fitted to each end of the washer. (See Fig. 10.25.)

Fig. 10.25. 10 16

1016

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

9. Lubricate lower bearing shell running surface and place shell in bearing cap. The axial location of the shell is to be secured by keeping the bearing shell end recesses (A) at the same level with the axial faces (B) of the cap. (See Fig. 10.26.)

Fig. 10.26.

Lifting the bearing cap:


10. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860050) to the hydraulic jack, the supplying hose connected to the side marked UP. (See Fig. 10.27.)

View A:

Fig. 10.27. 11. Lift the bearing cap by pumping oil pressure to the hydraulic jack with the hydraulic pump. Screw the cap nuts in position and tighten by hand. Make sure that the bearing caps and shells are correctly in joining places.
1017

10 17

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

Fitting the side screws:


12. Clean the side screws properly and lubricate the threads (the threads towards the bearing cap). Fit the screws and tighten to bottom by hand or by using the tool (803004). 13. Tighten the side screw nuts by hand.

Pretightening of the side screws:


14. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the side screw on the rear side of the engine. 15. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100) and connect the hoses. Open the pump valve.

Fig. 10.28. 16. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and cylinder end faces are at the same level. 17. Shut the pump valve and pump to the pretightening pressure of 200 bar. 18. Tighten the nut with the pin (861010).

Tightening of the flywheel / thrust bearing:


19. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the flywheel bearing nut and hang it by inserting the pin (861010). (See Fig. 10.29.) Screw on the hydraulic tools (861100), connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) according to Fig. 10.30. and open the pump valve.

10 18

1018

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

Fig. 10.29.

Fig. 10.30. 20. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as far as it rotates. 21. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure. (Section 7.3.2.) Tighten the nuts with the pin (861010). 22. Open the pump valve slowly, Disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tools.

Final tightening of the side screws:


23. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the side screw on the rear side of the engine. 24. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses and pump to full stated pressure, see section 7.3.2. Tighten the nut. 25. Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the manoeuvring side screw. 26. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses and pump to full stated pressure, see section 7.3.2. Tighten the nut. 27. Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tool.
1019

10 19

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

10.4.

Camshaft bearings
The camshaft bearing bushes are fitted in housings directly machined in the engine block. Bushing can be inspected and measured either by removing the camshaft journal or opening one connection in the cam shaft and sliding the complete shaft towards the free end of the engine.

10.4.1. 10.4.2.

Maintenance of camshaft bearings Inspection of the camshaft bearing bushing

For maintenance intervals see chapter 4., Maintenance schedule.

When the camshaft bearing journal has been removed, the inner diame ter of the bearing bushing can be measured at site, by using a ball anvil micrometer screw. The wear limit is stated in table 10, section 6.2. If the wear limit for one camshaft bearing bushing is reached, all camshaft bearing bushes should be replaced. For visual inspection of the camshaft bearing bushing, proceed as follows: 1. Remove the both camshaft covers adjacent to the bearing concerned. 2. Remove the cover from the starting air distributor, see chapter 14. 3. Loosen the rocker arm bracket fastening nuts on the cylinders where the camshaft is to be moved axially. See chapter 14. 4. Open the flange connection between the camshaft piece and bearing journal on the driving end of the bearing concerned. 5. Move the camshaft towards the free end of the engine max. 35 mm by using a suitable lever.

Checking the bearing:


6. Check the uncovered part of the bearing bushing by means of a mirror. All camshaft bearing bushes towards the free end of the engine, seen from the bearing concerned, can be checked when the camshaft is in this position.

10.4.3.

Removing the camshaft bearing bushing

1. Remove the camshaft cover, injection pump, valve tappets and camshaft piece from the two cylinders adjacent to the bearing concerned, see chapter 14. If an end bearing has to be removed, the respective camshaft end piece has to be removed also. 2. Remove the camshaft bearing journal, see chapter 14. 3. Assemble the removing device (834010) according to Fig. 10.31.A or, if the first bearing at the flywheel end is concerned, according to Fig. 10.31. B.

10 20

1020

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

Bearing bush

Bearing bush

Fig. 10.31. 4. Tighten the hydraulic tool (2)(834050) by tensioning the pull screw (1) slightly. 5. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100) to the hydraulic tool according to Fig. 10.32. 6. Pump pressure to the hydraulic tool to withdraw the bearing bushing. The pressure must not exceed the Max. pressure value stated in the diagram in section 7.4. If the bearing bush does not move when this pressure is achieved a light knock on the end flange (5) may be necessary. 7. Open the pump valve, disconnect the hoses of the hydraulic tool and dismantle the removing device.

Fig. 10.32.

10.4.4.

Mounting of camshaft bearing bushing

1. Lubricate lightly the outer surface of a new bearing bushing with clean engine oil and put it on the guide sleeve (4).
1021

10 21

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

2. Assemble the mounting device (834010) according to Fig. 10.33.A, or if the first bearing at the flywheel end is concerned according to Fig. 10.33.B. Make sure that the bearing bush is mounted to correct position. (The oil slot directed upwards and the oil hole of the bush directed against the oil hole of the engine block. Detail C in Fig. 10.34.) The mark at the end of the bearing bush has to be aligned with the side of the engine block. (Detail D in Fig. 10.34.)

Bearing bush

Bearing bush

Fig. 10.33.

Fig. 10.34. 3. Tighten the hydraulic tool (2) by tensioning the pull screw (1) slightly. 4. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100) to the hydraulic tool according to Fig. 10.32. 5. Pump pressure to the hydraulic tool to mount the bearing bushing. The pressure must not exceed the Max. pressure value stated in the diagram in section 7.4. 6. Open the pump valve, disconnect the hoses of the hydraulic tool and dismantle the mounting device. 10 22
1022

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

7. Lubricate the bearing bushing running surface with clean engine oil and insert the camshaft bearing journal. See chapter 14. 8. Mount the camshaft pieces, valve tappets, injection pumps and camshaft covers, see chapters 14. and 16.

1023

10 23

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

10.5.

Cylinder liner
The cylinder liner is centrifugally cast of special cast iron alloy. The col lar is equipped with cooling bores and drillings for temperature moni toring.

10.5.1. Maintenance of the cylinder liner and antipolishing ring


The cylinder liner must always be inspected when overhauling the pis ton. For maintenance schedule see chapter 4. The liner diameter is mea sured according to the measuring document 4610V001GB. To estimate the lifetime of a cylinder liner it is very important to fill in the document properly. Measuring documents can be found in chapter "ATTACH MENTS". When overhauling the liner, if necessary, the cooling water space can be cleaned of deposits by using a wire brush. The cooling bores in the collar can be cleaned by boring with a suitable drill. The antipolishing ring at the top of the cylinder liner is recommended always to be changed when changing the piston rings.

10.5.2.

Removing the cylinder liner

1. Drain the engine cooling water and remove the cylinder head, antipolishing ring, and piston with connecting rod. (See sections 11.2.1. and 12.2.2.) 2. Loosen the cylinder liner fastening screw (1) and remove the holder (2). (See Fig. 10.35.)

Fig. 10.35. 3. Fit the cylinder liner lifting device (836009) in position according to Fig. 10.36. In Vengines use lifting eyes indicated by the arrows. 10 24
1024

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

View A:

Fig. 10.36. 4. Remove the cylinder liner WENCOMtemperature sensors. 5. Turn the crankshaft so that the counterweights are pointing at the manoeuvring side and fit the support (836033) to the counterweight fastening bolts. (Fig. 10.37.) Use the transport device (836041) and tackle (836001) when lifting the support into position inside the crankcase. Fasten the screws (5).

1025

10 25

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

Fig. 10.37. 6. Turn the crankshaft to BDC and fit the hydraulic jack (834050) and yoke (836039) on the support. (Fig. 10.38.)

10 26

1026

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

View B:

Fig. 10.38. 7. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100) to the hydraulic jack (834050) according to Fig. 10.39.

Fig. 10.39. 8. Pump oil to the hydraulic tool to push the cylinder liner up. When the liner starts to move freely, use crane to lift the liner out. (Fig. 10.38.) Be careful not to damage the cylinder head screws. When pushing the liner out, the
1027

10 27

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

pressure must not exceed the Max. pressure value stated in the diagram in section 7.4. 9. Open the pump valve, disconnect the hoses of the hydraulic jacks and remove the tools 836039, 834050 and 836033.

10.5.3.

Mounting the cylinder liner

1. Check that all the contact faces of the engine block and cylinder liner are clean and intact. 2. Check that the oring grooves of the cylinder liner are clean, and insert new orings. 3. Lubricate the lower orings and the corresponding sealing faces with vaseline or soft soap and assemble the lifting device (836009). Notice that the mark on the liner is to be directed towards the driving end. (Fig. 10.40.) 4. Apply sealing compound to the sealing faces between the upper part of the cylinder liner and the water space of the engine block. 5. Lower the liner carefully into the bore of the engine block. When the lowest oring touches the engine block align the liner so that the mark on the liner is directed towards the driving end of the engine, see Fig. 10.40. Lower further until the liner column faces the engine block.

Driving end

Distinct mark

Fig. 10.40. 6. Mount the holder (2) (Fig. 10.35.) and tighten the cylinder liner fastening screw (M24x100) to stated torque. (See section General torques in chapter 7.) 7. Check the cylinder liner inner diameter and complete the form 4610V001GB (see chapter ATTACHMENTS). (Fig.10.41.) 10 28
1028

46 00 23

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10

103703

Fig. 10.41. 8. Reinstall the WENCOMtemperature sensors. 9. Mount the piston with connecting rod and cylinder head, then refill cooling water. (See sections 11.2.3. and 12.2.3.) 10. Check the oring seals from the crankcase side while circulating cooling water. If there is an engine driven cooling water pump, apply 3 bar static pressure.

NOTE !

Because the top of the liner is very heavy the loosened liner must be properly supported e.g. to engine room wall. Avoid unnecessary turning of the liner. Extreme care must be taken if turning is compulsory. Note the location of the centre of gravity. (See Fig. 10.42.)

Centre of gravity

Fig. 10.42.
1029

10 29

10

Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

46 00 23

10.5.4.

Honing of the cylinder liner bore

It is recommended to hone the cylinder liner whenever new piston rings are mounted. Normally a light honing is sufficient. For the honing pro cess the following instructions are prescribed: S Only ceramic hones with a coarseness of 80 and 400 should be used as follows: A coarseness of 80 must be used until the inside of the liner has been entirely honed. A coarseness of 400 must be used for about 30 strokes to give a correct surface finish. S The pitch angle of the honing lines in the cross hatch pattern should be about 30_ which is achieved by combining e.g. 40 strokes/min with a rotational speed of 100 rpm. S For cooling, a honing oil is preferred but a light fuel oil may also be used. S When honing the liner fitted to the engine the used honing oil must be directed from the engine with e.g. a tarpaulin or similar. S The honing time depends on the condition of the bore surface: usually only a few minutes' honing is required. S After honing, the liner bore must be carefully cleaned by using a suit able brush and solvent or fuel oil. Dry with a cloth and lubricate with engine oil for corrosion protection. S Check the cylinder liner inner diameter. (See section 10.5.3.)

10.5.5.

Cleaning of the cylinder liner water side

The water side of the cylinder liner can be cleaned of deposits with a wire brush. The cooling bores in the collar can be cleaned by boring with a suitable drill (diam. 18 and 25 mm).

10 30

1030

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

11. Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston


11.1. Crankshaft
Description of the crankshaft:
The crankshaft is forged in one piece and provided with counterweights, fastened with hydraulically tensioned screws. At the driving end of the engine the crankshaft is equipped with: a Vring for sealing of the crankcase, a combined flywheel/ thrust bearing and a split gear wheel for camshaft driving. The crankshaft can be turned by an electrical turning device operating the flywheel.

11.1.1.
General

Crankshaft alignment

S Crankshaft deflections of resiliently mounted engines should always be taken on an engine at ambient temperature. S Deflections taken on a hot engine can only be compared to deflection readings on the same engine under similar conditions.

Crankshaft deflection measurement


1. Turn the crank of the first cylinder against normal running direction near BDC (bottom dead centre) and fit the transducer of the crankshaft deflection indicator (848111) to the punch marks between two counterweights. (See Fig. 11.1.) The distance between the transducer and connecting rod should be as small as possible when starting the measurement.

111

11 1

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

Fig. 11.1. 2. Perform the measurement according to the instructions of the indicator. 3. Read and record the deflections at measuring points A, B, C, D and E (Fig. 11.2.) when turning the crankshaft in the normal running direction. (Use form 4611V005 Crankshaft alignment.) DIAL INDICATOR POSITION as seen from the flywheel end REAR SIDE

OPERATING SIDE

Fig. 11.2. 4. Repeat this procedure with other cylinders. 5. Following limits of misalignment are stated for an engine at its ambient temperature: 11 2
112

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

a) On the same crank, the difference between two diametrically opposed readings must not exceed 0.30 mm. Realignment is necessary if this limit is exceeded by more than 0.02 mm. b) On two adjacent cranks the difference between two corresponding readings must not exceed 0.15 mm. Realignment is necessary if this limit is exceeded. To investigate the cause for too high deflection values, note following matters: S The temperature level of cylinder block and crankcase has to be observed; big temperature difference causes bending to the block. S The crankshaft has to be uncoupled from its driven equipment or in any case the coupling alignment has to be controlled.

NOTE !

In hot engine the values must be compared to excisting values from the same engine under similar conditions.

11.1.2. ance

Measurement of thrust bearing axial clear-

1. Lubricate the bearings by running the prelubricating pump for a few minutes. 2. Apply the measure gauge for instance against the plane end surface of the flywheel. 3. Move the crankshaft by a suitable lever in either direction until contact is established with the thrust bearing. 4. Set the measure gauge to zero. 5. Move the crankshaft in the opposite direction and read the axial clearance from the measure gauge. Reference values in chapter 6., table 11.

11.2.

Connecting rod and piston


Description of connecting rod and piston:
The connecting rod is a threepiece design. Extensive research and development has been carried out to develop a connecting rod in which the combustion forces are distributed over a maximum bearing area and where the relative movements between mating surfaces are minimized. The connecting rod is forged and machined with round sections of alloy steel. The lower end is split horizontally in three parts to allow removal of piston and connecting rod parts. All connecting rod bolts are hydraulically tightened. The big end bearing and gudgeon pin bearing are of trimetal design. Between the connecting rod and big end bearing there is a compression shim. Oil is led to the gudgeon pin bearing and piston through a bore in the connecting rod. (Fig. 11.3.)
113

11 3

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

Lube oil flow in connecting rod

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Piston, upper part Piston lower part Connecting rod Compression shim Connecting rod bearing, upper part Connecting rod bearing, lower part Gudgeon pin Securing ring Connecting rod bolt Connecting rod nut Connecting rod bearing bolt Connecting rod bearing nut

Fig. 11.3. The piston is of a composite type with a nodular cast iron skirt and a forged steel crown screwed together. The space between the crown and the skirt is supplied with lubricating oil for cooling the crown by means of a cocktail shaker effect. The lubricating oil is led from the main bearing through the drillings in the crankshaft to the big end bearing, and further through the drillings in the connecting rod, gudgeon pin and piston skirt up to the cooling space and from there back to the oil sump. Part of the lubricating oil is led out from the piston skirt through special nozzles to lubricate the liner (Fig. 11.4.).

NOTE !

Always handle the pistons with care.

The piston ring set consists of two compression rings and one springloaded oil scraper ring.

11 4

114

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

Nozzle to lubricate the liner

Lube oil flow in piston

Fig. 11.4.

11.2.1. Removing and dismantling of piston and connecting rod


Removing of the piston
1. Remove the cylinder head, see chapter 12. 2. Turn the crankshaft to BDC. 3. Loosening of the antipolishing ring: Place the tool (836043) onto the piston top and expand it to the bore diameter. Bring the piston in question to TDC by turning the crankshaft carefully. (See Fig. 11.5.) Lift the ring off when it is loose.

115

11 5

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

Fig. 11.5. 4. Lift the distance sleeves 861027 crosswise on the two diagonally opposite connecting rod screws and screw on the hydraulic tools 861120. (See Fig. 11.6.)

View A :

Fig. 11.6. 5. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump according to Fig. 11.7. and open the pump valve.

11 6

116

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

Fig. 11.7. 6. Keep on turning the hydraulic tools until the piston and the cylinder faces are at the same level. 7. Turn the hydraulic tool back about half a turn (180_). 8. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure. (See section 7.3.2.) 9. Loosen the nuts about half a turn by the pin. 10. Open the pump valve slowly and disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tool. Repeat the same procedure on the other two connecting rod screws. Remove three (3) nuts at BDC and after that turn the piston to TDC and remove the last nut. 11. Clean the threaded holes in the piston crown and fasten the lifting tool (835001) using the holes, which are applicable to the piston in question. Use the correct lifting point for Vengines. (See Fig. 11.8.)

Fig. 11.8. 12. Mount the protecting sleeve (835005) to the connecting rod to protect the cylinder liner when lifting the piston. (Fig. 11.9.) 13. Lift the piston carefully out from the cylinder liner, use lever (837040) to hold the piston in the correct position when it leaves the cylinder liner. 14. Mount the guide tool (836008) according to Fig. 11.9. before the connecting rod comes out from the cylinder.
117

11 7

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

View A

Fig. 11.9.

Dismantling the piston


15. Lower the piston/connecting rod on a plain surface (a wooden board) so that the connecting rod is showing upwards. Be careful not to damage the piston surface. (See Fig. 11.11.) 16. Remove the securing ring (9) from the gudgeon pin hole by using the pliers 800001 (Fig. 11.10.).

Fig. 11.10. 11 8
118

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

NOTE !

Never compress the securing ring more than necessary to remove it from the groove. 17. Fasten an eyebolt M10 in the middle of the gudgeon pin (see Fig. 11.11.). Before removing the pin be sure that you have proper markings in the pin and piston to be able to fit the parts back in original positions. (See Fig. 11.16.) 18. Draw the pin carefully out. Lift the connecting rod slightly so that the gudgeon pin comes out easily. In low temperatures the gudgeon pin may stick but will be easily removed after heating the piston to about 30_C.

Fig. 11.11. 19. Lift the connecting rod out from the piston carefully. Piston upper part and lower part can be separated by loosening the screws (14). (See Fig. 11.13.)

11.2.2. Inspection and maintenance of piston rings and gudgeon pin bearing
1. Clean all the parts carefully. Remove the piston rings by using the pliers 800002. The design of the pliers prevents overstressing of the rings. Remove burned carbon deposits from the piston and piston ring grooves. Special care should be taken not to damage the piston material. Never use emery cloth on the piston skirt.
119

11 9

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

The cleaning is facilitated if coked parts are soaked in kerosene or fuel oil. An efficient carbon solvent e.g. ARDROX No. 668 or similar should preferably be used to facilitate cleaning of the piston crown. When using chemical cleaning agents, take care not to clean piston skirt with such agents because the phosphate/ graphite overlay may be damaged.

Check the piston rings:


Check the rings for wear by inserting them in a new cylinder liner and measure the ring gap at the joint. Measure the height of the piston ring grooves, and the piston ring side clearances. Use new rings when measuring the clearances. See clearances and wear limits in chapter 6. When measuring use form 4611V009GB. Always replace the piston rings with new ones when removing from the grooves.

NOTE !

When assembling a new cylinder liner or a honed one, all the piston rings have to be changed, too.

Check the gudgeon pin:


2. Check the gudgeon pin clearances by measuring the pin diameters and bearing bores separately (see clearance and wear limits in chapter 6., table 11). If the bearing bore diameter exceeds the wear limit replace the bearing bushing. Measure the gudgeon pin diameter in four different places and in four directions. When measuring the gudgeon pin and bore, use form 4611V004GB. 3. Check that the plugs in both ends of the gudgeon pin are properly fitted. 4. Check that the oil bores in the gudgeon pin are in good condition.

Removing the gudgeon pin bearing bushing


It is very seldom you need to remove the gudgeon pin bearing bushing and when doing so there is a great risk to damage the connecting rod. However, if there is a need to remove the bearing bushing, please contact the nearest Wrtsil service office.

11.2.3. Assembling and mounting of piston and connecting rod


There are two different constructions of piston used; one having the piston upper part fastened with studs and nuts and the other having the piston upper part fastened with hexagonal sockethead screws. It is not recommended to install two different types of piston in the same engine. Components of the different piston assemblies are not interchangeable.

Checking the contact surfaces


Before fitting a used piston upper part to a lower part, or vice versa, check the condition of the mating surfaces (see Fig. 11.12. or 11.14.) for contact marks. Local spot material can be removed by means of an oilstone. 11 10
1110

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

NOTE !

Grinding away larger areas of fretting (destruction of surface geometry) and scraping away fretting (creation of notches) is strictly forbidden.

11.2.3.1. Assembly of a piston having the upper part fastened with studs
Mating surfaces

112702

Fig. 11.12. The studs (14) (Fig. 11.13.) have to be renewed when changing the piston top if the length of the stud measured from the support surface of the piston top exceeds 140.5mm or the overall length of the stud exceeds 174.5mm. 1. Tighten the studs to the piston upper part with a torque of 10Nm. 2. Apply lubricating oil to the threads and landing surfaces of the nuts (14). (Fig. 11.13.)

1111

11 11

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

112802

Fig. 11.13. 3. Tighten the nuts crosswise with a torque of 60 Nm. 4. Tighten crosswise by the angle of 170_. 5. Loosen the nuts. 6. Check the torque of the studs (10 Nm). 7. Pretighten the nuts crosswise to 60 Nm. 8. Tighten crosswise by the angle of 120_.

Checking after tightening


The nuts must not turn with the torque of 170 Nm.

11 12

1112

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

11.2.3.2. Assembly of a piston having the upper part fastened with screws
Mating surfaces

Fig. 11.14. 1. Apply lubricating oil to the threads and landing faces of the screws (14). (Fig. 11.15.)

Fig. 11.15. 2. Tighten crosswise with a torque of 220 Nm. 3. Loosen the screws. 4. Pretighten crosswise to 40 Nm. 5. Tighten crosswise by the angle of 90_.
1113

11 13

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

Checking after tightening


The screws must not turn with the torque of 175 Nm.

11.2.3.3.
NOTE !

Assembling of the piston and connecting rod

When assembling be sure that the various markings on the different parts are according to Fig. 11.16.

View A Markings of the classification authority

All markings on the same side (Towards the driving end in Abank, towards the free end in Bbank) Cylinder numbers on the same side (On plug hole side of the connecting rod.) Factory markings

Fig. 11.16. 1. Lift the piston to a plain surface (a wooden board) (See Fig. 11.17.)

11 14

1114

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

Fig. 11.17. 2. Lubricate the gudgeon pin and push it into the gudgeon pin bore as far as shown in Fig. 11.17. Be sure that all parts are assembled in their original positions (the factory markings on the pistons upper part appear on the same side as the markings of the pistons lower part, connecting rod and gudgeon pin). (See Fig. 11.16.) 3. Lower the connecting rod carefully into the piston so that a slight contact is reached on surface (A). Slide the gudgeon pin to its place. Mount the securing ring (9) (Fig. 11.10.) with pliers 800001.

NOTE !

Never compress the securing ring more than necessary to fit into the groove. If the ring is loose in its groove after mounting, it must be replaced with a new one.

NOTE !

The number of the cylinder is stamped in the upper part of the piston and on the connecting rod, see Fig. 11.16.. When the piston has been replaced with a new one, the same markings have to be stamped in the same positions as on the old one.

4. Turn the piston to an upright position and lift it onto a support for cleaning and piston ring assembly.

Mounting of the piston


5. Turn the crankshaft to TDC.
1115

11 15

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

NOTE !

When turning the crankshaft ensure that the big end bearing is in its normal running position (connecting rod studs have space to turn).

6. Mount the piston rings by using the pliers 800002. When new rings are mounted, check the height clearance by using a feeler gauge with the rings fitted into their grooves. The rings should be placed with gaps located 180_ in relation to each other. Note that the mark TOP near the gap is showing up.

NOTE !

Always renew the piston rings if they have been removed from the piston during maintenance.

7. Clean the cylinder liner bore carefully and lubricate with engine oil. 8. Lubricate the piston and place the clamping device for the piston rings (843001) around the piston, checking that the piston rings slide into their grooves. 9. Check and clean the contact surface of the connecting rod foot. Ensure that the oil bores are open. Note that the markings on the foot of the connecting rod are on the same side as on the big end bearing body. (See Fig. 11.16.) 10. Check and clean the big end bearing contact surface. Ensure that the surface is free from oil. Fit the compression shim (5) into position. (See Fig. 11.18.) 11. Fit the piston assembly ring (845010) to the place of the antipolishing ring. 12. Mount the protecting sleeve (835005) into position. Use guide tool (836008) and lever (837040) when lowering the piston and remove the guide tool when the connecting rod lower end has slid into the cylinder. (See Fig. 11.18.) 13. Lower the piston carefully into the cylinder liner. 14. Use the positioning tool (846012) to hold the big end bearing in the correct position when lowering the piston. 15. Make a final check of the contact surfaces (clean and free from oil) before the connecting rod slides over the studs. Check that the shim (5) is in place. 16. Lower the piston completely while taking care that the foot of the connecting rod slides over the studs (10) without jamming. (See Fig. 11.3.) 17. Remove the lifting tool (835001), the clamping device (843001), the piston assembly ring (845010), the protecting sleeve (835005) and the positioning tool (846012). 18. Fit one (1) of the connecting rod nuts (11) in place by hand and turn the piston to BDC. Fit all nuts in place by hand until they are seated.

11 16

1116

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

Fig. 11.18. 19. Lift the distance sleeves (861027) crosswise on the two diagonally opposite connecting rod studs and screw on the hydraulic tools (861120). (See Fig. 11.19.) 20. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100) according to Fig. 11.20. and open the pump valve.

1117

11 17

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

View A

Fig. 11.19.

Fig. 11.20. 21. Keep on turning the hydraulic tools until the piston and cylinder end faces are at the same level. 22. Shut the pump valve and pump to the stated pressure of stage 1. (See section 7.3.2.) 23. Tighten the nuts with the pin (861028). 24. Open the pump valve slowly, move the tools to the two remaining studs and tighten them in the same way. 25. Release the pressure. 26. Tighten the nuts to the final pressure of stage 2 (see section 7.3.2.) and tighten with the pin (861028). Observe, that the nuts turn equally. 27. Release the pressure and remove the tools. 28. Mount the hydraulic tools on the two first studs and tighten them to the final pressure. Observe, that the nuts turn equally. (The tightening order is also shown in Fig. 11.21.) 11 18
1118

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

Fig. 11.21. 29. Release the pressure and remove the tools. 30. Clean the antipolishing ring carefully and check its condition. No cracks are allowed. It is recommended to renew the antipolishing ring every time you renew the piston rings. 31. Clean the top of the cylinder liner and check that no dirt or particles remain between the liner and the antipolishing ring. 32. Fit the antipolishing ring in place.

11.3.

Big end bearing


Description of the big end bearing:
The connecting rod is horizontally split in three parts to allow easy removal of piston and big end bearing. Two bearing shells are fitted in the big end bearing. Lubricating oil is fed through a drilling from the main bearing to the crank pin and part of the oil rises through a central bore in the connecting rod to the piston. The big end bearing is connected to the connecting rod with hydraulically tensioned screws. Similarly, the two big end bearing halves are connected together. A 5 mm compression shim is fitted between the connecting rod and big end bearing. The bearing shell is of trimetal type.

11.3.1.

Removing the big end bearing

1. Remove the cylinder head (section 12.2.2.) and piston (section 11.2.1.). 2. Turn the crankshaft to BDC. Be sure that the big end bearing stays in its normal running position while turning. 3. Turn the big end bearing upside down and secure it with locking plates (846008). (See Fig. 11.22.)

1119

11 19

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

Fig. 11.22. 4. Fit the hydraulic tightening tool (861142) for loosening the big end bearing nuts. The tool can be lifted in three parts: distance sleeve, cylinder and piston.

Fig. 11.23. 5. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump and open the pump valve. 6. Turn the hydraulic tightening tool to the bottom. 7. Loosen the tool about 3/4 a turn (270_). 11 20
1120

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

Fig. 11.24. 8. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure (see 7.3.2.). 9. Loosen the nuts about half a turn (6 keyholes). 10. Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and loosen the hydraulic tools. 11. Remove the locking plates. 12. Fit the big end bearing mounting device (836027) to the Abank side of the engine when removing the big end bearing of a Bbank connecting rod (see Fig. 11.25.). Turn the crankshaft to a suitable position to connect the big end bearing to the device with the connecting rod nuts (11). 13. Remove the big end bearing nuts from the other side of the engine and fit the rod (836007) together with the outside support (836006). 14. Slide the big end bearing lower half out along the rod (836007) until it is against the support (836006). 15. Fit the inside support (836004) and remove the outside support (836006). The lower half can be lifted away with M12 eye bolt fitted to the bearing side. 16. Remove the rod (836007). 17. Slide the upper half out with the tool (836027). Fit the eyebolt M12 and lift the big end bearing upper half away (see Fig. 11.25.). 18. Cover the crank pin oil holes with plugs or tape.

1121

11 21

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

View A

View B

Fig. 11.25.

11.3.2.

Inspection of the big end bearing

1. Check the big end bearing clearances by measuring the big end bearing bores and crank pin diameters separately. Use form 4611V003GB. Always when measuring the big end bore, the connecting rod and the big end bearing caps must be tightened. See tightening instructions for big end bearing (section 11.3.3.) and for connecting rod (section 11.2.3.). See clearance and wear table 11 in chapter 6. 2. Bearing shells are of trimetal type. See Fig. 11.26. If the running layer is worn off more than 30% the bearing shells must be replaced by new ones. Tinflash Running layer: Tinantimony 0.06

Bonding layer: Nickel Intermediate layer: Lead bronze 1.0

Fig. 11.26. Thickness of the shell can be measured according to form 4611V008GB and compared with the values given in the clearance and wear table (chapter 6.). 11 22
1122

46 02 22

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11

11.3.3.

Mounting of the big end bearing

1. Remove the plugs from the crank pin oil holes. Clean the crank pin and lubricate it properly with clean engine oil. 2. Fit the bearing shell to the big end bearing upper half. 3. Fit the big end bearing upper half to the mounting device and fasten it with connecting rod nuts. (Fig. 11.27.)

NOTE !

The bearing must be turned so that at its final position the locating pins are towards the driving end on Aside bearings and towards the free end on Bside bearings. The cylinder numbers are facing the manoeuvring side on the Abank and the rear side on the Bbank.

4. Slide the bearing carefully to its required position. Note that the crankshaft is turned to the correct position. 5. Fit the rod (836007) to the other side of the engine together with the inside support (836004). 6. Fit the bearing shell to the big end bearing lower half. 7. Lift the big end bearing lower half to the mounting device and slide it towards the inside support (836004). 8. Fit the outside support (836006). 9. Remove the inside support (836004) and slide the big end bearing lower half carefully to its required position. 10. Fasten the big end bearing nuts by hand until the shells are together. 11. Remove the mounting device. 12. Turn the big end bearing upside down and secure it with locking plates (846008), check the clearance between upper and lower half (same clearance on both sides). 13. Fit the hydraulic tightening tool (861142). 14. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump and open the pump valve. 15. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as far as it rotates.

1123

11 23

11

Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

46 02 22

Fig. 11.27. 16. Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure (see section 7.3.2.) 17. Tighten the nuts with the pin (861028). 18. Open the pump valve slowly and remove the hydraulic tools. 19. Turn the big end bearing to normal position. Fit the piston (see section 11.2.3.) and cylinder head (section 12.2.3.).

11 24

1124

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

12. Cylinder head with valves


12.1. General
Every cylinder is equipped with a cylinder head including two inlet and two outlet valves with rotators, a main injection valve, a starting valve (on Bbank in some cases a dummy), a safety valve and an indicator valve. Cylinder heads are cast of special quality grey iron and are water cooled. Water is lead into the cylinder head from the engine block through the cylinder liner water bores. Water leaves the cylinder head through an outlet channel on the top and flows to a common pipe and is drained away.

12.2.

Cylinder head
For the maintenance schedule, see chapter 4.

12.2.1.

General maintenance of the cylinder head

General maintenance includes a thorough check of the cylinder heads including cooling water spaces. Possible scale formation in cooling spaces can disturb the cooling effect and therefore has to be cleaned off. Cleaning can be done by using chemical solvents: contact a special company for chemical cleaning. Combustion spaces must be inspected carefully for possible damage. Valve seats (13) and the injection valve sleeve (14) have to be inspected for possible water leakages and replaced if necessary. (See Fig. 12.1.) Valve guides (15) have to be checked and replaced if badly worn. Orings (16) must be replaced with every overhaul. The sealing surface between cylinder head and cylinder liner has to be inspected and reconditioned if necessary.

Fig. 12.1.

12.2.2.

Removing the cylinder head

1. Drain the cooling water. Remove the cooling water discharge pipes (1) by opening the flanges. (See Fig. 12.2.)
121

12 1

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

121v1

Fig. 12.2. 2. Turn the engine with the turning gear so that the piston in the reference cylinder is at TDC, valves are closed and rocker arms are unloaded. 3. Remove the rocker arm casing cover (2), the rocker arm casing, the Hot box cover (3) and the insulating pane (4) over the exhaust gas connection to the cylinder head. (See Fig. 12.3.) 4. Remove the clamps (5) of the exhaust and suction air pipes. Loosen the oil pipe (7), fuel valve leaking pipe (8) and pilot starting air pipe (9). Remove the main injection pipe (10). 5. Loosen the control oil connection (50) and all electric connections. 6. Protect the connections of the fuel injection pipes and oil pipe from damage and ingress of dirt.

120214v

Fig. 12.3. 7. Open the quick connections A, (B and C) for exhaust gas temperature monitoring sensors (B and C optional for exhaust gases and HTwater) (see Fig. 12.4.) 8. Fasten the lifting cable to the rocker arms. 12 2
122

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

9. Open the rocker arm fastening bolts (12) and remove the rocker arms. 10. Remove the protecting caps of the cylinder head screws. Lift the hydraulic tool set (834045) in position according to Fig. 12.5. Connect the hoses according to the scheme. Open the release valve of the hydraulic pump and screw on the cylinders further to expel any possible oil. Repeat the tightening procedure to expel all oil.

View X

Fig. 12.4.

View A:

Fig. 12.5. 11. Turn the cylinders 3/4 of a turn (270_) in counterclockwise direction. 12. Tighten the screws by pumping hydraulic pressure to the value stated in section 7.3.2. Loosen the nuts about 3/4 of a turn by using the pin. 13. Open the release valve, and remove the hoses. Unscrew the cylinders. Lift off the hydraulic tool set. 14. Remove the cylinder head nuts. 15. Apply the lifting tool (832001). (See Fig. 12.6.)
123

12 3

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

View A

Fig. 12.6. 16. Lift off the cylinder head. 17. Cover the cylinder opening with a piece of plywood or similar and install the caps to protect the screw threads.

12.2.3.

Mounting the cylinder head

1. Clean the sealing surfaces and put a new cylinder head gasket and new O rings for the circulating water jacket. Lubricate the Oring sealing surfaces with vaseline or oil. Check the seal rings of charge air, starting air and push rod protecting pipe. 2. Attach the lifting tool (832001) to the cylinder head. 3. Lift the cylinder head. When lowering the head, take care that the starting air connecting pipe and push rod protecting pipes slide into the seal rings without force. 4. Remove the lifting tool (832001). 5. Screw on the cylinder head nuts. Make sure, that no dirt remains in the threads or under the nuts. Tighten the nuts to the contact surface by hand. 6. Connect the exhaust gas sensors and HT cooling water sensors if installed. 7. Connect the control oil pipe (50) and electric connections. (Fig. 12.3.) 8. Fit the main injection pipe (10). 9. Fit the oil pipe (7), fuel valve leaking pipe (8) and pilot starting air pipe (9). 10. Fasten the exhaust and air pipe clamps (5): Support the lower clamps from below eg. by means of a wedge to position the pipes correctly. (See Fig. 12.7.) (Tightening torques in chapter 7.) 12 4
124

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

Fig. 12.7.

NOTE !

Before mounting the upper clamps ensure, that the pipes are sitting evenly all around against the mating surface in the cylinder head.

11. Lift the hydraulic tool set (834045) into position according to Fig. 12.5. Connect the hoses according to the scheme. 12. Screw on the cylinders. Open the release valve of the hydraulic pump and further depress the cylinders to expel any possible oil. Repeat the tightening procedure to expel all oil.

NOTE !

Note the general tightening instructions for hydraulically tightened connections in section 7.3. before tightening.

13. Shut the release valve and tension the screws by increasing the hydraulic pressure to the stated value of stage I. (See section 7.3.2.) 14. Tighten the nuts by means of the pin until firm contact is made. Keep the pressure constant while tightening. 15. Relieve the pressure and tension the screws to the stated pressure of stage II. (See section 7.3.2.) Check the tightness of the nuts. 16. Open the release valve of the pump. 17. Remove the hoses and the cylinders. 18. Apply the protecting caps to the cylinder head screws. 19. The yokes can be adjusted here according to section 12.2.4. before assembling the rocker arms.
125

12 5

12

Cylinder head with valves 20. Insert the push rods into the protecting pipes.

46 02 30

21. Reconnect the cooling water discharge pipes (1). Renew the sliding ring gaskets (42). Use a special guiding mandrel (846160) when assembling the flange (43). (See Fig. 12.8. item I.) It is advisable to use some vaseline to keep the oring (44) in place when connecting the pipe (1) to the connection piece (41) (Fig. 12.8. item II).

Fig. 12.8. 22. Lift the rocker arms into position and fasten the fastening screws (12) (Fig. 12.4.) to stated torque. (See section 7.1.2.) 23. Fit the rocker arm casing to its place. 24. Adjust the valve clearance. (Section 12.2.4.) 25. Before starting, fill the engine cooling water system and turn the crankshaft two revolutions with the indicator cocks open. Check, that the valve rotators are being lubricated. 26. Reinstall the rocker arm casing cover, the exhaust pipe insulating pane (4) and the Hot Box cover.

12 6

126

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

12.2.4.

Adjusting valve clearance

127

Fig. 12.9. 1. Turn the crank of the reference cylinder to TDC at ignition. 2. Loosen the locking screw (17) of the adjusting screws on the rocker arm as well as on the yoke (18) and turn the adjusting screws in a counterclockwise direction to provide ample clearance. (See Fig. 12.9.) 3. Press the fixed end of the yoke against the valve stem by pressing down on the adjustable end. Screw down the adjusting screw (19) until it touches the valve end and note the position of the spanner (pos. a). Keep on screwing down while the yoke tilts, until the guide clearance is on the other side and the fixed end of the yoke starts lifting from the valve stem. Now press down on the fixed end. Note the position of the spanner (pos. b). 4. Turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise to the middle position between a and b, i.e. c. Lock the nut (18). 5. Valve clearances for inlet and exhaust valves are given in chapter 6. 6. Before adjusting the valve clearance hit the push rod end of the rocker arm with a soft hammer to ensure that the push rod is correctly seated. 7. Put a feeler gauge corresponding to the valve clearance between the surface of the yoke and the shoe at the rocker arm. Tighten the adjusting screw (20) until the feeler gauge can be moved to and fro with only a slight force. Hold the adjusting screw and tighten the locking screw (17) to stated torque. (See section 7.1.2.) Take care not to over tension the locking screw and plate (21).Check that the clearance has not changed while tightening.
127

12 7

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

12.2.5.

Checking of cylinder tightness

The condition of inlet and exhaust valves can be estimated by checking the cylinder tightness according to the following work phases: 1. Turn the crankshaft to such a position that the valves of the cylinder in question are all closed. 2. Connect the checking device (848020) to the indicator valve (42) of the cylinder head. (See Fig. 12.10.)

Fig. 12.10. 3. Open the indicator valve. Read instructions in section 12.6. Note that the thread of the valve screw is lefthanded. 4. Supply pressurized air (57 bar) via the checking device. 5. Shut the valve of the checking device and record the pressure drop in a certain time (e.g. 20 s). 6. Close the indicator valve (see section 12.6.) and remove the tool (848020). There is no use giving absolute guiding values for the pressure drop, but you can evaluate the condition of the valves by comparing the pressure drop in different cylinders.

12.3.

Exhaust and inlet valves


The valve mechanism consists of a system where valve guides and exhaust and inlet seats are integrated into the cylinder head. There is also a rotating mechanism called Rotocap (23) for the exhaust and inlet valves which will ensure smooth and even valve wear. Double valve springs (26) make the valve mechanism dynamically stable. (See Fig. 12.11.)

12 8

128

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

NOTE !

Exhaust and inlet valves differ in dimensions and also in material and must not be mixed.

13. Exhaust valve seat 14. Inlet valve seat 15. Valve guide 23. Rotocap 24. Exhaust valve 25. Inlet valve 26. Valve springs 27. Valve cotters

EXHAUST

INLET

Fig. 12.11.

12.3.1.

Dismantling the valves

1. Fit the tool assembly (834001) in position (according to Fig. 12.12.) and attach the fastening screws of the tool. Use the holding tool for valves (834002) if necessary.

129

12 9

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

Fig. 12.12. 2. Fit the hydraulic jack (834050) and the nut (28). Leave about 40 mm distance between the jack and the nut. 3. Use the hydraulic pump (860170) to press the spring assembly down enough to remove the valve cotters (27). (See Fig. 12.11.) 4. Knock at the centre of the valve discs with a soft piece of wood, plastic hammer or similar, to loosen the valve cotters for removal. 5. Open the release valve of the pump slightly so that the valve springs are slowly unloaded. Take care that the springs are fully unloaded before removing the nut. 6. Spring holders (Rotocaps) and springs can now be removed. 7. Note the marks of the valves or mark them so that they can be reinstalled into the same guide if they are in good condition. Valves are marked according to the gas flow: inlet A and B, exhaust C and D. (See Fig. 12.13.) Air in Exhaust out

Fig. 12.13. 12 10
1210

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

12.3.2.

Checking and reconditioning valves and seats

There are three alternatives used as EXHAUST valves depending on the installation: I Stellit II Nimonic valve disc diam. 160 III Nimonic valve disc diam. 170

Fig. 12.14. 1. Check first which kind of an exhaust valve (I, II or III) is in question. 2. Clean the valves, seats, ducts and guides as well as the underside of the cylinder head.

NOTE !

No scratches or notches are allowed on the valve surfaces, especially on the area marked with an A in Fig. 12.15.

3. Compare the burnoff on the valve disc to Fig. 12.15. Read the limit values for measures (X), (Y) and (Z) from the following table.
Burn-off area

A X

461256-1

Fig. 12.15.
1211

12 11

12

Cylinder head with valves Inlet valve Exhaust valve I Stellit 12.5 mm 14 mm 140 mm 2 mm II Nimonic 160 12.5 mm 14 mm 133.5 mm 2 mm

46 02 30

III Nimonic 170 B0314 / B0361 B0375 *) 11.3 mm 12.5 mm 131.5 mm 2 mm 13 mm 14.5 mm 131.5 mm 2 mm

(Y) minimum (Y) nominal Seat face inner diameter (X) minimum (Z) maximum

13 mm 14.5 mm 133 mm 2 mm

*) = component code stamped in the end of the valve stem. If any of these dimensions exceed the given limits, the valve must be replaced. 4. Reconditioning of valves and valve seats has to be done by grinding or by machining. 5. Before grinding check the valve stem clearance by measuring the stem and guide and change the worn part if necessary. Use measuring documents 4612V001 and 4612V002. The valve guide can be pressed out by using the tools 845004 and 845005. (Fig. 12.16.) Check the bore in the cylinder head. When refitting, cooling with liquid nitrogen is recommended, but pressing in with oil lubrication is also acceptable. After the new guide is fitted, check the guide bore.

Fig. 12.16.

12.3.3.

Machine grinding

1. Seat face of the valve: The seat angle of the INLET valve is 20_ and the EXHAUST valve 30_. See tolerances in Fig. 12.17. Check the minimum allowable edge thickness (Y) and the minimum seat face inner diameter (X) of the inlet valve and the exhaust valve from section 12.3.2.. 12 12
1212

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

INLET

EXHAUST

EXHAUST

Fig. 12.17. 2. Seat ring for the inlet valve: The seat angle of the inlet valve seat ring is 19.5_, see tolerances in Fig. 12.18. The seat can be ground until the outer seat diameter reaches 171.5 mm (See Fig. 12.18.). After that the seat ring must be replaced with a new one.

Fig. 12.18. 3. Seat ring for the exhaust valve: There are two alternatives used for exhaust valve seat rings. These can be identified easily by the form and diameter of the seat face. (See table below.) The seat can be ground until the outer seat diameter reaches the maximum value given in the table. Sharp edge (V) should be removed after grinding. (See Fig. 12.19.)
1213

12 13

12

Cylinder head with valves A

46 02 30 B

12-23

Used with exhaust valve Seat angle and tolerances Outer seat diameter, nominal Outer seat diameter, maximum

I and II see Fig. 12.19. 160 0/ 0.2 mm 164 mm

III see Fig. 12.19. 173 0.1 mm 177 mm

A:

B:

Fig. 12.19. 4. Check with a blueing test that the contact area is big enough and that it is at the inner edge of the seat. (See Fig. 12.20.) Ensure, that the valve used in the blueing test is the one that will be assembled to the seat concerned. Spread a thin layer of blue paint on the whole seat face of the valve. Fit the valve into its place in the valve guide and press the valve gently against the valve seat using the tool (841010). Repeat 23 times turning the valve about 45_ between the strokes. Ensure, that the sealing faces are absolutely clean and the blue paint layer is as thin as possible.

12 14

1214

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

INLET:

EXHAUST:

I, II

III

Fig. 12.20. 5. If the contact area is not big enough, the seat ring can be lapped lightly by hand to ensure good contact between the seat and the valve.

12.3.4.

Assembling of valves

1. Check the valve springs for cracks and wear marks. If there are any, replace the springs with new ones. 2. Clean the valve guides (15) thoroughly and fit new orings (16). (Fig. 12.1.) 3. Lubricate the valve stems (29) with clean engine oil. 4. Fit the valves and check for free movement. Before closing the sealing surface between valve and seat be absolutely sure that it is clean. If you are fitting back old valves, be sure that they go back to their original locations. 5. Install the springs and be sure that the seating faces are undamaged and clean, both on springs (26) and (30) as well as on the spring discs (rotocaps)(23). 6. Fit the assembling tool (834001) in position. 7. Compress the springs with the hydraulic tool. Put in the valve cotters (27) after lubricating them properly. Unload the springs slowly. While unloading the springs check that the cotters fit properly; the spaces between the two halves should be equal on both sides.

1215

12 15

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

12.4.

Valve seats
Maintenance of valve seats:
If there is a need to remove or fit in valve seat rings, it is strongly advised to contact the engine manufacturer.

Fig. 12.21.

12.4.1.

Removing an old seat ring

1. Set the removing tools (845001 and 845003 for the inlet valve seat ring, or 845001 and 845002 for the exhaust valve seat ring) so that the clutches fit under the edge of the seat ring. Tighten the nut (31). (See Fig. 12.22.) 2. Fit the plate (32) and the hydraulic jack (33) and tighten the nut (34) slightly. 3. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) to the hydraulic jack and loosen the seat ring by pumping. 4. Open the pump valve, disconnect the hoses and dismantle the loosening tool.

12 16

1216

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

Fig. 12.22.

12.4.2.

Fitting a new inlet valve seat ring

1. Check the bore diameter in the cylinder head, see table 12 in chapter 6. 2. The ring can be assembled by cooling with liquid nitrogen of 190_C and with the cylinder head temperature at a minimum of 20_C, or by pressing in with a guided arbor. 3. Check the eccentricity of the sealing face in relation to the valve guide, and if it exceeds 0.1 mm, the seat surface must be ground with a seat grinding machine.

1217

12 17

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

12.4.3.

Fitting a new exhaust valve seat ring

1. For fitting an exhaust valve seat ring an oven for heating the cylinder head and a freezer for cooling the seat ring are required. 2. Check the seat bore diameters (A) and (B) in the cylinder head. (Fig. 12.23.) (See correct values in table 12 in chapter 6.) Clean the bores carefully. 3. Heat the cylinder head up to +50...+60_C. 4. Cool the seat ring in the freezer to 18...25_C. 5. Lubricate the bore A (see Fig. 12.23.) with Molykote 111 lubricant or similar and apply Loctite 620 locking compound to bore B. 6. Fit the oring (45) to the upper groove of the seat ring, dry the outer surface of the seat ring and fit the ring to its place. EXHAUST INLET

Fig. 12.23. When the cylinder head has reached the room temperature: 7. Check the eccentricity of the sealing face in relation to the valve guide. Ensure that the seat ring is in continuous contact against the bottom machined surface. The maximum allowed eccentricity is 0.07mm. If the eccentricity is 0.070.25mm, the seat surface can be ground with a seat grinding machine.

Hydraulic test:
8. A hydraulic test at 10 bar must be carried out as follows every time a new exhaust valve seat ring has been fitted: 9. Block the cooling water inlet passages (38) (8 pcs) with rubber expansion plugs (see Fig. 12.24.), or rather with special tool (848021). (See Fig. 12.25.) 10. Tap the deaerating holes (39) (5 pcs) with M8 threads and block them with plugs. 11. Block the cooling water outlet passage (40) with a pressure test flange (847012) and fill the cooling water space with water. 12. Connect the checking device (848020) to the test flange and replace the hose coupling with the transformation piece (46) taken from the test flange. 12 18
1218

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

13. Connect the low pressure pump (860050) and apply a pressure of 10 bar.

CAUTION !

Beware of the rubber plugs while there is pressure in the cylinder cover. The plugs may be dangerous if they become loose.

Fig. 12.24.

Fig. 12.25.
1219

12 19

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

12.5.

Valve rotator (Rotocap)


Exhaust and inlet valves are equipped with Rotocaps. These are rotating mechanisms which turn the valves 8_ at every opening. The rotation makes the valves wear smoothly and increases the maintenance intervals.

12.5.1.

Rotocap maintenance

Fig. 12.26. 1. Remove the spring band (6). 2. Remove the cover plate (1). 3. Remove the cap spring (3). 4. Remove the steel balls (4) and turning springs (5). 5. Clean the base plate (2) and all other parts. Check that there is no serious damage. Change if necessary. 6. Reinstall the parts in the opposite order than previously described.

12 20

1220

46 02 30

Cylinder head with valves

12

12.6.

Indicator valve
The inside construction of the valve is such that the pressure in the cylinder tightens it. Consequently the force needed to close the valve is relatively low. The valve has a lefthanded screw and it is opened and closed respectively as follows. (Fig. 12.27.)

Fig. 12.27.

12.6.1.

Indicator valve, operation and maintenance:

1. When starting the engine the indicator valves should be closed using only just enough force to bring the sealing surfaces together. The pressure of the cylinder will push them tight together. 2. When stopping the engine the indicator valves should be opened only half a turn. This way the tightening effect due to the temperature decrease will not occur. 3. When opening the indicator valve for measuring the cylinder pressure, inadvertent tightening instead of opening must be avoided. 4. When closing the indicator valve after measuring the cylinder pressure only minimal torque is needed. So called fingertight is usually enough. 5. Add high temperature lubricant (lubricant specification to be 1000_C) to the valve stem threads when you feel that it is not moving easily. 6. Always use the correct Thandle wrench (808001) to open and close the indicator valve. (Fig. 12.27.)
1221

12 21

12

Cylinder head with valves

46 02 30

12.7.

Safety valve
(Fig. 12.28.) Each cylinder head is equipped with a spring loaded safety valve. This valve will prevent any excessive cylinder pressure and emits an alarm when operated. The blow out pressure is stamped into the top of the valve. Safety valves which begin to leak in service, must be replaced at the first opportunity. Before refitting, the valve should be lubricated with a high temperature lubricant.

1. Spindle 2. Housing 3. Plug 4. Spring

Fig. 12.28.

12.8.

Starting valve
The starting valves are described in chapter 21. When refitting the starting valves, the outer cylindrical surfaces should be lubricated with engine oil or a special lubricant.

12.9.

Injection valve
The injection valves are described in chapter 16. When refitting, the injection valves should be lubricated with engine oil only.

12 22

1222

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

13. Camshaft driving gear


13.1. General
The camshafts are driven by the crankshaft through gears. The gears are alike for both camshafts. (Fig. 13.1.) Therefore in this chapter only the gear system for one camshaft is described. The gearing consists of a split gear on the crankshaft, two hydraulically fastened intermediate gears and a camshaft driving gear. Lube oil nozzles provide for lubrication and cooling of the gears. The camshafts rotate in the same direction as the crankshaft at half the speed.

Fig. 13.1.

13.2.

Intermediate gear and camshaft gear


The intermediate gearwheels (1) and (2) are connected together with a hydraulically tightened screw (3). The bearings (4) for the intermediate wheel assemblies are incorporated into the crankcase. Lubrication for the bearings is from the pressurised engine system through the thrust bearing (5), along the screw (3) and through the bores in the bearing shaft (6). The camshaft driving wheel (7) is fixed to the camshaft end (8) by a guiding pin (9) and fastened by means of a flange connection be tween the camshaft end (10) and the camshaft extension (8). (Fig. 13.2.)

13.2.1. nance

Intermediate gear and camshaft gear mainte-

Whenever the opportunity occurs, check the condition of gears, measure the tooth backlash and the bearing clearances, and refer to section 6.2. Early detection of any tooth damage can prevent serious damage.
131

13 1

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

Fig. 13.2. 13 2
132

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

13.2.2.
NOTE !

Removing the camshaft gearing

Special tools are needed for this work. Please contact the engine manufacturer.

Remove the camshaft gear


1. Remove the gear covers and the camshaft covers. 2. Unscrew the fastening screws (11) for the camshaft thrust bearing housing (18) and remove the cover (13). 3. Unscrew the fastening screws (14) and remove the outer shaft plate (15) together with the outer part of the thrust bearing (12). 4. Open the fastening screws (16) and remove the house plate (19) and inner shaft plate (17) together with the inner part of the thrust bearing (33). 5. Slide the camshaft thrust bearing housing (18) out. (Use extraction holes M16 if needed.) 6. Turn the crankshaft to TDC at ignition for cylinder No. 1 and secure the camshaft by using the locking tool (834053). Fasten the tool with three nuts from the camshaft piece fastening studs. View A

Fig. 13.3. 7. Open the flange connection screws (20) and remove the camshaft extension (10) by using the lifting tool (836024) together with the connection (836017) and (836018). (See Fig. 13.4.)

NOTE !

Support the driving wheel when lifting the extension piece out.

NOTE !

Do not turn the crankshaft while one or more of the gear wheels is loose. If you have to turn the crankshaft, first loos en the push rods or rocker arms (to avoid contact between pistons and valves).

133

13 3

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

Fig. 13.4. 8. Lift the camshaft driving wheel out by using the lifting device (836024) together with the connection (836020) and (836023) (or 836034 on the other bank). (See Fig. 13.5.)

13 4

134

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

Fig. 13.5. 9. Lift the camshaft extension out by using the lifting device (836024) together with connection (836019). (See Fig. 13.6. )

Fig. 13.6.
135

13 5

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

Removing the intermediate gear:


The intermediate wheels (1 and 2) must not be dismantled unless it is absolutely necessary. The relative position be tween the two wheels has been adjusted when assembled at the factory and should not be changed. If you must separate the two gear wheels you must mark them so that they can be assembled back exactly to the correct positions.

NOTE !

Fig. 13.7. 10. Open the screws (21) to remove the cover (22) from the intermediate gear thrust bearing. 11. Open the fastening screws (23) and remove the shaft plate (24) together with the outside thrust bearing (5). 12. Open the fastening screws (25) and remove the housing plate (26) together with the inside thrust bearing (32). 13. Open the nut (27) of the center stud (3) by using hydraulic tool (861143). 13 6
136

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

Fig. 13.8. 1. Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) onto the center stud. 2. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861143), when at the correct position. Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) according to Fig. 13.9. and open the pump valve.

Fig. 13.9. 3. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as long as it rotates. Repeat the procedure a few times to get all oil out from the tool. 4. Turn the hydraulic tool back about 3/4 of a turn (270 _). 5. Shut the pump valve and pump to the stated pressure. (See section 7.3.2.) 6. Loosen the nut (27) about 3/4 of a turn with the pin (861010). 7. Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and unscrew the hydraulic tool. Remove the hydraulic tool. 8. Remove the nut. 14. Unscrew the center stud (3) by using a tool (803003) and slide the stud against the flywheel. 15. Slide the smaller intermediate gear (2) against the engine frame and remove the distance ring (28). 16. Screw the lifting tool (836021) to the shaft (6) of the bigger intermediate gear (1) and lift the tool (836021) and the shaft (6) out together by using the
137

13 7

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

lifting device (836024) together with connection (836023 or 836034). (See Fig. 13.10.)

Fig. 13.10. 17. Slide the smaller intermediate gear (2) out from engine frame and support it so that you can put the lifting tool (836022) to the shaft of the smaller intermediate gear and tighten it with a wrench. (See Fig. 13.11. )

Fig. 13.11. 18. Remove the smaller intermediate gear by using the lifting device (836024) together with connection (836023 or 836034). (See Fig. 13.12.) 13 8
138

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

Fig. 13.12. 19. Remove the center stud (3).

NOTE !

The intermediate wheels (1 and 2) must not be dismantled unless it is absolutely necessary. The relative position be tween the two wheels has been adjusted when assembled at the factory and should not be changed.

13.2.3.

Mounting the camshaft gearing

Mounting the intermediate gear


NOTE !
Check that cylinder A1 (or B1) is at TDC of ignition cycle be fore proceeding.

139

13 9

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

Mark A

Mark B

Mark AA

Mark BB

Fig. 13.13. When cyl. A1 (B1) is at TDC of ignition cycle notice that: 1. Assembly marks A (B) on camshaft driving wheel must be aligned with the side of the engine block. (See Fig. 13.13.) 2. Assembly marks on the bigger intermediate gear and A-A (B-B) marks on the crankshaft gear must be aligned. 3. Guide pin (9) in the first camshaft piece must be in the correct position (Shown in Fig. 13.13.) 1. Mount the shaft (6) and the big intermediate wheel (1) together with screws M12 (29), fasten to stated torque. (See section General torques in chapter 7.) 2. Lift the smaller intermediate wheel (2) into position using lifting device (836024) with connection (836022) and (836023 or 836034), see Fig. 13.14. At the same time the center stud (3) must be put into position inside the smaller intermediate gear. When the gear is fitted inside the bearing, slide it against the engine frame.

13 10

1310

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

Fig. 13.14. 3. Lift the distance ring (28) to the shaft of the smaller intermediate gear.

NOTE !

The distance ring must be aligned so that the adjusting slot is against the smaller intermediate gear. (See Fig. 13.15.)

Section AA:

Fig. 13.15. 4. Lift the bigger intermediate wheel into position by using the lifting device (836024) together with connection (836021) and (836023 or 836034). (See Fig. 13.16.)
1311

13 11

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

Fig. 13.16. 5. Slide the smaller wheel (2)against the bigger intermediate gear (1).

NOTE !

Check that the assembly marks are as shown in Fig. 13.13.

6. Clean the center stud (3) and lubricate the threads. 7. Screw the center stud (3) in position and tighten it to stated torque (see section 7.3.2.) by using a tightening tool (803004). 8. Screw the nut (27) by hand against the end surface; check that the nut is in the guide. (Fig. 13.17.) 9. Pretighten the nut (27) with hydraulic tool (861143) as follows: 1. Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) into position on the center stud (3), see Fig. 13.8. 2. Screw on the hydraulic tool (861143) and connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) according to Fig. 13.9. and open the pump valve. Keep on turning the hydraulic jack as far as it rotates. 3. Shut the pump valve and pump to the pretightening pressure of 300 bar. 4. Tighten the nut (27) with the pin (861010). 5. Open the pump valve slowly. 10. Check that the assembly marks are still as shown in Fig. 13.13. . 11. Check that there is no clearance between gear wheels and distance ring. 12. Repeat the hydraulic tightening to eliminate any clearance between the threads and other parts. 13 12
1312

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

13. Mount the inside thrust bearing (32) and the housing plate (26), tighten the screws M16 (25) to stated torque. (See section General torques in chapter 7.) 14. Mount the outside thrust bearing (5) together with the shaft plate, tighten the screws M10 (23) to stated torque. (See section General torques in chapter 7.) 15. Check the axial clearance by moving the shaft and record the movement with a dial indicator. Refer to section 6.2.

Mounting the camshaft gear


16. Lift the camshaft driving wheel (7) (Fig. 13.18.) into position so that the marks on the wheel are in accordance with the side of the engine block. (See Fig. 13.13.) 17. Fit the camshaft end piece (10) by using the lifting tool (836024) with connection (836017) and (836018); note that the pin (9) is in the correct position (see Fig. 13.13.). Fasten the screws M20 (20) to stated torque. (See section 7.1.1.) 18. Mount the bearing housing (18); if necessary use a hydraulic jack or crane to support the shaft while assembling the housing.

Fig. 13.17. 19. Fit the inner shaft plate (17) with the inner part (33) of the thrust bearing. Fit the house plate (19) and tighten the screws (16) to stated torque. (See section General torques in chapter 7.) 20. Fit the outer part (12) of the thrust bearing together with the outer shaft plate (15) and tighten the fastening screws (14) to stated torque. (See section General torques in chapter 7.) 21. Check the axial bearing clearance and backlash between the gears (2) and (7). (Refer to section 6.2.)
1313

13 13

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

22. Lock the screws (14) with locking wire and mount the cover (13). 23. Tighten the rocker arm bracket fastening screws, if loosened and mount the covers. (See chapter 14.) 24. Check the valve timing and fuel pump timing (see chapter 16.) of one cylinder and compare to the tested values of the setting table in the delivery documents. Readjust if necessary. 25. Tighten the nut (27) of the intermediate gears center stud (3) to stated torque (see section 7.3.2.) by using tightening tool (861143). The tightening procedure is the same as previously described in this section. 26. Disconnect the hoses of the hydraulic tool (861143) then unscrew and remove the hydraulic tool. 27. Assemble the intermediate gear thrust bearing cover (22). 28. Mount the covers for the gearing and camshaft.

13 14

1314

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

Fig. 13.18.

13.3.

Split gear wheel


The split gear is divided into two parts which are connected together with connecting screws (30), and then to the crankshaft with screws (31).
1315

13 15

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

Fig. 13.19. If only the split gear wheel has to be changed, one half of the wheel can be removed or mounted at a time.

13.3.1.

Split gear wheel maintenance

Whenever the opportunity occurs check the condition of gear, measure the tooth backlash and the bearing clearances and refer to section 6.2. Early detection of any tooth damage can prevent serious damage.

13.3.2.

Removing the split gear wheel

Both the camshaft gear and intermediate gear are dismantled according to section 13.2.2.

NOTE !

Special tools are needed for this work. Please contact the engine manufacturer.

1. Lower the bearing cap of main bearing No.1. (See section 10.2.2.) 2. Loosen the fastening screws (30). 3. Unscrew the axial screws (31). 4. Unscrew the fastening screws (30) and remove the gear wheel halves.

13.3.3.

Mounting of the split gear wheel

1. Clean the parting surfaces of the wheel halves and the contact faces of the gear wheel and the crankshaft. 2. Lower the bearing cap for main bearing No.1. (See section 10.2.2.) 3. Apply Loctite 242 to the threads of the screws (31) and (30), and engine lubricating oil under the screw heads. (Do not use Molykote.) 13 16
1316

46 98 43

Camshaft driving gear

13

4. Mount the gear wheel halves on the crankshaft with the parting face at right angles with the crank of cylinder No.1 and fasten the screws (31) and (30) by hand. 5. Tighten the axial screws (31) to a torque of 10 Nm and check that contact is established between the gear wheel and the crankshaft flange. 6. Tighten the fastening screws (30) to stated torque. (See section 7.1.3.) The screws closest to the crankshaft flange are to be tightened first. 7. Tighten the axial screws (31) to stated torque. (See section 7.1.3.) 8. Check the split gear wheel roundness. Place the cylindrical pin in the toothcap as shown in Fig. 13.20. Turn the engine and use a dial indicator to get indications. Repeat the procedure and take comparative indications from at least four different locations. The difference between the four indications must be less than 0.09 mm. 9. Lift the bearing cap for main bearing No.1. (See section 10.2.4.)

Fig. 13.20.

13.3.4.

Removing only the split gear wheel

If you remove only the split gear wheel: 1. Check the fuel pump timing of one cylinder. (See section 16.2.7.) 2. Lower the bearing cap of the main bearing No.1. (See section 10.2.2.) 3. Turn the crankshaft so that the bolt heads of the fastening screws (30) are downwards. 4. Unscrew the fastening screws (30). 5. Unscrew the axial screws (31) of the lower half. 6. Remove the lower half of the split gear wheel. 7. Clean the parting surfaces of the wheel half and the contact faces of the gear wheel and the crankshaft. 8. Apply Loctite 242 on the threads of the screws (31) and engine lubricating oil under the screw heads. (Do not use Molykote.)
1317

13 17

13

Camshaft driving gear

46 98 43

9. Mount the new gear wheel half on the crankshaft against the old upper half and tighten the screws (30) to a torque of 600Nm. Check with a feeler gage that the joint surfaces meet properly. 10. Tighten the new half axial screws (31) to stated torque. (See section 7.1.3.) Check that contact is established between the gear wheel and the crankshaft flange. 11. Remove the fastening screws (30). 12. Turn the crank of cylinder no. 1 carefully to TDC. 13. Unscrew the axial screws (31) of the other half. 14. Remove the other half of the split gear wheel. 15. Clean the parting surfaces of the wheel half and the contact faces of the gear wheel and the crankshaft. 16. Apply Loctite 242 on the threads of the screws (30) and engine lubricating oil under the screw heads. (Do not use Molykote.) 17. Mount the new gear wheel half to the crankshaft against the upper half and tighten the screws (30) to stated torque. (See section 7.1.3.) Check that the joint surfaces meet properly. 18. Apply Loctite 242 on the threads of the screws (31) and engine lubricating oil under the screw heads. (Do not use Molykote.) 19. Tighten the axial screws (31) of the new half to stated torque. (See section 7.1.3.) Check that contact is established between the gear wheel and the crankshaft flange. 20. Turn the crankshaft half a turn. 21. Check the split gear wheel roundness as mentioned in section 13.3.3.. 22. Lift the bearing cap of main bearing No.1 back to its place. (See section 10.2.4.) 23. Check that the fuel pump timing of the reference cylinder has not changed. (See item No. 1 of this section.)

13 18

1318

46 01 13

Valve mechanism and camshaft

14

14. Valve mechanism and camshaft


14.1. Valve mechanism
The valve mechanism operates the inlet and outlet valves at the re quired timing. The valve mechanism consists of piston type valve tap pets (11) moving within the engine block, tubular push rods (4) with ball joints, nodular cast iron rocker arms (3) journalled on a rocker arm bearing bracket (13), and a yoke (14) guided by a yoke pin. The valve tappets movement follows the cam profile and transfers the movement through push rods to the rocker arms. The rocker arms oper ate the inlet and exhaust valves through a yoke (14). Lubrication for the rocker arms is supplied from the feed channel on the engine block through pipe connections and drillings in both the cylinder head and rocker arm bracket. For the valve tappets, rollers and their shafts pressurised oil is fed from the feed channel through drillings in the engine block. (See Fig. 14.4.) To compensate for heat expansion a clearance must exist between the rocker arm and yoke. All adjustments are done on a cold engine, and this work procedure is explained in chapter 12..

1. Screws 3. Rocker arms 4. Push rod 5. Protecting sleeves 8. Cover 11. Valve tappet 12. Shaft 13. Bracket 14. Yoke

Fig. 14.1.

14.1.1.

Maintenance of valve mechanism

The valve mechanism is inspected according to the maintenance sched ule in chapter 4. However, whenever the opportunity exists, make a visual inspection of the cams, rollers and tappets.
141

14 1

14

Valve mechanism and camshaft

46 01 13

14.1.2.

Dismantling of valve mechanism

Rocker arm bracket complete:


1. Remove the covers of the valve mechanism and camshaft from the cylinder concerned. 2. Turn the crankshaft so that the valve tappet rollers in the cylinder concerned are at an unloaded cycle, and a clearance exists between the rocker arm and yoke. 3. Secure the rocker arm bracket with crane by using a lifting sling (see Fig. 14.2.) or by using a special tool (836031). (See Fig. 14.3.) 1. Screws 2. Locking screw 3. Rocker arm 7. Shaft 13. Rocker arm bracket 20. Bushing

147

Fig. 14.2. 4. Open the screws (1) and lift the rocker arm bearing bracket (13) from the cylinder head. 5. Remove the yoke (14). (See Fig. 14.1.)

14 2

142

46 01 13

Valve mechanism and camshaft

14

1471

Fig. 14.3.

Rocker arms:
6. Support the bracket by crane and open the locking screws (2). Slide the brackets (13) out from the shaft (7) on both sides. Remove the rocker arms (3) and the shaft. 7. Remove the push rods (4) and the protecting sleeves (5) by lifting up through the guide holes in cylinder head.

Valve tappets:
8. Open the screws (9) and remove the cover (8). 9. Lift the valve tappet (11) out.

Roller and shaft:


10. Push the springloaded locking pin (6) down and pull the shaft (12) out. Before dismantling, mark the parts so that they will be reinstalled into their original positions.

143

14 3

14

Valve mechanism and camshaft

46 01 13

4. Push rod 5. Protect sleeve 6. Locking pin 8. Cover 9. Screw 10. Guiding pin 11. Valve tappet 12. Shaft 17. Oring 18. Oring 19. Ball head pin 26. Compression spring 27. Bearing bush 28. Roller

Section A:

140207

Fig. 14.4.

14.1.3.

Inspection of valve mechanism

Rocker arm:
1. Clean the rocker arm bearing bushing and the journal, then measure for wear. When cleaning, pay special attention to the oil holes. Refer to chapter 6. for all clearances and wear limits.

Push rod:
2. Inspect the ball head running surface for possible mechanical damage.

Valve tappet:
3. Clean and inspect all parts of the valve tappet and corresponding bore in the engine block. When cleaning, pay special attention to the oil holes. 4. Measure the bearing bush (27), shaft (12) and the roller (28) for wear. 5. Inspect the ball head pin (19) running surface for possible mechanical damage. 6. Change the Orings (17) and (18) if they are damaged or hard.

14.1.4.

Assembling of valve mechanism

Valve tappets: (see Fig. 14.4.)


1. Lubricate the parts of the valve tappet with clean engine oil, add Rustban 326 or similar grease to the tappet guiding surface against the roller (B in Fig. 14 4
144

46 01 13

Valve mechanism and camshaft

14

14.4.) and assemble. Keep the roller (28) at the correct level and slide the journal (12) into position observing that the locking pin (6) secures to the corresponding drilling in tappet body. 2. Insert the valve tappet (11) into the guide hole in the engine block. 3. Mount the cover (8).

Push rods:
4. Grease the Orings (17) and (18) properly. Insert the protecting sleeves (5) and push rods (4) into position through the cylinder head guide bores. 5. Mount the yoke. (For adjusting the yokes see chapter 12.)

Rocker arms: (see Fig. 14.2.)


6. Lubricate the rocker arm parts properly with clean engine oil. Assemble the bushing (20) to the journal (7). 7. Fit the rocker arms to the journal. 8. Slide the brackets and journal together and secure the journal with the locking screws (2).

NOTE !

The journal has to be exactly at the right position to be able to fit the screws.

9. Check for free movement of the rocker arms. 10. Mount the complete rocker arm bracket into position on the cylinder head and tighten the screws (1) crosswise to stated torque. (See chapter 7.) 11. Check and adjust the valve clearances according to chapter 12. and mount the covers.

14.2.

Description of camshaft
The camshaft is built up of one-cylinder camshaft pieces (1) and sepa rate bearing journals (2). (See Fig. 14.5.) The fixing pins (4) on the bear ing journals order the position of the camshaft pieces, and the bearing journals must be put back to the original places after overhaul or re placed by a similar journal with same pin position (identification num ber on each journal).

145

14 5

14

Valve mechanism and camshaft

46 01 13

Fig. 14.5. The drop forged camshaft pieces have integrated cams, the sliding sur faces of which are case hardened. The bearing surfaces of the journals are induction hardened. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through a gearing at the driving end of the engine.

Fig. 14.6. At the free end, the camshaft has a vibration damper (10) and an exten sion (5) with a cam for operating the starting air distributor. (Fig. 14.6.) At the driving end the camshaft has an axial bearing (6). (Fig. 14.7.) 14 6
146

46 01 13

Valve mechanism and camshaft

14

Fig. 14.7.

14.2.1.

Maintenance of camshaft

The cams have to be inspected according to the maintenance schedule (see chapter 4.), but always whenever the opportunity exists, make a visual inspection of the cams, tappets and rollers. A camshaft piece has to be replaced if some mechanical damage has occurred. The camshaft bearing bushing has to be replaced if the wear limit given in chapter 6. is exceeded.

14.2.2.

Removing the camshaft piece

1. Remove the camshaft covers from the cylinders concerned. 2. Remove the cover (8) (see Fig. 14.6.) from the starting air distributor. 3. Loosen the valve clearance adjusting screws (see section 12.2.4.) and the rocker arm bracket fastening nuts of the cylinders in which the camshaft is to be moved axially. 4. Turn the camshaft so that you can lock the valve tappets one by one to the uppermost position with locking bars (845013) and (845014). (See Fig. 14.8.) 5. Open the nuts (3) (Fig. 14.5.) and unscrew the flange connection studs (7) from both ends of the camshaft piece. 6. Assemble the special mounting device (845020). (See Fig. 14.8.) Fasten the device to engine frame with camshaft cover fastening nuts (21). Adjust the flat bar (22) with screws (23) and the support (24) close to the camshaft piece. 7. It is also possible to use lifting tool (836024) with connection (836029) to support the camshaft piece. (See Fig. 14.9.)
147

14 7

14

Valve mechanism and camshaft

46 01 13

Section AA:

Fig. 14.8. 8. Move the free end of the camshaft towards the free end of the engine a maximum of 35 mm by using a suitable lever.

NOTE !

Be careful that the rollers do not fall from the cams.

9. Disengage the camshaft piece from the centering and fixing pins (4) (Fig. 14.5.) and lower it sideways using the screw (25).

14.2.3.

Mounting the camshaft piece

1. Clean and degrease the flange connection surfaces and threaded holes. (See Fig. 14.5.) 2. Insert the fixing pins (4) with retainer rings (9), with the longer part of the pin in the bearing journal. 3. Move the camshaft piece in position using the screw (25), (see Fig. 14.8.), or by using a special tool (836024) with connection (836029). (See Fig. 14.9.)

14 8

148

46 01 13

Valve mechanism and camshaft

14

Fig. 14.9. 4. Mount the camshaft piece (1) on the fixing pin. (See Fig. 14.5.) After centering it at either end, press together the camshaft using three assembly screws at both ends of the camshaft piece. 5. Fasten the studs (7) by hand and tighten the nuts (3) by using the torque wrench (820009). (For tightening torques see chapter 7.) 6. Check the tappet rollers carefully. Even slightly damaged rollers have to be changed. 7. Turn the camshaft and remove the locking bars one by one when there is a contact between the roller and the cam. 8. Mount the cover (8) of the starting air distributor. 9. Tighten all the loosened rocker arm bracket fastening nuts. 10. Check the valve clearances on the cylinder concerned and on all cylinders towards the free end on that bank. (See chapter 12.) 11. Check the fuel pump timing on the cylinder concerned (see chapter 16.) and on the next cylinder towards the free end. If any corrections have to be done on the next cylinder, all the pumps on that side have to be checked.

149

14 9

14

Valve mechanism and camshaft

46 01 13

14.2.4.

Vibration damper

The camshaft of the engine is equipped with a vibration damper to dampen the torsional vibrations which are excited by the engine.

Fig. 14.10. The inner part (1) of the damper is bolted on the free end of the camshaft and follows its torsional vibrations. The outer part consists of spring packs (2), spacers (3), a clamping ring (4) and side plates (5). The springs are clamped at their outer end by the spacers and their inner ends mesh with grooves of the inner part. The cavities between spring packs and spacers are filled with oil which comes through the camshaft drillings. Due to torsional vibrations the inner member will twist against the out er part, the springs will deflected, one cavity will reduce and one will en large and the oil will flow through the narrow gap between inner and outer part, generating the hydrodynamic friction and therefore damp ing the vibrations.

NOTE !

For more information, see separate damper manual.

14 10

1410

46 02 30

Turbocharging and air cooling

15

15. Turbocharging and air cooling


15.1. Description
The engine is equipped with two turbochargers and coolers situated either in the free end or in the driving end of the engine. The turbochargers are driven by exhaust gases coming from various cylinders through opened exhaust valves. The compressor (1) rotates with the turbine (2) and draws air in from the engine room raising the ambient air pressure to a higher level (charge air pressure). The air is heated up in the process and has to be cooled down in the air cooler (3) before entering the air receiver (4) and the cylinder through opened inlet valves.

Fig. 15.1.

001

15 1

15

Turbocharging and air cooling

46 02 30

15.2.

Turbocharger
15.2.1. Description (TPLturbocharger)

The turbocharger is of axial turbine type. It is mechanically independent of the engine to which it is applied, but the lubricating system forms part of the engine lubricating oil system. The turbocharger is equipped with cleaning devices to clean the turbine and compressor by water injection. Speed is measured by a pick up installed on the compressor side.

15.2.2.

Turbocharger maintenance

Normal overhauls can be carried out without removing the turbocharger from its place. When dismantling, drain first the lubricating oil system of the turbocharger, remove the protecting covers and disconnect the oil, air and exhaust connections. When reassembling, take care that all seals are intact. High temperature resistant lubricants are used for exhaust pipe screws. Maintenance of the turbocharger is carried out according to following instructions and the instructions of the turbocharger manufacturer. It is recommended to use the service network of the engine manufacturer or the turbocharger manufacturer.

15.3.

Water cleaning of turbine during operation


15.3.1. Description

Practical experience shows that the formation of dirt deposits on the turbine side can be reduced by periodical cleaning during operation. By the same the overhaul periods can be lengthened. Dirty turbines cause higher exhaust gas temperatures and higher stresses of the bearings due to imbalances. Usually, though, washing of the turbine side is necessary only when running on heavy fuel. During an extended period of operation, periodical cleaning prevents the build up of significant deposits on the turbine blades and nozzle blades. This cleaning method does not work on very dirty turbines which have not been washed regularly when put into operation or after revisions. Water must be injected into the exhaust system with the engine running at suitable output (see cleaning instructions). The disadvantages of adjusting the output occasionally are not significant compared with the advantages of cleaning. The necessary water flow is basically dependent on the volume of gas and its temperature. The flow should be adjusted so that all of the water is evaporated and escapes through the exhaust. Additives or solvents must not be used in the cleaning water. The use of salt water is prohibited. 15 2
002

46 02 30

Turbocharging and air cooling

15

The turbine washing intervals are stated in the maintenance schedule in chapter 4.

15.3.2.

Cleaning device for turbine and compressor

The engine is equipped with permanent pipings for turbine (42) and compressor (52) cleaning. (Fig. 15.2.) An electrical control unit (48) controls the cleaning procedure. The cleaning parameters (number of water injections, injection time, interval between the injections e.t.c.) can be set with a terminal. All cleanings (turbine washing, turbine thermal shock cleaning, compressor cleaning) can be inactivated by jumpers in the terminal box.

Fig. 15.2.

15.3.3.

Cleaning procedure

1 Record the engine and turbocharger parameters (engine load, charge air pressure, TC speed, exhaust gas temperature before and after turbine) about one hour before water cleaning for later use to assess efficiency of the cleaning. 2 Carry out the cleaning procedure according to the TPL cleaning device manual. (See Technical documents.) 3 Repeat the readings made before the water cleaning procedure.
003

15 3

15

Turbocharging and air cooling

46 02 30

15.4.

Water cleaning of compressor during operation


By spraying water into the compressor, this can be cleaned while in operation. The cleaning effect is good as long as the deposit formation has not gone too far. If, however, a very thick hardened crust of dirt has formed, the compressor will have to be dismantled for cleaning. By this method water is not acting as a solvent but instead removes the deposits mechanically by the impact of the water droplets. It is therefore recommended to use clean water without any additives. The cleaning water should not contain any cooling water agents which might remain on the compressor. Regular cleaning of the compressor prevents or delays excessive contamination, but in no way replaces the usual overhauls where the turbocharger is completely dismantled. (See turbocharger instruction manual.) Cleaning is performed using the equipment described in section 15.3. Water cleaning of compressor should be done daily, when the turbocharger is in use.

15.4.1.

Cleaning procedure

See TPL cleaning device manual in Technical documents.

15.5.

Allowable operation with damaged turbocharger


In case of a serious breakdown of the turbocharger, a blanking device (the preferred option) or a rotor locking device can be fitted according to the instructions in the Turbocharger Manual. The Wrtsilengines can in an emergency situation like this operate temporarily at 20% output. The thermal overload is a limiting factor on the diesel engine, therefore the exhaust gas temperatures must be carefully watched during operation. The exhaust gas temperature after the cylinder cover must not exceed 500_C. (See also section 8.2.2.)

NOTE !

Both turbochargers of a Vengine must be locked or blanked if one of them fails.

15.6.

Air cooler
The engine is equipped with two air coolers to cool down the compressed and heated air after turbochargers. The insert type charge air coolers are mounted in a welded housing (40). (Fig. 15.3.) The housing is fastened to the engine block with screws. As a standard two stage charge air coolers are used, where the charge air temperature is kept on the right level by regulating the temperatures of the incoming HT and LTcooling water.

15 4

004

46 02 30

Turbocharging and air cooling

15

Air in

Charge air cooler

Air to receiver

LTside

HTside

Fig. 15.3.

15.6.1.

Maintenance of charge air cooler

1 The air cooler is provided with water separators (45) located after the cooler inserts. (See the principle in Fig. 15.4.) 2 Condensate from the air is drained through a drainer (46) under the cooler housing after the inserts. Examine regularly that the pipe is open.

NOTE !

If water keeps on dripping or flowing from the draining hole for a longer period (unless running all the time in conditions with very high humidity) the cooler insert may be leaking and must be dismantled and pressure tested.

3 At longer stops, the cooler should be either completely filled or completely empty, as a halffilled cooler increases the risk of corrosion. If there is a risk of the water level in the system decreasing when the engine is stopped, drain the cooler completely. 4 Clean and pressure test the cooler at intervals according to chapter 4 or if the air temperature in the charge air receiver cannot be held within stipulated values at full load. 5 Always check for corrosion when cleaning.
005

15 5

15

Turbocharging and air cooling

46 02 30

Air cooler fouling can be determined on the air side by measuring the air pressure drop over the air cooler, and on the water side by measuring the cooling water temperature difference over the air cooler. The cooler has to be cleaned if the air pressure drop over the cooler exceeds 600 mmWG or if the temperature difference over the LT side or HT side increases from normal. Air coolers

Air flow

View A

Fig. 15.4.

15.6.2.

Cleaning cooler inserts

1 Drain water from the air cooler LT and HT side by opening the drain connections (12) and vent connections (13). (See Fig. 15.5.) 2 Remove the HT and LT cooling water pipes (14 and 15) from the cooler.

15 6

006

46 02 30

Turbocharging and air cooling

15

150511v

Fig. 15.5. 3 Open all the air cooler fastening screws (27). (See Fig. 15.6.) 4 Fit the tool (846053) and fasten it with connection screws (43). (Note that the support arrangement of the tool depends upon the installation and may be different from the one shown in Fig. 15.6.) Pull out the air cooler horizontally (by using a block and a tackle). When the cooler is outside of the cooler housing it can be removed by truck or by crane using the lifting yokes of the cooler. 5 Clean the air side according to the cooler manufacturer s instructions.

007

15 7

15

Turbocharging and air cooling

46 02 30

Lifting yoke View B:

157v12

Fig. 15.6.

NOTE !

Use of a high pressure water cleaning device may cause damage to the fins, which will result in an increased pressure drop over the cooler.

6 Remove the flow return header (30) and the inlet/outlet header (31) to make the water side accessible. (See Fig. 15.7.) 7 Clean the water side. Regular cleaning is necessary. The cleaning intervals depend on the cooling water used. Cleaning of the water side is not only required to maintain the thermal performance of the cooler, but also to prevent scaling and corrosion. Scaling increases the risk of pitting corrosion and obstacles partly blocking the tubes lead to erosion.

Mechanical cleaning:
Mechanical cleaning is done by use of nylon brushes fitted to a rod. The length of the rod corresponds to the tube length of the cooler in question and the type of the brushes is chosen in accordance to the finned tube type. Mechanical cleaning can be done on site or with the cooler removed. Check the gaskets (32) and (33) and replace if necessary.

Hydraulic cleaning:
Hydraulic cleaning is carried out with the cooler removed using a high pressure spray gun to remove dirt deposits inside the tubes. It is recommended that the size of the spray gun nozzle is 3 mm.

Chemical cleaning:
Chemical cleaning is recommended, when the cooler is removed. The tube bundle is immersed into a chemical cleaning bath. Time of immersion is a func15 8
008

46 02 30

Turbocharging and air cooling

15

tion of the degree of fouling. When the cleaning is complete, the cooler is to be flushed by applying a powerful water jet. If the result is still not satisfactory, cleaning should be repeated.

Fig. 15.7. 8 Reassemble the cooler insert and lift it on the tool (846053) (spread plenty of vaseline on the tool, where the cooler will be seated). 9 Pull the cooler into the welded housing (40) (by using a block and a tackle), be careful not to move the steel sealing bars (44). (See Fig. 15.6.) 10 Fit and tighten the air cooler fastening screws (27). 11 Tighten the supporting screws (28) lightly against the air cooler and lock with nuts. 12 Tighten the supporting screws (29) to a torque of 20 Nm and lock with nuts. 13 Remove the tool (846053). Connect the HT and LT cooling water pipes (14) and (15). When filling the system with water, check for possible leaks.

15.7.

Waste Gate valve


The turbocharger is specified to give the best possible performance at part load. The engine is provided with an exhaust waste gate to limit the charge air pressure and firing pressure to a suitable level at load above 90% and for operation in low ambient temperature. See the principle of pipings in Fig. 15.8. (The pipings may look different in different installations.) The waste gate valve is situated in pipe (C) going to the exhaust pipe by the turbine and consists of a butterfly valve (1), pneumatic power cylinder (2), positioner (3), and a cooling extension (4). The valve is controlled electronically and operated pneumatically. When the charge air pressure goes too high, the control system gives a signal to the waste gate valve to open and to let a part of
009

15 9

15

Turbocharging and air cooling

46 02 30

the exhaust gas by the turbine through pipes B and C. (See also section 15.7.1. Waste gate and waste gate control.)

Fig. 15.8.

15.7.1.

Waste gate and waste gate control

The waste gate system is a combined optimization / protective system for highly pressurecharged engines. The performance of the engine can be improved by the waste gate design on low and part load (higher charge air pressure, lower fuel consumption and lower exhaust gas temperature). To avoid excessive charge air and firing pressure at high loads (higher than announced in the beginning of section 15.7.) or at low ambient temperature the exhaust gas flow to the turbocharger must be reduced by partially bypassing the turbocharger. The governing signal to the valve is taken from analogue pressure sensor PCT601, measuring the load dependent charge air pressure. The sensor signal is, in current converter U519, converted to a 4...20 mA control signal. The control signal is connected to the IPconverter Y519, and gives the valve an aperture characteristic according to the diagram in Fig 15.9. The pneumatic positioner needs a working air pressure of 4...7 bar, 6 bar is recommended. Air requirements are about 10 l/min.

15 10

0010

46 02 30

Turbocharging and air cooling

15

Characteristic of the valve aperture

Fig. 15.9. The characteristic of the valve aperture is adjustable with three potentiometers: min = minimum output current setting, typically 3.80.1 mA zero = 4 mA output current setting span = 20 mA output current setting

Waste gate control current converter U519, type WD3


PCT601 Charge air pressure

Supply 24 VDC Y519 I/Pconverter controlling pneumatic positioner


(231404)

Fig. 15.10.
0011

15 11

15

Turbocharging and air cooling

46 02 30

15.7.2.

Maintenance of the Waste Gate valve

The function of the valve has to be inspected regularly.

Function test on a stopped engine:


The charge air pressure is simulated to the pressure transducer (5) on the engine through the test valve (6) and the movement of the Waste Gate valve can be observed.

151317

Fig. 15.11. When the simulated pressure exceeds the charge air pressure that corresponds to the load percentage announced in the beginning of section 15.7., the valve should start to move. The adjustments for the opening point, opening speed and control air pressure are introduced in section 15.7.1. Waste gate and waste gate control. If the valve does not move even though the electronic system gives a correct signal, the control air pressure should be checked and adjusted from the pressure reducing valve in the control air feed pipe. (See section 15.7.1.) If some stiffness still occurs the air system should be vented and the valve should be manually tested. If the valve, the positioner, or the power cylinder is stuck, the parts should be opened and cleaned and the damaged seals should be replaced. Check also the connection between the positioner and power cylinder (2). (Fig. 15.8.) 15 12
0012

46 02 30

Turbocharging and air cooling

15

15.8.

Charge air Bypass valve


15.8.1. General
A bypass valve is used on Common Rail engines to reduce part load smoke at output range of 1060%. The bypass connection is open when running at load of 1060%. Part of the compressed air is blown from the compressor to the exhaust pipe before the turbocharger to increase TC speed. The bypass valve is controlled by engine load. (See section Bypass control in section 15.8.3.)

15.8.2.

Operation

The bypass valve is located in pipe (A) coming from the air inlet box. (See Fig. 15.8.) When the bypass valve is open, compressed air flows from the air casing through pipes A and B to the exhaust pipe before the turbocharger thereby increasing the TC speed. The bypass valve consists of a butterfly valve (5) and a pneumatic power cylinder (6). Microswitches in the valve control the correct positioning.

NOTE !

The waste gate valve is always closed when the bypass valve is operating and vice versa.

15.8.3.

Bypass control

The bypass connection is set to open at a load of 10%, closing can be adjusted to the load range of 4060%. An open bypass valve reduces exhaust temperature after turbocharger and therefore the closing point can be tuned based on part load heat recovery requirements. The bypass system is controlled by engine load from the speed control unit. The bypass valve is operated by an electropneumatic control valve which gets the signal from a 420mA dual limit switch.

Generator

kW

Speed control unit

420mA

Anal. dual limit switch

On / Off

Bypass driver

Bypass open Engine load: 0% 10% 4060% 100%

Fig. 15.12.
0013

15 13

15

Turbocharging and air cooling

46 02 30

The bypass actuator is equipped with limit switches indicating open or closed position.

15.8.4.

Testing of the bypass system

See the bypass controlling parameters in section 15.8.3. Bypass control. The testing of the proper function of the bypass system can be done according to the following procedure: 1 Connect the 420mA transmitter to EMM721 terminals 1 (in) and 2 (out). (See Fig. 15.13.) 2 Check that the contact between terminals 4 and 5 is closed at the mAvalue corresponding limit A and remains closed until limit B is reached (bypass valve open). 3 Below limit A and above limit B the contact 45 should be open. (Bypass valve closed.) 4 Check visually the position of the flap of the butterfly valve at the actuator. Observe also that the position indication corresponds the actual position and the bypass alarm is not activated.

Fig. 15.13. 15 14
0014

46 02 30

Injection system

16

16. Injection system


16.1. Description
This chapter contains descriptions of the Common Rail fuel injection system (CR) and maintenance instructions for its components. In the Common rail fuel injection system the fuel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) or Marine Diesel Oil (MDO), is pressurised to a common volume within a common supply pipe (Rail) from where fuel is fed with exactly the same pressure to every injection valve. The fuel injection system consists of injection pumps, accumulators, Start up and Safety Valves, injection valves and high pressure pipes. The Wrtsil CR system has one fuel injection pump and one fuel accumulator per two cylinders. The fuel rail consists of a series of accumulators which are joined by pressure pipes to equalise the system pressure. Some of the accumulators are equipped with an electric hydraulically controlled Start up and Safety Valve (SSV) to control the pressure within the rail and also to make the fuel circulation between pumps and accumulators possible before start up. The injection valves are electrohydraulically controlled. The hydraulic pressure required in the CR system is generated with an engine driven piston pump using engine lubricating oil.

NOTE !

Only the maintenance works of the fuel system, mentioned in this manual, are allowed!

CAUTION !

Before starting any maintenance work, release the pressure of the high pressure system by loosening the connection nuts of one high pressure pipe from both pipe ends with three turns! Wait a few minutes before continuing!

16.2.

Fuel injection pump


16.2.1. General

The function of the injection pump is to raise the fuel pressure from within the low pressure system to a pressure suitable for high pressure injection. The fuel injection pump consists of following components (see Fig. 16.1.):
161

16 1

16

Injection system

46 02 30

4 3 1 2

94 10 8 7 11

6 5 2 9

163402P

Fig. 16.1.

Fuel injection pump

Pump element consists of a barrell (1) and a plunger (2) Flow control valve (3) Flow control valve solenoid (4) Low pressure check valve (5) High pressure check valve (6) Pump housing with tappet (7) Temperature sensor (8) Pump housing orings (9) Pump element fastening screws (10) Pump element sealing rings (11) Feedback sensor (94) The fuel is pressurised with piston pumps driven by the camshaft of the engine. The camshaft is equipped with two cam lobes, therefore a pump stroke occurs every crankshaft cycle. The low pressure fuel is fed to the fuel pump via an electrically controlled Flow Control Valve (FCV). This valve adjusts the amount of fuel needed to reach correct Rail pressure level, and controls only Rail pressure. The correct Rail pressure level depends on the engine load and operating speed. The position of the FCV is indicated by the feed back sensor (94). After the pump, high pressure fuel flows to the accumulator. The function of the fuel pump is monitored with a temperature sensor (8). (See Fig. 16.1.)

16.2.2.

Maintenance of fuel injection pump

Maintenance of the fuel injection pump consists of complete replacement of the pump and/or pump housing. 16 2
162

46 02 30

Injection system

16

NOTE !

The fuel injection pump is heavy, use a crane for lifting!

CAUTION !

When working with the high pressure pipe system, work must always be carried out safely and with all due care. 16.2.2.1. Removing of fuel injection pump

Before starting any maintenance work with the high pressure fuel system proceed as follows: 1. Stop the engine. 2. Shut off fuel supply to the engine and stop the lubricating oil pump. 3. Open the Hot Box cover. 4. Ensure that the high pressure rail and the low pressure line are not pressurized!

CAUTION !

A high pressure fuel oil spray from any broken or leaking connection of a high pressure injection pipe may cause serious injuries.
5. Drain the fuel from the pumps and delivery pipes within the Hot Box. 6. Remove the high pressure pipe (16) from the pump. (See Fig. 16.2.) See section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes. 7. Remove the wires (3) and (8) of the flow control valve, feed back sensor and temperature sensor. 8. Rotate the camshaft to the neutral position so that the cams do not compress the pump tappet.

CAUTION !

The tappet spring forces may lead to serious accidents while removing the pump fastening screws.
If you need to remove only the pump element, see section 16.2.2.2. Otherwise continue with removing the whole pump: 9. Remove the locking plates (85) of the low pressure fuel pipes and move the sliding bushes (15) aside. 10. Remove the lubricating oil pipe (13) and the leak fuel pipe (12). 11. Remove the fastening screws (14) of the pump housing and the bracket (84). (Fig. 16.2.) See section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes. 12. Mount the lifting tool in place. In inline engines use lifting eye (831006) and in Vengines lifting tool (831004). (See Fig. 16.3.)
163

16 3

16

Injection system

46 02 30

13. Lift out the pump housing from the engine onto the mounting bracket by using the lifting crane. 14. Remove the lifting tool. 3 16 8 10

86

12 13

85

15

84

14
164202p

Fig. 16.2.

Fuel injection pump connections

16.2.2.2.

Removing the fuel injection pump element

1. See steps 1 ... 8 in section 16.2.2.1. 2. Remove the pump element fastening screws (10). (See Fig. 16.2.) 3. Lift out the injection pump element carefully from the housing. Clean and check that the sealing surfaces inside the pump housing are not damaged.

16 4

164

46 02 30

Injection system

16

831006 Inline engines 831004

Vengines 95

164403P

Fig. 16.3.

Lifting the fuel injection pump

16.2.2.3.

Mounting the fuel injection pump

1. Clean the contact surfaces of the pump housing and check that there are no damages. 2. Mount the new pump housing. 3. Check the orings (9) (Fig. 16.1.), renew if necessary and lubricate with engine lubricating oil. 4. Mount the lifting tool in place. In inline engines use lifting eye (831006) and in Vengines lifting tool (831004). (See Fig. 16.3.) 5. Lift the pump housing in place by using the lifting crane. Notice the correct position of the guiding pin (95). (See Fig. 16.3.)

NOTE !

Contact surfaces must be clean and undamaged.

6. Mount the bracket (84) and two fastening screws (14) crosswise. (See Fig. 16.2.) Tighten lightly. 7. Mount the remaining fastening screws (14) and tighten lightly. 8. Tighten the fastening screws alternatingly crosswise to the stated torque. (See chapter 7.) Fasten the high pressure pipe (86) to the bracket (84). 9. Mount the lubricating oil pipe (13) and leak fuel pipe (12). 10. Move the sliding bushes (15) back to their places and fasten the locking plates (85) of the low pressure pipes. 11. Reconnect the wires (3) and (8).
165

16 5

16

Injection system

46 02 30

12. Mount the high pressure fuel pipe (16) to the pump. See section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes.

NOTE !

When the engine lubricating oil pump is started check that the tappet roller is lubricated (=lubricating oil flows onto the roller).

16.2.2.4.

Mounting the fuel injection pump element

1. Mount the new pump element carefully inside the housing. Renew the sealings (11). Note the correct orientation of the Vopening of the sealings. (See Fig. 16.4.) 10

11

165201p

Fig. 16.4. 2. Tighten the fastening screws (10) of the pump element. Check the correct torque, tightening order and lubrication in chapter 7. 3. Reconnect the wires (3) and (8). (See Fig. 16.2.) 4. Mount the high pressure fuel pipe (16) to the pump. See section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes.

16 6

166

46 02 30

Injection system

16

16.3.

Injection line
16.3.1. Description

The function of the high pressure fuel pipes is to join the injection pumps, accumulators and fuel injection valves. The injection pipes are double skirt pipes. The inner pipe is the high pressure pipe and the outer pipe is a casing pipe to secure any leakage if the inner pipe breaks. The space between the inner and outer pipe is used to feed the leak fuel flow to the alarm system.

NOTE !

There are two types of connection pieces (18). (See Fig. 16.5.) One type has a running in filter, which is used till up to 30 hours after the engine start. After this period they are replaced with normal high pressure injection pipes.

NOTE !

The leakage indication ring in the accumulator easily indicates which fuel pressure pipe is leaking.

The high pressure fuel pipes consist of the following components: (See Fig. 16.5.)

167

16 7

16

Injection system 19 20 17

46 02 30

18 21 22

86 16 87
163802P

Fig. 16.5.

High pressure fuel pipes

High pressure fuel pipe (16), (86), (87) High pressure fuel pipe nut (17) Connection piece (18) leak fuel connection flange (19) Sealing flange (20) Sealing flange fastening screw (21) Leak fuel pipe (22)

16.3.2.

Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes

Maintenance of the high pressure pipes consists of removing, checking, replacing and mounting the pipes.

NOTE !

Do not use Molykote lubricant on the high pressure fuel pipe connection surfaces! Molykote Gn plus can be used only on conical sealing surfaces.

16.3.2.1. Preparations before any work with the high pressure pipe system
1. Stop the engine. 2. Shut off fuel supply to the engine and stop the lubricating oil pump. 3. Open the Hot Box cover. 16 8
168

46 02 30

Injection system

16

4. Loosen the connection nuts of one high pressure pipe from both pipe ends with three turns. Wait a few minutes before continuing! 5. Drain the fuel from the pumps and delivery pipes within the Hot Box.

CAUTION !

When working with the high pressure system, work must always be carried out safely and with all due care.

16.3.2.2.
CAUTION !

Removing the high pressure fuel pipes

Ensure that the high pressure rail and the low pressure line are not pressurised! A high pressure fuel oil spray from any broken or leaking connection of a high pressure injection pipe may cause serious injuries.
1. Drain the leak fuel pipe (22) (see Fig. 16.5.) via the valve situated in the end of the pipe. 2. Remove the leak fuel pipe (22). 3. Loosen the high pressure fuel pipe nuts (17) from both ends of the pipe (87). Draw the nuts (17) back as far as they go. 4. Remove the pipe (87) by hand to protect the sealing surfaces. Do not use any tools. 5. Loosen the fastening screws of the sealing flange (21). 6. Remove the connection piece (18). 7. Remove the other high pressure fuel pipes (16 and 86) using the same procedure.

NOTE !

Protect the high pressure fuel pipes, injection line connections and holes with clean plastic or cloth against dirt and rust and especially the sealing cones against nicks.

16.3.2.3.

Checking the high pressure fuel pipes

1. Inspect and clean the cylinder head contact surfaces and connection piece (18). (See Fig. 16.5.) 2. Check that the mating cone surfaces of the high pressure pipe and counter parts are not damaged and good tightening can be achieved. 3. Inspect and ensure that the high pressure fuel pipe is clean inside and that the inner surface shows no sign of damage. Check also that the conical sealing surface is clean and not damaged, otherwise the connection could get loose and may cause a serious accident! 4. In case of a damaged connection piece or fuel pipe sealing surface, the damaged parts must be replaced with new or undamaged ones.
169

16 9

16

Injection system

46 02 30

CAUTION !

All damaged parts must be renewed! Repairs to a high pressure fuel pipe or damaged connection piece must be carried out by Wrtsil only!

16.3.2.4.
CAUTION !

Mounting the high pressure fuel pipes

Before mounting, check that there are no foreign objects or cloth left inside the fuel pipes.
1. Renew the sealings between flange (19) and cylinder head. (See Fig. 16.6.) 2. Lubricate the friction rings (96) and the surfaces between the connection piece (18) and the friction rings (96) and the leak fuel connection flange (19). Use clean engine lubricating oil. DO NOT GREASE! 3. Mount the flanges (20) and (19) with the friction rings (96) on the connection piece (18). Follow accurately the correct mounting sequence of the friction rings shown in Fig. 16.6. 4. Mount the connection piece (18) into its place by hand. (See chapter 7.) 5. Screw in the fastening screws (21) so that the friction rings still remain loose. 6. Fasten the connection piece (18) to correct torque. (See chapter 7.) 7. Tighten the fastening screws (21) of the sealing flange to the stated torque. (See tightening steps and torques in chapter 7.)

NOTE !

Do not use Molykote lubricant on the high pressure fuel pipe connection surfaces! Molykote Gn plus can be used only on conical sealing surfaces!

16 10

1610

46 02 30

Injection system

16

Fig. 16.6.

NOTE !

Before mounting the high pressure fuel pipes, always ensure that the connection piece (18) and the sealing flange fastening screws (21) are tightened to the stated torque.

8. Mount the high pressure fuel pipe (87) in place. (See Fig. 16.5.) Tighten both pipe end nuts (17) to bottom by hand. Lubricate the conical sealing surfaces with Molykote Gn plus and threads with clean engine lubricating oil. 9. Tighten the nuts (17) in both pipe ends to stated torque. (See chapter 7.) 10. Mount the other high pressure fuel pipes (16, 86) using the same procedure. 11. Mount the leak fuel pipe (22) to the connection flange (19). Use Loctite 542 for thread.

If the fuel injection valve is removed out from the cylinder head, the tightening order is as follows:
1. Tighten first the connection piece (18) close to bottom by hand. 2. Tighten the fuel injection valve to the cylinder head. (See section 16.4.2.3.) 3. Tighten the connection piece (18) as described above. 4. Tighten screws (21) to the stated torque. (See chapter 7.) 5. Tighten the nuts (17) of the high pressure fuel pipe (87) from the fuel accumulator to the cylinder head.
1611

16 11

16

Injection system

46 02 30

16.4.

Injection valves
16.4.1. General description

The injection valve is electrically controlled, therefore injection timing can be adjusted to correspond with each load situation. Electrical injection control provides many possibilities to optimise engine operation. For example injection advance can be selected freely, independent injection pressure from operating speed of the engine, injection parameters can be changed easily in different engine load situations (start, increase in load etc.). The function of the fuel injection valve is to inject the correct amount of fuel into the combustion chamber at the correct time. The fuel injection valve consists of the following components: (See Fig. 16.7.) 31 26

32 33 27 97 69 30

Solenoid valve (26) Shuttle valve (27) Injection nozzle (28) Piston (29) Pressure holding valve (30) Clamping flange (31) Shuttle valve block (32) Top nut (33) Nozzle nut (34) Transfer block (35) Fuel inlet (69) Inlet block (97) Orings (98) Fig. 16.7.

98 29 34 35 28

163702P

Fuel injection valve

The fuel is supplied to the fuel injection valve via a high pressure pipe through the cylinder head. The high pressure pipe is sealed to the injection valve with a conical sealing. 16 12
1612

46 02 30

Injection system

16

At the start of the injection stage, the solenoid valve of the control valve is activated electrically and hydraulic pressure acts upon the shuttle valve. When the shuttle valve is completely open the fuel pressure effects are applied to the injection nozzle. The pressure drops behind the piston and needle opens.

16.4.2.

Maintenance of fuel injection valve

Maintenance of the injection valve consists of removing and mounting of the injection valve, testing and changing the fuel nozzle.

37 Connection piece (18) Sleeve (25) Clamping flange (31) Fastening nut (36) Solenoid cable fastening nuts (37) Control oil pipe (38) Cooling oil pipe (39) 36 25 31

39 38

18

164002P

Fig. 16.8.

Fuel injection valve connections

CAUTION !

A high pressure oil spray from any broken or leaking connection of a high pressure injection pipe or control oil pipe may cause serious injuries.
16 13

1613

16

Injection system

46 02 30

16.4.2.1.

Removing the fuel injection valve

Before starting any maintenance work, carry out the preparation works described in section 16.3.2.1.

CAUTION !

Ensure that the cooling and control oil pipelines are not pressurised!

CAUTION !

Ensure that the electricity supply is disconnected!


6. Remove the Hot Box cover. 7. Remove the rocker arm casing by using a crane for lifting. 8. Remove the solenoid valve wiring by loosening the fastening nuts (37). (See Fig. 16.8.) 9. Remove the cooling oil (39) and control oil pipes (38). 10. Remove the connection piece (18). (See section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes.) 11. Remove the fastening nuts (36) of the clamping flange and sleeves (25). 12. Mount the lifting tool (831008) in place. (See Fig. 16.9.) 13. Lift the injection valve carefully out using a crane.

831008

Inline engines

Vengines

164103P.ai

Fig. 16.9. 16 14
1614

Lifting the fuel injection valve

46 02 30

Injection system

16

CAUTION !

If too much force has to be used, there is a risk of the stainless sleeve of the cylinder head coming loose. In such a case, the position of this sleeve must be checked!

NOTE !

Protect the fuel, control oil and cooling oil inlet holes of the injection valve and the bore in the cylinder head from damage or ingress of dirt!

16.4.2.2.

Changing of fuel injection nozzle

1. Mount the injection valve to the mounting bracket (846601).

NOTE !

When assembling any components of the injection valve, the connection surfaces must be checked for any damage and cleanliness. Check also the condition of the pins.

2. Open nozzle nut (34) with the tool (806054). (See Fig. 16.7.) 3. Remove both the nozzle (28) and the transfer block (35) at the same time. 4. Check visually the piston (29), spring and the push rod. 5. Remove the nozzle (28) from the transfer block (35). 6. Remove the injection valve from the mounting bracket and set the injection valve to nozzle up direction. 7. Mount the piston (29), spring and the push rod back in place. 8. Mount the transfer block (35) in place. Check the condition of the pins and that the connection surfaces are clean and undamaged! 9. Mount the new injection nozzle in place. Check the condition of the pins and that the connection surfaces are clean and undamaged! 10. Mount the nozzle nut (34) in place by hand.

NOTE !

Use Molykote Gn plus on thread.

11. Tighten the nozzle nut to the stated torque. (See chapter 7.)

16.4.2.3.

Mounting of fuel injection valve

1. Check that the bottom of the stainless sleeve in the cylinder head is clean. If necessary, clean or lap the surface. If lapping is necessary, the cylinder head must be lifted off. Use a special steel washer and fine lapping compound for lapping. The injection valve seals directly to the bottom of the stainless sleeve. (See sections 12.2.2. and 12.2.3. for removing and mounting the cylinder head.) 2. Renew the orings of the injection valve. Lubricate the injection valve with clean engine oil.
1615

16 15

16

Injection system 3. Mount the lifting tool in place.

46 02 30

4. Lift carefully the injection valve into the cylinder head bore. 5. Mount the connection piece (18) into the cylinder head by hand. (See Fig. 16.8.)

NOTE !

Use Molykote Grapid on thread and sealing cone.

6. Mount the sleeves (25) and fastening nuts (36). 7. Tighten the fastening nuts (36) of the clamping flange to the stated torque. Follow the tightening order. (See chapter 7.) 8. Tighten the connection piece to the stated torque. (See section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes and chapter 7.) 9. Mount the control and cooling oil pipes (38, 39). 10. Mount the solenoid valve wires and tighten the nuts (37) to the stated torque. (See chapter 7.)

CAUTION !

Ensure that the power supply is disconnected!


11. Lift and mount the rocker arm casing by using a crane for lifting. 12. Mount the Hot Box cover in place. 13. Reconnect the power supply upon completion.

16.5.

Testing of fuel injectors


16.5.1. nozzle Checking the maximum needle lift of the

The needle lift of the nozzle is the sum of measurements A and B in Fig. 16.10. If the wear B exceeds 0,05 mm, the nozzle holder can be sent to the engine manufacturer for reconditioning. If total lift exceeds the limit value given in chapter 6. and the nozzle has already been reconditioned once, the nozzle should be renewed.

16 16

1616

46 02 30

Injection system

16

B A

163901P

Fig. 16.10.

Checking the maximum needle lift of the nozzle

16.6.

Accumulator
The function of the accumulator is to act as a high pressure fuel storage tank from where fuel is supplied to the injection valves. There are two types of accumulators, with and without a Start up and Safety Valve (SSV). The accumulator consists of the following components (see Fig. 16.11.):

1617

16 17

16

Injection system

46 02 30
163502P

45 43 42 44

41

40

with SSV

without SSV

Fig. 16.11.

Accumulator

Bottom cap (40) Steel tube (41) Top cap (42) Flow fuse (43) Leakage indication ring (44) SSV assembly (45) The purpose of the Rail Accumulators is to minimise the pressure impulses caused by the reciprocating action of the fuel pumps. The fuel is supplied to the accumulator through entry holes in the base. The fuel is supplied from the accumulator to the injection valve via the flow fuse on the top cover of the accumulator. The flow fuse acts as a limiter in fault situations and prevents uncontrolled fuel flow to the injection valve and cylinder. The flow fuse is a spring loaded piston which moves inside the casing. This movement is caused by the fuel flow. If the fuel flow continues for long enough the piston will reach a maximum position and prevent the fuel flow to the injection valve. A malfunction of the flow fuse can be observed by the reduction of the cylinder exhaust gas temperature. The accumulator is equipped with a leakage indication ring (44). (See Fig. 16.11.) Leakage detection is described in section 16.6.1.

16.6.1.

Leakage detection

Each leakage indication ring (44) is connected to the leak detection system. (See Fig. 16.12.) If a leakage appears, it causes an alarm in the leak detection system and it can be easily localised by checking which one of the control bars (93) sticks out from the leakage indication ring. 16 18
1618

46 02 30

Injection system

16

44

93 Fig. 16.12.

165102p.ai

When the leakage has been repaired, the control bar sticking out has to be pushed back in.

16.6.2.

Accumulator maintenance

Maintenance of the accumulator (without SSV) consists of complete replacement and (with SSV) complete replacement of SSV, changing of the solenoid valve and changing of the air bottle for the SSV.

1619

16 19

16
164302P

Injection system 99 46 87

46 02 30 16

87

50

51 86

49

47

48

86

Fig. 16.13.

Accumulator connections

16.6.2.1.

Removing the accumulator

Before starting any maintenance work, carry out the preparation works described in section 16.3.2.1.

CAUTION !

Ensure that fuel injection pipeline is not pressurised! A high pressure fuel oil spray from any broken or leaking connection of a high pressure injection pipe may cause serious injuries. Always tighten all components to the correct torque.

CAUTION !

Ensure that the power supply is disconnected if the accumulator is equipped with an SSV!
1. Remove the high pressure fuel pipes (16, 86 and 87) from the accumulator. See Fig. 16.13. and section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes. 2. Remove the solenoid valve wire and the control oil pipe (99) if the accumulator is equipped with an SSV. 3. Remove the drain pipe (50). 4. Remove the low pressure fuel pipe bracket (48). 5. Remove the fuel return pipe (49).

16 20

1620

46 02 30

Injection system

16

6. Mount the lifting tool (831009) on the accumulator. (See Fig. 16.14.) In inline engines an eyebolt screw (831005) can be used with accumulators having no SSV.

831009

Inline engines

Vengines

164502P

Fig. 16.14.

Lifting the accumulator

7. Remove the fastening screws (51) of the accumulator. (See Fig. 16.13.) 8. Lift out the accumulator onto the mounting bracket using a lifting crane. 9. Remove the lifting tool.

16.6.2.2.
NOTE !

Mounting the accumulator

Clean and check all parts before mounting. Check the connection surfaces for any damages and cleanliness.

1. Mount the lifting tool (831009) (or 831005) in place. (See Fig. 16.14.) 2. Lift the accumulator into position by using the lifting crane. 3. Mount the fastening screws (51) of the accumulator and tighten to the stated torque. (See Fig. 16.13. and chapter 7.) 4. Remove the lifting tool.
1621

16 21

16

Injection system 5. Mount the fuel return pipe (49) in place. 6. Mount the low pressure fuel pipe bracket (48) in place. 7. Mount the drain pipe (50) in place.

46 02 30

8. Mount the solenoid valve wire and control oil pipe (99) if the accumulator is equipped with an SSV. 9. Mount the high pressure fuel pipes (16, 86 and 87) to the accumulator. See section 16.3.2. Maintenance of high pressure fuel pipes. 10. Reconnect the power supply upon completion if the accumulator is equipped with an SSV.

16.7.

Start up and safety valve (SSV)


The function of SSV is to secure fuel circulation in the preheating stage and release the pressure from the fuel rail when the engine is stopped. The SSV functions also as a mechanical safety valve of the fuel rail. The SSV consists of the following components (see Fig. 16.15.): 23 100 102 58 101 60 Air bottle cap (23) Oring (24) 54 SSV housing (52) Main valve (53) 53 Mechanical safety valve (54) SSV air bottle (55) 61 Solenoid valve (56) Outlet line (57) Oil space (58) Fastening nut of solenoid valve (59) Fastening screw of SSV valve (60) High pressure sealing surface (61) Oring (62) Backing ring (63) SSV top cap fastening screws (100) Piston seals (101) SSV top cap (102) Fig. 16.15. Startup and safety valve (SSV) with air bottle 52 57 62 63 59 24 56

55

163602P

The startup and safety valve (SSV) is electric hydraulically controlled. During engine start the solenoid valve (56) is activated thus causing an increase of hydraulic pressure in the SSV oil space (58) and the main valve (53) closes the fuel entry to the outlet line (57). 16 22
1622

46 02 30

Injection system

16

The spring loaded mechanical safety valve (54) opens when the fuel rail pressure exceeds the set value. The SSV air bottle (55) ensures that the pressure drop takes place fast when the SSV opens, it also reduces the pressure shock on the outlet side.

16.7.1.

Maintenance of the SSV

Maintenance work consists of removing and mounting the SSV and replacing the SSV air bottle, solenoid valve and SSV assembly (containing SSV top cap, mechanical safety valve and main valve).

16.7.1.1.

Removing the SSV

Before starting any maintenance work, carry out the preparation works described in section 16.3.2.1.

CAUTION !

Ensure that the control oil system is not pressurised and that the power supply is disconnected.

NOTE !

The SSV can be dismantled and the solenoid valve and SSV air bottle removed without removing the complete SSV. (See sections 16.7.1.2., 16.7.1.3. and 16.7.1.4.)

1. Disconnect the power supply if connected. 2. Remove the solenoid valve wire. 3. Remove the fuel return pipe (49) and the clamping ring nuts (47) of the air bottle. (See Fig. 16.13.) 4. Remove the leak pipe (46) and control oil pipe (99). 5. Remove the fastening screws (60) of the SSV. (See Fig. 16.15.) 6. Lift the SSV out from the accumulator.

16.7.1.2.

Dismantling and assembling the SSV

Dismantling the SSV


1. Remove the solenoid valve wire, 2. Remove the solenoid valve (56) 3. Remove the SSV top cap fastening screws (100). 4. Lift the SSV top cap (102) off, the inner parts of the SSV will follow.

Assembling the SSV


1. Check that the sealing surface (53) of the main valve is in good condition. (See Fig. 16.15.)
1623

16 23

16

Injection system

46 02 30

2. Check that the piston seals (101) are in good condition. Lubricate with clean engine oil. 3. Assemble the SSV top cap (102) with inner parts back in place. 4. Tighten the fastening screws (100). See tightening torque in chapter 7.) 5. Fasten the solenoid valve. See tightening torque in chapter 7.) 6. Mount the solenoid valve wire in place.

16.7.1.3. Replacing the solenoid valve without removing the complete SSV
1. Disconnect the power supply if connected. 2. Remove the solenoid valve wire. 3. Loosen the fastening nut (59) of the solenoid valve. (See Fig. 16.15.) 4. Mount the new solenoid valve (56). Use clean engine oil on thread. 5. Tighten the fastening nut (59) to the stated torque. (See chapter 7.) 6. Mount the solenoid valve wire in place.

16.7.1.4. Replacing the SSV air bottle without removing the complete SSV
CAUTION !

Ensure that fuel injection pipeline is not pressurized. A high pressure fuel oil spray from any broken or leaking connection of a high pressure injection pipe may cause serious injuries.
1. Remove the fuel return pipe (49) and the clamping ring nuts (47) of the air bottle. (See Fig. 16.13.) 2. Remove the air bottle (55) by opening the air bottle cap (23). (See Fig. 16.15.) Check the connection surfaces and sealings for any damages and cleanliness.

NOTE !

Use clean engine oil on threads when assembling.

3. Tighten the new air bottle (55) to SSV housing with oring (62) and backing ring (63) fitted. See tightening torque in chapter 7. 4. Tighten the air bottle cap (23) to the stated torque (see chapter 7.) ensuring that the assembly of air bottle (55) does not loosen. 5. Mount the fuel return pipe (49) and the clamping ring nuts (47) of the air bottle. 6. Tighten the clamping ring nuts (47) to the stated torque. (See Fig. 16.13. and chapter 7.)

16 24

1624

46 02 30

Injection system

16

16.7.1.5.
NOTE !

Mounting the SSV

Check the connection surfaces and sealings for any damages and cleanliness.

1. Mount the new SSV onto the accumulator. Check especially the high pressure sealing surface (61) from both sides (SSV/accumulator). (See Fig. 16.15.) 2. Tighten the fastening screws (60) to the stated torque. Follow the tightening order and use correct lubricant. (See tightening instructions in chapter 7.) 3. Mount the leak pipe (46) in place. (See Fig. 16.13.) 4. Mount the fuel return pipe (49) and the clamping ring nuts (47) of the air bottle. 5. Tighten the clamping ring nuts (47) to the stated torque. (See Fig. 16.13. and chapter 7.) Use clean engine oil on threads. 6. Mount the solenoid valve wire in place.

CAUTION !

Ensure that the power supply is disconnected!


7. Reconnect the power supply upon completion.

1625

16 25

16

Injection system

46 02 30

This page intentionally left blank.

16 26

1626

46 02 30

Fuel system

17

17. Fuel system


17.1. General description
The engine is designed for continuous heavy fuel duty. It can be started and stopped on heavy fuel provided that fuel is heated to the correct operating temperature.

NOTE !

If running on Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) it is recommended to change over to Light Fuel Oil (LFO) before stopping the engine.

Only the internal fuel system is described in this manual. Fuel treatment system before the engine, see separate instructions.

Instrumentation on engine
Fig. 17.1. shows an example of an internal fuel system. The installation specific drawing of the internal fuel system can be found in Technical documents.

171

17 1

17 12 11 7
712

Fuel system

46 02 30
170103P

4 3 2

D
101

6 8
103 102 104

9
SYSTEM COMPONENTS 1 FLOW CONTROL VALVE 2 FUEL PUMP 3 ACCUMULATOR 4 INJECTION VALVE PIPE CONNECTIONS 101 LPFUEL INLET

10

14

5 STARTUP AND SAFETY VALVE (SSV) 6 LEAKAGE SENSOR (CLEAN) 7 CONTROL OIL PUMP 8 3WAY VALVE

9 LEAKAGE SENSOR (WASTE) 10 PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE 11 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE 12 LUBRICATING OIL SUMP 14 SSV VOLUME

102 LPFUEL RETURN OUTLET (TO MIXING TANK)

712 CONTROL OIL INLET

103 CLEAN FUEL LEAKAGE (TO PRESSURELESS TANK) 104 DIRTY FUEL LEAKAGE In Vengines there are connections 103 and 104 on both banks (Bbank not shown in the picture)

Fig. 17.1.

An example of the internal fuel system

Pressure monitoring
The pressure sensor (B) connected to the fuel supply line indicates the fuel pressure before the fuel pumps. (See Fig. 17.1.) The pressure sensor is fitted for remote indication and alarms. The pressure sensor (C), connected to the 3way valve, indicates that the 3way valve is in correct position. The pressure sensor is connected to the alarm system.

NOTE !

The pressure sensor should not indicate any pressure when the engine is running!

Temperature monitoring
A pt100 sensor (D) fitted on the fuel supply line indicates the fuel temperature before the fuel pumps.

Leak fuel monitoring


Leaking fuel from the injection system is collected in separate leak fuel pipes from fuel pumps, high pressure pipes (accumulator, alarm) and fuel injection 17 2
172

46 02 30

Fuel system

17

valves on the hot box. The leak fuel is divided in three sections to collect the normal backflow from pumps and injectors and the possible leak from the injection pipes. Leaking fuel from the fuel injection valves is led to the mixing tank and back to circulation, while leaking fuel from fuel pumps and high pressure pipes is led to the pressureless tank. Leaking fuel can be reused after special handling. Leakage sensor (6) on the leak fuel outlet pipe monitors the leakage and gives an alarm from a leak in an injection pipe. Another leakage sensor (9) gives an alarm from a separate leakage pipe system leading from the top level of the engine collecting waste oil, fuel or water which is leaking e.g. when overhauling the engine.

Pressure regulating
A separate pressure control valve (10) is fitted to the fuel outlet pipe to regulate the fuel pressure and to keep the pressure constant when running on variable load.

17.2.

Maintenance of fuel system


When working with the fuel system, always observe the utmost cleanliness. Pipes, tanks, and the fuel treatment equipment such as pumps, filters, heaters and viscosimeters, included in the engine delivery or not, should be carefully cleaned before put into use. The fuel should always be purified and in heavy fuel oil operation a fine filter is required in the fuel treatment system. For maintenance of the fuel treatment equipment, see separate instructions.

17.2.1.

Draining of fuel system

Because the fuel volume in the supply line is relatively high, it is recommended to use control air pressure to blow out the fuel from the supply pipes to a suitable tank when overhauling the fuel pumps or supply lines. 7 bar Close 101 102 10

PIPE CONNECTIONS 101 102 LPFUEL INLET LPFUEL RETURN OUTLET

10 PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE

170201p

Fig. 17.2.
173

17 3

17

Fuel system

46 02 30

The pressure control valve (10) has to be adjusted so that the air pressure will open it. Blow the system about 1015 minutes to be sure that all fuel has come out.

17.2.2.

Venting of fuel system

After starting the fuel feed pumps, circulate the fuel in the engine system and turn the engine simultaneously with the turning gear. Normally, air is vented out without any other procedure. Venting of filters and other instrumentation according to separate instructions.

17.2.3.
13

Adjustment of pressure control valve

12

170301P

Fig. 17.3.

Adjustment of the pressure control valve

Check the adjustment at the intervals recommended in chapter 4. Adjust the valve at the normal operating temperature with an idling engine. All pressures mentioned in the instructions refer to the readings at the pressure gauge in the instrument panel of the engine. To adjust the pressure, turn the adjusting screw (13) (Fig. 17.3.) of the pressure control valve clockwise to achieve higher pressure, counterclockwise to achieve lower pressure. 1. Preadjustment Raise the pressure in system by closing the control valve (10) slowly. Adjust the booster pump pressure to 12 bar. (The booster pump is an installation equipment, it is not mounted on the engine.) 2. Adjustment Open the pressure control valve and adjust the pressure to the stated level. See chapter 1. 17 4
174

46 02 30

Fuel system

17

NOTE !

The lock nut (12) for the adjusting screw (13) also acts as a seal and therefore some leakage can occur while regulating the valve.

17.3.

Low pressure system (preheating system)


Preheating is needed to achieve correct viscosity of heavy fuel when the engine is started and stopped. The fuel system preheating proceeds as follows: The low pressure system has a normal fuel circulation. The flow control valve (FCV) of one fuel pump is opened 100% by WECS. The low pressure fuel flows through the fuel pump to accumulator. From the accumulator the flow continues in the rail to the nearest accumulator which is equipped with a Startup and Safety Valve (SSV). From the SSV fuel flows to the 3way valve (the SSV is open because there is no control oil pressure). The 3way valve (controlled by control oil) leads the fuel flow back to mixing tank and further back to circulation. The circulation sequence continues to the next fuel pumps as long as the fuel system is warm. The WECS controls the preheating process.

NOTE !

The circulation is always activated when the engine is stopped and in standby mode!

17.4.

Control oil system


The control oil in a Common rail engine controls the fuel injection valves, SSVs and 3way valves. Control oil (which is engine lubricating oil) is pressurized with an engine driven oil pump in the free end of the engine. From the pump oil is led to a control oil rail. From the rail oil flows separately to each fuel injection valve and to SSVs and 3way valves.

NOTE !

A Common rail engine needs the control oil pressure to operate, therefore the control oil pressure has to raise rapidly on a start up situation. The oil pressure in the control oil system is stated in section 1.2.

17.5.

Control oil pump


17.5.1. General description

The pump is adjustable volume flow pump which adjusts the oil pressure to constant 225 bar. The pump is driven by the engine and it is located in the free
175

17 5

17

Fuel system

46 02 30

end of the engine. On the suction side of the pump there is an automatic filter to maintain adequate cleanness of control oil. The supply pressure is adjusted with adjusting screw (17) on the pressure adjusting unit (18). (See Fig. 17.4.)

NOTE !

Do not adjust the other screw!

170401P

17

18

19 20

Fig. 17.4.

Control oil pump

17.5.2.

Maintenance of control oil pump

The maintenance consists of removing and mounting of the complete pump and replacing or checking the condition of pressure adjusting unit.

17 6

176

46 02 30

Fuel system

17

21

23

22

24

31
170502P

Fig. 17.5.

Control oil pump connections

25 26 27 28 30

29
170702P

Fig. 17.6.

Removing of control oil pump


177

17 7

17

Fuel system

46 02 30

17.5.3.

Removing of control oil pump

Before commencing any work with the control oil system proceed as follows: 1. Stop the engine. 2. Shut off fuel supply to the engine and stop the lubricating oil pump.

CAUTION !

Ensure that the control oil system is not pressurized!

CAUTION !

When working with the high pressure systems, work must always be carried out safely and with all due care.
3. Remove the oil pipes (21, 22, 23, 24 and 31). (See Fig. 17.5.) 4. Remove the plugs (25). (See Fig. 17.6.) 5. Remove the fastening screw (27) of the shaft coupling (28) with tool (26) via the plug holes. 6. Remove the fastening nuts (29) of the oil pump. 7. Pull the pump out carefully.

NOTE !

Do not damage the connection surfaces of the shaft coupling!

8. Check the condition of gaskets and parts. Clean carefully.

17.5.4.
NOTE !

Mounting of control oil pump

Lubricate the gaskets before mounting!

1. Mount carefully the oil pump in place. Do not damage the connection surfaces of the shaft coupling. 2. Tighten the fastening nuts (29) of the oil pump. (See Fig. 17.6.) Check the correct position of the shaft coupling. 3. Tighten the fastening screw (27) of the shaft coupling (28) with tool (26) via the plug holes. 4. Tighten the plugs (25) in place. 5. Mount the oil pipes (21, 22, 23, 24 and 31) in place.

17.5.5. Replacing or checking the condition of pressure adjusting unit


1. Remove the fastening screws (19) of the pressure adjusting unit (18). (See Fig. 17.4.) 17 8
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Fuel system 2. Remove the adjusting unit. 3. Check the condition of gaskets (20), replace if worn or damaged. 4. Clean all parts carefully. Especially the holes inside the unit.

17

5. Mount new adjusting unit and gaskets in place. Lubricate the gaskets before mounting. 6. Tighten the fastening screws (19) crosswise.

17.6.

Control devices for fuel system


17.6.1. Pressure relief valve

The pressure relief valve (30) (see Fig. 17.6.) controls the oil pressure of the control oil system. If the oil pressure rises over the set point, the valve opens and oil flows from the pressure side of the oil pump back to the engine oil sump. The set point of the pressure relief valve is 10% higher than the normal pressure of the control oil system. (See section 1.2.)

170801P

Fig. 17.7.

Pressure relief valve of the control oil pump

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Lubricating oil system

18

18. Lubricating oil system


18.1. Description
The engine is lubricated by a dry sump oil system where oil is mainly treated outside the engine by continuous separating. The main functions for the oil lubrication are preventing metal to metal contact at the bearing surfaces, heat transfer and cleaning. Various auxiliary devices guarantee that oil lubrication is firstrate in all circumstances. Fig. 18.1. shows an example of an internal lubricating oil system. The location of the system components depend on the installation. To find the installation specific lubricating oil system drawing, see Technical documents. The system components outside the engine are not handled in this manual.

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Lubricating oil system

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Fig. 18.1.

Example of an internal lubricating oil system

System components: Electrical instruments: 01 Oil sump PSZ201 Lub.oil inlet pressure 02 Centrifugal filter (optional) PT201 Lub.oil inlet pressure 03 Sampling cock TE201 Lub.oil inlet temp. 04 Runningin filter TE700 ... Main bearing temp. 05 Turbine (optional) 06 Compressor (optional) 07 Crankcase breather 08 Lubricating oil main pump (optional) 09 Pressure control valve (optional) Pipe connections: 201 Lub.oil inlet PI Manometer 202 Lub.oil outlet TI Thermometer 204 Lub.oil from engine driven pump 217 Lub.oil to generator bearing (optional) 218 Lub.oil from generator bearing (optional) 701(A,B) Crankcase air vent X(A,B) Condensate water drain Y Intermediate gear wheels Z(A,B) Lub.oil to valve gear, cam shaft, injection pumps etc. The oil pump takes suction from the system oil tank and discharges oil under pressure to the cooler. The pressure regulating valve (09), having a control pressure connection, controls the oil pressure going to the engine.

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Lubricating oil system

18

18.1.1.

The engine lubricating oil circuit

After coming to the distributing pipe at the bottom of the oil sump, the oil circuit is as follows:

To the piston Gudgeon pin bearings Up through the connecting rod Connecting rod bearings Through the crankshaft

Main bearings

Up through the hydraulic jacks Distributing pipe at the bottom of the oil sump

Fig. 18.2. Lubrication oil is led to the piston through the bored passages in the gudgeon pin and piston skirt up to the cooling space. Part of the lubrication oil is led out from the piston skirt through the special nozzles to the cylinder liner forming an oil film between the piston and the cylinder liner surfaces.
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Lubricating oil system

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Nozzle to lubricate the liner

Lube oil flow in piston

Fig. 18.3. From the cylinder liner the oil collects in the oil sump from where it flows freely back to the system oil tank.

Lubrication of special points


The lubrication oil system in the engine incorporates pipes which supply lubricant to the most important operation points. Pipes are situated in 46engines on both ends where the oil is led or sprayed to various points.

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Lubricating oil system

18

From the flywheel end oil is led to:

1. Governor drive bearings 2. Governor drive gears 3. Camshaft thrust bearings 4. Intermediate gears 5. Bearings of interm. gears 6. Turbochargers (if equipped with plain bearings and situated in driving end) Fig. 18.4.

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Lubricating oil system

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From the free end oil is led to:


Camshaft bearings, tappets, valve mechanisms and fuel pumps. Turbochargers, if equipped with plain bearings and situated in the free end.

Fig. 18.5.

NOTE !

The speed governor and the turbocharger (if equipped with ball and roller bearings) have their own oil systems, see separate instruction books.

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Lubricating oil system

18

18.1.2.

General maintenance

Use only high quality oils approved by engine manufacturer according to section 2.2.

CAUTION !

Utmost cleanliness should be observed when treating the lubricating oil system. Dirt, metal particles and similar may cause serious bearing damage. When dismantling pipes or components from the system, cover all openings with blank gaskets, tape or clean rags. When storing and transporting oil, take care to prevent dirt and foreign matters from entering the oil. When refilling oil, use a screen.

18.2.

Lubricating oil pressure regulating valve


18.2.1. Description

The lubricating oil system is equipped with a pressure regulating valve to keep the oil pressure constant in the lubricating oil feed pipe under variable conditions (pressure changes after feed pump; pressure drop changes in coolers and filters etc.) (See Fig. 18.6.)

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Lubricating oil system

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Pressure regulating valve

Fig. 18.6. The feed oil pressure affects through the choke (3) also in the spring chamber (5) to the back side of the main regulating piston (4) thus demanding less spring power to keep the valve closed. (See Fig. 18.7.) The feed pressure is also led to the pilot control piston (2). When the control pressure reaches the preadjusted value, the pilot control piston opens and releases the pressure in spring chamber (5). The pressure drop in chamber (5) makes the feed oil pressure open the main regulating piston by the same reducing the feed pressure. The set point is adjusted by the engine manufacturer but can be readjusted if necessary by operating the adjusting screw (10); clockwise to increase the pressure and counterclockwise to decrease the pressure. Note section 6.1. for correct set values.

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Lubricating oil system

18

TO THE CRANKCASE

OIL IN

CONTROL OIL PRESSURE

Fig. 18.7.

18.2.2.

Maintenance

1. Dismantle all moving parts. Check them for wear and replace worn or damaged parts with new ones. 2. Clean the valve carefully. 3. Check that the components do not stick. 4. After reassembling, check that piston (4) closes properly (especially if some components have been replaced with new ones).

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18.3.

Centrifugal filter
The engine is provided with a bypass filter of centrifugal type as a complement to the main filter. The main purpose of this filter is to indicate the quality of the lubricating oil.

Fig. 18.8. The filter comprises a housing (12) containing a hardened steel spindle (2) on which a dynamical balanced rotor unit (3) is free to rotate. Oil flows through the housing, up to the central spindle into the rotor. The rotor comprises two compartments, a cleaning chamber and a driving chamber. Oil flows from the central tube (13) into the upper part of the rotor, where it is subjected to a high centrifugal force, and dirt is deposited on the walls of the rotor in the form of heavy sludge. Oil then passes from the cleaning compartment into the driving compartment formed by the standtube (11) and the lower part of the rotor (4), which carries two driving nozzles. The flow of clean oil through the nozzles provides a driving torque to the rotor and oil returns through the filter housing to the engine oil sump. 18 10
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Lubricating oil system

18

18.3.1.

Cleaning

It is very important to clean the filter regularly (chapter 04) as it collects considerable quantities of dirt and thus unloads the main filter.

NOTE !

If it is found that the filter has collected the maximum quantity of dirt (the dirt deposit is 25mm thick) at the recommended cleaning intervals, it should be cleaned more frequently.

Clean the filter as follows, the engine being out of operation: 1. Close the valve (15) in the supply line. 2. Open the nut of the clamp and slacken the cover clamp (7). Unscrew the cover nut (1) and lift off the filter body cover (8). 3. Lift off the rotor assembly from the spindle (2) and drain oil from the nozzles (on the bottom of the rotor assembly) before removing the rotor from the filter body. Hold the rotor body and unscrew the rotor cover jacking nut (9), then separate the rotor cover (3) from the rotor body (4). 4. Remove sludge from the inside of the rotor cover and body by means of a wooden spatula or suitably shaped piece of wood and wipe clean. Remove the standtube and clean it. 5. Ensure that all rotator components are thoroughly cleaned and free from dirt deposits. 6. Clean out the nozzles with brass wire and compressed air. Examine the top and bottom bearings in the tube assembly to ensure that they are free from damage of excessive wear. Examine the Oring (5) for damage. Renew, if necessary. 7. Reassemble the rotor complete in opposite order. Ensure that the alignment pins (6) in joint face body align with the holes in the cover and that the standtube fits correctly in the rotor base. 8. Examine the spindle journals to ensure that they are free from damage or excessive wear. Examine the Oring (14) for damage. Renew, if necessary. 9. Replace rotor on to spindle ensuring rotor revolves freely and replace body cover. Tighten the cover nut by hand and refit safety cover. Tighten the filter cover clamp (7).

NOTE !

See maintenance instruction also from separate instruction book. Maintenance instructions should be also on the filter cover.

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Lubricating oil system

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18.4.

Runningin filter
A new engine is provided with runningin filters situated in the lubricating oil delivery pipes in both ends of the engine (see figures 18.4. and 18.5., the running in filters marked with grey) and in the crankcase under the main bearings. The filters have to be used for 100500 h. This includes the testing at the engine manufacturer and on site. Therefore the filters have usually been taken off by the installing personnel. It is also recommended to use runningin filters after certain operations, such as major engine repairs or installation oil system maintenance or repair. Flange (17) (see Fig. 18.9.) has to be used when a runningin filter is installed. When the filter is removed the flange has to be removed as well.

NOTE !

The minimum operating time of a runningin filter is 100h and maximum 500h. Change the insert (16) within this time.

Fig. 18.9.

18.5.

Engine driven lubricating oil pump


The lubricating oil pump is a threerotor screw pump and it is driven by the gear mechanism at the free end of the engine.

18 12

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Lubricating oil system

18

2.

1.

Fig. 18.10. 1. Lubricating oil pump 2. Centrifugal filter (optional)

18.5.1.

Oil pump maintenance

Check the oil pump at the intervals stated in chapter 4. If oil leakage occurs, check the pump immediately. No outside lubrication is required.

18.5.2.

Removing the pump from the engine

1. Acquaint yourself first with the pump manufacturers instructions in Technical documents. 2. The tool (836046) can be used for lifting the pump as follows: 3. Fasten the lifting lug (28) to the pump (see Fig. 18.11.) and the rail (29) with equipment to the air cooler housing. 4. Fit the bracket (30) between the pump and the rail and adjust the lift height with the adjusting nut of the fastener (31).
1813

18 13

18

Lubricating oil system 5. Open the pump fastening screws.

46 02 30

NOTE !

The glide of the rail moves very easily. Make sure that the rail is in a horizontal position and that there is nobody in front of the pump when it gets loose from the pump cover. The maximum allowable load of the lifting tool is 650kg.

Fig. 18.11.

Removing the driving gear


6. Loosen all screws (4) a few turns. (See Fig. 18.12.) 7. Remove the screws adjacent to the threaded holes and screw them into these holes to press off the outer ring. The connection is then released. 8. Remove the jack screws first after the locking assembly has been taken off from the hub. Instructions for dismantling and assembling the pump, see separate oil pump manual in Technical documents.

18.5.3.

Mounting the pump to the engine

Assembling the driving gear


1. Clean and oil slightly all contact surfaces, including the threads and screw head bearing surfaces. 2. Tighten the locking screws (4) lightly and align the hub. Check that the gear wheel (2) is in the right position. 18 14
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Lubricating oil system

18

Fig. 18.12. 3. Tighten the screws (4) evenly in diametrically opposite sequence in two or three stages to the correct torque (see chapter 7.). If the gear wheel (2) has been changed, check the backlash after mounting the pump on the engine. (See chapter 6.) 4. Use the lifting tool (836046) as shown in Fig. 18.11. when assembling the pump back to the engine.

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Cooling water system

19

19. Cooling water system


19.1. Description
The engine is cooled by a closed circuit fresh water system, divided into a high temperature circuit (HT) and a low temperature circuit (LT). Fig. 19.1. below shows an example of an internal cooling water system. To find the installation specific cooling water system drawing see Technical documents.

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Cooling water system

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190105v

Fig. 19.1.

Example of an internal cooling water system Pipe connections: 401 HTwater inlet 402 HTwater outlet 404(A,B) HTwater air vent 406 Water from preheater to HTcircuit (optional) 411 HTwater drain 451 LTwater inlet 452 LTwater outlet 454(A,B) LTwater air vent 474 LTwater to LT pump 475 LTwater from pump

System components: 01 Charge air cooler (HT) 02 Charge air cooler (LT) 03 Cooling water pump (HT) (optional) 04 06 Cooling water pump (LT) (optional) Turbocharger (if water cooled)

Electrical instruments: (the amount varies in different installations) PT401 HTwater inlet pressure P1 Manometer TE401 HTwater inlet temperature T1 Thermometer TE402(A,B) HTwater outlet temperature TSZ402(A,B) HTwater outlet temperature (optional) PT451 LTwater inlet pressure TE451 LTwater inlet temperature TE452 LTwater outlet temperature

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Cooling water system

19

19.1.1.

HTcircuit

190204v

Fig. 19.2. 401 402 HT LT

Cooling water connections

HTwater inlet 451 LTwater inlet HTwater outlet 452 LTwater outlet = Charge air cooler, HTside = Charge air cooler, LTside

The HTcircuit cools the cylinders, cylinder heads, charge air and turbochargers (except TPLtype turbochargers, which are not water cooled). From the pump water flows to the distributing duct which is cast in the engine block. From the distributing ducts, water flows through the cooling water bores in the cylinder liners and continues to the cylinder heads. In the cylinder head water is forced by the intermediate deck to flow along the flame plate, around the valves to the exhaust valve seats and up along the fuel injector sleeve. From the cylinder head water flows out through a connection piece (1) to the collecting pipe (2). The system outside the engine, see installation.

19.1.2.

LTcircuit

(See Fig. 19.2.) The LTcircuit cools the charge air and the lube oil. LTwater flows first through the second stage of the charge air cooler, then to the lube oil cooler (separately installed) and through the temperature control valve (separately installed). The necessary cooling for the LTwater is gained from the central cooler. The system outside the engine is not handled in this manual.
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Cooling water system

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19.1.3.

Venting and pressure control

Venting pipes from chambers (3) of the cylinder and turbocharger cooling system as well as venting pipes from the charge air coolers are connected to the expansion tank (in the external system) from which expansion pipes are connected to the inlet pipes of the LT and HTpumps. A static pressure of 0.71.5 bar is required before the pumps.

Fig. 19.3. A = Air vent

NOTE !

When the engine is in use , the venting pipes must always be open so that air can vent from the system.

19.1.4.

Preheating

For preheating purposes, a heater circuit with a pump and heater are connected in the HT circuit before the engine. The nonreturn valves in the circuit force the water to flow in the correct direction. Before starting, the HT circuit is heated up to about 60_C by a separate heater. This is of utmost importance when starting and idling on heavy fuel.

19.1.5.

Maintenance

The maintenanceincluding expansion, venting, preheating, pressurizing should be carried out in strict accordance with the instructions of the engine manufacturer to obtain a correct and troublefree installation. There should be no reason to start maintenance on the cooling water system unless the temperatures in the oil system or cooling water system start to rise without clear reason. 19 4
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Cooling water system

19

Normally all inspections and mechanical cleaning of the cooling water system components are better done at the stated maintenance intervals. The circulating fresh water should be treated according to the recommendations in chapter 02 to prevent corrosion and deposits. If a risk of freezing occurs, drain all of the cooling water spaces. Avoid using new cooling water. Save the discharged water and use it again.

19.1.6.

Cleaning

In completely closed systems the fouling will be minimal if the cooling water is treated according to our instructions in section 2.3.. Depending on the cooling water quality and the efficiency of the treatment, the cooling water spaces may or may not foul over the course of time. Deposits on the cylinder liners, cylinder heads and cooler stacks should be removed as they may disturb the heat transfer to the cooling water and thus cause serious damage. The necessity for cleaning should be examined, especially during the first year of operation. This may be done by overhauling a cylinder liner and checking for fouling and deposits on the liner and block. The cylinder head cooling water spaces may be checked by opening the water space plugs on the sides of the cylinder heads. The turbocharger can be checked through the covers of the water space. The deposits can be quite varied in structure and consistency. In principle, they can be removed mechanically and/or chemically as described below. More detailed instructions for cleaning the coolers are given in chapter 15.

a) Mechanical cleaning
A great deal of the deposits consists of loose sludge and solid particles which can be brushed and rinsed off with water. For places where the accessibility is good, e.g. cylinder liners, mechanical cleaning of considerably harder deposits is effective. In some cases it is advisable to combine chemical cleaning with a subsequent mechanical cleaning as the deposits may have dissolved during the chemical treatment without having come loose.

b) Chemical cleaning
Narrow water spaces (e.g. cylinder heads, coolers) can be cleaned chemically. At times, degreasing of the water spaces maybe necessary if the deposits seem to be greasy (see chapter 18). Deposits consisting of primarily limestone can be easily removed when treated with an acid solution. On the other hand, deposits consisting of calcium sulfate and silicates may be hard to remove chemically. The treatment may, however, have a certain dissolving effect which enables the deposits to be brushed off if there is access. On the market, there are a lot of suitable acid based agents (supplied e.g. by the companies mentioned in section 2.3.) The cleaning agents should contain additives (inhibitors) to prevent corrosion of the metal surfaces. Always follow the manufacturer s instructions to obtain the best result. After treatment, rinse carefully to remove any residuals from the cleaning agent. Brush the surfaces, if possible. Rinse again with water and further with a sodium carbonate solution (washing soda) of 5 % to neutralize possible acid residuals.
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19.2.

Water pump
The engine driven water pump is a centrifugal pump and it is driven by the gear mechanism at the free end of the engine. The shaft is made of acid resistant steel, with the remaining main components of cast iron.

19.2.1.

Water pump maintenance (WD200)

Check the pump at the intervals stated in chapter 4. If water or oil leakages occur, the drain holes (16) would indicate this. (See Fig. 19.4.) In that case check the pump immediately. The radial shaft sealing (44) prevents oil and the shaft sealing (40) in the pump prevents cooling water from leaking out. In addition to the shaft sealing (40) there is also orings (42) and (50) to seal the water side.

Removing the pump from the engine:


1. Drain water from the pump by removing the plug (82). (See Fig. 19.4.) 2. Loosen the pipes (8) and (9) from the pump.

Fig. 19.4. 3. The tool (836054) can be used for lifting the pump as follows: 19 6
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Cooling water system

19

4. Fasten the lifting lug (28) to the pump (see Fig. 19.5.) and the rail (29) with fastener (31) to the air cooler housing. 5. Adjust the lift height with the adjusting nut of the fastener (31). 6. Open the pump fastening screws (7). (See Fig. 19.4.)

NOTE !

The glide of the rail moves very easily. Make sure that the rail is in a horizontal position and that there is nobody in front of the pump when it gets loose from the pump cover.

Fig. 19.5.

Removing the driving gear:


7. Loosen all screws (43) a few turns. (See Fig. 19.4.) 8. Remove the screws adjacent to the threaded holes and screw them into these holes to press off the outer ring. The connection is then released. 9. Remove the jack screws first after the locking assembly has been taken off from the hub.

Dismantling the water pump:


10. Open the lock nuts (61) and remove the suction flange (4). Open the lock nuts (67) and remove the pressure chamber (2). 11. Remove the hexagon screw (24) and the washer (25) and then the impeller (3) with an extractor (837001). 12. Open the screws (62) and remove the shaft sealing (40) and the sealing flange (5) together with the ring (41). 13. Remove the screws (66) and the bearing flange (11). Dismantle the bearing part carefully by drawing the shaft with bearings outwards from the bearing housing (6).
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Mounting the water pump:


1. Assemble the retaining ring (34) and the support ring (36) to the shaft. 2. Warm the bearings (30) and (31) up to +80C electrically or by clean lubricating oil and push them to the shaft. 3. Push the shaft with bearings to the bearing housing (6) by using the tool (846030). 4. Assemble the bearing flange (11) and tighten the screws (66) to stated torque using the locking fluid. See chapter 7. 5. Lubricate the radial shaft sealing (44) with oil and assemble it to the bearing housing the lip of the sealing towards the bearing housing. Use the tool (846031). 6. Assemble the sealing flange (5) and fasten with screws (62). 7. Lubricate the oring (42) with soapy water and assemble it with the ring (41) to the sealing flange (5). 8. Lubricate the rubber bellow of the shaft sealing (40) and the shaft with soapy water and push the shaft sealing to the shaft with the tool (846031). 9. Fasten the impeller (3), washer (25) and hexagon screw (24). Tighten the screw to stated torque. (See chapter 7.) Loosen the impeller with the extractor (837001). Tighten the impeller finally to the stated torque using the locking fluid. 10. Tighten the studs (60), if loose and the plug (82) to the pressure chamber (2). Assemble it to the bearing housing (6) and tighten the lock nuts (67). 11. Fit the oring (50) to the suction flange (4) and tighten the flange to the pressure chamber (2) with nuts (61).

Assembling the driving gear:


1. Clean and oil slightly all contact surfaces, including the threads and screw head bearing surfaces. 2. Tighten the locking screws (43) lightly and align the hub. Check that the gear wheel is in the right position. 3. Tighten the screws (43) evenly in diametrically opposite sequence in two or three stages to the correct torque. (See chapter 7. ) If the gear wheel has been changed, check the backlash after mounting the pump on the engine. (See chapter 6.) 4. Use lifting tool (836054) as shown in Fig. 19.5. when assembling the pump back to the engine. 5. Fit the pump carefully to its place and fasten with screws (7). Reassemble pipes (8) and (9).

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Exhaust system

20

20. Exhaust system


20.1. Description
20.1.1. SPEXpiping

The SPEX exhaust system is a combination of a pulse system and a constant pressure system retaining the kinetic energy of exhaust gases in a simple constant pressuretype exhaust pipe. Exhaust gases from each cylinder are led into two common exhaust manifolds connected to the turbochargers. Pipe sections are provided with bellows in each end to avoid thermal deformation. The complete exhaust system is enclosed by an insulation box built up of sandwich steel sheets, flexibly mounted to the engine structure.

200102v

Fig. 20.1.
201

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Exhaust system

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20.2.

Maintenance
20.2.1. Change of expansion bellows
1. Remove the necessary parts (2) of the insulation box. (See Fig. 20.1.) 2. Open the flange screws (6) of the expansion bellows (5) in question and remove the bellows.

When fitting new bellows:


3. Check that the exhaust pipe flanges are parallel and positioned on the same center line to avoid lateral forces on the bellows. 4. Check the correct tightening torques for the flange connections (6). (See chapter 7.)

20.2.2. Assembling the expansion bellows between turbocharger and exhaust pipe
Thermal expansion of the connection piece (7) (see Fig. 20.2.) as well as the transversal movement of the last engine side exhaust pipe section (8) cause together lateral movement (=misalignment) of the bellows flanges. To avoid overstressing the convolutions a proper alignment with a preoffset is required.

200202v

Fig. 20.2. Proceed according to the following instructions: 1. Join the connection piece (7) to the turbocharger (TC) so, that the connection piece is offset as much as possible from the centerline (CL) of the engine. 2. Fasten the bellows to the exhaust pipe (8) so that the bellows lies as near as possible to the centerline of the engine. 20 2
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Exhaust system

20

3. Connect the connection piece (7) and the bellows. Before the final tightening of the screws use tool (846602) to make a preoffset of 24mm. The offset can be acchieved by tightening the screw (9) of the tool. (See Fig. 20.2.) 4. See the correct tightening torques for the flange connections in chapter 7.

20.2.3.

Suspension of the insulation box

The insulation box is mounted on flexible elements (3) (Fig. 20.1.) to dampen vibrations thus protecting the insulation. Replace the elements with new ones, if necessary.

20.2.4.

Waste gate

The engine is equipped with an exhaust waste gate valve. When the waste gate valve opens, it lets a part of the exhaust gas by the turbine to the exhaust pipe after the turbocharger. For further description and maintenance of the waste gate valve, see chapters 15. and 21.

20.2.5.

Charge air bypass valve

The engine is equipped with a charge air bypass valve. When the bypass valve is open, part of the compressed air is vented after the compressor to the exhaust pipe before the turbocharger. Further description of the bypass valve, see chapter 15.

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Starting air system

21

21. Starting air system


21.1. Description

210205

Fig. 21.1. The engine is started with compressed air of max 30 bar. Minimum pressure required is 15 bar. A pressure gauge (38) (see Fig. 21.1.) on the local display unit (LDU) indicates the pressure before the main starting valve. The inlet air pipe from the starting air receiver is provided with a non return valve (18) and a blow off valve (13) before the main starting air valve (01). The main starting valve and slow turning valve are operated pneumatically via the solenoid control valves (27) and (28) by pushing the start button (39) on the local control panel or by activating the solenoids from remote control. Slow turning is automatically activated for two revolutions if the engine has been stopped for more than 30 min. In slow turning air will go to the slow turning valve (04) through the pressure control valve (03). A nonreturn valve (24) in the slow turning line prevents air from leaking out during the main start. The shutoff valve (02) prevents air from leaking out during slow turning. When the main starting valve opens the air can go partly through the flame arrestors (06) to the starting valve (07) on the cylinder head. Part of the air goes
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Starting air system

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through the starting air distributor (08) to open the starting valves on the cylinder head. The starting air distributor controls the opening time and sequence of the starting valves. Blocking valves (14) on the turning gear are precautions to prevent the engine from starting when turning gear is engaged.

21.2.

Main starting valve

Fig. 21.2. The main starting valve is a pneumatically controlled valve. On normal starting the main starting valve is activated (control air to connection A). When slow turning is needed, the air is led to the slow turning valve and the main starting valve is vented through connection C. Slow turning speed should be adjusted to the range of 1020 rpm by turning the screw in the pressure control valve. When the starting signal is over the main starting valve closes and the starting air pressure in engine piping is vented through connection (C).

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Starting air system

21

21.3.

Starting air distributor

To the starting valve Fig. 21.3.

21.3.1.

Description

The starting air distributor is of the piston type with precision machined interchangeable liners (26). The liners as well as the pistons are of corrosion resistant materials. The distributor pistons are controlled by a cam (28) at the camshaft end. When the main starting valve opens, the control pistons (27) are pressed against the cam, whereby the control piston for the engine cylinder which is in starting position admits control air to the piston (35) of the starting valve. (Fig. 21.4.) The starting valve opens and allows air pressure to pass into the engine cylinder. The procedure will be repeated as long as the main starting valve is open or until the engine speed is so high that the engine fires. After the main starting valve has closed, the pressure drops quickly and the springs (32) lift the pistons off the cam. This means that the pistons touch the cam only during the starting cycle and thus the wear is insignificant.

21.3.2.

Starting air distributor maintenance

Normally, the starting air distributor does not need maintenance. If it has to be opened for control and cleaning, remove the complete distributor from the engine. Certain pistons can be checked in place. 1. Remove the protecting plate (29) and end plate (30). (Fig. 21.3.) Loosen all pipes from the distributor. Remove the fastening screws and lift the distributor off. 2. Remove the plugs (31). The pistons (27) will come out due to the spring force (32).
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3. Take care not to damage the sliding surfaces of the pistons and liners. 4. In case of a stuck piston, use thread M8 at the end of the piston to get it out, if necessary. 5. It is recommended not to change the place of the pistons, although they are precision machined to be interchangeable. Utilize cylinder numbers stamped at the control air connections. 6. Clean the parts and check for wear. 7. If a liner is worn, press it out. It may be necessary to heat the distributor up to about 200_C as Loctite is used for fixing and sealing. 8. Clean the bore carefully so that the new liner can be inserted by hand. Otherwise there is a risk of deformation of the liner and sticking of the piston. 9. Apply Loctite 242 on the outside surfaces when mounting the liner. Check that the openings in the liner correspond to those in the housing. 10. Check that there is no Loctite on the inside sliding surfaces. 11. Apply Molykote Paste G to the piston sliding surfaces before reassembling. Wipe off surplus paste. Check that pistons do not stick. 12. Apply silicon sealant to both sides of the intermediate plate (33). Do not use too much as surplus sealant will be forced into the system when tightening the fastening screws. 13. After mounting the distributor to the engine but before connecting the control air pipes and the end plate (30), check that all pistons work satisfactorily, e.g. by connecting compressed air (working air of 6 bar) to the distributor air inlet and by turning the crankshaft. It is then possible to see whether the pistons follow the cam profile.

CAUTION !

When testing the starting air distributor always vent the control air pipes to the starting valves to avoid the engine from starting.

21.4.

Starting valve

Fig. 21.4. 21 4
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21.4.1.

Description

The starting valve is operated by control air pressure coming from the starting air distributor. The valve consists of a valve spindle (37) with a springloaded piston (35) mounted in a separate housing.

21.4.2.

Starting valve maintenance

Check and clean the valve in connection with overhauls of the cylinder head. 1. Remove the fastening yoke and pull out the valve. 2. Open the selflocking nut (34) and remove the piston (35). 3. Clean all the parts. 4. Check the sealing faces of the valve and valve seat. If necessary, lap the valve by hand. See instructions for the engine valves in chapter 12. Keep the piston on the valve spindle to get guiding. 5. If it is necessary to change the piston seals, take care not to deform the Teflon ring, located outside the Oring, more than necessary. Lubricate the seals and the piston with lubricating oil. 6. After reassembling the valve, check that the valve spindle with the piston moves easily and closes completely. 7. Check that the vent holes (36) in the valve are open. 8. Check that the Oring of the valve housing is intact. Lubricate with oil. 9. Check that the seal is intact and in position, when mounting the valve into the cylinder head. 10. Tighten the valve to the torque stated in section 7.1.2..

21.5.

Starting air vessel and pipings


The starting air system has been designed so that explosions are prevented. An oil and water separator as well as a nonreturn valve are located in the feed pipe, between the compressor and the starting air vessel. At the lowest position of the piping there is a drain valve. Immediately before the main starting valve on the engine, a nonreturn valve and a blowoff valve are mounted. Drain the condensate from the starting air vessel through the drain valve before starting. The piping between the air vessels and the engines must be carefully cleaned when installing. Also in service they must be kept free of dirt, oil and condensate. The starting air vessels must be inspected and cleaned regularly. If possible, they should then be coated with a suitable anticorrosive agent. Allow sufficient time to dry. At the same time, inspect the valves of the starting air vessels. Too strong a tightening may cause damages on the seats, which in turn causes leakage. Leaky and worn valves, including safety valves, should be reground. Test the safety valves with pressure.
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21.6.

Pneumatic system
21.6.1. General description

The engine is equipped with a pneumatic system for control of the following functions by means of identical solenoid valves: slow turning of the engine start of the engine

210707

Fig. 21.5. Fig. 21.6. shows an example of an internal starting air system. The installation specific drawing of the internal starting air system can be found in Technical documents.

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210817

Fig. 21.6. 01 02 03 04 06 07 08 10 11 12 14 18 19 21 22 23 30

An example of the internal starting air system

Starting air master valve Drain valve Pressure control valve Slow turning valve Flame arrester Starting air valve in cylinder head Starting air distributor Valve for automatic draining High pressure filter Air container Blocking valve, when turning gear engaged Nonreturn valve Oil mist detector Waste gate valve (optional) Bypass valve (optional) Turbine and compressor cleaning unit (optional) I/P converter PI Pressure gauge

PT301 Starting air inlet pressure

Pipe connections: 301 Starting air inlet 303 Driving air to oil mist detector 311 Control air to waste gate, bypass and TC cleaning The system includes nonreturn valves (18) to ensure the pressure in the system in case of a lack of feed pressure. (Fig. 21.6.). The slow turning valve (04) is actuated by solenoid valve (28) for slow turning and the main starting valve (01) by solenoid valve (27) for starting at remote start. The main starting valve is described in detail in section 21.2. Fig. 21.7. shows the solenoid valve, which is equipped with a push button and can be energized manually.
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21.6.2.

Maintenance of the pneumatic system

The system employs high quality components. Usually it requires no other maintenance than checking its function, cleaning of the air filter (11) and draining of condensate water from the vessel (12) using the draining valve. (See Fig. 21.6.)

21.6.2.1.

Check

When starting, check that the automatic water drain works by watching whether water mixed with air flows out from the valve (10).

Fig. 21.7.

21.6.2.2.

Maintenance

Filter, Fig. 21.7. picture 1. The bottom part of the filter is attached to the top part with a thread. To open the filter, vent the air and turn the bottom part. Clean the insert (1) and inside of the filter after each 8000 h. Solenoid valve, Fig.21.7. picture 2. In case of disturbance in the electric function of the valve, test the valve by pushing the button (1). Should there be mechanical malfunction, open the valve using a special tool. Check that the bores (2) and (3) in the seat are open and the gasket (4) is intact. Change the valve if it does not function after cleaning. Water draining valve. Clean the valve if there is any disturbance. Pressure control valve, Fig.21.7. picture 3. The pressure control valve requires no maintenance. If there is any malfunction, change the valve.

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21.7.

Waste gate control

Signal 420 mA from control system

210509

Fig. 21.8. A waste gate valve (21) (Fig. 21.8.) is used for limiting the charge air pressure. It is operated pneumatically and controlled electronically. The waste gate valve is described in more detail in chapter 15.
ASSEMBLING THE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER AND I/PCONVERTER: Supply air to wastegate valve 010 bar

To positioner supply

Charge air pressure from charge air receiver

Output to wastegate positioners signal 0.21 bar


151801

Fig. 21.9.

21.8.

Bypass control
The bypass valve (22) (see Fig. 21.8.) is an electronically controlled and pneumatically operated valve requiring an operating pressure of min. 5 bar. Its function has been described in more detail in chapter 15.

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22. Control Mechanism


In common rail engines this chapter is empty. The injected fuel quantity is controlled electronically by Wrtsil En gine Control System. (See WECS-description in chapter 23.)

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23.1
23.1.1

WECS 2000, Control and monitoring system


General about WECS 2000, Control and monitoring system
The engine is controlled and monitored with an electronic control system WECS 2000 (Wrtsil Engine Control System). WECS is developed for use on Wrtsil diesel engines and is therefore designed for harsh environmental conditions. The following arrangement shows the WECS 2000 main component layout on the engine (see Fig. 23.1):

Fig. 23.1: WECS 2000 main component layout on the engine

All sensors on the engine are connected to the Sensor Multiplexer Units (SMUs ) or directly to the Distributed Control Units (DCUs). All Sensor Multiplexer Units (SMUs) are connected via Distributed Control Units (DCUs) to the Main Control Unit (MCU). The signals to and from the external system are connected to the Main Control Unit (MCU) and the Relay Module (RM) (Note! that an older abbreviation of the MCU (ECU) may be found in some text and name plates on the engine). The engine parameters are shown on the Local Display Unit (LDU). The MCU, RM, LDU and the Backup Instruments are located in the MCU Cabinet.

23.1.2

Description of the system in general, WECS 2000


The (Fig. 23.2) shows the Main Components of WECS and the interface between WECS the External System. WECS 2000 is engine mounted. The Figure is schematic and the actual layout may vary, in particular the Backup Instruments.

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Fig. 23.2: Main components of WECS 2000

1. Backup Instruments, 2. Local Display Unit (LDU), 3. Relay Module (RM), 4. Main Control Unit (MCU), 5. Distributed Control Units (DCU), 6. Sensor Multiplexer Units (SMU), 7. Superior monitoring system, 8. Modbus RTU, 9. Hardwired signals, 10. Engine mounted, 11. External system WECS comprises Measuring of the engine and turbocharger speed Engine safety system Starting of the engine including the slow turning Stopping of the engine Start blocking Automatic shutdown of the engine Load reduction request

Signal processing of all monitoring and alarm sensors Readout of important engine parameters on a graphical display Data communication with external systems (e.g. alarm and monitoring systems)

23.1.3 23.1.3.1

Functional descriptions, WECS 2000 Speed measuring


The engine speed is measured by two pick-ups, and the turbocharger speed by one pick-up. One of the engine speed pick-ups is connected to a DCU. The speed calculation is carried out in the DCU software. The DCU to which the pick-up is

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connected will initiate a stop of the engine in case of overspeed. The second engine speed pick-up is connected to the Relay Module, which is located in the MCU cabinet of the engine. The module initiates a shutdown of the engine in case the overspeed is not detected by the first pick-up. The shutdown due to low lubricating oil pressure initiated by the Relay Module (backup) is blocked by the second pick-up. The turbocharger speed pick-up is connected to a DCU or an SMU, depending on the structure of WECS. The speed calculation of the turbocharger is carried out in the DCU software.

23.1.3.2

Safety system
General about the safety system The safety system is implemented in the software of the WECS. In addition, there are some redundant safety functions in a hardwired system (Relay Module). The safety system can be split up in five major parts; starting, stopping, start blocking, shut-down and load reduction.

23.1.3.2.1 Starting
There are some important properties to be noticed in the start system of the WECS: Properties in the Start System in WECS Start conditions are all configurable, and may vary depending on the installation The engine will not start, if either the local or remote reset button is not pressed after shut-down.

Normal start of the engine The start solenoid valve is activated by pressing the START button on the engine or remotely via the remote start input. The solenoid valve can also be activated via the Modbus communication link. When an electrical start fuel limiter is built into the governor, it is engaged by WECS during the acceleration period to optimize the fuel demand. The start sequence of the MCU is shown on standard sequences section. Blackout start of emergency generator There is blackout start input available. This means that the start block checking is by- passed. The blackout start command must be given manually or by the external automation system. NOTE! Blackout start is not possible, if the prelubricating has been off more than 5 minutes.

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23.1.3.2.2 Stopping
The WECS stops the engine by energizing three solenoid valves. Two valves operate the pneumatic cylinders on the injection pumps cutting the fuel injection. The third valve acts on the speed governor. The solenoid valves are energized by pressing the STOP button on the engine or remotely via the remote stop input. The solenoid valves can also be activated via the Modbus communication link. NOTE! There are some important properties to be noticed in the stop system of the WECS if the stop override signal is included. The emergency stop signal is not blocked by the stop override signal The backup overspeed shut-down is not blocked by the stop override signal

23.1.3.2.3 Start blockings


A start blocking is caused by the following conditions on a marine engine: Start blocking faults Low prelubricating oil pressure Turning gear engaged Stop lever in stop position External start blockings Local/Remote switch in local position (blocks the remote start) Local/Remote switch in remote position (blocks the local start)

If the start blocking is active, it is impossible to perform a start of the engine. On the Modbus communication link an alarm is given for each start blocking being active. NOTE! Start blockings are ignored in case of a blackout start.

23.1.3.2.4 Shut-downs
An engine shut-down is carried out in the same way as a normal stop, i.e. by energizing three solenoid valves (or de-energizing one of the solenoids). The sensors used for shut-down are of analogue type except the back up oil pressure shut-down, which is a binary switch. The shut-down levels are defined in the WECS software. The shut-down is latching, and a shut-down reset command has to be given before it is possible to re-start. It is essential that the reason for the shut-down is investigated and rectified prior to restarting. The reason for any shut-down will be indicated on the Modbus communication link to the external systems.

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Instrumentation and automation The required safety shut-downs depend on the type of installation. Shut-down conditions and limits are specified in the installation specific documentation. Main engine Shut-downs

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The required safety shutdowns depend on the classification society and the type of installation. The following are usually compulsory: Main engine safety shutdowns Low lubricating oil pressure Engine overspeed External shutdown 1 input External shutdown 2 input (optional) Emergency stop input

23.1.3.2.5 Shut-down backup system


Some shut-down functions of the WECS are backed up in the Relay Module, which is an independent hardwired system. These functions are: Independent hardwired Shut-down backup functions in the Relay module Low lubricating oil pressure Overspeed trip High HT water temperature after engine (if needed)

Also the emergency stop button is connected to the Relay Module. The lubricating oil pressure shutdown is initiated by an independent pressure switch. The shut-down is blocked at low engine speed and at stand-still. The Relay Module is using a separate speed sensor (proximity switch) for generating an overspeed trip. The trip level is set slightly higher than the level in the WECS configuration, and the function is latching. The local reset button of the Relay Module must be pressed before re-start.

23.1.3.2.6 Load reduction


If load reduction set points are defined in WECS they are specified in the installation specific documentation. When a set point is exceeded a load reduction request will be activated to the external system. The load reduction is always handled by the external control system or manually by the operator. On main engines the following conditions will cause a load reduction request Load reduction requests High lube oil temperature Low HT water pressure

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Instrumentation and automation High cooling water temperature High main bearing temperature High exhaust gas temperature High exhaust gas temperature deviation High cylinder liner temperature Oil mist detection

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23.1.3.3

Instrumentation

23.1.3.3.1 Local Display Unit


The Local Display Unit (LDU) (see Fig. 23.3) replaces most of the traditional instruments. It is connected to the MCU, which sends the necessary data to the display.

Fig. 23.3: Local Display Unit

The operator can give all necessary commands with the four control buttons located in the LDU frame. The following buttons exist: The symbols on the buttons are the following: Asterisk (*) key Up arrow () key Down arrow () key Enter () key

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Fig. 23.4: Control buttons in the LDU frame

Fig. 23.4 shows the buttons on the LDU frame. The Up and Down arrow keys are used for changing pages. The LDU can be reset by pressing both Asterisk and ENTER keys simultaneously for some seconds. A screen saver reduces intensity of the LDU, if no operator actions have been made for some minutes. The intensity is maximized again by pressing any of the LDU control buttons. The LDU returns automatically to the meter page, if no operator actions have been made for 15 minutes. Returning to the meter page can also be done by pressing the ENTER key. Local Display The display consists of three different kinds of pages: the meter page, the history page and the status pages. These page types are described in the following sections.

23.1.3.3.1.1 Meter page


The display area is divided into two sub windows: the Fixed meter window, and the Message window. (Fig. 23.5 "Main window of the LDU") shows the location of the windows.

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Fig. 23.5: Main window of the LDU

1. Fixed meter window, 2. Message window. Fixed meter window The fixed meter window shows several important parameters of the engine: Fixed meter window parameters The engine speed The load balance of the cylinders The starting air pressure Fuel oil pressure, inlet Lube oil pressure, inlet HT-water presure, inlet LT-water presure, inlet Charge air pressure, inlet Fuel oil temperature, inlet Lube oil temperature, inlet HT-water temperature, outlet LT-water temperature, inlet Charge air temperature, inlet

The load balance of the cylinders is shown as the temperature deviation for each cylinder from the average cylinder temperature.

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Instrumentation and automation LDU message window The following messages can be found in the LDU message window Message Ready for start Stopped, stop sequence Shutdown, stop sequence Starting Mode

23

Waiting for reset Running Start failed Stopped Start blocked

The engine can be started The engine has been stopped. The stop solenoids are activated The engine has stopped because a shut-down limit has been exceeded The engine is in starting mode. The start solenoid is activated until the engine rpm has reached the solenoid deactivation speed or until the start failure timeout has been passed The reset button has to be pressed before the engine can be started The engine is in running mode The engine has not reached the running speed within the set time period The engine is in stopped mode The engine can not be started because there is an active start block or shut-down condition

23.1.3.3.1.2 History page


The history page shows the latest events of the engine, e.g. engine being started, alarms, shutdowns, etc. In the case of alarm and shutdown the sensor code and set point limit is also printed out. The event queue is cleared at MCU reset. One history page with fictional messages is shown in Fig. 23.6. NOTE! MCU internal date and time is set to 1.1.1990 00:00:00 when resetting the MCU.

Fig. 23.6: Engine History Page

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23.1.3.3.1.3 Status pages


One status page (Fig. 23.7) shows all connections (including the internal enclosure temperature) to one unit or values of a logical sensor group e.g. Main Bearing Temperatures. The connections to the MCU are also shown on the status pages. The number of the pages will be according to the WECS build-up. One status page with sensors and values is shown in Fig. 23.8.Status page of the LDU.

Fig. 23.7: Status page 1 of the LDU

By pressing the asterisk (*) button, an explanation page with sensor names appears on the display. By pressing the asterisk once again the previous page showing Terminals and Sensor codes appears.

Fig. 23.8: Status page 2 of the LDU

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23.1.3.3.2 Backup instruments


In addition to the LDU there are three backup instruments that are independent from the rest of the system (see Fig. 23.9). These three instruments are: Lubricating oil pressure HT cooling water temperature Engine speed

Fig. 23.9: Backup instruments

1. Lubricating oil pressure, 2. HT water temperature, 3. Engine speed

23.1.3.3.3 Controls
The control functions local/remote, start, stop and shutdown reset are included in the control panel (see Fig. 23.10).

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Fig. 23.10: Local control panel

1. Start mode; Local / Remote, 2. Shutdown reset, 3. Start, 4. Stop, 5. Emergency STOP Start mode; Local / Remote There are two starting modes, Local and Remote. In local mode the start cannot be executed from the control room. In local mode the start can only be executed locally from the local control panel. In remote mode the start can only be executed from the remote location. The Remote mode differs between marine and power plant applications. The engine in Marine applications can be locally started although the start mode is Remote. This is not possible in Power Plant applications. The local stop in Power Plant engines can only be performed in local mode. Start The start button is used to start the engine locally. Stop The stop button is used to stop the engine locally. Shutdown reset After an automatic shutdown the control system must be reset before the engine can be started again. This is due to the Safety System requirements. NOTE! A blue light in the reset button indicates an automatic shutdown After resetting, the light turns off.

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23.1.3.4

WEnCoM-functions
The WEnCoM is divided into two parts: WEnCoM parts: The safety functions included in the WECS The trend diagrams implemented in the external system

The external system incudes any control, alarm or monitoring system connected to the WECS. The temperature measuring of the cylinder liners, main bearings and the exhaust gas, the checking against alarm parameters for load reduction and shut-down levels, and the required mathematical operations are all included in the WECS. The presentations of all measured and calculated data should be implemented, according to the recommendations, in the external system connected to the MCU. Cylinder liners The cylinder liner temperature indicates not only the condition of the liner, but also that of the piston and the piston rings, (see Fig 23.11. Temperature sensors in the cylinder liner). The cylinder liner temperature is measured with four sensors. Alarm, load reduction or shutdown is generated if the values exceed specified limits. The updating frequency is 1 Hz.

Fig. 23.11: Temperature sensors in the cylinder liner

It is recommended to have trend diagrams of the cylinder liner temperatures in the external system. Main bearings The temperature of the main bearing is monitored with the sensor in direct contact with the bearing shell, (see Fig 23.12). Alarm, load reduction or shutdown is generated if the values exceed specified limits. The updating frequency is 1 Hz.

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Fig. 23.12: Temperature sensors of main bearing

It is recommended to have trend diagrams of the main bearing temperatures in the external system. Exhaust gas valves The condition of the exhaust gas valve is monitored with a sensor measuring the temperature of the exhaust gas flow after the exhaust valve, (see Fig. 23.13). A burned spot on the valve disc will, in time, result in an increasing temperature fluctuation because of the rotation of the valves. A malfunctioning valve can be discovered by analyzing the cyclic variations in exhaust gas temperatures. The exhaust gas temperatures are analyzed by performing FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) and statistical evaluations of the temperature values. Each cylinder head is fitted with two exhaust gas temperature sensors; one for each exhaust valve.

Fig. 23.13: Exhaust gas temperature sensor

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Instrumentation and automation The following measured and calculated values are generated for each cylinder as separate data and are recommended to be used in the external system for trend diagrams: Measured and calculated cylinder specific data Exhaust gas valve 1 temperature Exhaust gas valve 2 temperature Exhaust gas temperature (calculated average of valve 1 and 2) Exhaust gas temperature deviation from engine average Exhaust gas valve 1 RMS Exhaust gas valve 2 RMS Exhaust gas valves temperature difference

23

23.1.3.5

Modbus communication link


The communication between the external system and the WECS is done via Modbus communication link. Modbus is a standard defined by Modicon primarily for use in industrial applications. Modbus is a binary data transfer protocol. In the WECS the Modbus serial link is used for transfering measurement data and status information from the MCU to the external diesel automation system. Additionally the Modbus communication link can be used for controlling the engine through the MCU (e.g. starting and stopping the engine). The MCU always functions as a slave in a Modbus network, i.e. the diesel automation system is always the master. The physical connection is standard 4-wire RS-485 with optical isolation at the MCU side. The applied baud rate is 9600.

Fig. 23.14: Modbus communication link

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Instrumentation and automation Modbus data link Stopped communication is to be alarmed Abnormal operation of the Safety counter is to be alarmed Either alarm bits (addresses 10001...) are read or alarms are generated in the monitoring system based on analog values (addresses 30001...) read through the Modbus Measurement points required by the classification societies must be monitored through the analog addresses (30001...) Connector type to the WECS cabinet Connector X2: power supply Description Wieland 16-pole screw fastening Type

23

Required if Modbus is used Required if Modbus is used Required if Modbus is used Required if Modbus is used

71.350.1628.0 + 70.300.1640.0

23.1.4

Functional testing, WECS 2000


Functional testing of the entire Automation system shall be done with 1000 h time intervals. The procedures for testing of the overspeed trip and pressure sensors are described in this section.

23.1.4.1

Testing of overspeed trip


There are two sensors measuring the engine speed. One sensor (ST173) is connected to DCU1 and the other sensor (ST174) is connected to the Relay Module. Overspeed is detected by both sensors. The overspeed limit set in the DCU is lower than the overspeed limit set in the Relay Module. The limit of overspeed in the DCU is 10 % above the engine nominal speed. The limit of overspeed in the Relay Module is 12 % above the engine nominal speed.

NOTE! Engines with Common Rail and WECS 7500 The limit of the Back up overspeed shut down in WECS 7500 is 13 % above the engine nominal speed. The overspeed trip can be tested by actually running the engine at overspeed if that is possible. Otherwise the testing has to be done by simulating the engine speed with a signal generator. The overspeed trip should stop the engine when the overspeed limit is exceeded. There is one exception to this. If the main engine exceeds the 15% overspeed limit the stop solenoids will be activated only until the engine speed is reduced to a speed level below nominal speed. The overspeed limit of the Relay Module is used as a backup and is always latching.

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23.1.4.1.1 Testing of the overspeed trip by running the engine


The overspeed trip can be tested by running the engine at overspeed. The speed of the engine is not allowed to be increased more than 60 rpm over the overspeed limit. 1. Increase the engine speed 2. Check at what speed the overspeed is detected The limit of overspeed will be first exceeded in the DCU1. When testing the overspeed trip of the Relay Module the speed sensor of the DCU1 (ST173) has to be disconnected.

23.1.4.1.2 Testing of the overspeed trip by using a signal generator


1. Connect the signal generator Connect the signal generator to both speed sensors one at a time. The signal generator is connected to the pins the signal and gnd of the speed sensor. See the Fig for connections. The overspeed stop should be detected when the overspeed limit is exceeded. 2. Increase the frequency Increase the frequency of the input signal. 3. Check at what frequency Check at what frequency the overspeed is detected. The speed is detected from the camshaft gear. The frequency corresponding to the overspeed can be easily calculated when the teeth number of the camshaft gear is known. The following formula gives the frequency detected by the sensor corresponding to engine speed: Frequency [Hz] = (Engine speed [rpm] : 2) x (Teeth number : 60) Teeth number of camshaft gear is Z = 64 Frequency corresponding to engine speed Engine speed Nominal speed Primary overspeed Shut-Down, DCU1 Back upoverspeed Shut-Down, RM Back up overspeed shut-down; WECS 7500) * *) Common Rail engines NOTE! Do not forget to connect the speed sensor after testing! Engine speed 514 rpm 565 rpm 575 rpm 580 rpm Frequency 274 Hz 301 Hz 304 Hz 1150 Hz

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23.1.4.2

Testing of pressure sensors


The testing of pressure sensors can be done with a pressure calibration device.

Fig. 23.15: Testing of pressure sensors

1. Measuring pressure, 2. Test pressure, 3. Shut-off valve In Fig. 23.15 there is a pressure sensor with a shut-off valve and a test pressure connection. The pressure sensor is disconnected from the pressure measurement with the shut-off valve. The pressure calibration device is then connected to the plug for test pressure. The required pressure is set with the help of the calibration device. NOTE! Do not forget to open the shut-off valve after testing!

23.1.5

Hardware, WECS 2000


These sections cover the whole range of WECS hardware units and summarize the technical and physical properties. Most PC-Boards are illustrated with a layout figure and a block diagram including I/O description. DIP-switches, jumpers, trimmers and indicators are described if necessary where they appear.

23.1.5.1

External Connections
WECS is designed to work as an independent system on the engine but it requires an external power supply. In addition, the installations usually have their own superior monitoring systems which can be connected to WECS. These external communication systems are always installation dependent.

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There are also hardwired signals for the most important functions of the engine, such as the emergency stop etc.

23.1.5.1.1 Power supply

Fig. 23.16: Power supply connections

It is recommended to install a separate power supply (24 V DC) to ensure that an external power failure will not disturb the WECS. Three power supply lines shall be connected to WECS as shown in Fig. 23.16. The main supply feeds the WECS units, while the safety backup supply only feeds stop related functions in the Relay Module. The auxiliary supply feeds auxiliary equipment on the engine (e.g. oil mist detector). Main and auxiliary supplies may be connected to the same power supply. In this case the maximum current load is 5 A, because in normal operation the Backup supply is not loaded. It is recommended to have a separate power source for the Backup supply. Main and auxiliary supply Power supply max. ripple Backup supply Power supply max. ripple 24 V DC / 5 A (18-32 VDC) 100 mV 24 V DC / 5 A (18-32 VDC) 100 mV

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Instrumentation and automation Connector type to the WECS cabinet Connector X3: power supply Description Wieland 6-pole screw fastening Type 70.300.0628.0 + 70.300.0640.0

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Power supply requirements Galvanically isolated from other equipment In accordance with the classification societies requirements

23.1.5.1.2 Hardwired connections

Remote start input Remote stop input Remote shutdown reset input Shutdown indication output Load reduction request output Emergency stop input Cable / supply failure alarm output WECS failure alarm output Common alarm output Connector type: Connector X1: standard connections

Required if remote control exists Required if remote control exists Required if remote control exists Required if remote control exists Required if main engine Always required Always required Always required Required if Modbus is not used

Description Wieland 40-pole crimped

Type 76.353.4029.0 + 73.700.4058.0

X - Connectors X3: Power Supply Connector X2: Modbus Connector X1: Connector for Hardwired Signals X6: Connector for Hardwired Signals

23.1.5.2

WECS System Hardware


Internal System WECS is a distributed control system which gathers analogue information from different types of sensors, processes it in small distributed control units (DCUs) situated around the engine, and directs it to the main control unit (MCU) in digital format. The main control unit is used to monitor and control the whole engine. It is also a link to the external systems of the engine.

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Fig. 23.17 shows the Layouts of the Distributed Units on a 9 cylinder L (line) engine on a 16 cylinder V-engine.

Fig. 23.17: Distributed Units, Layout on the Engine

The exact structure of the system, i.e. the number of Distributed Control Units (DCU) and Sensor Multiplexer Units (SMU), depends on the cylinder configuration. All sensors on the engine are connected to the DCUs and the SMUs, while the signals to and from the external system are connected to the Main Control Unit (MCU) and the Relay Module (RM). The engine parameters are shown on the Local Display Unit (LDU).

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23.1.5.2.1 WECS cabinet 23.1.5.2.1.1 WECS 2000 Main Cabinet

Fig. 23.18: WECS 2000 Main Cabinet

The Main Cabinet includes: Main Control Unit Relay Module Local Display Unit Local Control Panel Back Up Instruments Connectors for external systems

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23.1.5.2.1.2 Main Control Unit (MCU)


The MCU consists of a series of boards that combine to provide all requirements for data acquisition, control, and communication. The basic concept of the MCU includes the Frame, the Mother Board, the Processor Board, the DC/DC Converter, the Memory Unit, the LAN Board and two Interface Boards.

23.1.5.2.1.2.1 Frame
The aluminum Frame provides a compact housing for the interconnection of the MCU boards and cable ground terminations. The MCU Frame has provision for three optional Interface Boards.

Fig. 23.19: Lay lout of the Frame

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23.1.5.2.1.2.2 Mother Board


The DMB50 Mother Board is mainly a busboard having no electrical functions of its own. It is divided into a group of buses and the power connection circuitry.

Fig. 23.20: Mother board layout

NOTE! Install the MCU boards into the individually dedicated slots. If a board is inserted in the wrong slot and the power is turned ON, the board will be permanently damaged.

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23.1.5.2.1.2.3 DC/DC Converter


The DPS50 DC/DC Converter is a multifunction switcher power supply board for the MCU. It carries four independent supplies and circuits for control and BIT purposes.

Fig. 23.21: Layuot of the DPS50 DC/DC Converter

The primary battery charger switcher is isolated and floats. The primary side of this supply is fully isolated from the MCU case and electronics, and may thus be fed without any need of external isolation. The output voltage level from the switcher is adjusted by the MCU software once it has started. Three switcher supplies convert the 12 V battery voltage down to +5 V, to -5 V and to +18V

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Fig. 23.22: Block schematic of the DC/ DC Converter

The LED indicators of the DC/DC Converter are shown in Fig. 23.23.

Fig. 23.23: LED indicators of the DC/DC Converter

The LED indicators of the DC/DC Converter: Battery empty / Charge process ERROR Battery FULL CHARGING AC ON (directly powered from the AC source)

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23.1.5.2.1.2.4 Processor Board

Fig. 23.24: Processor Board layout

Fig. 23.25: Processor Board block schematic

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23.1.5.2.1.2.5 Memory Unit


The DMM50 Memory Unit enables the use of removable PC Cards for program and configuration upgrading.

Fig. 23.26: Layout of the Memory Unit

LED indicators The PC Card drives A and B have both a LED for indicating their activity. The indicator is green or red depending on the type of activity. The STATUS-LED is also located on the front panel of the Memory Unit.

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23.1.5.2.1.2.6 LAN Board


The LAN Board provides the MCU with additional serial ports. It can also accommodate special modules for linking the MCU to CAN and RS-485 networks, like MODBUS.

Fig. 23.27: LAN Board layout

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Fig. 23.28: LAN Board block schematic

The LAN Board front panel LEDs The green LED flashes approximately once every 10 seconds. (If the interval is longer, the program has excess load) The red LED should be OFF. If the LED is ON, reset the MCU

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23.1.5.2.1.2.7 Interface Board


The DMI50 is a multipurpose interface board for the MCU. There are four analog channels and an 8-bit parallel, open collector input/output digital port. In the WECS the Interface Board is mainly used for switch and relay connections.

Fig. 23.29: Interface Board layout

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Fig. 23.30: Interface Board block schematic

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23.1.5.2.1.3 Relay Module (RM)


The Relay Module is a device that executes orders from the MCU by means of activating solenoids etc. It also serves as a safety backup system when the main safety system is not functioning properly or if the rest of the system is out of operation. Most of the hardwired signals e.g. the emergency switch etc. are connected to the Relay Module. The power supply for the whole system is provided by the Relay Module.

Fig. 23.31: Layout of the Relay Module

Unlike the other units of the WECS the Relay Module has no processor or software. Consequently the Relay Module is a totally hardware driven unit. The Relay Module consists of the following functional blocks: Speed measuring block (backup) Lube oil shutdown block (backup) Optional lube oil shutdown block (backup) MCU stop/shutdown block Hardwired stop block Overspeed shutdown block (backup) Emergency stop block MCU watchdog block Stop/Shutdown override block Shutdown reset block Stop block

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Trimmers The Relay Module includes six trimmers to set delays and set points.

23.1.5.2.1.3.1 Indicator LEDs


The Relay Module has an indication LED for each functional block. All supply voltages have an individual LED. Because of their special character the lube oil shutdown switch, the optional shutdown switch and the energized stop solenoid have failure LEDs. Failure LEDs of the Relay Module LED Lube Oil Switch Failure Lube Oil Shutdown Switch Failure Optional Shutdown Switch Failure Stop Solenoid Failure Emergency Stop Failure Relay Module Failure Color LED indication Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Red Lube oil switch circuit is open Lube oil shutdown switch circuit is open Optional shutdown switch circuit is open Energized stop solenoid circuit is open Emergency Stop switch circuit is open Internal Relay Module failure

LED indications on the Relay Module LED Lube Oil Shutdown Lube oil shutdown Blocking Optional Shutdown MCU stop/shutdown Local Stop Overspeed Shutdown Emergency Stop MCU Watchdog Color LED Indicator Lube oil pressure switch has caused a shutdown and local hardwired reset button has not yet been pressed Yellow Lube oil shutdown is blocked during start of an engine Red Red Red Red Red Red Optional shutdown switch has caused a shutdown, i.e. it has been closed. Local hardwired reset button has not yet been pressed MCU stop signal is active and is causing a stop of an engine Hardwired (normally local) stop button is being pressed or it has been released less than 60 s ago Overspeed has caused a shutdown and local hardwired reset button has not yet been pressed. The speed is measured with a backup speed pick-up Emergency stop button is pressed down and causes a shutdown MCU watchdog signal is missing and causes a shutdown Red

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LED Stop/Shutdown Override Shutdown Reset Short Circuit Stop Relay Start Blocking Local Start MCU Start Fuel Limiter Slow Turning Relay Module Failure Speed Switch 1 Speed Switch 2 Speed Pulse

Color LED Indicator Red Stop/shutdown override signal from the MCU is active

Green Shutdown reset button is being pressed Yellow Red Stop relay is active Yellow Hardwired start blocking signal from the external system is active Green Local (Hardwired) start button is being pressed Green MCU start signal is active Green Fuel limiter signal from the MCU is active Green Slow turning signal from the MCU is active Red Failure signal of the Relay Module is active. Also either one of the failure indication LEDs should be ON or one of the voltage LEDs should be OFF Yellow Speed of the engine is over speed limit 1 Yellow Speed of the engine is over speed limit 2 Green Pick Up Pulse OK

Power supply LEDs of the Relay Module LED U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 Backup 12 VDC Color Green Green Green Green Green Green Green LED indication U1 voltage (U6 and not stop related functions of the RM) is ON U2 voltage (MCU and test instruments) is ON U3 voltage (DCU chain 1) is ON U4 voltage (DCU chain 2) is ON U5 voltage (LDU) is ON Backup voltage (stop related functions) is ON 12 VDC Supply OK

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23.1.5.2.1.4 Local Display Unit (LDU)


The Local Display Unit (LDU) replaces the traditional pressure gauge panel, thermometers and other instruments. It is connected to the MCU, which sends the necessary data to the display. The LDU and its instrumentation is described in the chapter "Functional Description of WECS 2000 / Instrumentation / Local Display Unit".

Fig. 23.32: Local Display Unit (LDU)

The LDU includes: Display Frame Mother Board PC Board Display Driver Board Electro-Luminescent Display Control buttons of the LDU

Display Frame The Display Frame includes the frame itself, four silicon buttons for controlling the LDU, a glass protecting the Display and a connector to the WECS. The frame is manufactured of an aluminum alloy. Display Mother Board On the Display Mother Board there are places for the Display PC, the Display Driver Board and an optional serial communication board. The Display Mother Board also includes a power supply with an input voltage of 24 VDC.

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The Display Driver Board is a compact, high resolution display controller module, which can be installed directly on the Display Mother Board. It is designed specifically for embedded applications. The software of the Display Driver Board is compatible with IBM PC. Display PC Board The Display PC Board used in the LDU is a compact PC compatible computer designed especially for embedded applications. It has low power consumption, a PC/XT compatible keyboard port, a bi-directional parallel port and a RS-232C serial port used for communication with the MCU/DCU. Electro-Luminescent Display The ELD is a VGA compatible 640 column by 350 row resolution electro-luminescent flat panel display. It features an integral DC/DC converter and it is designed to function in extreme environments. Control buttons of the LDU The functions of the Control buttons are described in the chapter "Function".

23.1.5.2.1.5 Local Control Panel and Back Up Insrtruments


The Local Control Panel is located in the WECS Cabinet (See Fig. 23.33.

Fig. 23.33: Local Control Panel and Back Up Instruments

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23.1.5.2.1.5.1 Connectors for external systems


There are three connectors from WECS cabinet to external systems and one for the governor. Connectors for external systems Connector X1: Standard Connections X2: Modbus X3: Power Supply X6: Governor Signals Description Wieland 40-pole crimped Wieland 16-pole screw fastening Wieland 6-pole screw fastening Terminal block, screw fastening Type 76.353.4029.0 +73.700.4058.0 71.350.1628.0 +70.300.1640.0 70.350.0628.0 +70.300.0640.0

23.1.5.2.2 Distribution Units


All the sensors on the engine are connected to distributed units. These units process the analogue information from sensors and direct the data to the main control unit in digital format. The Distribution Unit can either be a Sensor Multiplexer Unit (SMU) including an SMU Board, or a Distributed Control Unit (DCU) including both an SMU Board and a DCU Board.

Fig. 23.34: SMU and DCU Units

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The SMU is a microprocessor based measuring unit, designed for continuous operation in harsh environmental conditions. It acts as an interface between sensors and a DCU. The SMU can measure both analog and digital sensors. It stores data of one measurement at a time to its SRAM memory. The data is transmitted from the memory to the host processor by a separate command. The SMU also performs linearization of temperature sensors and error check-ups. The SMU is connected to the host processor through one serial line channel. This channel is a galvanically isolated RS-485 half-duplex connection and each SMU has a dedicated address, to which it responds. A DCU comprises of a SMU Board and a DCU Board mounted on the lid of the enclosure. These boards are connected to each other with a flat cable. In addition to the features of the SMU, the DCU Board adds a more powerful microprocessor, flash memories, a PC Card socket and a CAN controller.

23.1.5.2.2.1 SMU board


The SMU Board is rather flexible in application and it offers a variety of possible configurations. Various types of sensors can be connected to it: Sensor types that can be connected to the SMU-units 4-20 mA current loop Current transducer Voltage transducer Pt-100 Thermocouples of type J, K, S and T Resistant Potentiometer Switch (max. 2 way)

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Fig. 23.35: SMU Board layout

The SMU Board includes an 8-bit Intel 80C51FC CPU running with clock frequency 14,7 MHz. The SMU Board also has a memory circuit for storing operation variables and system parameters. The AD conversion is made with a 16-bit sigma/delta A/D converter with digital filter and gains. The SMU Board converts all the required internal operating voltages from the 24 V supply. The switching power supply of the SMU is isolated and accepts input voltage ranging from +7 to +50 V DC. The SMU Board is independent from other electronics of the WECS because of this isolated power supply.

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Fig. 23.36: SMU Board block schematic

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23.1.5.2.2.2 DCU Board


The DCU is a combination of two processor based boards. The 16-bit processor of the DCU Board acts as a host for the SMU and handles all of the outside communications. There are three communication channels available in the unit besides of the SMU serial channel, which is no more visible to the user. The SMU serial channel is in this installation directly handled by the DCU processor via an optocoupler.

Fig. 23.37: DCU Unit layout

The serial channels from the DCU are CAN, 2-wire RS-485 and RS-232C communications links. Two internal CPU serial channels are used for serial communications through the 2-wire RS-485 and the internal SMU Board. In addition there is one PC Card type II slot for SRAM and FLASH memory cards. The DCU Board converts all the required internal operating voltages (+5V, +12V) from the floating 7 V supply, which is fed from the SMUs isolated switching power supply. This makes the whole DCU board float from the SMU electronics.

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Fig. 23.38: DCU Block schematic

Operationally the DCU board provides a distributed database over the CAN-bus. A PC Card is used to transfer new application definitions from the associated configuration tool to the DCU system. These parameter files, when properly transferred, are stored into the DCU FLASH-memories, where they stay regardless of powering conditions (power on or off) until erased upon a user command. LEDs on the DCU LED POWER CAN STATUS FLASH RESET Color Green Yellow Green Yellow Red Led indication Continuously ON while the unit is receiving its power Blinks during CAN transmission Blinking indicates software operation Continuously ON when FLASH voltage is connected (normally during configuration or software loading) Indicates system reset at start-up, during manual reset or in insufficient power supply conditions

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23.1.5.2.3 Sensors
In WECS the data acquisition is distributed. This means that sensors are connected to distribution units, SMUs or DCUs, - which are located close to groups of sensors. Only start and stop related switches are connected to the MCU. Backup sensors are connected to the Relay Module.

23.1.5.2.3.1 Sensors for monitoring and alarm


The following standard set of sensors for monitoring, alarm and safety are mounted of the engine. Sensors for monitoring and alarm Code LS103 LS104 *) PT101 TE101 PT115A.. TE126A.. PT201 PT201-2 TE201 TE231 PT271 PT294A *) PT301 PT311 PT401 PT451 TE401 TE402 TE402-2 TSZ402 TE451 TE511 TE517 TE5011 PT601 TE601 TE700.. Code Fuel oil leakage, injection pipe Fuel oil leakage, dirty pipes Fuel oil pressure, engine inlet Fuel oil temperature, inlet Rail pressure accumulator Fuel pump temperature Lube oil pressure, inlet Lube oil pressure, inlet, backup Lube oil temperature, inlet Lube oil temperature, LOC inlet Lube oil pressure, Turbo inlet Control oil pressure Starting air pressure, inlet Control air pressure HT-water pressure, inlet LT-water pressure, inlet HT-water temperature, inlet HT-water temperature, outlet HT-water temperature, outlet HT-water temperature, outlet LT-water temperature, inlet Exhaust gas temperature, Turbo inlet 1) Exhaust gas temperature, Turbo outlet Exh. gas temp., cylinder outlet 2), average Charge air pressure, inlet Charge air temperature, inlet Main bearing 0 temperature 3) Type Binary sensor Binary sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Binary sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor

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Code TE711A... GT165 ST167 ST168 ST174 ST180-1 *) ST180-2 *) SE518 GS792 PSZ201
1) 2) 3) 3)

Code Cylinder liner temperature 1 2) Fuel rack position Engine speed, TDC, Prime Engine speed, TDC, Backup Engine overspeed shutdown, backup Engine phase, prime Engine phase, backup Turbocharger speed Turning gear position Lube oil pressure, inlet (backup system)

Type Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Analogue sensor Pickup Pickup Analogue sensor Binary sensor Binary sensor

1...4 pcs depending on exhaust gas system 2 pcs/cylinder L - engines (in-line) : (n + 2) pcs (n = number of cylinders) V - engines: (n/2 + 2) pcs (n = number of cylinders)

The number and type of sensors may vary, depending on the requirement for various installations. The actual set of sensors and other electrical equipment mounted on the engine, as well as alarm, load reduction and shutdown set points, can be found in the installation specific wiring diagram.

23.1.5.3

Engine Speed Sensor


The rotation speed of the engine is measured with two touch free inductive PNP-type proximity switches. The sensor is supplied with a 10-30V DC supply voltage (normally 15V DC in WECS). The third pin of the sensor is the speed proportional pulse train output. The voltage level of pulse output varies between two fixed levels; 0V DC and +15V DC (supply voltage). The electronics of the sensor is resin-moulded into a tubular housing of nickel plated brass with external thread of M18x1.5 mm. The cable is connected by means of a four pole Euchner BS4 connector (see Fig. 23.39). Mounting the sensor 1. To install the sensor turn the engine until the top of a cog is visible in the sensor mounting hole 2. Carefully screw in the sensor by hand until contact is made with the top of the log. 3. Unscrew it approximately 1,5 revolutions for a sensing distance of 2,0 - 2,5 mm, and tighten the locking nut securely with a spanner.

NOTE! The engine must not rotate while the sensor is being mounted.

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Fig. 23.39: Engine speed sensor

23.1.5.4

ABB TPL Turbocharger Speed Measurement


Theory of opreation: The speed transmitter (see Fig. 23.40) is screwed into the outside of the bearing casing to its stop and is also taken to a holder in the turbocharger axial bearing. Two slots on the outher surface of the auxiliary bearing gerenare pulses when passingthe speed transmitter. The voltage poeaks of the pulses are limuted by the cable voltage limiting module to a maximum value of 15V.

NOTE! If the speed transmitter has to be changed If the speed transmitter has to be changed, it is recommended to contact the engine many+facturer. See also the Turbocharger Manual

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Fig. 23.40: ABB turbocharger speed measurement

1. Speed transmitter, 2. Voltage limiting module Connection diagram of connecting cable for speed measurement

Fig. 23.41: Connection diagram

1. Front view into the plug, 2. Voltage limiting module

23.1.6

Software, WECS 2000


VRX Operating system shell VRX (Vaisala Real-time Executive) is a high level shell for accessing the services of the underlying operating system. It also provides a RAM-based real-time database.

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The main goal of VRX is to make application programs independent of the operating system. VRX provides a simple high level interface for the programmer. The applications are usually involved in producing and consuming data. Data is collected, processed and distributed further. This is the reason why VRX is very data oriented. One of the VRX features is task insulation. The tasks do not communicate with each other directly. All the communication is accomplished through VRX. The tasks are tied to each other with the data items of the database. The application modules are tasks running under the VRX. Each of them has a specific task to perform and some of them can be configured. There is a configuration file for each of the configurable application tasks. These files are compiled into binary form and loaded into the file system of the target unit (MCU or one of the DCUs).

Fig. 23.42: System software modes

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Fig. 23.43: Software structure of WECS

23.1.6.1

Standard start/ stop sequence

Fig. 23.44: Main sequence

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23.2
23.2.1

WECS 7500
WECS 7500 System layout
WECS 7500 is a distributed control and monitoring system specifically developed by Wrtsil to meet the performance requirements set out for Enviro engines, i.e. for engines using a Common Rail for fuel injection and as an option direct water injection. It handles all strategic functionality related to the Common Rail fuel system (such as electronically controlled fuel injection, Common Rail pressure control, in-built diagnostics etc.) it also handles all functionality related to direct water injection. WECS 7500 is an engine-built system, with the exception of the sub-module handling the external DWI plant (pump modules which are located in a cabinet close to the engine). WECS 7500 is totally distributed in terms of modules in order to split up functionality and make boundaries between the categories of control and monitoring (the fuel and water systems are also independent), but also in order to build natural redundancy into the system. This means that redundancy control strategies are utilised in the event of a main sensor failure. Also the data acquisition is distributed because this gives advantages such as: Less cabling Improved noise immunity due to digital communication Increased flexibility Easy to customize for various engine types

All the modules communicate with each other via an inter-module communication bus based on the CAN protocol. CAN is a communication bus specifically developed for compact local networks, where high speed data transfer and safety of operation are critical. The system comprises the following major control and monitoring categories: Control of fuel injection timing & quantity Optimization features to prevent smoke Common rail system safety System diagnostics Communication with external systems Water injection timing & quantity (optional) DWI system safety (optional)

Below, a general system overview of WECS 7500 on the engine (Fig. 23.45) and of the external DWI water plant (Fig. 23.46), including signal I/O to the various sub-modules.

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Fig. 23.45: System overview of WECS 7500 on the engine

Fig. 23.46: Overview of the DWI water plant controlled by WECS 7500

The WECS 7500 system consists of the following modules (a description of each module will follow in the next chapter): Main controller MCM700 (1 module/engine) Rail pressure controller CCM10 (1 module/bank) Cylinder controller CCM10 (1 module/3 cylinders) DWI plant controller (1 module/engine) Power module (PMOD) (1 module/engine) (optional)

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23.2.2 23.2.2.1

WECS 7500 Structure and modules Module location and wiring harness
The exact structure of the WECS 7500 system, i.e. the number and location of modules depends on the engines cylinder configuration. In principal, the modules are located and interconnected on the engine in the way as presented in Fig. 23.47.

Fig. 23.47: Location of modules on the engine

1. Communication module, 2. Power module, 3. Cylinder controllers, 4. Rail pressure controllers, 5. Main controller The WECS modules are resiliently mounted on the front side of the engine. The control modules are located just below the hotbox, on the outside of the engine body. The CMOD cabinet is located beside the local operator panel, and the PMOD cabinet is located just below this cabinet. Wiring harness All modules are interconnected with a wiring harness. This pre-fabricated harness contains all signalling needed on the engine, i.e. sensor signals, injector control signals and the CAN bus, but also the power supply lines for all the modules. All cables are mounted inside a flexible high-temperature type protective hose. Cables with signals emitting strong interference, and cables with EMI-sensitive signals are all individually screened. The bank harness is routed along the front side of the engine and interconnects all control modules. The bank harness has splices to the module connectors at each control module. Between the control modules and the cylinders, the cylinder harnesses are located. These individual cylinder harnesses interconnect the modules, sensors and valves located in the hotbox and on the

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cylinder head. There is an additional harness on the engine for measurements made at the free end, and one harness at the drive end, containing mainly the engine speed and engine phase signals. HIB (Harness Interface Box) There are several reasons for using a HIB (Harness Interface Box) on each control module of WECS 7500. The HIB supports the flexible conduit (containing all the cables) at the module. The HIB also covers and protects the multi-pin connectors of the modules, and functions as a junction box, e.g. the wire splicing and termination resistors. There is also a circuit board (including LEDs) for the safety wire loop in the HIB (see other chapter for details). There is a cover on each HIB, which is removable for trouble shooting, service etc. The WECS 7500 control modules are based on two hardware platforms (MCM 700 and CCM 10). The functionality is however different, dependent on the specific purpose of the module. Below is a general description of each module type.

23.2.2.2

Main controller (MCM 700)

Fig. 23.48: Main controller MCM 700

The Main controller MCM 700 (see Fig. 23.48) is the master in the WECS 7500 system. It handles the processing of all strategic engine control functions. These are mainly processes like engine start and stop sequences, engine safety, fuel injection calculations and optimization features for prevention of smoke. It handles the information transferred by all other WECS modules, it gives command signals to the Cylinder and Rail pressure controllers and it communicates with systems external to the engine.

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23.2.2.3

Rail pressure controller (CCM 10)

Fig. 23.49: Rail pressure controller CCM 10

There is one Rail pressure controller allocated for each bank, i.e. one on "in-line" engines, and two on "V" engines. The Rail pressure controller regulates (by means of a PID controller) the fuel pressure in the Common Rail. It receives pressure references over CAN from the Main Controller, and calculates an output signal to the Flow Control Valves (FCV). Feedback signals for the control loop is received from two CR pressure sensors (per bank), which are hard-wired to the Rail pressure controller. The proportional output signals to the Flow Control Valves are of PWM type. There is only one output of the Common Rail pressure control loop, but each FCV receives an individual PWM signal from the controller, where offsets are included to compensate for possible divergence in valve performance.

23.2.2.4

Cylinder controller (CCM 10)


The cylinder controller is a similar type of module as the Rail pressure controller (see Fig.23.49). The modules vary in number according to the engine cylinder configuration; there is always one unit controlling three cylinders. The Cylinder controller processes functions related to fuel injection control, and (if used) direct water injection control. The modules calculate the relevant injection duration and injection timing based on references sent over CAN from the Main controller. Each module is providing high energy PWM type control signals to three fuel injection valves, and (if used) to three water injection valves. In order to give injection command signals at the correct moment, the Cylinder controllers need accurate information about the engine speed and angular position. Therefore the speed and phase signals are hard-wired to each Cylinder controller. Cylinder specific sensors are also connected to these modules, and the information is sent over CAN to the Main controller.

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23.2.2.5

Power module (PMOD)

Fig. 23.50: Power module

The Power module (PMOD) controls the supply power distribution within the WECS 7500 system. The PMOD cabinet is engine mounted (see Fig. 23.50). The external 24 VDC power supply enters the PMOD via two separate inputs. The two 24 VDC sources have independent external fuses, separate cables and connectors to the PMOD cabinet. The two 24 VDC power supplies are via diodes installed inside the PMOD connected to a DC/DC converter. This converter isolates the primary and secondary side, thus providing WECS 7500 with a totally isolated 24 VDC power supply. There are separate distribution lines from the PMOD to each sub-module, all having an individual fuse. A separate voltage of 90 VDC within WECS 7500 is used as the drive voltage for the high energy injector solenoids (both fuel injectors and water injectors). The PMOD receives a 90 VDC supply from two independent source lines via an external UPS unit. From the UPS (which again has two independent sources from the switchboard) two separate cables supply the PMOD cabinet via two independent connectors. The two 90 VDC power supplies are via diodes inside the PMOD connected together into one single supply. This supply is then via a bi-directional EMC filter and a fuse connected to the Cylinder controllers. The engine safety wire loop will, in a failure situation, disconnect the 90 VDC power supply inside the PMOD. There is also a switch on the PMOD cabinet for disconnection of this power supply. The power supply lines are "looped" around the engine, to provide safer supply in case of a singe point wire break. Below the Figure 23.51 which shows this distribution principle.

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Fig. 23.51: WECS 7500 power distribution principle

23.2.2.6

Communication module (CMOD)

Fig. 23.52: Communication module

The Communication module (CMOD) (see Fig. 23.52) controls the data communication and the signalling between WECS 7500 and all external systems. In the CMOD cabinet there is also a Local Display Unit (LDU), and a port for plugging in the WECS 7500 service tool (WEPMIT). The CMOD cabinet is engine mounted. The Local Display Unit (LDU) has a number of self-instructive menus, which can be entered by pressing the buttons located around the display (no keyboard or other interface needed). The menus are only intended for local reading of the Common Rail system, such as readings, alarms and statuses. NOTE! Note that no parameter changes or commands can be sent down via the LDU.

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Data for the external alarm system is transmitted over modbus via this cabinet. This data contains information such as all measured values, engine alarms, sensor failures, engine modes and shutdown reasons. See separate document for detailed information about the modbus protocol set-up and database content. The binary and analogue signals between WECS 7500 and the external systems are also wired via the CMOD. All binary signals are sent via opto-couplers located in this cabinet to provide full isolation from the external systems. The following binary inputs are provided: Remote start info Remote stop Alarm / shutdown reset Blackout start info External shutdown Emergency stop Stop / shutdown override (optional)

The following binary outputs are provided: Ready for start info Load reduction request Overload alarm Engine stop / shutdown info Engine run / stop WECS 7500 system minor alarm WECS 7500 system major alarm

The following analogue signal inputs are provided: Engine load (from external kW transducer) Speed governor control signal

Due to the long distance for communication with the engine external DWI Plant controller MCM 700, a CAN repeater is needed. The repeater also galvanically isolates the internal and external CAN links. Another CAN repeater is used for communication with the service tool and configuration (WEPMIT). Both these CAN repeater units are located in this cabinet.

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23.2.3 23.2.3.1

Common Rail control functionality, WECS 7500 General about the Common Rail functionality
The high pressure Common Rail is constructed from a series of accumulators interconnected by small bore piping. The camshaft driven pressurising (delivery) pumps and fuel accumulators are designed for compartments of two cylinders. This arrangement reduces the pulse migration ability along the Common Rail. From a safety point of view, an advantage is that high pressure fuel exists only in the same area as in a conventional engine, i.e. in the hot box of the engine. The discharge of the pressurising pumps, and thereby the Common Rail pressure itself, is controlled by Flow Control Valves (which again are controlled by WECS). To ensure safe engine start and operation also on HFO, special routines are implemented where the Flow Control Valves are cycled in sequences, prior to the engine start. Heated HFO flows through each pump in turn, and then onward to the Common Rail and back to the tank via a bypass valve system i.e. the Start-up and Safety Valve (SSV). The FCV valves are connected to PWM type proportional outputs of the Cylinder controllers, and controlled in the following way during engine operation: One pressure sensor at each end of the Common Rail sends pressure feedback information to WECS. WECS bases its pressure feedback on the higher pressure, and sends the required regulation signal to all Flow Control Valves in a close-loop type control circuit. The set pressure for the Common Rail is engine load and speed dependent, but also dependent on transient conditions. In case of loss of control signal, the FCV will for safety reasons go to minimum delivery, thus other compartments will pressurise the Common Rail to ensure that the engine is still operational. The Common Rail fuel injectors are controlled by WECS. PWM-type drive outputs of the Cylinder controllers are connected to solenoid valves integrated in the injectors. A separate (hydraulic) control oil system is used to actuate the fuel injectors, as the drive signals are only used to trigger the opening of the injector. WECS accordingly determines the accurate start and stop of the fuel injection. The injection timing has load and speed dependent mapping, and is also optimized with separate settings for load transients. The maximum injection quantity (duration) is dynamically defined, and dependent on engine speed, charge air pressure and Common Rail pressure, for optimal smoke reduction. One important design criteria for the Common Rail system is that fuel pressure needs to be released from the nozzle between the injections. This is carried out by a special three-way valve design. In order to prevent overfilling, automatically triggered flow fuses are used in relation with each fuel injector. Malfunctioning injectors and other strategic components controlled by WECS, can rapidly be identified by the control circuitry and diagnostics of WECS 7500.

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The WECS 7500 functionality is based on a "mode-thinking approach", i.e. there is always one mode active, and the functionality is based on what is specified for that particular mode. The modes have different priorities, and if several modes are requested, the one with highest priority wins. The mode priorities from highest to lowest are indicated below, with a short explanation of the mode: The mode priorities from highest to lowest Emergency mode Is preceded by any other mode. Engine is standstill or under deceleration, and brought to this mode by a WECS-internal emergency stop (severe engine or WECS failure), or by activation of the emergency stop input. Shutdown mode Is preceded by stop mode, start mode or run mode. Engine is standstill or under deceleration, and brought to this mode by an internal shutdown (engine or WECS failure), or by activation of the shutdown input. Run mode Is preceded by start mode. Engine under running conditions, i.e. speed is over a pre-set speed limit, and no stop, shutdown or emergency stop active. Start mode Is preceded by stop mode. Engine in a start sequence (under acceleration). Start initiated by activation of the remote start or blackout start input, if no start blocking is active. Stop mode Is preceded by shutdown mode or emergency mode. Engine is standstill, and stopped by activation of the remote stop input. Engine is also in stop mode after an emergency stop or a shutdown, after that the sequence is finished and a reset has been performed. Engine is not necessary ready for start, a start blocking can be active in this mode. Below is a diagram (Fig. 23.53) showing the status of WECS 7500 in different operation modes. This is a general diagram, for more detailed information, study the following sub-chapters.

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Fig. 23.53: Statuses of WECS 7500 in different operation modes

23.2.3.2

Engine in Stop mode, WECS 7500


When the engine is in stop mode, the preheating phase will start as soon as the electrically driven fuel pump is switched on, i.e. when the fuel pressure increases over a pre-set level. During this preheating phase, WECS will keep the Start and Safety Valve (SSV) open and circulate the fuel oil through the pressure accumulator and Common Rail and then back to the mixing tank. The Flow Control Valves will be ramped open, then ramped closed one-by-one during this fuel circulation process. When each FCV valve has been operated, and the physical position of each valve has been in accordance with position pre-set limits WECS will set the output "Ready for start" high, providing that no other start blocking is active. WECS 7500 is now ready for an engine start.

23.2.3.3

Engine in Start mode, WECS 7500


When WECS 7500 detects that one of the start inputs is high, it will enter start mode.

NOTE! The start valve itself is not controlled by WECS 7500, but by the engine control and safety system. Depending on the situation, one of the following start sequences will occur: Start sequences Normal start As soon as the "Remote start" input is high and WECS 7500 detects that the engine speed is over a pre-set limit, it will enable the Common Rail fuel pressure control. When the Common Rail pressure is over a pre-set limit, the fuel

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injection control is also enabled. When the engine speed is over another pre-set level, run mode will be active. If the Common Rail pressure or engine speed will not rise to expected levels within a limited time, WECS 7500 will go into Shutdown mode, and the "Failed start attempt" alarm will become active. Blackout start As soon as the "Blackout start" input is high *) and WECS 7500 detects that the engine speed is over a pre-set limit, it will enable the Common Rail fuel pressure control. At a pre-set engine speed level which is slightly higher, the fuel injection control is also enabled as soon as the injection opening pressure is reached. When the engine speed is over another pre-set level, Run mode will be active. In an Emergency start, Start blockings (with the exception of Emergency stops) are overridden. *) The same will occur if a re-start attempt is performed directly after a failed start, regardless of which start input is high. A start is inhibited, if any of the following start blockings are active: Governor control signal missing or out of range. Shutdown active from external system. Flow Control Valve cycling, max. / min. position not reached (> 1 FCV / bank). WECS module failure / CAN communication failure.

23.2.3.4

Engine in run mode, WECS 7500


In run mode, WECS 7500 executes two major control function tasks. As soon as the system detects engine speed in a start situation, it will enable the fuel injection control. At engine acceleration, WECS 7500 will also enable the Common Rail fuel pressure control. These two main control tasks are active as long as the engine is in run mode, and can only be disabled when the system detects a Stop, Shutdown or an Emergency Stop. Below, a more detailed description of the two controls:

23.2.3.4.1 Fuel injection quantity


Below is a principal block diagram (Fig. 23.54) of the fuel injection quantity control strategy.

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Fig. 23.54: Block diagram 1; Fuel injection quantity control strategy

The input to the fuel injection quantity (= "MFI demand") calculation, is based on the signal from an external speed control unit (e.g. Woodward 723 speed control unit or other similar product). The analogue signal from the speed control unit (4 - 20 mA) is proportionally converted into the cylinder individual injection duration values. These values determine the length of the fuel injection, i.e. the quantity of fuel injected into each cylinder. This quantity is engine load dependent. In order to eliminate excessive fuel injection i.e. to reduce smoke, during transient load conditions, the quantity of fuel injected into the cylinder is optimized (limited) based on the following parameters: Parameters: Charge air pressure Common Rail fuel pressure Engine speed (valid in variable speed applications)

The two first optimisers are pre-programmed 8 point maps, with charge air pressure and Common Rail pressure as inputs, the third is a 8 x 8 point map with speed and load as the input. A percentual "reduction value" is used as the output of these maps, and this output will limit the MFI demand in transient conditions, or at low speed. If the MFI demand as calculated by the speed controller is above the mapped settings, "lowest wins" principles are valid, i.e. the most difficult limitation setting in these maps will finally define the optimized MFI demand used for further processing. If necessary, individual trims of the injector signals can be made to compensate for divergence in fuel delivery of individual injectors.

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During large engine load rejections, the injection control can totally disable the fuel injection for a limited time in order to reduce offspeed. The sensitivity of this adaptive control function is configurable. The injection duration calculation occurs in the Main controller MCM700. This module communicates with the Cylinder controller CCM10 over CAN, therefore the drive signal to the injectors is processed by the Cylinder controllers. See chapter PWM control of injectors for details.

23.2.3.4.2 Fuel injection timing


Below is a principal block diagram (Fig. 23.55) of the fuel injection timing control strategy.

Fig. 23.55: Block diagram 2; Fuel injection timing control strategy

The fuel injection timing reference is derived form a 8 x 8 point reference map, which is both engine load and engine speed dependent. This map is optimized with injection timing settings according to steady state conditions. In transient conditions, another 8 x 8-point reference map is used, optimized for such conditions. A load transient controlled "switch" is used, to select the relevant map. The final injection timing reference values used by WECS, are offset by the present Common Rail pressure and charge air temperature. The timing can also be offset with values from a reference map, which contains settings manually pre-set. The relevant engine firing order and cylinder angular displacement is pre-programmed in WECS 7500. For the final injection timing processing, WECS receives accurate information about the engine speed and engine angular position. See chapter Speed measuring for details.

23.2.3.4.3 Common Rail fuel pressure


Below is a principal block diagram (Fig. 23.56) of the Common Rail fuel pressure control strategy.

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Fig. 23.56: Block diagram 3; Common Rail fuel pressure strategy

The Common Rail fuel pressure regulation is executed by means of a close-loop type PID-controller function. This controller has mapped dynamics, with engine load and engine speed dependent individually adjustable proportional-, integral- and derivative gain parameters. The Common Rail fuel pressure is measured in each end of the rail, i.e. two sensor signals are used in the process. In a normal situation, when both signals are healthy, these are first passed to a "highest wins" selection process. The highest pressure is always automatically selected to be one used in the PID controller, as pressure feedback signal. If one sensor is damaged, the pressure regulation is based in the signal from the healthy sensor. A sensor failure alarm will then be initiated. If both sensors are damaged, the pressure control will of safety reasons disable, and the engine will shut down. The Common Rail fuel pressure signals are also used, in order to provide a Common Rail compartment pressure deviation detection. High pressure deviation will initiate an alarm. The PID controller uses an internal pressure reference map, which has settings that are both engine load and engine speed dependent (steady state map). In case of a fast load increase, this Common Rail pressure reference will be added with an offset pressure reference, in order to temporarily increase the overall pressure reference. Higher Common Rail pressure in transient conditions will limit the development of smoke. The size of the pressure reference offset is configurable. The output of the PID loop is control signal will compensate for pressure deviations (error) in the rail. This signal will be converted into an analogue signal, which then will establish the FCV-individual drive signal. The FCV drive signals have an individual high end and low end offset added to them, in order to match the electrical range with the active physical range. There is one Flow Control Valve (FCV) (see Fig. 23.57) in each pump compartment, i.e. one per two cylinders. The drive signals to the FCVs are of PWM-type, using an active analogue current range of 0 - 2 A. The PWM frequency is typically 100 Hz (configurable). The FCVs are of linear type, and the linear travel will define the fuel flow into the Common Rail. The total linear travel of the FCVs is 6 mm. Each FVC has a built-in position sensor.

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Fig. 23.57: Flow Control Valve (FCV)

If the Common Rail fuel pressure drops below a pre-programmed pressure curve, the binary output "load reduction request" will be set high. The maximum available engine load as derived from this curve will be calculated, and will be sent out over modbus to external systems. In case of a large negative load change, the Common Rail fuel pressure control will instantly disable itself, until the measured pressure is lower than value used in the reference map. The FCV outputs will be set to zero during this time, thus providing a fast closure of the fuel flow to the rail, and thereby minimizing the risk of over-pressure in the Common Rail.

23.2.3.5

Engine in stop, shutdown and emergency stop mode

23.2.3.5.1 Engine stop


The following reason will cause an engine stop: Remote stop input activated.

When this input is activated, WECS will first go into shutdown mode. When the remote stop input is activated, the following will occur: The Start up and Safety Valve will be opened, i.e. the Common Rail pressure will be released. The fuel injection will be disabled. The Common Rail pressure control will be disabled.

When the engine speed is zero, the engine will automatically enter stop mode after a short timed delay. In stop mode, the FCV cycling will automatically begin. The cycling will not automatically begin, if the fuel leakage level switch is in alarm

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position. When the FCV cycling has started, the engine is ready for a re-start (= ready for start output is set high), providing that there is no start blocking active. No activation of the shutdown/alarm reset button is necessary.

23.2.3.5.2 Engine shutdown


The following reasons will cause an engine shutdown: External shutdown input is activated.

When a shutdown is active, WECS will go into shutdown mode. When a shutdown comes active, the following will occur: The Start up and Safety Valve will be opened, i.e. the Common Rail pressure will be released. The fuel injection will be disabled. The Common Rail pressure control will be disabled.

The engine is not ready for a re-start before the failure is cleared, and the alarm / shutdown reset button has been pressed.

23.2.3.5.3 Engine emergency stop


The following reasons will cause an emergency stop of the engine: Emergency stop input is activated. Engine overspeed. Engine speed too low in run mode. Pulse failure of both speed sensors. Pulse failure of both phase sensors. Governor control signal missing or out of range. WECS module / CAN communication failure. Failure of both CR pressure sensors (same bank).

When an emergency stop is active, WECS will go into emergency stop mode. When an Emergency Stop comes active, the following will occur: The engine safety wire loop will go low, i.e. the 90 VDC injector valve supply to the Cylinder controllers will be disconnected. The Start up and Safety Valve will be opened, i.e. the Common Rail pressure will be released. The fuel injection will be disabled. The Common Rail pressure control will be disabled.

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23

For safety reasons, a safety wire loop is part of the WECS 7500 design concept (see Fig. 23.58). This hard-wired signal loop is connected to each module of WECS 7500, and is also controlled by engine external signals.

Fig. 23.58: Safety wire loop

In case of activation of the external emergency stop, or a WECS module lock-up, or activation of a WECS internal emergency stop, the safety wire loop will be broken, and a WECS independent solid state relay will disconnect the 90 VDC injector valve supply from the Cylinder controllers. Each WECS module has a dedicated output controlling this loop, and the Main controller is also monitoring the status. A green LED in the HIB (Harness Interface Box mounted on each WECS module, see Fig. 23.59) indicates if the safety wire loop is up, i.e. the normal condition. A second LED in the HIB indicates status of the 90 V supply, and a third LED indicates the status of the 24 V supply.

Fig. 23.59: LEDs on Harness Interface Box

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23.2.3.6

PWM control of injectors


The signals are high energy PWM type drive signals. A separate hydraulic control oil system is then used to actuate the fuel injectors, while the PWM drive signals are used to trigger the opening of the injector. As the fuel injectors need high energy signals, the ordinary 24 VDC supply cannot be used, due to too low voltage. WECS therefore use a separate supply for these fuel injector drive outputs, and the voltage used is 90 VDC. The PWM current signal has a current profile as shown in Fig 23.60 below.

Fig. 23.60: Injector valve PWM current profile

The reason for using a higher current level ("pull-in current") at the beginning of the injection, is to provide a very fast and cycle-to-cycle consistent opening of the injector. The lower current ("hold-in current") is switched on as soon as the injector has opened, and this lower current (and energy) level will reduce the heat development in the drive circuitry and the solenoid valve. In order to regulate the current, a switching method is used, and this is called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). The switching is based on a current level dead-band controller, and the switching frequency is dependent of the inductance of the coil in the solenoid.

23.2.3.7

Speed measuring
For the injection timing processing, WECS needs accurate information about the engine speed and engine angular position. Therefore the engine speed- and phase signals are connected to each Cylinder controller. These pulse signals are hard-wired

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to each module, i.e. not connected as data over CAN. For redundancy reasons two speed sensors and two phase sensors are used. The speed/phase signal distribution is shown in (Fig. 23.61) below.

Fig. 23.61: Engine speed- & phase signal distribution

The engine speed is measured by means of pulses, transmitted from two magnetic sensors (Fig. 23.63), which are mounted at the flywheel. The speed sensors are providing square-wave pulses (amplified push-pull type output), derived from dedicated speed-sensing holes in the flywheel. The pulse frequency generated by these sensors is hence proportional to the engine speed.

Fig. 23.62: Speed sensor

Fig. 23.63: Phase sensor

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WECS 7500 must also detect the accurate engine angular position, and for this purpose one missing hole is arranged in both speed-sensing hole peripheries (see Fig. 23.64). The angular locations of the missing holes are such, that the end-edge (= positive electrical flank) of the hole coming after the missing hole, is accurately at TDC (Top Dead Centre) of cylinder (A)1. The speed sensors use separate holes, but the holes are "in parallel", thus the phase difference between the two signals is negligible. The number of holes is 120 minus the missing one, i.e. 120 - 1 and the bore diameter of the holes is 14 mm.

Fig. 23.64: 120 - 1 bored speed-sensing holes in the flywheel

The speed signal pulse train from the two speed sensors will have the shape as in picture below. This signal is connected to all Cylinder controllers, as well as to the Main controller. The Main controller has however no use of the TDC information, only the speed level.

Fig. 23.65: Missing hole location, and speed signal pulse train

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As the engines controlled by WECS 7500 are 4-stroke engines, the crankshaft and thereby flywheel will make two revolutions for one complete engine cycle. To detect which marker at cyl. (A)1 TDC is true, two phase sensors are also provided (two for redundancy reasons). These sensors are mounted at the driving end of the engine camshaft. These sensors are also PNP-type proximity switches. The phase sensors are detecting the "phase" of the engine by means of detecting the position of a "half moon" disc, attached to the driving end of the camshaft. This disc is mounted in such a way, that a positive edge (signal going high) will occur 180 BTDC of cyl. (A)1, and will remain high until 180 ATDC for the same cylinder, (see Fig. 23.66). WECS can exclude the false missing pulse based on whether the phase signal is high or low when the missing pulse comes. Only the one coming while the phase signal is high is defined as true.

Fig. 23.66: Location of phase sensors

Additionally, WECS determines the injection timing based on the speed/phase signal, also the internal overspeed trip function is using this speed signal. In case of an engine overspeed, WECS will instantly initiate an emergency stop (see sub-chapter Engine emergency stop). Also an independent second overspeed trip is used on Common Rail engines. A separate system will activate the "external shutdown" input of WECS 7500, thus providing a shutdown of the engine, totally independent of WECS.

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23.3
23.3.1

Tables
Resistance versus temperature relationship for platinum resistance element Pt 100.
According to IEC 751 (1985), DIN 43760 (1980), BS 1904 (1984).

Resistance versus temperature relationship for platinum resistance element Pt 100; from 0C to 299C C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 0 100,00 103,90 107,79 111,67 115,54 119,40 123,24 127,07 130,89 134,70 138,50 142,29 146,06 149,82 153,58 157,31 161,04 164,76 168,46 172,16 175,84 179,51 183,17 186,82 190,45 194,07 197,69 201,29 204,88 208,45 1 100,39 104,29 108,18 112,06 115,93 119,78 123,62 127,45 131,27 135,08 138,88 142,66 146,44 150,20 153,95 157,69 161,42 165,13 168,83 172,53 176,21 179,88 183,53 187,18 190,81 194,44 198,05 201,65 205,23 208,81 2 100,78 104,68 108,57 112,45 116,31 120,16 124,01 127,84 131,66 135,46 139,26 143,04 146,81 150,57 154,32 158,06 161,79 165,50 169,20 172,90 176,57 180,24 183,90 187,54 191,18 194,80 198,41 202,01 205,59 209,17 3 101,17 105,07 108,96 112,83 116,70 120,55 124,39 128,22 132,04 135,84 139,64 143,42 147,19 150,95 154,70 158,43 162,16 165,87 169,57 173,26 176,94 180,61 184,26 187,91 191,54 195,16 198,77 202,36 205,95 209,52 4 101,56 105,46 109,35 113,22 117,08 120,93 124,77 128,60 132,42 136,22 140,02 143,80 147,57 151,33 155,07 158,81 162,53 166,24 169,94 173,63 177,31 180,97 184,63 188,27 191,90 195,52 199,13 202,72 206,31 209,88 5 101,95 105,85 109,73 113,61 117,47 121,32 125,16 128,98 132,80 136,60 140,39 144,17 147,94 151,70 155,45 159,18 162,90 166,61 170,31 174,00 177,68 181,34 184,99 188,63 192,26 195,88 199,49 203,08 206,67 210,24 6 102,34 106,24 110,12 113,99 117,85 121,70 125,54 129,37 133,18 136,98 140,77 144,55 148,32 152,08 155,82 159,55 163,27 166,98 170,68 174,37 178,04 181,71 185,36 189,00 192,63 196,24 199,85 203,44 207,02 210,59 7 102,73 106,63 110,51 114,38 118,24 122,09 125,92 129,75 133,56 137,36 141,15 144,93 148,70 152,45 156,19 159,93 163,65 167,35 171,05 174,74 178,41 182,07 185,72 189,36 192,99 196,60 200,21 203,80 207,38 210,95 8 103,12 107,02 110,90 114,77 118,62 122,47 126,31 130,13 133,94 137,74 141,53 145,31 149,07 152,83 156,57 160,30 164,02 167,72 171,42 175,10 178,78 182,44 186,09 189,72 193,35 196,96 200,57 204,16 207,74 211,31 9 103,51 107,40 111,28 115,15 119,01 122,86 126,69 130,51 134,32 138,12 141,91 145,68 149,45 153,20 156,94 160,67 164,39 168,09 171,79 175,47 179,14 182,80 186,45 190,09 193,71 197,33 200,93 204,52 208,10 211,66

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23.3.2

Electromotive forces of thermocouple Nickel Chromium / NickelAluminium (NiCrNiAl) Type K


Reference temperature 0. Temperature in degrees Celsius (ITP 68) Acc. to IEC 5841, DIN 43710 (1977), BS 4937 (1973), ASTM E 230/72, ANSI MC 9611975.

Resistance versus temperature relationship for platinum resistance element Pt 100; from 0C to 599C. Temp. C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 0 0 397 798 1203 1611 2022 2436 2850 3266 3681 4095 4508 4919 5327 5733 6137 6539 6939 7338 7737 8137 8537 8938 9341 9745 10151 10560 10969 11381 11793 1 39 437 838 1244 1652 2064 2477 2892 3307 3722 4137 4549 4960 5368 5774 6177 6579 6979 7378 7777 8177 8577 8978 9381 9786 10192 10600 11010 11422 11835 2 79 477 879 1285 1693 2105 2519 2933 3349 3764 4178 4590 5001 5409 5814 6218 6619 7019 7418 7817 8216 8617 9018 9421 9826 10223 10641 11051 11463 11876 3 119 517 919 1325 1734 2146 2560 2975 3390 3805 4219 4632 5042 5450 5855 6258 6659 7059 7458 7857 8256 8657 9058 9462 9867 10274 10682 11093 11504 11918 4 5 Microvolt (abs) 158 557 960 1366 1776 2188 2601 3016 3432 3847 4261 4673 5083 5490 5895 6298 6699 7099 7498 7897 8296 8697 9099 9502 9907 10315 10723 11134 11546 11959 198 597 1000 1407 1817 2229 2643 3058 3473 3888 4302 4714 5124 5531 5936 6338 6739 7139 7538 7937 8336 8737 9139 9543 9948 10355 10764 11175 11587 12000 6 238 637 1041 1448 1858 2270 2684 3100 3515 3930 4343 4755 5164 5571 5976 6378 6779 7179 7578 7977 8376 8777 9179 9583 9989 10396 10805 11216 11628 12042 7 277 677 1081 1489 1899 2312 2726 3141 3556 3971 4384 4796 5205 5612 6016 6419 6819 7219 7618 8017 8416 8817 9220 9624 10029 10437 10846 11257 11669 12083 8 317 718 1122 1529 1940 2353 2767 3183 3598 4012 4426 4837 5246 5652 6057 6459 6859 7259 7658 8057 8456 8857 9260 9664 10070 10478 10887 11298 11711 12125 9 358 758 1162 1570 1931 2394 2809 3224 3639 4054 4467 4878 5287 5693 6097 6499 6899 7279 7697 8097 8497 8898 9300 9705 10111 10519 10928 11339 11752 12166

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Temp. C 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590

0 12207 12623 13039 13456 13874 14292 14712 15132 15552 15974 16395 16818 17241 17664 18088 18513 18938 19363 19788 20214 20640 21066 21493 21919 22346 22772 23198 23624 24050 24476

1 12249 12664 13080 13497 13915 14334 14754 15174 15594 16016 16438 16860 17283 17707 18131 18555 18980 19405 19831 20257 20683 21109 21535 21962 22388 22815 23241 23667 24093 24519

2 12290 12706 13122 13539 13957 14376 14796 15216 15636 16058 16480 16902 17326 17749 18173 18598 19023 19448 19873 20299 20725 21152 21578 22004 22431 22857 23284 23710 24136 24561

3 12332 12747 13164 13581 13999 14418 14838 15258 15679 16100 16522 16945 17368 17792 18216 18640 19065 19490 19916 20342 20768 21194 21621 22047 22473 22900 23326 23752 24178 24604

4 5 Microvolt (abs) 12373 12789 13205 13623 14041 14460 14880 15300 15721 16142 16564 16987 17410 17834 18258 18683 19108 19533 19959 20385 20811 21237 21663 22090 22516 22942 23369 23795 24221 24646 12415 12831 13247 13665 14083 14502 14922 15342 15763 16184 16607 17029 17453 17876 18301 18725 19150 19576 20001 20427 20853 21280 21706 22132 22559 22985 23411 23837 24263 24689

6 12456 12872 13289 13706 14125 14544 14964 15384 15805 16227 16649 17072 17495 17919 18343 18768 19193 19618 20044 20470 20896 21322 21749 22175 22601 23028 23454 23880 24306 24731

7 12498 12914 13331 13748 14167 14586 15006 15426 15847 16269 16691 17114 17537 17961 18385 18810 19235 19661 20086 20512 20938 21365 21791 22218 22644 23070 23497 23923 24348 24774

8 12539 12955 13372 13790 14208 14628 15048 15468 15889 16311 16733 17156 17580 18004 18428 18853 19278 19703 20129 20555 20981 21407 21834 22260 22687 23113 23539 23965 24391 24817

9 12581 12997 13414 13832 14250 14670 15090 15510 15931 16353 16776 17199 17622 18046 18470 18895 19320 19746 20172 20598 21024 21450 21876 22303 22729 23156 23582 24008 24434 24859

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23

23.4

Abbreviations
Abbreviations and explanations Abbreviation ATDC TDC BIT BDC BTDC CCM CMOD CPU CR DCU DIP DWI FCV FFT GND HFO HIB HP HT LDU LP LT MCM MCU MDO PID Controller PMOD PWM RM RPM SMU SRAM (RAM) SSV TDC WECS Explanation After Top Dead Center Top Dead Center Built-In Test Bottom Dead Center Before Top Dead Center Cylinder Controller Module Communication Module Central Processor Unit Common Rail Distributed Control Unit DIP Switch Direct Water Injection Flow Control Valves Fast Fourier Transformation Ground Heavy Fuel Oil Harness Interface Box High Pressure High Temperature Local Display Unit Low Pressure Low Temperature Main Controller Module Main Control Unit Marine Diesel Oil Proportional Inretgrating Derivating Controller Power Module Pulse Width Modulation Relay Module Revolutions Per Minute Sensor Multiplexer Unit Random Acces Memory Start-up and Safety Valve Top Dead Centre Wrtsil Engine Control System

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Abbreviation WEPMIT WIC VRX

Explanation WECS 7500 service tool Water Injection Control Vaisala Real-time eXecutive

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