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EGE 32-B-2 1993

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Scope References General Flow Element Selection Orifice Plate Design 6. 7. 8. 9. Meter Runs Pressure Differential Measurement Cryogenic Flow Measurement Calibration and Testing

1. SCOPE This Guide covers the basic requirements for the design, installation, and testing of flow elements, meters, and meter runs. 2. REFERENCES The following publications form a part of this Guide. The references cited with dates in this Guide were used in its development. For all references which have been superseded, revised, and/or corrected, the user of this Guide is obligated to determine if the latest versions of the cited references have any impact on the content of this Guide or its use. MTC (Guide Sponsor) should be consulted if there are any concerns or questions.
Mobil Engineering Guides EGE Series 16 EGE 32-B-1 Piping Instrumentation General Requirements


API (American Petroleum Institute) Publications Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (1978) Chapter 4, Proving Systems (1987) Chapter 5.3, Turbine Meters (1981) Chapter 12.2, Calculation of Liquid Petroleum Quantities Measured by Turbine or Displacement Meters (1985) Chapter 14.3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids RP 550 (1986) Manual on Installation of Refinery Instruments and Control Instrumentation and Control, Section 1 Flow Systems: Part I Process

NOTE: Although API RP 550 is not a current publication, Mobil considers the referenced material to be valid for Mobils purposes, except as noted in this Guide. Requests for a copy of RP 550 should be directed to The Librarian, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005, USA. Phone: (202) 882-8000/Fax: (202) 882-8030.



ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Publication PTC 19.5 (1971) Fluid Meters, Part Two, Chapter II-II: General Requirements for Fluid Metering Installation

ISO (International Standards Organization) Standard 5167 (1980) Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Orifice Plates, Nozzles, and Venturi Tubes Inserted in Circular Cross-Section Conduits Running Full

FLOWEL latest version "Flow Element Sizing and Documentation" computer program. Software package and license is distributed by Kenonic Controls Ltd., 7175 12th Street S.E., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2H 2S6.
NOTE: FLOWEL is the Mobil recommended orifice sizing program.

Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edn, by R.W. Miller. [Miller, R.W., Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York (1983).]
3. 3.1 GENERAL The references and requirements of EGE 32-B-1 shall apply to this Guide.

3.2 The term "accounting service" shall be defined as "flow metering service for the purpose of measuring product yields." Accounting services and methods of flow measurement therefore shall be subject to Mobil approval. Such accounting services shall be indicated on the piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs). 3.3 Plant products that are measured volumetrically and shipped outside the plant facility to second or third parties shall require custody transfer meter and proving systems. For imported products, Mobil shall approve the required source meter(s) and proving system or shall install a secondary custody transfer metering system to verify volumetric flow. 3.4 Critical gas flows shall require temperature and pressure compensation for corrected volumetric flow (for example, anti-surge control for gas compressors). 4. FLOW ELEMENT SELECTION 4.1 General

The first choice for primary elements should be concentric orifice plates (described in API RP 550, Part I, Section I, Paragraph Other flow measuring devices may be considered where accuracy, rangeability, fluid properties, or mechanical restraints justify their use. Less accurate meters may be selected for economy in noncritical services (e.g., rotameters for purge gases and liquids and pitot tube type devices for cooling water and flue gas services). 4.2 Flow Element Types

Flow measuring devices and their variations acceptable to Mobil are listed below and have a summary description in API RP 550, Part I, Section 1, Paragraph 1.2. Orifice Force or target flowmeter Flow nozzle Turbine flowmeter Venturi tube Electromagnetic flowmeter Flow tube



EGE 32-B-2 1993

Positive displacement meter Pitot tube Vortex shedding meter Elbow taps Sonic flowmeter Variable area flowmeter Mass flowmeter (coriolis type) The flow measuring devices listed below and other devices developed for special applications may be used with specific Mobil approval after those devices listed above are shown to be inapplicable. Swirl Thermal Dall tube 4.3 4.3.1 Flowmeters Liquid V-Cone flowmeter

(a) In-line turbine meters or positive displacement meters shall be used for custody transfer and accounting services unless otherwise defined in the project specifications. (b) Variable area meters may be used for nonaccounting flow, where economical local reading is required. Applications include low flowrates, volatile service, and viscous streams. (c) Positive displacement meters shall be primarily for custody transfer and meter proving systems. Temperature compensation shall not be by built-in mechanical type. A separate temperature transmitter shall be added to flow systems requiring compensation (e.g., custody transfer and accounting). (d) Target meters shall be used only for highly viscous fluids, except in cases of gas service defined in a licensed process package. (e) Magnetic flowmeters are to be used only in electrically conductive liquid services, such as, seawater and certain acids. (f) Vortex shedding meters shall be used where gas cannot be eliminated from a liquid stream. Acceptable accuracy can be achieved with up to three percent gas entrainment. The suitability of vortex meters is dependent on viscosity, Reynolds number, and temperature limitations. Performance degrades with viscosity above 3 centipoise. Vortex meters shall not be used in services with viscosity above 10 centipoise or temperature above 427C (800F). 4.3.2 Gas

(a) Orifice meters or other devices requiring turbulent flow shall not be used in streams with low velocities (Reynolds number less than 3150). (b) Orifice meters shall not be used in process streams where the pressure loss would affect the process or adequate pressure drop is not available for accurate measurement. (c) Orifice meters with multiple transmitters or other method shall be used where rangeability exceeds 3:1. (d) Pitot tubes and elbow taps should be used where low accuracies are acceptable and significant

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGE 32-B-2 1993 cost savings are achieved. 4.3.3 Installation

(a) Installations shall be in accordance with API RP 550, Part I, Section 1. As primary elements in process control loops, flowmeters shall be installed upstream of corresponding control valves. This will eliminate meter inaccuracies caused by control valve downstream pressure fluctuations and turbulence. (b) Impulse piping runs to bellows-type (non-negligible volumetric displacement) meters shall not exceed 6 m (20 ft), with a minimum downward slope of 83 mm/m (1 in./ft). Piping shall slope downward toward the meter for liquid service and upward toward the meter in gaseous service. Type 316 stainless steel fittings and Type 316 or better stainless steel annealed seamless tubing is preferred as a minimum. Other materials can be used accordingly as required by the process and piping specifications. For typical steam meter installations, refer to the ASME publication Fluid Meters (Part Two, Chapter II, Figures II-II-6 through II-II-9). (c) Local indicating or recording flowmeters used in conjunction with a hand control valve shall be installed so that the flow is easily readable from the control valve location. (d) Differential pressure meters of the diaphragm type (negligible volumetric displacement) can be sealed without the use of seal pots or chambers. (e) Use of seals shall require Mobil approval and shall conform to the following: (1) Seal chambers shall be used for bellows-type flowmeters used in wet gas service; or in corrosive, viscous, unstable services; or where fluids may be subject to freezing. (2) (3) Condensate chambers shall be used for bellows-type meters in steam service. Seals and seal chambers, when required, shall be in accordance with EGE 32-B-1.

(f) Purge systems of the constant-flow type shall be provided when orifice or pressure tap plugging is anticipated. The type of purge media and connections shall be in accordance with EGE 32-B-1. (g) Installation of turbine meters shall be in accordance with the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 5.3. (h) When a primary element is not covered by a consensus standard (API, ASME, etc.), the manufacturers installation instructions shall be used subject to Mobil approval. 5. ORIFICE PLATE DESIGN 5.1 Orifice bores shall be sized to provide a reading between 6 and 8 on a 0-to-10 square-root scale when the flow is at normal system design rate. The beta ratio (ratio of orifice bore to pipe internal diameter) shall not be greater than 0.70 nor less than 0.20. 5.2 The minimum orifice flange size shall be NPS 2 (NPS = nominal pipe size, inches). When system design conditions indicate that an NPS 2 orifice flange is too large, special metering devices such as integral orifice meters or a one-inch honed and calibrated meter run may be used subject to Mobil approval. 5.3 5.4 Standard differential pressure ranges shall be as specified in Paragraph 7.3. Orifice calculations shall be based on ISO 5167. Published sources which use ISO 5167 or equivalent



EGE 32-B-2 1993

methods include: (a) (b) (c) FLOWEL latest version "Flow Element Sizing and Documentation" computer program.

Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edn, by R. W. Miller.

The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 14.3.

Other methods of flowmeter calculation, including computer programs, may be used subject to Mobil approval. The chosen method shall be indicated in the project specifications, including local regulatory authority requirements where applicable. 5.5 Orifice plate fabrication shall include requirements of API RP 550, Part I, Section 1, Figure 1-1.

The following information shall be stamped on the upstream side of the handle of all orifice plates: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Upstream. Orifice bore. Instrument tag number. Inside diameter of pipe. Material specification. Bore type (concentric, eccentric, segmental, sharp edge, or quadrant edge).

Letters shall be no less than 3 mm (1/8 in.) in height. 6. METER RUNS 6.1 To ensure proper fabrication, meter runs shall be purchased from a Mobil-approved fabricator. Matched/mated raised-face weld neck orifice flanges shall have a minimum Class 300 rating and shall have two taps per flange. Unused taps shall be plugged. Meter runs shall conform to the ASME publication Fluid Meters (Part Two, Chapter II, Paragraphs II-II-6 through II-II-10). Upstream and downstream pipe lengths shall be selected on the basis of a beta ratio of 0.70 and shall conform to the requirements of ISO 5167. 6.2 Fabrication of meter runs is usually done at a qualified manufacturers plant facility. For remote project locations, runs may be fabricated at the jobsite. Final inspection shall be approved by Mobil. In such cases, quality control, inspection, documentation, and selection of material and fabrication shall be the responsibility of the qualified meter run fabricator. 6.3 Meter runs shall be used for all continuous process flow applications. For some intermittent flow applications, where measurement errors are tolerable and the flow measurement is simply an approximation, it may be acceptable not to require a prefabricated meter run. In such cases, straight pipe lengths (upstream and downstream) that do not meet the requirements of Paragraph 9.1 shall require Mobil approval. 6.4 Space-limited applications may require specialized design arrangements of piping and equipment. Examples may include preassembled modules, packaged units, and skid-mounted equipment on vehicles and ships. In such cases, where adherence to ISO 5167 at 0.70 beta ratio causes impractical piping/equipment design or severe cost penalties, the following steps (in order of priority shown) may be taken to solve the problem:



Apply ISO 5167 at the actual beta ratio rather than at a ratio of 0.70.

(b) Use the alternate (bracketed) values in the ISO 5167 tables. These values produce an added uncertainty of 0.5 percent to the measurement accuracy. For noncustody transfer applications this may be acceptable. The use of values given in API RP, 550 Part I, Section 1 and the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 14.3 shall require specific Mobil approval. (c) The use of straightening vanes should be avoided; however, they may be installed with Mobil approval. (d) Install another type of flow measuring device that can produce the required degree of accuracy when installed within the design constraints of the particular facility. If no practical and acceptable flow measuring device can be found for the particular facility, the measuring system shall not be considered reliable and shall be used simply to establish that flow is occurring at an indeterminate rate. 6.5 Piping shall be in accordance with EGE Series 16.

6.6 Primary flow measuring elements shall be provided with flanged connections to permit easy removal for inspection and maintenance. Meter runs shall have weld neck flanges on the downstream end to facilitate inspection of the meter run pipe internal surface. Exceptions to this rule are (1) Mobil's approval of another location or (2) a flange conveniently located for the purpose. Refer to ASME PTC 19.5, Fluid Meters (Part Two, Figure II-II-4). The upstream flange shown in the ASME figure is optional. 6.7 Orifice flange taps shall be on the horizontal flange centerlines to accommodate the use of redundant taps and meters off the same meter run. If clearance limits the use of horizontal centerline taps, then taps above 45 degrees for gas and vapor service and below 45 degrees for liquid service may be used, subject to Mobil approval. 6.8 Two NPS 1 couplings may be provided on the downstream section if pressure or temperature measurements are required. Use NPS 11/2 flanged connections for temperature if required by piping specifications. These connections shall be located on the top of the pipe along the vertical centerline. The centerline of the first connection shall be a minimum of six pipe diameters downstream of the orifice flange. 6.9 Meter runs installed for vertical flows shall be upward for liquids and downward for gas and steam containing condensate and vapor. If this is not practical, meter runs installed horizontally for liquid service shall have the downstream line turning vertically upwards for a minimum distance equivalent to the downstream length. Meter runs for gas service installed horizontally shall have the downstream line turning vertically downward for at least the meter run downstream length. 7. PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL MEASUREMENT 7.1 Pressure differential instruments shall withstand pressures equal to one and one-half times full-line pressure without zero or calibration changes. Instrument body materials shall be 316 stainless steel as a minimum and be consistent with, or exceed, the piping material specification. No instrument damage shall result if full-line pressure is connected to the low-pressure side of the transmitter. 7.2 For accounting service in remote locations where electric power or instrument air is not available, bellows-type recording meters, equipped with 0-to-10 square-root charts and mechanical integrators may be used. 7.3 A pressure differential range of 2500 mm (100 in.) of water (dry calibration) is preferred for liquid service flowmeters. For gas, steam, or vapor service, meters shall have the following ranges in kPa abs (psia):



EGE 32-B-2 1993

(a) For static pressures less than 35 kPa gage (5 psig), the range in inches of water shall not exceed one-seventh of the static gage pressure. (b) For static pressures between 35 and 240 kPa gage (5 and 35 psig), the range shall be 500 mm (20 in.) of water. (c) For static pressure between 240 and 585 kPa gage (35 and 85 psig), the range shall be 1270 mm (50 in.) of water. (d) For static pressures above 585 kPa gage (85 psig), the range shall be 2500 mm (100 in.) of water.

7.4 Bellows-type pressure differential meters shall be equipped with overrange checks and used for the following services: (a) (b) Local indicators or recorders. Transmitters for integrators only.

7.5 Pressure differential transmitters with a diaphragm having negligible volumetric displacement shall be used unless otherwise approved by Mobil. Mercury shall not be used. Transmitters shall be close coupled to the orifice flow elements if access for maintenance exists from grade or fixed platform (as shown in API RP 550, Part I, Section 1, Figure 1-11) or mounted on a NPS 2 instrument stand with a three-valve manifold. Impulse line length may be extended to a maximum of 6 m (20 ft) for remote transmitters. Should severe vibrating conditions be anticipated, the meter shall be remotely mounted. 8. CRYOGENIC FLOW MEASUREMENT 8.1 Pressure differential transmitters in cryogenic applications [temperatures below !30C (!22F)] shall be self-draining; that is, the transmitters shall be elevated above connection points. If this is not possible, a gas purge or thermal insulation may be used subject to Mobil approval. 8.2 Manufacturers' recommendations shall be obtained in writing when flow measuring elements other than orifice plates are used in cryogenic service. 9. CALIBRATION AND TESTING 9.1 Meter runs in conformance with Section 6 do not require further calibration provided the flow medium specifications and rate remain within the bounds of the original design criteria. Low-flow orifice systems utilizing meter run diameters less than NPS 2 shall require flow laboratory calibration, since the pipe roughness factor cannot be calculated accurately for the smaller-diameter pipe. 9.2 Subject to Mobil approval, either a portable or a permanently installed meter prover may be used to verify meter calibration. Refer to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 4.