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THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS

THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS

Thermal comfort

According to ASHRAE 55-74 standard , thermal comfort is defined as "That of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment". However, the comfort zone is defined as the range of climatic conditions within which the majority of people would not feel thermal discomfort, either of heat or cold.

The main criteria for thermal comfort for the human body as a whole can be divided into environmental variables: air temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity, air velocity and personal variables: clothing and metabolic rate (activity). In addition there are other environmental parameters that can cause local thermal discomfort such as draught, a high vertical temperature difference between head and feet, radiant temperature asymmetry and warm or cold floors.

feet, radiant temperature asymmetry and warm or cold floors. Thermal Effects of Building Materials Givoni (1976)

Thermal Effects of Building Materials

Givoni (1976) points out that the envelope of a building is not only a separator from the external environment but also is a prevention for climatic elements to affect the building directly. Three types of building materials can be used to build this envelop which are: opaque, transparent and translucent.

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He further points out that heat may enter the buildings firstly, through transparent and translucent materials and open windows secondly, through the modifying influence of the rest of the building materials. The internal thermal comfort conditions than may be affected both directly and dependent on the properties of the materials by the external temperature and humidity (pp. 120).

When the indoor thermal conditions are not controlled by mechanical means, the materials affect the temperatures of both the indoor air and surfaces and thus have a very pronounced effect on the occupant‘ comfort. Even when control is used, in the form of heating or air-conditioning for instance, the thermophysical properties of the materials used determine the amount of heating or cooling which is provided and also the temperature of the internal surfaces (radiant temperature). Therefore, even in these circumstances, the materials have an effect on the comfort of the occupants, as well as on the economical efficiency of the control systems (Givoni, 1976, pp. 120).

Olgyay (1963) reports materials which reflect rather than absorb radiation and which more readily release the absorbed quantity as thermal radiation will cause lower temperature within the structure. He further adds that white materials may reflect 90 % or more, black material 15 % or less, of radiation received (pp. 113114).

Givoni (1976) mentions that thermophysical properties have to be considered while choosing a building material and decrement factor should be taken into account. He emphasizes the combined effect of material properties and colour. The thermal resistances of the materials play an important role in heat flow. Increasing the thermal resistance of a wall or a roof reduces the heat flow through the building.

Givoni (1976) further explains that the temperatures within ventilated buildings are determined by combination of the effect of two factors: heat flow across the walls, and outdoor air entering the space. When the external colour is light, the effect of ventilation is dominant and marks the influence of wall thickness.

On the other hand, when the exterior is dark, the possible heat flow across the walls is increased greatly, so that the effect of thickness on temperatures is much more noticeable (pp. 137). He also mentions the effect of materials on internal heating.

The experiments they have done in Haifa Building Research Station shows that when there is a significant internal heating the response depends on the thermophysical properties of the materials. The effect of thermal resistance is in the opposite direction from its effect when the heat load operates on the external walls (pp. 144).

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In another experiment they have done, for a same roofing material of different colours, the external colour was the main determining factor for the ceiling temperature and consequently for the occupants‘ comfort in unconditioned buildings. The effect of external colour on ceiling temperature is reduced when the thermal resistance and the heat capacity of the roof is increased. In solid flat roofs the indoor climate are affected by the external colour and depend on the diurnal variations in outdoor air temperature. The thickness, thermal resistance and insulation of roof have particular interrelated effects on the indoor climate (pp. 145-149).

Simos Yannas (1994) states that ―the general principles to be followed in the specification and construction of external building materials are as follows:

• Specify appropriate levels of thermal insulation

• Specify materials with low environmental impact

• Ensure the conductivity and integrity of insulation materials through detailing and on site

• Provide adequate thermal capacity for heat storage in the building structure (pp. 95). ―

Traditional Materials

Traditional material is considered in this study as being used from the earliest building on and being as a raw material that can be produced by local means as a building material.

a) Stone:

Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that stone is a natural resource which is one of the oldest, durable and abundant. When located near the building site, it is an inexpensive building material. By processing, some other building materials can be produced. The stone types mainly used in building are divided into three geological categories: (i) Igneous rocks such as granite and volcanic stones; (ii)

Sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones; and (iii) metamorphic rocks such as slates, quartzites and marble. For extraction, from a simple cutting tool to more sophisticated mechanized equipment are used according to the level of preciseness wanted.

They further add that it is used as rubble for foundations, ashlar for regular course masonry, impermeable stone as damp proof courses and external cladding of walls, slate for roofing, gravel

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and stone chippings as aggregate for concrete and terrazzo, granules for surfacing bituminous felts, powders for extending paint, limestone for lime and cement production.

extending paint, limestone for lime and cement production. Some of the advantages are: abundantly availability, easily
extending paint, limestone for lime and cement production. Some of the advantages are: abundantly availability, easily

Some of the advantages are: abundantly availability, easily accessibility in hilly regions, low investment cost for extraction, strength and durability, impermeability to provide rain protection, and appropriateness to arid zones as it has high thermal capacity. Some of the problems are:

deterioration from atmospheric pollution, efflorescence caused by certain salts and sea spray, damage due to thermal movement of some stones, surface damage due to water, low resistance to earthquake forces (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 3-6).

to earthquake forces (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 3-6). b) Earth : Stulz and Mukerji (1993)

b) Earth:

forces (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 3-6). b) Earth : Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that

Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that earth is a natural resource which is one of the oldest and versatile that is commonly used through out the world as building material. It is cheap, has excellent heat insulation capacity and strong in compression. Building can consist of entirely or partially of soil and can be monolithic or made of various components such as bricks, renders, and infills. Earth can be used in the foundations,

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walls, floors and roofs as base course, direct moulding, rammed earth, straw clay construction, renders, and soil blocks.

Earth construction methods according to Stulz and Mukerji are: dug out, earth sheltered space, sod, wattle and daub, cob on posts, direct shaping, poured earth, rammed earth, lumps of ill- formed clay, cut blocks, tamped blocks, pressed blocks, machine moulded adobe, extruded earth, sun-dried bricks.

They add that soil can be stabilised so as to increase compressive strength, reduce shrinking and swelling, reduce or exclude water absorption, reduce cracking, reduce expansion and contraction using fibres. Soil can be stabilised with: sand and clay, lime and pozzolanas, portland cement, gypsum, bitumen, sodium silicate, cow dung or horse urine, plant juices, resins, molasses, whey, animal products such as hair, termite hills.

Some of the advantages of constructing with earth are: availability in large quantities in most regions, low cost, easy workability, suitability as construction material for most parts of the building, fire resistance, high thermal capacity, low thermal conductivity and porosity, low energy input in processing, unlimited reusability of unstabilized soil and environmental appropriateness. Some of the problems of constructing with earth are: excessive water absorption of unstabilizedsoil, causing cracks and deterioration by frequent wetting and drying; low resistance to abrasion and impact; low tensile strength; lack of intuitional acceptability in most countries because building and performance standards often do not exist (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 7-13).

c) Fired Clay Products:

Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that the technique of firing clay is more than 4000 years old. When firings between 850-1000°C, an irreversible reaction occur that give the particles the property of glassy ceramic. A large variety of soils are suitable for this process. The essential property for this process is plasticity to facilitate moulding.

Some of the advantages are: high compressive strengths, porosity to enable the construction to breathe, high thermal capacity, fire resistance, weather resistance and cost saving in surface protection, reusability of poor quality and broken bricks.

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Some of the problems are: relatively high fuel consumption of the firing process, the high cost to small scale producers and by this way less quality brick production, a weakening or breaking of bricks called ‗lime blowing‘ which is caused by the hydration of quicklime particles, derived from limestone in brick making clays, efflorescence (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 37-45).

clays, efflorescence (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 37-45). d) Lime : Stulz and Mukerji (1993) report

d) Lime:

(Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 37-45). d) Lime : Stulz and Mukerji (1993) report that the
(Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 37-45). d) Lime : Stulz and Mukerji (1993) report that the

Stulz and Mukerji (1993) report that the history of lime production begins more than 2000 years ago. Temperatures above 900°C required to produce quicklime which can then be slaked to produce hydrated lime. Being one of the most known versatile, it is used for numerous industrial and agricultural processes, environmental protection and building construction. The areas of application of lime are as a stabilizer in soil constructions with clayey soil; as hydraulic binder with a pozzolanas; hydraulic lime without pozzolanas; non-hydraulic lime to use as a binder in renders; mixture in the cement mortar and plasters; limewash.

mixture in the cement mortar and plasters; limewash. Some of the advantages are: less energy input
mixture in the cement mortar and plasters; limewash. Some of the advantages are: less energy input
mixture in the cement mortar and plasters; limewash. Some of the advantages are: less energy input

Some of the advantages are: less energy input than cement for production, superior to portland cement as mortars and plasterwork, providing gentle surfaces which can deform rather than crack and help to control moisture movement and condensation; cheaper and structurally more suitable substitutes as lime-pozzolanas than portland cement; cheap as paint and also mild germicide. Some of the problems are: the extra time needed for soils stabilized with lime than cement; the hydration of stored quicklime in moist conditions, even with humid air; the possibility of reacting

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with CO thus becoming useless; lime bursting that may cause blisters, cracks and unsightly surfaces and the uneven production of lime in traditional kilns (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 51

60).

e) Pozzolanas:

Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that pozzolanas is natural or artificial materials containing silica and/or alumina. They are not cementitious but can be added to lime to harden at ordinary temperatures in presence of water. Pozzolanas can replace 15 to 40 % of portland cement without reducing the long term strength of the concrete significantly.

the long term strength of the concrete significantly. They further add that there are two types
the long term strength of the concrete significantly. They further add that there are two types
the long term strength of the concrete significantly. They further add that there are two types

They further add that there are two types of pozzolanas: natural and artificial. Natural pozzolanas are basically volcanic ashes from geologically recent volcanic activity. Artificial pozzolanas result from various industrial and agricultural processes, usually as by products and if not been used, they will cause a waste problem. Compared with cement these materials contribute to cost and energy savings. Furthermore, they help to reduce environmental pollution and improve the quality of the end product.

The first natural pozzolanas that is used in building construction is said to be the volcanic ashes. The natural pozzolanas that is suitable for construction is limited to a few regions of the world. Pozzolanas can be found as fine grained ashes or as solid form, but it had to be ground to use as a pozzolanas. The most important artificial pozzolanas are burnt clay, pulverized-fuel ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and rice husk ash. When clay soils are burnt, the water molecules are driven off to form a quasi-amorphous material that is reactive with lime and is called burnt clay. This was discovered in ancient times and the first pozzolanas were made from crushed pottery fragments. This is a traditional technology that is still being widely practised in India, Indonesia and Egypt. Pulverized fuel ash is preferable to

Portland cement when we compare the production processes. Rice husk ash is produced by the combustion of agricultural residues and removing the organic matter and produces. It yields the largest quantity of ash and has the highest silica content (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 65-69).

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f) Timber:

According to Stulz and Mukerji (1993) timber is not only one of the oldest building materials but also one of the versatile ones. It is acceptable in terms of indoor comfort and health aspects. Timber is a complex material that is found in several species and forms and it is suitable for all kinds of applications.

Because of the depletion of the forests and the environmental, climatic and economic disasters that follow deforestation, alternative building materials should be considered. Timber is used as complete or partial building and roof frame structures, using pole timber, sawn timber beams, or glue laminated elements. It is used as

sawn timber beams, or glue laminated elements. It is used as structural or non-structural floors, walls,

structural or non-structural floors, walls, and ceilings or roofs, made of pole timber, sawn timber boards, or large panels from plywood, particle board, fibre board or wood-wool slabs. Also wood-wool slabs are used as insulating layers. Furthermore it is used as facings and door or window frames.

Furthermore it is used as facings and door or window frames. Some of the advantages of

Some of the advantages of timber are as follows: It is suitable for construction in all climatic zones. It is versatile, and provides comfortable and healthy living environments. It is a renewable in the sense of re-afforestation. Most species has very high strength regarding earthquake and hurricane resistance.

Timber is a traditional material and rarely needs sophisticated skills. The production and processing of timber is requires less energy than many other building materials.

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Timber provides good thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is better than steel in the sense that the building frame do not collapse after fire. Some of the problems of timber are as follows:

High costs and diminishing of species due to uncontrolled cutting. Thermal and moisture movement causes distortions, shrinkages and splitting. Some species are weak to fungal decay and insect attack. It has significant fire risk. The toxic chemical preservatives are unhealthy in long term. Failure of joists between timber members dueto shrinkage or corrosion of metal connectors may occur. It may loose its colour and be brittle due to exposure to sunlight, windborne abrasives or chemicals (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 101-109).

As it is mentioned by Carey Simonson (2000) indoor climate and indoor air quality is important in order to provide comfort, health, productivity for the occupants. For this fact, regulating the indoor temperature and humidity is important but energy consuming. The need for passive and less energy intensive methods for moderating indoor environment brought the idea of moisture storage of the building materials. According to the Healthy Building Workshop 2000 wood and wood based products in the building envelope and furnishings control the indoor climate by moderating the diurnal changes in indoor humidity. And furthermore the following wood based materials have shown particular suitability for moisture storage applications: medium density fibre board, parquet tile, chip board, organic insulation, and perforated and non-perforated wood (pp. 1).

Contemporary Materials

Contemporary building materials in this study are considered as being mostly manufactured and the common usage of the material dates only a few centuries back.

a) Factory Produced Brick:

BS 3921 Specification for clay bricks and blocks describes a brick as a walling unit designed to be laid in mortar and not more than 337.5 mm long, 225.0 mm wide and 112.5 mm high, as distinct from block which is defined as a unit having one or more of these dimensions larger than those quoted. The conductivity varies with density. Diatomaceous earth bricks which are very light, have a thermal conductivity of about 0.14 W/mK (Everett, 1994, pp 92).

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b) Concrete:

As Alan Everett (1994) declares concrete is generally understood to be a mixture of cement, water and aggregate which takes the shape and texture of its mould, formwork, on site. When cured at a suitable temperature and humidity it hardens (pp. 119).

at a suitable temperature and humidity it hardens (pp. 119). ‗Some of the applications of concrete

‗Some of the applications of concrete are as plain mass concrete, nofines concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, aerated concrete, reinforced concrete, and prestressed concrete. Within these

Applications no-fines concrete is a lightweight concrete with only single size coarse aggregate leaving voids between them, suitable for loadbearing and non-loadbearing walls in framed structures or base coarse for floor slabs. No-fines concrete\ provides an excellent key for rendering, good thermal insulation due to air gaps, and low drying shrinkage. The large void also prevent capillary action.‘

shrinkage. The large void also prevent capillary action.‘ The thermal conductivity (k) of no- fines gravel

The thermal conductivity (k) of no- fines gravel aggregate concrete is comparable to that of typical brickwork. To have a quick understanding in thermal conductivity, thermal transmittances (U-Value) for walls are as follows:

Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that concrete has various advantages. follows:

Some

of them are as

has various advantages. follows: Some of them are as Concrete has high compressive strength and can

Concrete has high compressive strength and can take any shape. When reinforced it combines compressive strengths with high tensile strengths, so that it can be used in any building design and all structural requirements. It is suitable for prefabrication of components and for

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The energy

requirement to produce 1 kg of plain concrete is the lowest of the manufactured building

materials.

constructions in dangerous conditions such as earthquake and expansive soils.

It has high thermal capacity and high reflectivity which is an important feature in hot dry or

tropical highland climates. Properly executed concrete is highly durable, free of maintenance,

resistant to moisture penetration, chemical action, fire, insects, and fungal attack.

They further add that concrete has some problems such as high cost of cement, steel and

formwork. It is difficult to control the quality of concrete regarding the risk of cracking and

gradual deterioration on building sites. Corrosion of reinforcement that leads to expansion cracks

in moist climates is another problem.

Reinforced concrete begins to fail in high temperature due to steel that it contains. The negative

electromagnetic effects of reinforced concrete create an unhealthy environment (Stulz and

Mukerji, 1993, pp. 75-76).

c) Ferrocement:

According to Stulz and Mukerji (1993) ferrocement is principally the same as reinforced

concrete having following differences:

The energy requirement to produce 1kg of plain concrete is 1 MJ/kg while reinforced concrete

(with 1 % by volume of steel) is 8 MJ/kg. R. Stulz and K Mukerji, Appropriate Building

Materials, 3rd ed., (London: SKAT Publications and IT Publications, 1993), 75.

• Its thickness rarely exceeds 25 mm, while reinforced concrete (RC) components are seldom less than 100mm.

• A rich portland cement mortar is used, without any coarse aggregate as in RC.

• Compared with RC, ferrocement has a greater percentage of reinforcement, comprising closely

spaced small diameter wires and wire mesh, distributed uniformly throughout the cross-section.

• Its tensile strength to weight ratio is higher than RC, and its cracking behaviour is superior.

• Ferrocement can be constructed without formwork for almost any shape.

They add that ferrocement is used in boat construction; embankment protection, irrigation canals,

drainage systems; water storage tanks; sanitary appliances; walls, roofs and other building

components, or complete building, either in situ or in the form of precast elements.

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THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Some of the advantages of ferrocement are as follows: The materials required
THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Some of the advantages of ferrocement are as follows: The materials required
THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Some of the advantages of ferrocement are as follows: The materials required

Some of the advantages of ferrocement are as follows: The materials required to produce ferrocement are readily available in most countries. It can take almost any shape and it is adaptable to almost any traditional design. It is a useful substitute in the absence of timber. As a roofing material, ferrocement is a climatically and environmentally more appropriate and cheaper than galvanized iron and asbestos cement sheeting. The manufacture of ferrocement components requires no special equipment, is labour intensive and easily learnt by unskilled workers. Compared with reinforced concrete, ferrocement is cheaper, requires no formwork, is lighter, and has ten times greater specific surface of reinforcement, achieving much higher crack resistance. Ferrocement is not attacked by biological agents, such as insects, vermin and fungus. Some of the problems of ferrocement are as follows:

Ferrocement is still a relatively new material, therefore its long term performance is not sufficiently known. Structural design and calculation requires considerable knowledge and experience. Galvanized meshes can cause gas formation on the wires and thus reduce bond strength. The excessive use of ferrocement for buildings can create unhealthy living conditions, as the high percentage of reinforcement has harmful electromagnetic effects (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 77-82).

d) Cement:

effects (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 77-82). d) Cement : Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that

Stulz and Mukerji (1993) reports that most common type is ordinary portland cement. Fine grey powder, mixed with sand, gravel and water produces a longlasting concrete and mortar. It is usually produced in large centralized plants, whereas small-scale cement production is a common practice in China. The areas of application of cement are as a binder for several inorganic and organic materials; in concrete production together with sand and gravel; in

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ferrocement production together with sand and chicken-wire mesh; mortar and binders; screeding and as paint mixed with excess water.

Some of the advantages are: high strength to remain unaffected by water; resistance to fire and biological hazards. In small-scale cement production, the advantages are; low capital investment, use of cheaper quality coke or coal; lower transportation costs; lower technical sophistication; adaptability to market demands; capability of using different raw materials and producing a variety of cementitious products; increase of supporting industries around the plant. Some of the problems are: too expensive for the majority of the population, storage problems to avoid premature setting, cracks in hot dry conditions due to temperature fluctuations, rapid deterioration due to sulphates and salts, over-strong or mortars that cause brittleness or lack of durability due to the high reputation of cement (Stulz and Mukerji, 1993, pp. 61-64).

e) Glass:

century. Glass consists of

sand, soda ash, limestone and dolomite, a small amount of alumina, a few residual materials and broken glass. Glass is used in building mainly as flat glass, and for products such as lenses, glass fibres and foamed (cellular) glass. The hundred years B.C. but, history of contemporary use dates back to 19 th. Types of glass are translucent, transparent, foamed glasses and special products such as toughened or tempered glass and one way glasses; and glass fibre products. Glass can also be found as plate glass, prismatic glass, glass block, structural glass, spandrel glass.

Everett (1994) reports that glass was commonly used in Egypt five

Everett (1994) adds the density of glass is 2560 kg/m (for comparison: Perplex (ICI) 807, Aluminium 7850 kg/m 3), its melting point is approximately 15000C (Aluminium 660, steel 19000C). Although ordinary glass is relatively transparent, solar heat rejecting glasses are available. Ordinary glass transmits a very small amount of suns ultra violet rays and none in the health band. It is extremely durable in normal conditions and restricted by the standard BS 952. Glass must resist to wind loads, impact by persons and animals, and sometimes thermal and other stresses. As the coefficient of thermal movement for glass is lower than the materials in which it is normally fixed, allowance should be made for movement.

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THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Dark heat absorbing frames should be preferred to white or polished aluminium
THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Dark heat absorbing frames should be preferred to white or polished aluminium

Dark heat absorbing frames should be preferred to white or polished aluminium frames. A ventilated cavity behind glass helps in cooling it, and consequently removes condensation. Although glass is dense and is a good conductor of heat (k= 1.05 W/mK), its surface resistances are high which causes for example a 3 percent increase in thermal resistance by doubling the thickness of a 6mm glass pane (pp.190-199).

f) Aluminium:

Arthur R. Lyons (1997) report that aluminium has only been available as a construction material for about a hundred years. It is extracted from the ore bauxite, an impure form of aluminium oxide or alumina which is then dissolved in caustic soda, filtered, impurities are removed and dried. And several other processes are made to produce the pure aluminium. Typically the production of 1 tonne of aluminium requires 14000 kWh of electrical energy, although recycling waste aluminium requires only one twentieth of this energy.

although recycling waste aluminium requires only one twentieth of this energy. T R O P I
although recycling waste aluminium requires only one twentieth of this energy. T R O P I
although recycling waste aluminium requires only one twentieth of this energy. T R O P I

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Lyons (1997) further adds that aluminium is one of the lightest metals with a density of 2700 kg/m3, compared to steel 7900 kg/m3. Its duration is linked to the protection of the natural oxide film, which is always present on the metal surface.

The strength of aluminium is halved from its ambient value at a temperature of 2000C, and for many of the alloys is minimal by 3000C. Several finishes are applied to aluminium such as anodising, surface texturing, plastic coating, and paint. For longterm durability all external aluminium finishes should be washed regularly with a mild detergent solution, at intervals less than three months.

Applications of aluminium in buildings include roofing and cladding, curtain wall and structural glazing systems, flashings, rainwater goods, vapour barriers and, internally, ceilings, panelling, luminaries, ducting, architectural hardware and walkways. The probable thermal bridging effects where aluminium extrusions are used for double-glazing systems, thermal breaks are inserted between the aluminium in contact with the interior and exterior spaces (Lyons, 1997, pp. 125-

Heat transmission of materials

Various heat exchange processes are possible between a building and the external environment. Heat flows by conduction through various building elements such as walls, roof, ceiling, floor, etc. Heat transfer also takes place from different surfaces by convection and radiation. Besides, solar radiation is transmitted through transparent windows and is absorbed by the internal surfaces of the building. There may be evaporation of water resulting in a cooling effect. Heat is also added to the space due to the presence of human occupants and the use of lights and equipments.

due to the presence of human occupants and the use of lights and equipments. T R

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THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Heat transfer process occurring in a wall: T R O P I
THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Heat transfer process occurring in a wall: T R O P I

Heat transfer process occurring in a wall:

THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Heat transfer process occurring in a wall: T R O P I

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Conduction

Thermal conduction is the process of heat transfer from one part of a body at a higher temperature to another (or between bodies in direct contact) at a lower temperature. This happens with negligible movement of the molecules in the body, because the heat is transferred from one molecule to another in contact with it. Heat can be conducted through solids, liquids and gases.

Convection

The convection is the transfer of heat from one part of a fluid (gas or liquid) to another part at a lower temperature by mixing of fluid particles. Heat transfer by convection takes place at the surfaces of walls, floors and roofs. Because of the temperature difference between the fluid and the contact surface, there is a density variation in the fluid, resulting in buoyancy. This results in heat exchange between the fluid and the surface and is known as free convection. However, if the motion of the fluid is due to external forces (such as wind), it is known as forced convection.

Radiation

Radiation is the heat transfer from a body by virtue of its temperature; it increases as temperature of the body increases. It does not require any material medium for propagation. When two or more bodies at different temperatures exchange heat by radiation, heat will be emitted, absorbed and reflected by each body.

Of the three, radiation is the primary mode of heat transfer; conduction and convection are the secondary and come into play only as matter interrupts or interferes with radiant heat transfer. As the molecules of the built form absorb radiant energy, it is heated, develops a difference in temperature, and results in molecular motion (conduction in solids) or mass motion (convection in liquid and gas). All substances, including air, building materials, such as wood, glass and plaster and insulation obey the same laws of nature; they do transfer heat. Solid materials differ only in the rate of heat transfer, which is affected by difference in: density, weight, shape, permeability and molecular structure. Materials which transfer heat slowly is said to resist heat flow.

Direct heat transfer is a very important consideration to apply solutions to combat excess\ heat. Heat is radiated and conducted in all directions, but convected primarily upward. The figures below show modes of heat loss in houses and buildings.

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Evaporation

Evaporation generally refers to the removal of water by vaporisation from aqueous solutions of non-volatile substances. It takes place continuously at all temperatures and increases as temperature is raised. Increase in the wind speed also causes increased rates of evaporation.

the wind speed also causes increased rates of evaporation. Materials and Heat: The building materials in

Materials and Heat:

The building materials in general react in three different ways to dissipate the heat that they have received either from a natural or artificial heat source. They are:

The materials which releases heat very fast

The materials that release heat in a moderate speed

The materials that take a long time to reradiate the incident heat.

There are certain properties of materials that play important role in deciding on the surface irradiation, they are:

Specific Heat of material

The amount of heat, measured in calories, required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one Celsius degree. The higher the specific heat, the more resistant the substance is to changes in temperature. Materials like wet mud, clay, granite have more specific heat.

Solar reflectance Value or the Albedo Value

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Albedo is ―the fraction of the total solar radiation incident on a body that is reflected byit.‖ Surfaces that have high Albedo values absorb less incident radiation. Materials with morsolar reflectance value contributes less impact on the (UHI).

Thermal Mass

Thermal Mass is the capacity of a material to store heat. The basic characteristic ofmaterials with thermal mass is their ability to absorb heat, store it, and at a later time release itBuilding materials that are heavyweight store a lot of heat so are said to have high thermal mass.Materials that are lightweight do not store much heat and have low thermal mass.

Thermal Conductivity

The ability of a material to transfer heat. Lesser the value of thermal conductivity morethey contribute to (UHI).

heat. Lesser the value of thermal conductivity morethey contribute to (UHI). T R O P I

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THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Quantification of Thermal Performance of Building The thermal performance of a building

Quantification of Thermal Performance of Building

The thermal performance of a building refers to the process of modelling the energy transfer between a building and its surroundings.

The thermal performance of a building depends on a large number of factors.

They can be summarised as

1. Design variables (geometrical dimensions of building elements such as walls, roof and

windows, orientation, shading devices, etc.)

2. Material properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, transmissivity

3. Weather data (solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc.)

4. A building‗s usage data (internal gains due to occupants, lighting and equipment, air

exchanges, etc.)

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Thermophysical Properties of Building Materials

Conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation / condensation are the four ways of the heat transfer in buildings. Givoni (1976) reports that during the process of heat entry through the building, the mode of heat transfer may change. For example; solar energy reaches the wall surface in the form of radiation, absorbed atthe external surfaces and flows across the wall material by conduction. If the wall contains an air space then convection and radiation occurs. Continues by conduction and finishes by convection and radiation through inside air and other surfaces. The properties of materials that affect the rate of heat transfer throughbuilding, and as a result the indoor thermal conductions and comfort of the occupants are: thermal conductivity, resistance and transmittance; surface characteristics; surface convective coefficient; heat capacity and transparency to radiation of different wavelength (Givoni, 1976, pp. 103).

CLASSIFICATION OF THERMAL EFFECTS ON MATERIALS Classification by type of substance

• On (solid) materials

• On fluids

Classification by type of effect

• Physical effects (dimensional change, phase change, heating)

• Chemical effects (decomposition, reaction)

• Biological effects (metabolic ralentisation, sterilisation) Classification by temperature range

• Cryogenic effects (superconductivity, superfluidity)

• Mid-temperature effects

• High-temperature effects (dissociation, ionisation)

Classification by purpose of its study (study target)

• To know the effects (e.g. expansion, melting, decomposition)

• To avoid the effects (e.g. refractories, ablation, food preservation)

• To know the causes (i.e. thermal analysis; mainly to ascertain substance composition for quantitative analysis).

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Determination of materials

In determining the type of materials to use, it is dependent to the type of climate of an area.

Typologies depending on the climate

Cold climates

In cold regions, the most important factor for the habitability of the buildings is keeping the heat trapped inside. This leads directly to a preference for compact built forms, with as few surfaces exposed to the outside as possible to reduce heat loss. In the most extreme case the forms of architecture become semi-spherical, seeking the maximum volume for the minimum shell surface, while in other cases the building is set underground, seeking the greatest possible protection. It is clear that these solutions reduce the possibilities of ventilation and lighting in the interior, but once again the most critical condition of the architecturein this case the coldtakes preference over the others in the definition of its general volumetry.

As a complement to the above features, popular architecture in these climates attempts to obtain the maximum possible insulating power of the enclosure walls, at the same time as a high level of airtightness to avoid draughts. Since in primitive technologies it is not easy to find insulating materials and hermetic openings, the result tends to be buildings in which the apertures are few and small, thus increasing still further the darkness inside. As it is difficult to obtain good insulation in opaque wall faces, complex and sometimes very ingenious strategies are used to improve the defence against the cold. Typical solutions found in these climates are the following:

• Using heaped snow on the roofs and walls of the buildings to benefit from its insulating power.

• Using granaries and lofts as heat barriers, storing straw in them to increase their insulating power.

• Using the heat produced by the kitchen, locating it in the interior of the building in a central position or in the coldest orientation of the house.

• Using the heat given off* by the cattle, by locating the stables under the inhabited zone.

In addition to these specific solutions, which are common to most buildings in these zones, there are strategies of a more general nature for improving on unfavourable initial heat conditions.

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The locations that tend to be chosen are hillsides facing the sun. The buildings are constructed in groups, seeking a compact formation in towns to obtain mutual protection against the cold winds, even though this is achieved at the price of lower access of solar radiation to the openings.

In most examples of popular architecture in cold countries, the collection of solar radiation for the purpose of heating is forfeited in exchange for better insulation. This voluntary loss of the possibility of solar heating and lighting has a proper justification which is sometimes hard to understand from our technological and cultural standpoint.

Hot dry climates

In the regions with this type of climate an attempt is normally made to take advantage of the great temperature variation during the day-night cycle, delaying the penetration of heat as far as possible so that it reaches the interior at night, when it is least bothersome. For this purpose materials of great thermal inerta are used, such as clay in the form of adobe bricks or mud walls, thick stone and all the possible combinations of these solutions.

stone and all the possible combinations of these solutions. Houses in these climates are frequently arranged

Houses in these climates are frequently arranged in compact patterns, one very near to another, leaving small separations in the form of alleys or courtyards. Thus, the surfaces exposed to solar radiation are reduced and the built weight per unit of volume occupied is increased, which raises the thermal inertia of the ensemble. The generation of shade between neighbouring buildings reduces the warming of their walls by radiation and at the same time enables them to be cooled by contact with the fresh air at night.

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THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS In these buildings with great thermal inertia, the way their openings are

In these buildings with great thermal inertia, the way their openings are handled is of vital importance: windows should be totally closed during the warmest hours of the day, not letting in either the Hght or the hot air from outside. At night these windows should be fully opened to use the cooling effect of nocturnal ventilation.

In the dwellings found in these climates the kitchen is located outside, thus avoiding adding heat to interior spaces which could worsen t eir living conditions. The outside of the buildings is

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painted white or in Hght colours that reflect the radiation as much as possible. The openings facing the exterior are few and of a small size, often set in the highest part of the walls to reduce the radiation on the ground, to help hotter air n the house to get out, and to obtain the best possible lighting with the minimum penetration of radiation.

In these regions the presence of water is very important, and for this reason an attempt is always made to retain rain water, protecting it from evaporation through storage in underground tanks below the dwelling. These tanks also increase the thermal inertia of the building and sometimes cool it through the evaporation effect which, though small, provides some continual damping and cooling for the floors of the houses.

Other resources used to reduce the effects of the sun on buildings are eaves, bUnds and lattices in the openings, vegetation to protect from the radiation on the walls or on the paving of outside spaces, etc. Larger scale solutions are pubHc spaces such as streets or squares, and even entire towns, covered with immense barriers against radiation by means of canvases, cane meshes, etc.

Another type of solution found all over the world is the construction of underground dwellings by digging caves where the land permits, seeking the temperature stability that is always found at a certain depth under ground level and creating much more inhabitable interiors.

Another element typical of the architecture of these climates, though it is also present in other environments, is the courtyard. The cooler damp night air is retained in these areas, keeping conditions pleasant during the day because the yard is protected from solar radiation, dry winds and sand storms. With the complement of water and plants, these yards become refreshing wells in the heart of the building.

In the warm-dry climates of different zones of the Earth we often find similar buildings forms. For example, it is typical to use heavy enclosure wallings, adobe or mud walls or roofs of very great thickness. These are often justified by their structural function, but basically fulfil a cHmatic function, as is shown by the cases in which they act simply as a covering for load-bearing wooden structures.

Another typical solution in these regions is that of the double roof or double wall with a ventilated inner space. This is normally found in climates that are warm and dry for the greater part of the year but have a rainy season during which conditions approach those of warm-wet climates. In this case it is common to build enclosure wallings combining the use of straw and clay, with the following consequences:

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(1) The straw layer, that has to be renewed annually, protects the lower clay layer from the water during the rainy season.

(2) the same straw protects most of the roof from the direct effects of the sun, avoiding heat storage and the indirect warming of the interior by radiation re-emitted during the dry period.

3) The empty space between the two layers offers additional insulation on very warm days and the clay layer, with its thermal inertia effect, regulates the inside repercussions of outside temperature variations.

(4) The inertia of the interior space is improved since the straw layer acts as an outer insulation for the wall faces, a situation that is theoretically the most favourable for thermal stability in permanently occupied buildings.

Hot humid climates

In this type of climate the thermal inertia of the buildings offers no advantage, since the variations in the outside temperature in the daily and annual cycle are very small. Furthermore, because the radiation is very intense, it is vital to obtain the maximum possible protection against its effects by attempting to stop not only direct, but also diffuse radiation, which is of importance in these climates.

On the other hand ventilation is also very important in order to dissipate the heat in the interior and to reduce the humidity of interior spaces. For this reason, the buildings have large openings protected from the sun, while the typical implantation of buildings uses long narrow forms that are independent and distant from each other, attempting not to create barriers for the breezes between the different buildings. To make air circulation reach the whole interior space in these climates, apertures occupying the whole wall face are used to allow the air to circulate, with protection from radiation and onlookers by means of lattices, blinds, etc. In spite of these devices this solution logically entails problems of privacy and a total lack of protection from\ noise.

In traditional dwellings in these zones the roof is a very important element, since it has to act as a parasol and umbrella at the same time. In some cases the roofs are broken down into a great number of overlapping roofs, one shading the other, among which the air can circulate, thus avoiding overheating.

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Also typical in these zones are roofs with a steep slope to drain off the frequent rains. They favour the thermal stratification of hotter air at the top, where openings are made to let this air

stratification of hotter air at the top, where openings are made to let this air T

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out. The very accentuated eaves afford protection from radiation and from the rain. They also offer ventilation and sometimes form porches.

Windy climates

Air movement is connected with the sensation of heat, thus becoming a positive factor for comfort in warm-wet climates and a clearly negative one in cold climates. However, excessively strong winds are unpleasant in any type of climate, and can in extreme cases become the main conditioner of the forms of popular architecture.

The simplest and most primitive system of controlling the effects of wind is found in the simple windbreaks, built with branches, straw or grass, that are found as a primary model in all cultures that take their first steps towards civilization

.

Moisture effects

Moisture

TEMPERATURE CHANGES!

damaging

is

NOT

to

Condenses (liquefies)

Freezes (solidifies)

construction

in

its

vapor

form…the

problems

arise

as

These may cause organic materials to decay, metals to corrode, paint coatings to blister, and in the case of freezing, may cause concrete and masonry to crack.

Key Moisture Absorption Considerations

Dimensional instability the changes in moisture can cause a change in material dimensions (ex: wood drying)

Deterioration causes physical, chemical, and biological breakdown of materials (ex: steel rusting)

Condensation tolerance varies for each material

Effect on heat flow if material contains moisture it can increase the conductivity

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Moisture Condensation

Moisture condensation in walls, floors, and roof and ceiling assemblies can be controlled\ depending on the type of condensation:

SURFACE CONDENSATION:

INSULATION is needed

To reduce heat

Keep surfaces that are in contact with moisture at a temp below dew point

CONCEALED CONDENSATION:

Occurs in cold temperatures, production of vapor inside the building

cold temperatures, production of vapor inside the building  Providing a VAPOR RETARDER on the interior

Providing a VAPOR RETARDER on the interior side of the assembly which limits vapor entering the structure

Provide ADEQUATE VENTILATION for the structure in spaces such as attic areas and crawl spaces

VENTILATION for the structure in spaces such as attic areas and crawl spaces T R O

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Deterioration of Building Materials

EFFECTS OF MATERIALS Deterioration of Building Materials Factors Causing Deterioration of Building Materials

Factors Causing Deterioration of Building Materials

Deterioration of building materials can be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

Intrinsic factors are those inherent of the nature of the building material such as a defect in its processing and manufacture, a defect in the cutting, shaping, distribution and all other substandard conditions of the material.

Extrinsic factors include natural catastrophes e.g. earthquakes, floods, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, climate, temperate variations, and after effects of human activity and industrial processes e.g atmospheric pollution.

It is the extrinsic factors that do most harm to historic structures and is the major cause of deterioration in building materials.

Climate

Buildings that are exposed to temperatures ranges of 25 to 30 degrees Celsius and relative humidities of 70% and above are susceptible to chemical disintegration and biological attack.

Chemical disintegration occurs when moisture is present in the material, accelerated by the rise in temperature. Where there is moisture, cryptogamic growth, bacteria and insects flourish.

Biological agents which cause deterioration include vegetation - lower and higher plants, micro- organisms (cryptogamic growth) insects and other animals.

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The lower form of plants grow on broken rock, die in dry weather and then again proliferate forming humus on which higher plants grow. The roots of these plants infiltrate and act as a wedge, dislodging the mortar from the joints, loosening the blocks and causing fissures.

Variation in temperature

1. Combination of low temperature and abundant moisture.

Building materials can also deteriorate as a result of the phenomenon called frost action. In freezing temperatures, the moisture is retained in the material, increasing appreciably in volume causing such materials to expand, resulting in cracks and fissures.

2. Temperature as an isolated factor.

Changes in temperature can cause materials to expand and contract and subsequently mechanical agitation and decohesion of the internal structure of the material.

Fluctuations in temperature can cause swelling or shrinkage and warping of the materials e.g. cracks, blisters and flaking off in paintings, crumbling of stones and pottery, corrosion and incrustations in metallic objects.

3. Moisture as an isolated factor.

Organic materials e.g. wood exposed to temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius and relativity humidities above 65% are susceptible to physical deterioration e.g. excessive drying resulting in shrinkage, warping, and mould.

Action of Water

Water is considered a major cause of material deterioration. It could penetrate materials by capillary rise from the ground or through the surface from atmospheric moisture and rains.

Water is responsible for the fissures and cracks in stones, growth of insects and micro-organisms in wood, and corrosion of metals.

Atmospheric Pollution

The most damaging type of pollutants are the acidic pollutants which are formed when the oxides of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen react with moisture or water to form sulphuric acid.

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The phenomenon called Sulphation is a characteristic of large cities and industrial areas using sulphurous fuels. Sulphation causes fissures in materials.

Chloridation commonly occurs in buildings that are situated in coastal areas. Onshore wind and fog carry minute particles of sodium chloride which are deposited on walls and roofs, crystallise and dissolve there and are carried down to lower or deeper levels of the building where they crystallise again, setting up powerful mechanical stresses. Sodium chloride is often the cause of continuous corrosion in metals.

BUILDING INSULATION

Building insulation refers broadly to any object in a building used as insulation for any purpose. While the majority of insulation in buildings is for (1)thermal purposes, the term also applies to (2) acoustic insulation, (3) fire insulation, and (4)impact insulation.

Thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer.

Heat or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter to equalize temperature differences. It is also described as heat energy transferred from one material to another by direct contact.

as heat energy transferred from one material to another by direct contact. T R O P

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THERMAL EFFECTS OF MATERIALS TYPES OF INSULATION Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation A two component mixture

TYPES OF INSULATION

Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation

A two component mixture comes together at the tip of a gun, and forms an expanding foam that is sprayed onto concrete slabs, into wall cavities of an unfinished wall, against the interior side of sheathing, or through holes drilled in sheathing or drywall into the wall cavity of a finished wall.

Rigid panels/Insulation

the wall cavity of a finished wall. Rigid panels/Insulation Rigid panel insulation is made from fibrous

Rigid panel insulation is made from fibrous materials (fiberglass, rock and slag wool) or from plastic foam. They are sometimes sold in sections designed to fit tightly in standard wall cavities.

sometimes sold in sections designed to fit tightly in standard wall cavities. T R O P

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Insulated Concrete Forms

ICFs are hollow, light-weight "stay in place" forms made of two Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) panels which are connected by polypropylene webs. During construction, the forms are stacked to the desired height then filled with concrete making stable,

the desired height then filled with concrete making stable, durable and sustainable walls. Structural insulated panels

durable and sustainable walls.

Structural insulated panels

Structural insulated panels (SIPs), also called stressed-skin walls, use the same concept as in foam- core external doors, but extend the concept to the

in foam- core external doors, but extend the concept to the entire house. They can be

entire house. They can be used for ceilings, floors, walls, and roofs.

Oriented strand board, (OSB) or Sterling board (UK), is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations.

layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. Blanket Insulation – made from fibrous materials like

Blanket Insulation

made from fibrous materials like mineral wool, wood fiber, cotton fiber or animal hair and manufactured to form a mat with thickness of ½‖ – 4 ― .

Batt Insulation

a mat with thickness of ½‖ – 4 ― . Batt Insulation Batts continuous rolls. are

Batts

continuous rolls.

are

precut,

Loose Fill

whereas

blankets

are

available

in

Cellulose is 100% natural and 75-85% of it is made from recycled newsprint.

in Cellulose is 100% natural and 75-85% of it is made from recycled newsprint. T R

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INSULATION CONSIDERATIONS

The primary function of thermal insulation in exterior walls is to reduce heat flow and maintain desired inside air temperatures in winter and summer. Interior comfort conditions are predicated on maintaining uniform interior temperatures throughout, with inside wall air temperatures that are no more than 3°C (5°F) lower than room air.

If this temperature differential is exceeded, occupants feel chilled and uncomfortable working near exterior walls.

The installed position of insulation in exterior walls is an important consideration. To avoid possible air pockets and spaces between the insulation and the wall, one must ensure that insulation is properly installed. Improper installation will reduce thermal efficiency.

The location of insulation within the wall influences the temperature range each element is subjected to throughout the year.

Thermal Bridges

Thermal bridges are components with relatively low thermal resistance which "bridge" through the insulationlayer of the building envelope. The unavoidable small thermal bridges (ties, hangers, shelf angles, insulation fasteners) do not contribute significantly to overall heat losses or gains. They should be placed or detailed to avoid lowering temperatures at the interior surface of other places where condensation and related corrosion or other degradation may occur.

places where condensation and related corrosion or other degradation may occur. T R O P I

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REFERENCES:

Nevin and Gezer, THE EFFECTS OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS ON THERMAL COMFORT IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Maronilla B. Preservation of Building Materials in Historic Structures (unpublished) Historic Preservation Division, National Historical Institute, Manila, Philippines URL: www.nhi.gov.ph

Construction Materials and Processes, 3rd Edition. Watson, Don A

2000. ISBN: 0-07-068476-6

McGraw-Hill, 1986. Imprint

Construction Principles, Materials, and Methods, Seventh Edition. H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001.

Olin‘s Construction Principles, Materials, and Methods, Eighth Edition. H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2007

Architectural Materials for Construction, Rosen, Harold J. and Heineman, Tom. McGraw-Hill,

1996. ISBN: 0-07-053741-0

c. Gallo, M. Sala, Architecture Comfort and Energy,ELSEVIER SCIENCE Ltd The Boulevard, Langford Lane Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, U, 1998

D. Kannamma, OPTIMISING HEAT GAIN BY BUILDING MATERIALS THROUGH LANDSCAPE ELEMENTs, nternational Journal of Management, IT and Engineering http://www.ijmra.us

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