Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

PIPING FABRICATION, ERECTION, INSPECTION, AND TESTING

SEPTEMBER 1989

PAGE 1 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Scope References General Qualification for Welding Preparation for Welding and Alignment Welding Requirements Preheating of Metals Heat Treatment of Metals Bending and Forming Brazing and Soldering of Metals Assembly and Erection 11.1 Tolerances 11.2 Bolted Joints 11.3 Packed Joints and Caulked Joints 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 Taper-Threaded Joints Corrugated Expansion Joints Pipe Supports Valves and Pipe Plugs Cleaning of Piping (Except PositiveDisplacement Compressor Piping) 11.9 Cleaning of Positive Displacement Compressor Piping Examination and Inspection Pressure Testing Fabrication, Erection, Inspection and Testing of Nonmetallic Piping Shipment

12. 13. 14. 15.

1. SCOPE This Guide covers basic requirements for shop and field fabrication, erection, inspection, and testing of piping for refineries, petrochemical plants, and similar industrial installations. 2. REFERENCES The following publications form a part of this Guide. Unless otherwise specified herein, use the latest edition.
Mobil Engineering Guides EGE 00-B-20 EGE 00-B-21 EGE 16-B-5 EGE 16-B-30 EGE 32-B-2 EGS 721 Pressure Casting Inspection Pressure-Containing Equipment Welding and Weld Inspection Piping Color Coding for Metals Identification Piping Selection and Application of Piping Components and Materials (With Classification Sheets and Appendix) Instrumentation Flow Segregation of Wastewaters

ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Standards Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping ISA (Instrument Society of America) Standard RP 7.1 Pneumatic Control Circuit Pressure Test

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGe 16-B-40 1989


PFI (Pipe Fabrication Institute) Standard ES-3 Fabricating Tolerances
PAGE 2 OF 15 SEPTEMBER 1989

3. GENERAL 3.1 The fabrication, erection, inspection, and testing of piping for refineries, chemical plants, and similar industrial installations shall be in accordance with the requirements of this Guide, EGE 00-B-21, and ASME B31.3 in that order of precedence. The order of precedence shall be changed if specifically stated herein. More stringent local regulations shall supersede the aforementioned requirements. 3.2 This Guide modifies and supplements the requirements of ASME B31.3 (hereinafter referred to as B31.3). For convenience, the number of the B31.3 paragraph being modified and/or supplemented is shown in parentheses after each section heading. 3.3 Longitudinal seams in adjoining lengths of welded pipe shall be staggered and shall be so located as to clear openings and external attachments. Clearance and stagger shall not be less than 25 mm (1 in.). Longitudinal seam welds shall be located in the top quadrant of the pipe when feasible. 3.4 For testing and venting, each segment of all reinforcing pads for pressure openings shall be provided with two holes drilled and tapped for NPS . These holes shall be located 180 decrees apart on one-piece pads. All segments of reinforcing pads for structural attachments shall be provided with one untapped 6 mm ( in.) hole for venting.

3.5 Inspection of castings used in the manufacture of valves and other piping components shall be in accordance with EGE 00-B-20 when specified by Mobil. 3.6 When Mobil approval is required herein, this approval shall be in writing. 3.7 When required by project specifications, piping materials shall be color coded in accordance with EGE 16-B-5. 4. QUALIFICATION FOR WELDING (328.2 OF B31.3) 4.1 The qualification of welding procedures, welders, and welding operators shall be in accordance with B31.3 and EGE 00-B-21, except as modified below. 4.2 A subcontractor's use of the contractor's welding procedures in accordance with Paragraph 328.2.2 of B31.3 is not allowed for P-3 and P-4 materials. 4.3 Welder and welding operator performance qualifications from other employers are not acceptable.

4.4 The requirements of B31.3 Paragraphs 328.2.1(b), (c), and (d) have precedence over similar requirements in EGE 00-B-21. In addition, the modifications to Paragraphs 330 and 331 of B31.3, in Sections 7 and 8 herein, apply to Paragraph 328.2.1(c). 4.5 Charpy V-notch impact tests shall be performed as required by Paragraph 323.3 of B31.3, and the values specified shall be equaled or exceeded. These B31.3 requirements have precedence over similar requirements in EGE 00-B-21. 5. PREPARATION FOR WELDING AND ALIGNMENT (328.4 of B31.3)

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


SEPTEMBER 1989 PAGE 3 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

5.1 It is preferred that the ends of pipe, as well as the edges of plate that is to be formed into pipe, be shaped by machine. Other methods of shaping may be employed, provided that a reasonably smooth and clean surface is attained. No flame cutting of quenched and tempered carbon steels (for example, ASTM A672 Classes 50, 51, 52, and 53), high-strength micro-alloyed steels (for example, ASTM A714, API 5L Grade 65 or 70), or steels containing more than one-half percent chromium shall be done unless the flame-cut surface is machined or ground to sound metal. At least 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) of metal shall be removed. 5.2 Arc-cut and flame-cut edges of 1 Cr-Mo and higher-alloy materials shall be examined for cracks after machining or grinding by the dye penetrant or magnetic particle method. All cracks shall be removed by machining or grinding. 5.3 Branch connection joints shall be prepared so as to permit full-penetration welds of a quality comparable to the circumferential welds in the same piping system. 5.4 Backing rings and strips and consumable inserts are not permitted without prior Mobil approval. If approved, backing rings and strips shall be removed before examination and testing. 5.5 The ends of piping components to be joined shall be aligned as accurately as is practicable within existing commercial tolerances on diameter, wall thickness, and out-of-roundness. Where the internal misalignment between piping components exceeds 1.5 mm (1/16 in.), the component with the wall extending internally shall be trimmed in accordance with B31.3. This misalignment tolerance is not permitted in piping to and from reciprocating compressors (through the second change in direction) or in B31.3. For such services, the inside diameter of the pipe should be machined or ground to a close tolerance and the root pass should be welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). 5.6 Unless specified otherwise in the qualified welding procedure, a root gap of 3 mm 1.5 mm ( in. 1/16 in.) shall be required for joints (including branch connections). One exception is that where the pipe wall thickness is less than 4.5 mm (3/16 in.), a 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) root gap shall be used with tolerances of + 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) and minus zero. Reinforcement pads shall be so formed that no gap larger than 3 mm ( in.) shall exist between the pad and the branch pipe. No gap larger than 1.5 mm (1/16 in.), measured before welding, shall exist between the periphery of a reinforcing pad and the pipe to which it is attached. For pressure classes 300 and higher, dimension m of Figure 328.4.4 of B31.3 shall not exceed 1.5 mm (1/16 in.).

5.7 Flange bolt holes shall straddle the established centerlines, unless another orientation is required to match the flanged connections on equipment. 5.8 Slip-on flanges shall be positioned so that the distance from the face of the flange to the pipe end shall be equal to the nominal pipe wall thickness plus 3 mm 1.5 mm ( in. 1/16 in.). The seal weld shall be applied so that the flange does not need refacing.

5.9 Welding neck orifice flanges shall be the same bore as the pipe to which they are attached and shall be aligned as accurately as is practicable. (See EGE 32-B-2, Section 9.) 6. WELDING REQUIREMENTS (328.5 of B31.3) 6.1 All welds in pressure piping and all welds for structural attachment to it) shall be in accordance with B31.3, EGE 00-B-21, and the following paragraphs. 6.2 Unless otherwise approved by Mobil, the weld at the perimeter of a branch reinforcing pad shall be a continuous full fillet weld.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGe 16-B-40 1989


PAGE 4 OF 15 SEPTEMBER 1989

6.3 Sizes of fillet welds for attaching socket-welding components and slip-on flanges shall be not less than shown in B31.3, and: (a) The weld shall be at least a two-pass weld. (b) The size of the fillet weld used in attaching the hub of a slip-on flange to the pipe shall not be less than 6 m ( in.). (c) In socket-welding construction, it is necessary to have engagement between the pipe and the socket. Before a socket weld is started, the gap at the bottom of the socket between pipe and valve, fitting, or flange shall be 1.5 mm to 6 mm (1/16 in. to in.). 6.4 When seal welding of threaded connections is required, the following shall apply in addition to Paragraphs 328.5.3 and 335.3.2 of B31.3: (a) The seal weld shall be at least a two-pass weld covering all exposed threads. (b) Valve and union ends shall be welded by an electric arc welding process to minimize distortion. Valves shall be closed during welding. Unless otherwise approved by Mobil, nonmetallic seats shall be removed during welding. 6.5 Fabricated laps or stub-ends, shown as types (a), (b), (c), and (e) in Figure 328.5.5 of B31.3, shall be used only with Mobil approval. If they are used, the root and final welding passes shall be examined by either the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method and no indications of imperfection shall be accepted. 6.6 The maximum interpass temperature for austenitic stainless (P-8) steels shall be 177C (350F). The maximum interpass temperature for carbon (P-1) and low-alloy (P-3, P-4, and P-5) steels shall be 300C (572F), unless prior approval is given by Mobil. 7. PREHEATING OF METALS (330 of B31.3) 7.1 In preference to EGE 00-B-21, the preheat temperatures listed in Table 330.1.1 of B31.3 are mandatory minimums, with the following modifications: (a) All P-3 materials shall be preheated to 80C (175F) regardless of thickness and tensile strength. (b) When P-4 or P-5 materials are welded to P-1, P-3, P-7, P-9, P-10, or P-11 materials, the preheat temperature shall be a minimum of 175C (350F). The welding of P-4 or P-5 to P-8 requires special consideration and prior Mobil approval. (c) P-6 materials shall be preheated to 205C (400F). (d) P-9A, P-9B, and P-11A SG-1 shall be preheated to 150C (300F). (e) Materials shall be preheated to a minimum of 80C (175F), regardless of thickness and tensile strength, if the weld is under a high degree of restraint (as in welding between two anchored points, for example). 7.2 Preheat shall be uniform and involve the entire weld preparation. When electric resistance heaters are used, they shall be covered with a minimum of 25 mm (1 in.) of insulation. Preheat shall be verified with either thermocouples or temperature-indicating crayons (for example, Tempil sticks). 8. HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS (331 of B31.3)

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


SEPTEMBER 1989 PAGE 5 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

8.1 In preference to EGE 00-B-21, postweld heat treatment (PWHT) of welds, bends, and forgings shall be in accordance with Table 331.1.1 of B31.3, with the following modifications: (a) Welds in all P-3, P-4, P-5, P-9, P-10A, and P-11 materials shall be postweld heat treated regardless of thickness and tensile strength. (b) The maximum hardness of P-1, P-5, and P-6 welds shall be 225 Brinell hardness number (HB). (c) Heat treatment is required for all carbon steel piping operating below !29C (!20F). PWHT is also required for all carbon steel piping in ammonia and amine services, as well as for welds on high carbon steel (ASTM A105 and A350, LF1/LF2) components in HF acid service. Additionally, it may be required for carbon steel piping in certain caustic services, depending on concentration and/or temperature (see Table 1 in EGE 16-B-30). PWHT is not required for seamless carbon steel piping in moist H2S service, but it may be required for seamed/welded carbon steel piping in this service (see facilities specialist for determination). 8.2 8.3 if: PWHT, other than required by Paragraph 8.1, is not permitted without prior Mobil approval. The exemption of certain fillet welds from PWHT, noted in Paragraph 331.1.3(b) of B31.3, applies only (a) The welding procedure qualifications yielded hardnesses less than 225 HB (HV10238). (b) The weld is made with Inconel filler metal (not required for P-1 materials). (c) The piping is not in hydrogen, moist hydrogen sulfide, hydrofluoric acid, caustic, or amine service. 8.4 If PWHT is performed in a furnace, the temper-ature shall be measured by a minimum of two ther-mocouples. At least two resistance welded thermocouples shall be attached to the piping being heat treated. These thermocouples shall be located in the coldest and hottest parts of the furnace. Neither temperature shall be outside the specified PWHT range. 8.5 If local PWHT is performed, each weld shall be equipped with one thermocouple (attached by welding) for every 600 mm (24 in.) length of weld seam being heat treated. 8.6 Instrumentation used to verify the PWHT temperatures shall have been calibrated within 60 days of the performance of the heat treatment. 8.7 All machined surfaces shall be protected by a suitable paint or compound (for example, Protect-O-Metal No. 2) to prevent damage from scaling during heat treatment. 8.8 All piping shall be supported (and restrained, as needed) in the furnace during heat treatment to minimize warpage and other distortion. Valves shall not be subjected to furnace PWHT without Mobil approval. PWHT of end welds on valves shall be carefully performed so that the valve packing, bonnet gasket, and internal trim are not damaged. 8.9 Heat-treated parts shall be cooled in the furnace or under suitable insulation material to ensure slow cooling rates. The maximum cooling rate above 315C (600F) shall be 222C (400F) per hour. 8.10 The exothermic method of heat treatment should be avoided. Mobil shall approve any application. The vendor shall be able to demonstrate successful experience in using the proposed exothermic heat treatment method on the type of piping material, size of pipe, and wall thickness involved.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGe 16-B-40 1989 9. BENDING AND FORMING (332 of B31.3) 9.1 Mobil approval of bending and forming procedures, including preheat and postheat treatment, is required. Uniform heating of the materials is required before forming and hot bending. 9.2 Bends may only be made from the seamless and electric fusion welded pipe materials listed in EGE 16-B-30. Bends of other designs (such as creased or corrugated) are not acceptable. 9.3 The pipe wall thickness at the thinnest point after bending and forming, less corrosion allowance, shall not be less than the calculated thickness required for design pressure and temperature. Pipe bends and formed components shall be free from wrinkles, cracks, and bulges after bending (or forming) and heat treatment. 9.4 Bends of ferritic materials shall have a radius measured to the centerline of the pipe of at least five times the nominal pipe diameter. Bends in 14 NPS and larger standard wall and lighter pipe should be to a radius of at least six times the nominal pipe diameter. When induction heat bending of carbon steel pipe is approved by Mobil, bending radii equal to three pipe diameters may be used. (Radii less than three pipe diameters require Mobil approval.) 9.5 Cold-formed bends in chromium-molybdenum materials shall be stress relieved. Carbon, carbon-molybdenum, and to 9 percent chromium-molyb-denum steels shall not be hot bent at temperatures exceeding 1038C (1900F). After hot bending, if the hardness of carbon steel, carbon-molybdenum steel or percent chromium-molybdenum steel exceeds 225 hB (HV10 238), the bends shall be stress relieved. Hot bends in 1 to 9 percent chromi-um-molybdenum steels shall be normalized and drawn or annealed. The hardness of all bends after heat treatment shall not exceed 225 HB (HV10 238). (Note: The mechanical properties of controlled rolled, micro-alloyed, and cold-expanded pipe can be significantly changed by hot bending and/or normalizing.) 9.6 Cold-formed bends of carbon steel shall not be used below !29C (!20F) unless they are normalized [900C 28C (1650F 50F) for one hour. Cold-formed bends to be used in applications with high H2S concentrations should be normalized if the after-bending hardness exceeds 225 HB (HV10 238). 9.7 With Mobil approval, NPS 1 and smaller Schedule 40S austenitic steel pipe may be bent cold to radii as small as 1 pipe diameters. 9.8 No bending or forming is permitted after heat treatment unless followed by reheat treatment. 9.9 Water quenching of nonaustenitic steel is prohibited except in the induction heat bending processes, which may be used on carbon steel pipe with Mobil approval. Acceptance requires that one test bend per size and weight be produced immediately prior to the production bends. The test bends shall be examined to verify that thickness, ovality, and mechanical properties are within specifications. [For pipe with a yield strength over 350 MPa (50,000 psi), three tensile specimens shall be taken from the first test bend to verify that the bending process has not diminished the strength of the bend material.] 9.10 If the induction heat bending process is used for production bends, hardness measurements shall be made every 300 mm (12 in.) on both the inside radius and outside radius of each of the first five bends of each size and each thickness. Thereafter, hardness shall be measured on every tenth bend. If any hardness measurement on a bend exceeds 225 HB (HV10 238), stress relieving of that bend is required. In addition, hardness measurements shall be made on the previous bends back to one with acceptable hardness and on every successive bend until five consecutive bends meet the 225 HB limit.
PAGE 6 OF 15 SEPTEMBER 1989

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


SEPTEMBER 1989 PAGE 7 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

9.11 Prior to hot bending and shipment, all austenitic stainless steel materials shall be free from all markings, such as stamping, grease, lead, soap, or sulfur-containing compounds. Metal tags with a high melting point or noncorrosive paints shall be used for identification purposes. 10. BRAZING AND SOLDERING OF METALS (333 of B31.3) The qualification of brazing procedures, brazers, and brazing operators shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section IX of the ASME Code, regardless of the fluid service. 11. ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION (335 of B31.3) 11.1 Tolerances Pipe fabrication tolerances shall be in accordance with PFI Standard ES-3, except that: (a) The flanges mating to rotating equipment shall be no more than 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) from being parallel to the equipment flange, measured across any diameter. Also, before bolt-up, the axial clearance between mating flanges shall equal the initial gasket thickness 1.5 mm (1/16 in.). (b) The limits in (a) above shall also apply to all flanged joints made with nonductile materials (for example, cast iron and glass). (c) The lateral translation of flanges in any direction from the specified location shall not exceed 1.5 mm (1/16 in.). (d) For all pipe sizes, the tolerances on linear dimensions shall not exceed 3 mm ( shall not be cumulative.

c in.). Tolerances

(e) Pipe that has not been postweld heat treated may be heated for minor corrections in fit, subject to Mobil approval. Under no circumstances, however, may pipe materials be quenched to correct alignment. (f) Pipe that has been postweld heat treated shall not be heated to correct misalignment without Mobil approval. If approval is given, heating shall be performed with electric resistance heaters. After heating to correct misalignment, hardness shall not exceed 225 HB (HV10 238) in any part of the heated area. Heating shall be performed over a 600 mm (24 in.) length, minimum. Heaters shall be fully insulated. Insulation shall extend a minimum distance of 600 mm (24 in.) on either side of the heaters. Insulation shall not be removed until all of the pipe has cooled to at least 315C (600F). 11.2 Bolted Joints 11.2.1 All flanged joints shall be brought up flush so that the entire flange face bears uniformly on the gasket. The bolts shall then be tightened to produce uniform bolt stress. 11.2.2 In such services as hydrogen and LNG, special attention shall be given to bolt-up procedures, use of specified bolting and gaskets, and condition of flange facings if leaktight flanged joints are to be obtained. It is recommended that the stresses in the bolts be 200 MPa (30,000 psi) as a minimum.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGe 16-B-40 1989


PAGE 8 OF 15 SEPTEMBER 1989

11.2.3 Both flanges in steel-to-cast iron flanged joints shall be flat-faced. Full flat-faced gaskets shall be used. These joints shall be assembled with extreme care, taking up on bolts uniformly after fitting flanges into close parallel and lateral alignment in accordance with Paragraphs 11.1(b), 11.1(c), and 11.2.1. 11.2.4 All bolts shall extend completely through their nuts (335.2.3). Bolt extension shall be limited to three or fewer threads unless bolt tensioning equipment is to be used. 11.2.5 Thread lubricants for bolting shall not contain lead. Thread lubricants for austenitic bolting shall not contain chlorides, sulfur, or low-melting-point metallic constituents. One of the following thread compounds, or the equivalent, shall be applied to flange bolts before the nuts are put on: Graphite and Oil [# 540C (# 1000F)] Federal Process Thread-Gard High-Temperature Anti-Seize Compound [# 540C (# 1000F)] Chesterton Premium Nickel Anti-Seize Compound [# 1090C (# 2000F)] Fel Pro C100 or C102 [# 1090C (# 2000F)] Fel Pro Nickel Ease for Stainless Bolts [# 1090C (# 2000F)] Bostik Never-Seez Pure Nickel Special for Stainless Bolts [# 1090C (# 2000F)] 11.2.6 A flange cover shall be kept on all flanged connections to pumps, compressors, turbines, and similar equipment until the piping is ready to be connected. 11.2.7 New gaskets shall be used in the final assembly of all joints opened for testing or cleaning of piping systems. 11.3 Packed Joints and Caulked Joints Use of a joint compound other than poured lead for cast iron bell and spigot joints requires prior Mobil approval. 11.4 Taper-Threaded Joints 11.4.1 Threaded joints that leak during a pressure test shall not be seal welded without Mobil approval. Approval to seal weld a threaded joint shall not be given where the threaded joint has been provided for maintenance or operating reasons. In no event shall a threaded joint be welded without complete removal of pipe thread lubricant. 11.4.2 Threaded joints shall be made up with a lubricant suited for the specific service. The following, or their equivalents, are recommended as indicated:
Recommended Lubricant Service Service air and hydrocarbon lines below 260C (500F) and 40 MPA (6000 psig) Hydrocarbon lines above 260C (500F) Union Carbide Grafoil GTS Paste or Teflon tape below 205C (400F)

Union Carbide Grafoil GTS Paste

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


SEPTEMBER 1989 PAGE 9 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

Instrument air, lube, seal, and control oil piping Water and steam lines below 260C (500F) Water and steam lines from 260C (500F) to 540C (1000F) HF acid below 205C (400F) Oxygen

Teflon paste

Federal Process Thread-Gard Compound or Teflon tape below 205C (400F) Union Carbide Grafoil GTS Paste

Teflon tape or paste Teflon tape (Do NOT use flammable materials.)

11.5 Corrugated Expansion Joints The requirements and recommendations for the installation of corrugated expansion joints, contained in Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, (EMJA, 25N. Broadway, Terrytown, NY 10591) shall be followed unless the manufacturer of the specific joint directs otherwise. 11.6 Pipe Supports 11.6.1 In addition to major supports specified by design drawings, minor supports (as found necessary in the field) shall also be installed to prevent undesirable vibration, sag lateral movement, or stresses. Anchors and guides shall not be added in the field without prior consultation with a qualified piping stress engineer. Also, supports shall not be added to vertical lines that must expand downward without approval of the stress engineer. (Supports include bearing supports, hangers, guides, bracing, and anchors.) 11.6.2 Temporary supports for piping shall be provided when required during erection and hydrotesting to prevent stressing any part of the piping system beyond the following allowables. Stresses due to the erection dead load shall not exceed 1.2 of the basic allowable stresses. The combined stresses due to the erection dead load and wind shall not exceed 1.5 of the basic allowable stresses. 11.6.3 Spring hangers (including the constant-support type) and counterweights shall be checked for proper adjustment of travel and correctly positioned for the cold condition at erection. Factory-set hangers shall be located according to support identification number, and travel position shall be checked after installation. Travel stops in vapor line spring hangers shall not be removed until hydrotesting and flushing are complete. 11.7 Valves and Pipe Plugs 11.7.1 Valve packing glands shall be checked for quantity of packing. Packing shall be added if required. The type of packing shall be checked when valves have been ordered with a special packing. 11.7.2 The yoke nut of all gate valves shall be lubricated after the valves are installed.

11.7.3 All pipe plugs shall be checked after pressure testing and flushing and before startup to ensure that they are tight and that the proper materials have been used. 11.8 Cleaning of Piping (Except Positive Displacement Compressor Piping) 11.8.1 Scale, dirt, welding electrodes, slag, and other foreign matter shall be removed from the piping after erection. It is desirable that this also be done as erection progresses.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGe 16-B-40 1989


PAGE 10 OF 15 SEPTEMBER 1989

11.8.2 Cleaning may be accomplished by flushing out the lines at a minimum velocity of 1.5 m/s (5 ft/s). (Water used for cleaning austenitic stainless steel piping shall have less than 50 ppm chloride content.) Measures shall be employed to prevent the introduction of foreign matter into pumps, instruments, and other equipment. Temporary strainers shall be used at pumps, turbines, and compressors during the flushing operation, unless spools or valves can be dropped out and suitable deflectors provided to prevent refuse from entering the machines. Flushing shall continue until water is clear, but for not less than 30 minutes. Any piping that cannot be adequately cleaned by flushing shall be dismantled for cleaning. Flushing shall be performed after hydrotesting. 11.8.3 Particular attention shall be given to the cleaning of compressor, blower, pump, and turbine inlet piping. The auxiliary piping systems for these machines shall be cleaned in accordance with the requirements of Paragraph 11.9.5(a). Steam turbine inlet piping shall be blown clean with steam (at operating pressure and temperature). If approved by Mobil, blowing shall be through a full pipe size opening. After the line reaches operating temperature, the blow shall continue for two to four hours. When the piping is judged to be clean, a polished stainless steel target plate shall be installed at the outlet to verify the cleanliness. 11.9 Cleaning of Positive Displacement Compressor Piping 11.9.1 The compressor piping and equipment to be cleaned includes the first-stage suction line between the knockout drum or filter and the compressor; intercoolers, interstage suction lines, and bypass lines; lubricating, seal, and control oil systems; and suction and interstage pulsation dampers. Orifice plates and other obstacles to cleaning shall be removed from the piping system during the cleaning operation. 11.9.2 Extra care shall be given to the removal of metal shavings produced by threading or weld preparation. All burrs inside the pipe shall be removed. 11.9.3 Compressor suction piping and lubricating, seal, and control oil systems, if made of nonaustenitic steels (and unlined), shall be chemically cleaned. Those portions of the system containing austenitic stainless steel shall not be cleaned with hydrochloric acid. The chemical cleaning operation shall include the following stages: degreasing, acid cleaning, rinsing, passivating, drying, inspection, and application of a protective coating. The chemical cleaning operations shall be performed in continuous and rapid manner, particularly the rinsing and passivating stages following the acid cleaning cycle. (Carbon steel is highly susceptible to corrosion during these critical stages.) Carbon steel test coupons shall be exposed to the complete chemical cleaning operation to check for excessive corrosion and the adequacy of passivation prior to the start of acid cleaning. See EGS 721 for guidance on disposal of spent cleaning solutions. (a) Degreasing Piping surfaces shall be degreased to remove all traces of oil or grease adhering to the surfaces prior to chemical cleaning. Degreasing shall be performed by the use of suitable heavy-duty alkaline or detergent cleaning solutions maintained at temperatures between 77C and 88C (170F and 190F) for one or more hours, depending on the degree of contamination. Products having cleaning power similar to a 3 percent solution (4 oz/gal) Houghto-Clean 240 (E.F. Houghton & Co.) or Alconox (Alconox, Inc.) are satisfactory. Piping surfaces shall be thoroughly rinsed or flushed with potable water (or the purest water available) for at least 15 minutes to remove all traces of the degreasing solution from the surfaces. (b) Acid Cleaning by Circulation A 10 percent (by volume) solution of inhibited hydrochloric acid (HCI) at a temperature not exceeding 65C (150F) shall be circulated in the piping for one hour or longer until the oxide scale is completely removed. HCI inhibitors with properties similar to Rodine 213 or 214 (Parker + AmChem) or A-120 (Dowell-Schlumberger) are satisfactory. Inhibitor concentrations shall be in accordance with vendor recommendations. The strength of the acid shall be monitored to maintain the required concentration. To avoid excessive metal loss, the acid solution shall be replaced if the ferric +++ ion (Fe ) content exceeds 0.4 percent by weight.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


SEPTEMBER 1989 PAGE 11 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

(c) Acid Cleaning by Immersion Alternatively, the piping may be immersed under the same conditions. The piping shall be dipped with vents open at all high points to prevent the trapping of air and allow for the escape of hydrogen during the pickling operation. (d) Rinsing The piping shall be thoroughly rinsed and/or flushed with potable water as rapidly as possible after the acid cleaning operation to rid the surfaces of all traces of excess acid or iron salts and to prevent the formation of rust. (High-pressure water and adequate drainage are required to facilitate a rapid rinse-flush operation.) All blanked ends shall be opened. Rinsing shall continue for at least 10 minutes after the pH of the effluent water equals the pH of the influent water. (Thorough rinsing eliminates the necessity for subsequent neutralizing stages.) (e) Passivation Passivation of piping surfaces shall be performed as rapidly as possible after the rinsing cycle. Passivating solutions and procedures shall be approved by Mobil. (f) Drying Drying shall be done by purging the pipe with commercial nitrogen gas or dry filtered air at a temperature maintained between 65C and 77C (150F and 170F). (g) Inspection Internal piping surfaces shall be visually inspected to ensure that they are free from traces of contamination. (h) Protective Coating Internal piping surfaces that have been cleaned shall be coated with a rust preventive that will not require removal before startup. Acceptable rust preventives are Mobilarma 522, 523, and 524. After coating, the ends of the piping shall be protected in accordance with Section 15. 11.9.4 Special precautions shall be taken during erection to prevent foreign matter from entering the piping system. Protective covers shall not be removed until just prior to final assembly. 11.9.5 A final cleaning of all compressor piping systems shall be performed after the hydrostatic test of the piping and as close as feasible to the startup of the compressors. (a) Lubricating, Seal, and Control Oil Systems After final assembly of the lubricating, seal, and control oil systems at the site, the filter casings, cooler shells, and other system components shall be opened and wiped clean. Heated flushing oil at 65C to 82C (150 F to 180F) shall then be circulated until it runs clean, but for not less than eight hours. The method of checking the cleanliness of the system shall be determined by the equipment manufacturer's representative. Bearings shall be bypassed during flushing. (b) Suction Piping and Pulsation Dampers Hydrostatic test blanks shall be removed to permit the piping to be flushed out through the lower end. Dead ends, risers, loops, and so forth, which are drained rather than flushed, may still contain loose particles. Consequently, blowing is also required. Although no further disassembly is permitted, open ends shall be moved away from the equipment. Otherwise, adequate deflectors shall be provided to avoid discharge of contaminants into equipment during blowing. Blowing shall be done with steam or air at a velocity approximating 30 m/s (100 ft/s). (c) Auxiliary Compressor Equipment Knockout drums, intercoolers, moisture separators, pulsation dampers, and the like shall be thoroughly cleaned on the inside. All loose mill scale, weld slag, and debris shall be removed. 12. EXAMINATION AND INSPECTION (340 and 341 of B31.3) 12.1 In addition to certification that all Mobil and B31.3 quality control requirements have been met, the examiner shall provide the owner's inspector with all of the certificates and records listed in Paragraph 341.4.1(c). 12.2 If the owner's inspector doubts the quality of any weld, he may request examination of the weld by

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGe 16-B-40 1989 another method. 12.3 Welds between dissimilar materials shall be examined by the method used for the material requiring the more stringent examination. 12.4 All forged items and pipe bends shall be cleaned of scale and subjected to a careful visual examination for cracks and surface laminations. Either the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method of inspection shall be used after the visual examination if any doubt exists concerning the nature of a visible surface defect. 12.5 Hardness measurements are required on ferritic materials when PWHT is required. For such materials, hardness measurements shall be made on both the weld and the heat-affected zone to the extent required by Paragraph 331.1.7 of B31.3. Measurements should be made for every 300 mm (12 in.) of weldment of each weld required for hardness examination. 12.6 Other inspection requirements for welds are contained in Table 1. 12.7 Radiography of welds in NPS 2 and smaller piping may be performed by the elliptical projection technique. At least two separate exposures are required at locations 90 degrees apart. 12.8 B31.3 acceptance criteria for welds shall apply, with the following modifications: (a) Internal undercutting (applicable to double-welded joints only) is not permitted. (b) External weld reinforcement and internal weld protrusion shall be a maximum of 3 mm ( in.) or 50 percent of the wall thickness, whichever is less. All internal weld protrusion shall be removed at orifice flanges. (c) Imperfections, such as cracks and lack of fusion, shall be removed. After detection, complete removal shall be verified by either magnetic particle or dye penetrant examination. When cracks are removed from a weld, the entire weld shall be removed if more than one-quarter of its circumference (cumulative) is involved. (d) Welding in Class 900 and higher pressure classes, and for reciprocating compressor piping (from the pressure vessel upstream to the pressure vessel downstream) regardless of the pressure, shall be examined by 100 percent radiography or 100 percent ultrasonic methods. The acceptance criteria for random radiography apply, except that undercutting and incomplete penetration are not permitted in this piping. Also, no undercutting is permitted for socket, seal, and fillet welds. (e) The acceptance criteria for welds in Category D fluid service shall be as shown in Table 341.3.2A of B31.3 for "Normal Service Conditions."
PAGE 12 OF 15 SEPTEMBER 1989

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


SEPTEMBER 1989 PAGE 13 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

TABLE 1 INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR WELDS (Paragraph numbers refer to B31.3 unless otherwise indicated.) Carbon Steels Austenitic Steels, & Miscellaneous Metals (P-1, P-7, P-8, P-21 to P-25, and P-42 Pressure Class 600 and Lower Weld Type Girth buttwelds (including miter welds) and insert-type contoured branch fitting welds [Note 1] Longitudinal buttwelds [Note 2] Pipe-to-pipe branch connections (including reinforcing pads) and branches made with O-let fittings and pipe couplings [Note 3] Socket and Seal welds Fillet Welds (for example, slip on flange welds) Structural attachment welds (nonpressure containing welds) AC AD ACF ADF Pressure Class 900 and Higher

Low-Alloy Steels (P-3, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-9A, P-9B, P-10, P-10A, P-10E, and P-11A) Pressure Class 600 and Lower Pressure Class 900 andHigher

AD AE

AD AE

ADF AE

ADF AE

A A

AF AF

AF AF

AF AF

AF

AF

A Complete visual examination of all welds per Paragraph 344.2. B Complete visual examination of at least 5% of all welds per Paragraph 341.4.1(a). C Random radiographic testing (RT) or ultrasonic testing (UT) per Paragraph 341.4.1(b) [Note 4]. If the weld reject ratio exceeds 5%, RT or UT shall be increased to 100% and shall stay at 100% until the reject rate drops below 5% and stays there for five consecutive working days. D 100 percent radiography or ultrasonic examination per Paragraph 341.4.1 of B31.3 and Paragraph 12.8(d) of this Guide. E Magnetic particle or dye penetrant examination (final pass and root pass). (See Paragraphs 344.3 and 344.4.) F Magnetic particle or dye penetrant examination (final pass only). (See Paragraphs 344.3 and 344.4.)

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGe 16-B-40 1989


NOTES (Table 1): 1. Girth buttwelds and welds attaching insert-type contoured branch fittings shall be examined by 100% radiography per Paragraph 341.4.3(b) if they are in hydrogen service with a hydrogen partial pressure of 700 kPa abs (100 psia) or more, and/or with an operating temperature of 205C (400 F) or higher. 2. These requirements are not applicable to the longitudinal welds in pipe made to API specifications and to the acceptable ASTM specifications shown in EGE 16-B-30. 3. Operating facilities with a quality assurance program that includes strict adherence to fit-up requirements may use the AF inspection requirement. 4. For random radiography, at least one weld of each welder for every material grouping he welds and weld process he uses shall be radiographed. In-process examination (Paragraph 344.7) may be substituted for random radiography (or ultrasonic methods) with Mobil approval. 5. For weld acceptance criteria, see Paragraph 12.8 of this Guide. 6. Table 1 does not apply to Category D fluid service. Category D piping shall be examined in accordance with Paragraph 341.4.2 except that the examination shall involve a minimum of 10% of the work. Also, progressive examination requirements of 341.3.4 apply.
PAGE 14 OF 15 SEPTEMBER 1989

13.

PRESSURE TESTING (345 of B31.3)

13.1 Shop and field pressure tests shall be performed in accordance with B31.3, except that pneumatic testing shall be subject to Mobil approval. All pneumatic tests shall meet the requirements of Paragraph 345.5 of B31.3. The contractor shall submit all testing procedures and schedules for approval. Pressure gages and recorders used in the tests shall have been calibrated within the previous 30 days. Care should be taken to remove all water from piping to be operated below 0C (32F). This includes relief valves, control valves, and any other component that has been tested in a shop. 13.2 Regardless of design temperature, all piping systems shall be tested in accordance with B31.3. This includes Category D and those systems designed at 100 kPA gage (15 psig) or less (unless open to atmosphere). 13.3 Relief or blowdown systems shall be tested in accordance with B31.3; however, in no case shall the test pressure be less than 100 kPa gage (15 psig). Relief valves and rupture discs shall not be included in the test. 13.4 Each reinforcing pad (or segment thereof) for pressure openings shall be tested with air at a pressure of 400 to 700 kPa gage (60 to 100 psig). A bubble test solution such as Sherlock, Snoop, or the equivalent shall be applied to inspect all welds. When the inside surface of branch weld reinforcing pads cannot be visually inspected, pressure tightness (as evidenced by no loss of pressure) shall be determined by a pressure gage. Test openings in reinforcing pads shall not be plugged after the test. 13.5 Water used for testing austenitic stainless steel materials shall be essentially free from chlorides (not in excess of 50 ppm). After testing, all water shall be immediately drained and completely blown out of all assemblies. 13.6 All flowmeter pots, liquid-level float cages, and other pressure parts of instruments (except pressure gages and gage glasses), together with the piping connecting the instruments to the main piping or other equipment, shall be included in the hydrostatic test and tested at the same pressure as the main piping or other equipment to which they are connected. (Exceptions are those instruments that the test pressure would damage; for example, instruments in vacuum or low-pressure service.) A list of all instruments to be included in a test shall have the approval of a Mobil instrument engineer. 13.7 Even through both hydrostatic and pneumatic tests may be considered impractical, neither the special alternative tests referred to in Paragraph 345.9 of B31.3 nor any other test shall be employed without Mobil approval.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


SEPTEMBER 1989 PAGE 15 OF 15

EGE 16-B-40 1989

13.8 Category D piping systems may be tested in accordance with Paragraph 345.7 of B31.3 with prior Mobil approval. 13.9 Instrument air supply lines and air lines to air-motor-operated valves shall not be tested with water. They shall be tested with dry compressed air (or nitrogen) at a pressure substantially equal to (80 to 100 percent), but not exceeding, the maximum allowable operating pressure for the weakest equipment in the group under test. The test pressure, in any case, shall not be required to exceed the air pressure available at the jobsite [approximately 700 kPa gage (100 psig)]. All joints, welds, and connections shall be swabbed with soap or similar solution to facilitate the detection of leaks during air tests. Instrument air control circuits shall be tested in accordance with the ISA RP 7.1. 13.10 Potable-water piping shall be pressure tested with potable water. After testing, the piping shall be chlorinated in accordance with local codes before being put in service. 13.11 Should a leak develop in a weld during testing, the defect shall be removed by chipping, grinding, flame gouging, or arc air gouging, and the area shall be rewelded. Either the magnetic particle or the dye penetrant method shall be employed to determine the extent of the defect. All repair welds shall be preheated and postheated as originally required, and the basic principles of the same welding procedure as initially used shall be employed as far as applicable. After repair, the weld shall be retested. The progressive inspection requirements of Paragraph 34.1.3.4 of B31.3 apply as they do for defects discovered during inspection. 14. FABRICATION, ERECTION, INSPECTION, AND TESTING OF NONMETALLIC PIPING (A328 through A345 of B31.3)

14.1 The fabrication, erection, inspection, and testing of nonmetallic piping shall be in accordance with B31.3, except that the following are not acceptable: (a) (b) Bonding performance qualification testing results from another employer. Branch connections made by inserting the branch pipe into a hole in the run pipe.

14.2 The extent of examination of nonmetallic piping shall meet the requirements of Paragraph A341 of B31.3. 14.3 15. The acceptance criteria for bonds are shown in Table A341.3.2 of B31.3. SHIPMENT

15.1 All piping components, including flanges, valves, and filters, shall be protected prior to shipment to prevent damage in transit and during storage at the erection site. Flange gasket surfaces shall be protected by 133 mm ( in.) plywood or 3 mm ( in.) steel covers secured by four bolts. Valve flange facings may be protected by plastic covers.) In addition, a corrosion-preventive compound, Mobilarma 633 or equivalent with a base coat of Mobilarma 247), shall be applied to gasket surfaces to stop atmospheric corrosion for at least 12 months. When wood covers are used, a polyethylene sheet shall be placed between the coated flange face and the cover to prevent the grease from soaking into the wood. Threads on spring supports shall also be protected by use of Mobilarma 633.

15.2 Threaded connections shall be protected from damage in shipment. If plastic plugs are used, they shall be distinctively colored to facilitate identification and proper replacement in the field. 15.3 Weld bevels shall be protected by plastic or metal covers.

15.4 End closures shall be provided to prevent the entry of dirt and rain during shipment and before erection. 15.5 Each piece of fabricated piping shall be stenciled or painted with the piece number or mark. Ferritic piping shall be stenciled or painted in accordance with project specifications.