2 views

Uploaded by rcarpioo

- Garrett Catalog Turbocharger
- iveco_n45_n67_opm_3-2010.pdf
- Werner Schlenker-Deutz Power Systems
- Hoja Tecnica Caterpillar CM43 50Hz
- D4 Bulletin
- Zetkama Globe Valves 215
- AccessTUNER_HelpFile_MAZDASPEED
- 362214
- einstein essay
- Sample Paper
- Turbo Inter Cooler
- Fault Codes for Bosch and Simtec Mpi Main Engine ECU
- Economy Efficiency of HDD Emission Stands
- Dragsted History Booklet 2013
- ACERT Technology
- BOOST Validation
- x-series_x13-g2_20jul09.pdf
- Max Safe Working Pressure Pipes
- P0234 Astra
- Turbocharging to extend HCCI Operating Range in a Multi Cylinder Engine- Benefits and Limitations

You are on page 1of 11

This article is a bit more involved and will describe parts of the compressor map, how to estimate pressure ratio

and mass flow rate for your engine, and how to plot the points on the maps to help choose the right

turbocharger. Have your calculator handy!!

1 Part s of t he Compressor Map:

The compr essor map is a gr aph t hat descr ibes a par t icular compr essor s per for mance charact er ist ics, including

eff iciency, mass flow range, boost pr essure capabil it y, and t ur bo speed. Shown below is a figur e t hat ident ifies

aspect s of a t ypical compressor map:

Pr essu r e Rat i o

Pressur e Rat io ( ) is defined as t he Absolut e out let pr essure divided by t he Absolut e inlet pr essure.

Where:

o = Pr essur e Rat io

o P

2c

= Compressor

o Discharge Pr essure

o P1c = Compressor I nlet Pressur e

I t is impor t ant t o use unit s of Absol ut e Pr essu r e for bot h P1c and P2c. Remember t hat Absolut e

Pressur e at sea l evel is 14. 7 psia ( in unit s of psia, t he a r efer s t o absolut e ) . This is r efer red t o as st andar d

at mospher ic pr essur e at st andar d condit ions.

Gau ge Pr essur e ( in unit s of psig, t he g r efer s t o gauge ) measures t he pr essure above at mospher ic,

so a gauge pressure r eading at at mospher ic condit ions will r ead zer o. Boost gauges measur e t he manifold

pressur e r elat ive t o at mospher ic pr essur e, and t hus ar e measur ing Gauge Pressur e. This is impor t ant when

det er mining P2c. For example, a r eading of 12 psig on a boost gauge means t hat t he air pressur e in t he

manifold is 12 psi above at mospher ic pr essur e. For a day at st andar d at mospher ic condit ions,

12 psig + 14. 7 psia = 26. 7 psi absolut e pr essure in t he manifold

The pr essu r e r at i o at t his condit ion can now be calculat ed:

26. 7 psia / 14. 7 psia = 1 . 82

However , t his assumes t her e is no adverse impact of t he air filt er assembly at t he compr essor inlet .

I n det ermining pr essure rat io, t he absolut e pressur e at t he compressor inlet ( P

2c

) is oft en LESS t han t he

ambient pr essure, especially at high load. Why is t his? Any rest r ict ion ( caused by t he air f ilt er or rest r ict ive

duct ing) will result in a depression, or pr essure loss, upst r eam of t he compressor t hat needs t o be account ed

for when det er mining pr essur e r at io. Thi s depr ession can be 1 psig or more on some int ake syst ems. I n t his

case P

1c

on a st andard day is:

14. 7psia 1 psig = 13. 7 psia at compr essor inlet

Taking int o account t he 1 psig int ake depressi on, t he pr essu r e r at i o is now:

( 12 psig + 14.7 psia) / 13. 7 psi a = 1. 9 5.

That s gr eat , but what if your e not at sea level? I n t his case, simply subst it ut e t he act ual at mospher ic

pressur e in place of t he 14. 7 psi in t he equat ions above t o give a more accurat e calculat ion. At higher

elevat ions, t his can have a significant effect on pr essur e r at io.

For example, at Denvers 5000 feet elevat ion, t he at mospher ic pressur e is t ypically around 12. 4 psia. I n t his

case, t he pr essur e r at i o calculat ion, t aking int o account t he i nt ake depr ession, is:

( 12 psig + 12. 4 psia) / ( 12. 4 psia 1 psig) = 2. 1 4

Compared t o t he 1. 82 pr essure rat io calculat ed or iginally, t his is a big differ ence.

As you can see in t he above examples, pr essur e rat io depends on a lot mor e t han j ust boost .

Mass Fl ow Rat e

Mass Flow Rat e is t he mass of air f lowing t hrough a compr essor ( and engine! ) over a given per iod of

t ime and is commonly expr essed as lb/ min ( pounds per minut e) . Mass flow can be physically measured, but in

many cases it is sufficient t o est imat e t he mass flow for choosing t he proper t ur bo.

Many people use Volumet r ic Flow Rat e ( expressed in cubic feet per minut e, CFM or ft

3

/ min) inst ead of

mass flow r at e. Volumet r ic f low rat e can be conver t ed t o mass flow by mult iplying by t he air densit y. Air

densit y at sea level is 0. 076lb/ ft

3

What is my mass flow r at e? As a very gener al r ule, t urbochar ged gasoline engines will gener at e 9. 5-

10. 5 hor sepower ( as measured at t he f lywheel) for each lb/ min of air flow. So, an engine wit h a t ar get peak

hor sepower of 400 Hp will r equir e 36- 44 lb/ min of air flow t o achi eve t hat t ar get . This is j ust a rough fir st

appr oximat ion t o help narr ow t he t ur bo select ion opt ions.

Sur ge Li n e

Sur ge i s t he left hand boundary of t he compressor map. Operat ion t o t he left of t his line r epr esent s a

r egion of f low inst abilit y. This r egion is char act er ized by mild flut t er t o wildly f luct uat ing boost and bar king

fr om t he compr essor. Cont inued operat ion wit hin t his r egion can lead t o pr emat ur e t urbo failure due t o heavy

t hr ust loading.

Sur ge is most commonly exper ienced when one of t wo sit uat ions exist . The f ir st and most damaging is

sur ge under load. I t can be an indicat ion t hat your compr essor is t oo lar ge. Surge is also commonly

exper ienced when t he t hr ot t le is quickly closed aft er boost ing. This occur s because mass f low is dr ast ically

r educed as t he t hr ot t le is closed, but t he t ur bo is st ill spinning and gener at ing boost . This immediat ely dr ives

t he oper at ing point t o t he far left of t he compr essor map, r ight int o surge.

Sur ge will decay once t he t ur bo speed f inally slows enough t o r educe t he boost and move t he operat ing point

back int o t he st able region. This si t uat ion is commonly addr essed by using a Blow- Off Valves ( BOV) or bypass

valve. A BOV funct ions t o vent int ake pr essur e t o at mospher e so t hat t he mass flow ramps down smoot hly,

keeping t he compr essor out of surge. I n t he case of a r ecir culat ing bypass valve, t he air f low is recir culat ed

back t o t he compressor inlet .

A Por t ed Shroud compr essor ( see Fig. 2) is a feat ur e t hat is incor por at ed int o t he compressor housing.

I t funct ions t o move t he sur ge line furt her t o t he left ( see Fig. 3) by allowing some airf low t o exit t he wheel

t hr ough t he por t t o keep sur ge fr om occur r ing. This provides addit ional useable r ange and allows a lar ger

compr essor t o be used for higher flow requir ement s wit hout r isking r unning t he compr essor int o a danger ous

sur ge condit ion. The presence of t he por t ed shr oud usually has a minor negat ive impact on compr essor

eff iciency.

Fig. 2 Fig. 3

The Ch ok e Li n e is t he r ight hand boundar y of t he compr essor map. For Gar r et t maps, t he choke line is

t ypically def ined by t he point wher e t he efficiency drops below 58%. I n addit ion t o t he rapid dr op of compressor

eff iciency past t his point , t he t urbo speed will also be appr oaching or exceeding t he allowable li mit . I f your act ual

or predict ed operat ion is beyond t his limit , a lar ger compressor is necessar y.

Tur bo Speed Li nes are lines of const ant t ur bo speed. Tur bo speed for point s bet ween t hese lines can be

est imat ed by int er polat ion. As t ur bo speed incr eases, t he pressur e r at io increases and/ or mass flow incr eases. As

indicat ed above in t he choke line descr ipt ion, t he t ur bo speed lines are ver y close t oget her at t he far r ight edge

of t he map. Once a compressor is oper at ing past t he choke limit , t ur bo speed incr eases very quickly and a t ur bo

over - speed condit ion is ver y likely.

Ef f i ci ency I sl ands ar e concent r ic regions on t he maps t hat r epresent t he compr essor efficiency at any point

on t he map. The smallest island near t he cent er of t he map is t he highest or peak efficiency island. As t he r i ngs

move out fr om t her e, t he eff iciency drops by t he indicat ed amount unt il t he sur ge and choke limit s ar e r eached.

2. Pl ot t i ng You r Dat a on t he Compr essor Map

I n t his sect ion, met hods t o calculat e mass f low rat e and boost pressur e r equir ed t o meet a horsepower t arget are

present ed. This dat a will t hen be used t o choose t he appropr iat e compr essor and t urbocharger . Having a

hor sepower t ar get in mind is a vit al part of t he pr ocess. I n addit ion t o being necessar y for calculat ing mass f low

and boost pr essur e, a hor sepower t ar get is r equired for choosing t he right fuel inj ect or s, fuel pump and r egulat or ,

and ot her engine component s.

Est i mat i ng Requi r ed Ai r Mass Fl ow an d Boost Pr essur es t o r each a Hor sepow er t ar get .

Things you need t o know:

Hor sepow er Tar get

Engi n e di spl acement

Max i mu m RPM

Ambi en t condi t i on s ( t emperat ur e and baromet r ic pr essure. Baromet r ic pressur e is usually given as inches

of mer cury and can be conver t ed t o psi by dividing by 2)

Things you need t o est imat e:

Engi n e Vol umet r i c Ef f i ci ency. Typical number s for peak Volumet r ic Eff iciency ( VE) range in t he 95%- 99% for

moder n 4- valve heads, t o 88% - 95% for 2- valve designs. I f you have a t or que cur ve for your engine, you can

use t his t o est i mat e VE at var ious engine speeds. On a well- t uned engine, t he VE will peak at t he t or que peak,

and t his number can be used t o scale t he VE at ot her engine speeds. A 4- valve engine will t ypically have higher

VE over more of it s r ev r ange t han a t wo- valve engine.

I n t ak e Man i f ol d Temper at u r e. Compressors wit h higher efficiency give lower manifold t emper at ur es.

Manifold t emper at ur es of int er cooled set ups ar e t ypically 100 - 130 degrees F, while non- int er cooled values can

r each fr om 175- 300 degr ees F.

Br ak e Speci f i c Fu el Con sumpt i on ( BSFC) . BSFC describes t he fuel f low r at e r equired t o generat e each

hor sepower. Gener al values of BSFC for t ur bocharged gasoline engines r ange from 0. 50 t o 0.60 and higher. The

unit s of BSFC ar e

Lower BSFC means t hat t he engine r equir es less fuel t o gener at e a given hor sepower . Race fuels and aggressive

t uning ar e requi red t o r each t he low end of t he BSFC r ange descr ibed above.

For t he equat ions below, we wi ll divide BSFC by 60 t o conver t fr om hour s t o minut es.

To plot t he compr essor operat ing point , first calculat e airf low:

Where:

Wa = Air flowact ual ( lb/ min)

HP = Hor sepower Tar get ( flywheel)

= Air / Fuel Rat io

= Brake Specif ic Fuel Consumpt ion ( ) 60 ( t o conver t fr om hour s t o mi nut es)

EXAMPLE:

I have an engine t hat I would like t o use t o make 400Hp, I want t o choose an air / fuel r at io of 12 and use a BSFC

of 0.55. Plugging t hese number s int o t he formula f rom above:

of air.

Thus, a compressor map t hat has t he capabilit y of at least 44 pounds per minut e of air flow capacit y is a good

st art ing point .

Not e t hat nowher e in t his calculat ion did we ent er any engine displacement or RPM numbers. This means t hat for

any engine, in or der t o make 400 Hp, it needs t o flow about 44 lb/ min ( t his assumes t hat BSFC r emains const ant

acr oss all engine t ypes) .

Nat urally, a smaller displacement engine will requir e more boost or higher engine speed t o meet t his t arget t han

a lar ger engine wil l. So how much boost pressur e would be r equir ed?

Cal cul at e r equ i r ed man i f ol d pr essu r e r equ i r ed t o meet t h e hor sepow er , or f l ow t ar get :

Where:

MAPr eq

= Manifold Absolut e Pr essur e ( psia) r equir ed t o meet t he hor sepower t ar get

Wa = Airf low

act ual

( lb/ min)

R = Gas Const ant = 639. 6

Tm = I nt ake Manifold Temperat ur e ( degr ees F)

VE = Volumet r ic Eff iciency

N = Engine speed ( RPM)

Vd = engine displacement ( Cubic I nches, convert fr om lit ers t o CI by mult iplying by 61. 02, ex. 2. 0 lit er s *

61. 02 = 122 CI )

EXAMPLE:

To cont inue t he example above, let s consider a 2. 0 lit er engine wit h t he following descr i pt ion:

Wa = 44 lb/ mi n as previously calculat ed

Tm = 130 degr ees F

VE = 92% at peak power

N = 7200 RPM

Vd = 2.0 lit er s * 61. 02 = 122 CI

= 41 .1 psi a ( r emember , t his is absolut e pr essur e. Subt ract at mospher ic pr essur e t o get gauge pr essur e ( aka

boost ) :

41. 1 psia 14. 7 psia ( at sea level) = 26. 4 psig boost

As a compar ison let s repeat t he calculat ion for a lar ger displacement 5. 0L ( 4942 cc/ 302 CI ) engine.

Where:

Wa = 44 lb/ mi n as previously calculat ed

Tm = 130 degr ees F

VE = 85% at peak power ( it is a pushr od V- 8)

N = 6000 RPM

Vd = 4.942* 61. 02= 302 CI

= 21 .6 psi a ( or 6. 9 psig boost )

This example illust rat es in order t o r each t he hor sepower t arget of 400 hp, a larger engine r equir es lower

manifold pr essur e but still needs 44lb/min of airflow. This can have a ver y significant effect on choosing t he

cor rect compr essor .

Wit h Mass Flow and Manifold Pr essur e, we ar e near ly ready t o plot t he dat a on t he compr essor map. The next

st ep is t o det er mine how much pressur e loss exist s bet ween t he compr essor and t he manifold. The best way t o

do t his is t o measur e t he pressur e drop wit h a dat a acquisit ion syst em, but many t imes t hat i s not pr act ical.

Depending upon flow r at e, char ge air cooler charact er ist i cs, piping size, number / qualit y of t he bends, t hr ot t le

body rest rict ion, et c., t he plumbing pr essur e drop can be est imat ed. This can be 1 psi or l ess for a ver y well

designed syst em. On cer t ain r est r ict ive OEM set ups, especially t hose t hat have now higher - t han- st ock airf low

levels, t he pr essur e dr op can be 4 psi or gr eat er .

For our examples we will assume t hat t her e is a 2 psi loss. So t o det ermine t he Compr essor Discharge Pr essure

( P

2c

) , 2 psi will be added t o t he manifold pr essur e calculat ed above.

Where:

P2c = Compr essor Dischar ge Pressur e ( psia)

MAP = Manifold Absolut e Pr essure ( psia)

Pl oss = Pr essure Loss Bet ween t he Compr essor and t he Mani fold ( psi)

For t he 2. 0 L engine:

= 43 .1 psi a

For t he 5. 0 L engine:

= 23 .6 psi a

Remember our discussion on inlet depr ession in t he Pr essur e Rat io discussion ear lier , we said t hat a t ypical value

might be 1 psi, so t hat is what will be used in t his calculat ion. For t his example, assume t hat we ar e at sea level,

so ambient pressur e is 14.7 psia.

We will need t o subt r act t he 1 psi pressur e loss from t he ambient pressur e t o det er mine t he Compr essor I nlet

Pressur e ( P1) .

Where:

P

1c

= Compressor I nlet Pr essur e ( psia)

P

amb

= Ambient Air pr essure ( psia)

Pl oss = Pr essur e Loss due t o Air Filt er / Pipi ng ( psi)

P

1c

= 14. 7 - 1

= 13 .7 psi a

Wit h t his, we can calculat e Pr essur e Rat io ( ) using t he equat ion.

For t he 2. 0 L engine:

= 3. 14

For t he 5. 0 L engine:

= 1. 72

We now have enough infor mat ion t o plot t hese oper at ing point s on t he compr essor map. Fir st we will t ry a

GT2860RS. This t urbo has a 60mm, 60 t r im compressor wheel.

Clear ly t his compr essor is t oo small, as bot h point s are posit ioned far t o t he r ight and beyond t he compr essor s

choke line.

Anot her pot ent ial candidat e might be t he GT3076R. This t ur bo has a 76mm, 56 t r im compr essor wheel:

This is much bet t er ; at least bot h point s ar e on t he map! Let s look at each point in mor e det ail.

For t he 2.0L engine t his point is in a ver y eff icient ar ea of t he map, but since it is in t he cent er of t he map, t her e

would be a concer n t hat at a lower engine speeds t hat it would be near or over t he surge line. This might be ok

for a high- rpm- biased power band t hat might be used on a r acing applicat ion, but a st reet appli cat ion would be

bet t er ser ved by a different compr essor.

For t he 5.0L engine, t his looks like a ver y good st r eet - biased powerband, wit h t he lower engine speeds passing

t hr ough t he highest eff iciency zone on t he map, and plent y of mar gin t o st ay clear of sur ge. One ar ea of concern

would be t urbo over speed when r evving t he engine past peak power. A larger compr essor would place t he

oper at ing point nearer t o t he cent er of t he map and would give some addit ional benef it t o a high- r pm- biased

powerband. Well look at a lar ger compressor for t he 5. 0L aft er we figur e out a good st r eet mat ch for t he 2. 0L

engine.

So now let s look at a GT3071R, which uses a 71mm, 56 t r im compr essor wheel.

For t he 2.0L engine, t his is a much more mid- r ange- or ient ed compr essor. The operat ing point is shift ed a bit

t owar ds t he choke side of t he map and t his pr ovides addit ional sur ge mar gin. The lower engine speeds will now

pass t hr ough t he higher efficiency zones and give excellent per for mance and r esponse.

For t he 5.0L engine, t he compr essor is clear ly t oo small and would not be consider ed.

Now t hat we have ar r ived at an accept able compr essor for t he 2.0L engine, let s calculat e a lower rpm point t o

put on t he map t o bet t er get a feel for what t he engine operat ing line will look like. We can calculat e t his using

t he following for mula:

Well choose t he engine speed at which we would expect t o see peak t or que, based on exper i ence or an educat ed

guess. I n t his case we ll choose 5000rpm.

Where:

Wa = Airf lowact ual ( lb/ min)

MAP = Manifold Absolut e Pr essure ( psia) = 35. 1 psia

R = Gas Const ant = 639. 6

Tm = I nt ake Manifold Temperat ur e ( degr ees F) = 130

VE = Volumet r ic Eff iciency = 0.98

N = Engine speed ( RPM) = 5000r pm

Vd = engine displacement ( Cubic I nches, conver t fr om lit ers t o CI by mult iplying by 61, ex. 2.0 lit ers * 61 =

122 CI )

= 34.1 lb/ min

Plot t ing t his on t he GT3071R compr essor map gives t he following operat ing point s.

This gives a good repr esent at ion of t he operat ing line at t hat boost level, which is wel l suit ed t o t his map. At

engine speeds lower t han 5000rpm t he boost pressur e will be lower, and t he pressur e r at io would be lower , t o

keep t he compressor out of sur ge.

Back t o t he 5.0 L engine. Let s look at a larger compressor s map. This t ime we will t ry a GT3582R wit h an

82mm, 56 t r im compr essor.

Her e , compar ed t o t he GT3076R, we can see t hat t his point is not quit e so deep int o choke and will give bet t er

high- rpm perfor mance t han t he 76mm wheel. A fur t her increase in wheel size would give even bet t er high- rpm

per formance, but at t he cost of low- and mid- r ange r esponse and dr ivabilit y.

Hopeful ly t his has given a basic idea of what a compr essor map displays and how t o choose a compr essor . As you

can see, a few simple est imat ions and calculat ions can pr ovide a good basis for compr essor sel ect ion. I f real dat a

is avai lable t o be subst it ut ed in place of est imat ion, more accur at e r esult s can be gener at ed.

- Garrett Catalog TurbochargerUploaded byMarineTurbocharger
- iveco_n45_n67_opm_3-2010.pdfUploaded byalex
- Werner Schlenker-Deutz Power SystemsUploaded byRaul Montoya
- Hoja Tecnica Caterpillar CM43 50HzUploaded byEdutam
- D4 BulletinUploaded byaazammalik
- Zetkama Globe Valves 215Uploaded byqazi12
- AccessTUNER_HelpFile_MAZDASPEEDUploaded byloveofprofit
- 362214Uploaded byAnderson Bombista
- Sample PaperUploaded byowaishazara
- einstein essayUploaded byapi-263341780
- Turbo Inter CoolerUploaded byRanjan Mishra
- Fault Codes for Bosch and Simtec Mpi Main Engine ECUUploaded byAbbode Horani
- Economy Efficiency of HDD Emission StandsUploaded byMisagh
- Dragsted History Booklet 2013Uploaded byozakyus
- ACERT TechnologyUploaded bySrikanth Shankar
- BOOST ValidationUploaded byAdrian Ferrer
- x-series_x13-g2_20jul09.pdfUploaded byLaiq Zaman
- Max Safe Working Pressure PipesUploaded byjok1974
- P0234 AstraUploaded byAdo
- Turbocharging to extend HCCI Operating Range in a Multi Cylinder Engine- Benefits and LimitationsUploaded byDarío López Pintor
- SAN02036_PSRPT_2018-10-30_08.16.16Uploaded byALEX
- Dual DisplacementUploaded byRichard More Leon
- Lesson 01 - Measurement.pptUploaded bymayureshrmahajan
- Flyer DBS SeriesUploaded byddadara
- a Piston 2 1 Induction SystemUploaded byjames
- 202629346-Cat-Marine-3412-Bundled-Repair-Brochure.pdfUploaded byAnoop Vijayakumar
- Concentrating AreaUploaded byfaisal
- 2.4_Lube_Systems_091030Uploaded byhbfs
- UENR3239UENR3239-02_SISUploaded byYvan Vidal Calapuja Machaca
- blood pressure monitor drawing v4Uploaded byapi-341770347

- 0551100Uploaded byrcarpioo
- SUNFLO-PUMPS.pdfUploaded byrcarpioo
- Garrett GTX30R-GTX35R New Turbine Housing Flange Dimensions v2Uploaded byrcarpioo
- Class Notes 1Uploaded byrcarpioo
- Laminar Premixed Flames 6Uploaded byrcarpioo
- Turbulent Premixed Flames 7Uploaded byrcarpioo
- Rankine Hugoniot Relations12Uploaded byrcarpioo
- Combustion & PollutantsUploaded byrcarpioo
- 1-s2.0-S0261306909005305-mainUploaded byrcarpioo
- 794070Uploaded byrcarpioo
- Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line DesignUploaded byrcarpioo

- 5 Ccv BookletUploaded byPhung Ho
- purifier hfo.pdfUploaded byboy briones
- 63711-123512-1-PBUploaded bynandhu1977
- Reciprocating Air CompressorUploaded byrajeesh4me
- Osborne Reynold Joe'sUploaded byMuhammadazizi Mohdzulkifli
- Fluid Lab 2- Bernoulli ExpUploaded byCik Tiem Ngagiman
- EFRC Guidelines for LiquidsUploaded byJorge Gonzalez
- Dorot Serie 300 Pr.psUploaded byKelvin Gutierrez
- PEL-PIP-SPC-002 Piping-Specification Piping Material Clas.docxUploaded byIndra Harapan
- B.O.Q of Electro-mechanical Works 28Uploaded byasdsd dsda
- Jet Pump NewUploaded byShagun Devshali
- WPS - PQR (SA516 GR.70)Uploaded bymiltonangulomorris
- Generalities Cfm56-7bUploaded bySky Santa
- Gdjp q BabkkUploaded byganeshkumarbemech
- surge pressure formula.pdfUploaded bynirmal_subudhi
- AccumulatorUploaded bySrikanth Bammhide
- On the Flow of a Compressible-Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical EngineersUploaded bymsreerajvarma
- CEP May 09 Piping and Instrument Diagrams COADEUploaded bySalim Chohan
- Hi Speed PumpUploaded bymajid fardnia
- Module 2Uploaded byKora Thomas
- Automation FireUploaded bylusifadilah
- CENGEL TFS - cap 12.pdfUploaded bySahil
- ReportUploaded byAhsan Habib
- CT Emergency ProceduresUploaded bySameer Parambath
- Symbol Collection MwUploaded byobvert
- Jisung Hydrahulic Breaker Operation & Maintenance ManualUploaded byMilton Hernandez Pérez
- Type of ImpellersUploaded byRitesh
- 0293_646_0_SYS_HY_ENUploaded byapi-19483250
- Gas Compression Engineering Guidelines to ConsiderUploaded bymouni.lekhara7125
- M3c Hazen WilliamsUploaded byTariq Afridi