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TAISHA WORDLIST













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TAISHA WORDLIST
List 1 abacus --- aloof
abacus [ ] n.
an instrument for performing calculations by sliding counters along rods or in grooves
abacus:calculate=balance:weight
abandon [ ] vt.
to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly
abandon:inhibition=despair:hope=tranquility:agitation
Synonyms: unconstraint, unrestraint, desert, forsake
Sample: Einstein invented antigravity in desperation and abandoned it first chance he
got--but it may be the most powerful force in the universe.
abase [ ] v.
To lower in rank, prestige, or esteem
abase:prestige=damp:ardor
abase:status=shorten:length
curtail:duration=abase:strength
Synonyms: HUMBLE, bemean, cast down, debase, degrade, demean, humiliate, lower,
sink
Sample: The president is not willing to abase himself before the nation, and admit that
he made a mistake.
abash [ ] vt.
to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of:disconcert
unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement
embolden<>abash/faze
Synonyms: EMBARRASS , confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance,
faze, rattle
Sample: He was not at all abashed by her open admiration.
abate [ ] v.
to reduce in degree or intensity:MODERATE:to reduce in value or amount
abate:tax=alleviate:distress
abate:force=fade:loudness
abate:degree=discount:price
abate:force=attenuate:thickness
abate:intensity=fade:loudness
alleviate:intensity=abate:tax
abate:intensity=taper:width
thin:density/intensity=abate:length
abate<>intensify/promote
abate<>augment
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abate<>increase in intensity
Synonyms: ANNIHILATE , abolish, eradicate, exterminate, extirpate
Sample: Although their initial anger had abated somewhat, they continued to berate
the careless worker who had broken the machine.
abbreviate [ ] v.
to make briefer; especially:to reduce to a shorter form intended to stand for the whole
abbreviation:sentence=abridgment:essay
abbreviation:sentence=synopsis:narrative
abridge:word=abbreviate:letter
abbreviate<>extend
Synonyms: SHORTEN, abridge, curtail, cut, cut back, retrench, slash
Sample: Because we were running out of time, the lecturer had to abbreviate her
speech.
abdicate [ ] v
to relinquish (as sovereign power) formally
recant:belief=abdicate:throne
abdicate<>constitute
abdicate<>assume
abdicate<>usurp
Synonyms: DISCARD, RELINQUISH shed,slough, renounce, resign;
Sample: The king abdicated his throne and left the country.
aberrant [ ] adj.
deviating from the usual or natural type:ATYPICAL
aberrant:standard=digressive:topic
aberrant<>normal
Synonyms: ABNORMAL , anomalous, atypical, deviant, unrepresentative, untypical
Sample: The fact that he is late for our meeting is an aberration; he's normally on time.
abet [ ] v.
to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose
abet:assistance=counsel:guidance
abet:encouragement=elucidate:clarity
stymie<>abet
frustrate<>abet
abet<>thwart/impede
forestall<>abet
abet<>obstruct
Synonyms: INCITE, foment, instigate, provoke,stir (up)
Sample: She was unwilling to abet him in the swindle he had planned.
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abeyance [ ] n
temporary inactivity:SUSPENSION
abeyance<>continuance
Synonyms: abeyancy,doldrums, dormancy, interruption, latency, quiescence,
suspension
Sample: Yellow fever, the disease that killed 4,000 Philadelphians in 1793, and so
decimated Memphis, Tennessee, that the city lost its charter, has reappeared after nearly
two decades in abeyance in the Western Hemisphere.
abhor [ ] vt.
to regard with extreme repugnance
abhorrence:dislike=adoration:fondness
abhor<>greatly admire
Synonyms: HATE, abominate, detest, execrate, loathe, DESPISE, contemn, disdain,
Sample: She abhors bad table manners.
abiding [ ] adj.
to remain stable or fixed in a state
miscreant<>law-abiding individual
abiding<>evanescent
abiding<>ephemeral
Synonyms: CONTINUE, carry through, endure, last, perdure, persist
Sample: I have an abiding desire to become a teacher.
abject [ ] adj.
cast down in spirit
abject<>exultant
abject<>spirited/exciting
Synonyms: DOWNTRODDEN, underfoot
Sample: On the streets of New York the homeless live in abject poverty, huddling in
doorways to find shelter from the wind.
abjure [ ] v.
to renounce upon oath
abjure:reject=? ?
abjure<>espouse
abjure<>embrace
Synonyms: forswear, palinode, recall, recant, retract
Sample: He abjured his allegiance to the king.
abnegate [ ] v.
SURRENDER, RELINQUISH
abnegate<>reaffirm
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Sample: Though Rudolph and Duchess Flavia loved one another, their love was
doomed, for she had to wed the king; their act of abnegation was necessary to preserve
the kingdom.
abolitionism [ ] n.
principles or measures fostering abolition especially of slavery
anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery
abolitionist<>persisted in slavery
Sample: The abolitionists advocated freedom for the slaves.
aboveboard adj.
in a straightforward manner
surreptitious<>barefaced/aboveboard
chicanery<>aboveboard action
Synonyms: STRAIGHTFORWARD , forthright, plain dealing, straight
Sample: He is an honest businessperson; he is aboveboard with everyone.
abrasion [ ] n.
a wearing, grinding, or rubbing away by friction
lubricate:abrasion=seal:leakage
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
scuff:abrasion=heat:vaporization
abraded:friction=vaporized:heat
abrade<>augment
Sample: She was treated for contusions and abrasions.
abridge [ ] v.
to shorten by omission of words without sacrifice of sense:CONDENSE
abbreviation:sentence=abridgment:essay
abridge:length=attenuate:thickness
abridge:word=abbreviate:letter
amplify<>abridge
abridge<>extend in length
protract<>abridge
Synonyms: SHORTEN, abbreviate, curtail, cut, cut back, retrench, slash
Sample: Reader's Digest abridges long books so that people can read them quickly.
abrogate [ ] v.
to abolish by authoritative action:ANNUL
abrogate<>embrace/institute/uphold
Synonyms: ANNUL, vacate, ABOLISH, abate, annihilate, annul, invalidate, negate,
nullify, quash, undo, vitiate
Sample: He intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor.
abscond [ ] v.
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to depart secretly and hide oneself
abscond:leave=steal:take
abscond:depart=pilfer/sneak:take=secrete:store=lurk:wait
Synonyms: ESCAPE , break, bunk, decamp, flee, fly, scape
Sample: The teller absconded with the bonds and was not found.
absolve [ ] v.
to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt
exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir
hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve
absolve<>inculpate
Synonyms: EXEMPT, discharge, dispense, EXCULPATE, acquit, exonerate, vindicate
Sample: Though he refused any responsibility for the failure of the negotiations,
Stevenson had no right to absolve himself:it was his acrimony that had caused the
debacle.
abstain [ ] v.
to refrain deliberately and often with an effort of self-denial from an action or practice
mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain
Synonyms: constrain, curb, hold back, refrain, REFRAIN , withhold
Sample: Two senators abstained on the vote on the new law to raise taxes.
abstemious [ ] adj.
marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol
reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge
abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate
abstemious<>indulgence
Synonyms: abstentious, abstinent, continent, self-restraining, sober, temperate
abstinent [ ] adj.
voluntary forbearance especially from indulgence of an appetite or craving or from
eating some foods:ABSTENTION
Synonyms: ABSTEMIOUS, abstentious, continent, self-restraining, sober, temperate
Sample: The Catholic Church demands abstinence of its priests.
abstract [ ] vt.
having only intrinsic form with little or no attempt at pictorial representation or
narrative content
abstract<>elaborate
abstraction<>attention
Synonyms: hypothetical, ideal, theoretical, NEUTRAL, detached
Sample: To him, hunger was an abstract concept; he had never missed a meal.
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abstruse [ ] adj.
difficult to comprehend:RECONDITE
abstruse<>accessible/patent
Synonyms: RECONDITE, acroamatic, deep, esoteric, heavy, hermetic, occult, orphic,
profound, secret
Sample: That writer's ideas are abstruse.
abuse [ ] v
to attack in words:REVILE
declamation:grandiloquence=diatribe:abuse
polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
Synonyms: maltreat, mistreat, misuse, misapply, mishandle,
misimprove ,DECRY,depreciate, derogate
Sample: The poet W. H. Auden believed that the greatest poets of his age were almost
necessarily irresponsible, that the possession of great gifts engenders the propensity to
abuse them.
abysmal [ ]
adj.immeasurably low or wretched
stygian:dark=abysmal:low
Synonyms: BOTTOMLESS, fathomless, plumbless, plummetless, soundless,
unfathomable
Sample: His arrogance is exceeded only by his abysmal ignorance.
accede [ ] v.
to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand
accede<>demur
Synonyms: ASSENT, acquiesce, agree, consent, subscribe, yes
Sample: Human nature and long distances have made exceeding the speed limit a
cherished tradition in the state, so the legislators surprised no one when, acceding to
public practice, they rejected increased penalties for speeding.
accelerate [ ] v.
to move faster:gain speed
accelerate:speed=prolong:duration
expedite:process=accelerate:pace
accelerate<>retard
Synonyms: SPEED , hasten, hurry, quicken, shake up, step up, swiften
Sample: In our science class, we learn how falling bodies accelerate.
accessible [ ] adj.
capable of being understood or appreciated
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abstruse<>accessible/patent
Synonyms: OPEN, open-door, public, unrestricted, employable, operative, practicable,
usable
Sample: We asked our guide whether the ruins were accessible on foot.
accessory [ ] adj.
present in a minor amount and not essential as a constituent
accessory<>of primarily importance
Synonyms: AUXILIARY, adjuvant, ancillary, appurtenant, collateral, contributory,
subservient, subsidiary
Sample: She bought an attractive handbag as an accessory for her dress.
accidental [ ] adj.
occurring unexpectedly or by chance
inventiveness:accidental=effect:casual
safeguard:accident=hedge:loss
intentional:accidental=arrogant:humble
Synonyms: contingent, fluky, fortuitous, incidental, odd
Sample: Actual events in the history of life on Earth are accidental in that any outcome
embodies just one possibility among millions; yet each outcome can be rationally
interpreted.
acclimate [ ] vt.
to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation
acclimate<>make unfamiliar with
Synonyms: HARDEN , acclimatize, climatize, season, toughen
Sample: One of the difficulties of our present air age is the need of travellers to
acclimate themselves to their new and often strange environments.
accolade [ ] n.
an expression of praise
accolade<>cutting remark
accolade<>speak ill/derogate
accolade<>disapprobation
accolade<>criticism
accolade<>excoriate
accolade<>reprobate/ reproof
accolade<>denigration
accolade<>swearword
accolade<>denunciation
Synonyms: HONOR , award, badge, bays, decoration, distinction, kudos, laurels
Sample: In Hollywood, an "Oscar" is the highest accolade.
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accommodate [ ] v.
to provide with something desired, needed, or suited (as a helpful service, a loan, or
lodgings)
obliterate:remove=accommodate:supply
Synonyms: ADAPT, adjust, conformconvenience, favorHARBOR , bestow,
domicile, entertain, lodge
Sample: Every new theory not only must accommodate the valid predictions of the old
theory, but must also explain why those predictions succeeded within the range of that
old theory.
accomplice [ ] n.
one associated with another especially in wrongdoing
Synonyms: CONFEDERATE, abettor, accessory, coconspirator, conspirator
Sample: The police caught the thief and his accomplice, who was driving the car.
accost [ ] vt.
to approach and speak to often in a challenging or aggressive way
accost:approach=??
Synonyms: ADDRESS , call (to), greet, hail, salute
Sample: When the two young men accosted me, I was frightened because I thought
they were going to attack me.
accrete [ ] v.
ACCUMULATE
accrete:growth=erode:destruction
accrete:grow=inch:advance
Synonyms: cohere, cling ,adhere
accumulate [ ] vi.
to gather or pile up especially little by little:AMASS
dissipate<>accumulate
Synonyms: amass, cumulate, garner, hive, lay up, roll up, stockpile, store (up), uplay
Sample: As long as nations cannot themselves accumulate enough physical power to
dominate all others, they must depend on allies.
accuse [ ] v.
to charge with a fault or offense:BLAME
Synonyms: arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, inculpate, indict, tax
Sample: The old man could not have been accused of stinting his affection; his
conduct toward the child betrayed his adoration of her.
acerbity [ ] n.
Sourness of taste, character, or tone.
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acerbity<>saccharin
Synonyms: ACRIMONY, asperity, mordancy
Sample: The labor union and the company's management, despite their long history of
unfailingly acerbic disagreement on nearly every issue, have nevertheless reached an
unexpectedly swift, albeit still tentative, agreement on next year's contract.
acme n
the highest point or stage
acme:surpass=impossible:execute
acme:mountain=crest:wave
Synonyms: APEX , apogee, capstone, climax, culmination, meridian, peak, pinnacle,
summit, zenith
Sample: Welles's success in Citizen Kane marked the acme of his career as an actor;
never again did he achieve such popular acclaim.
acquiesce [ ] v.
to accept, comply, or submit tacitly or passively
intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend
acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical}
acquiesce<>resist
acquiesce<>defy
Synonyms: ASSENT, accede, agree, consent, subscribe, yes
Sample: Far from being unctuous, Pat was always loath to appear acquiescent.
acquisition [ ] n.
the act of acquiring
divestiture<>acquisition
Synonyms: ACQUIREMENT, accomplishment, achievement, attainment, finish
Sample: In contrast to the incuriosity with which the acquisition of language by young
children was once regarded, the process by which such learning occurs has now become
the object of scrutiny .
acquit [ ] vt.
to discharge completely
Synonyms: EXCULPATE, absolve, clear, disculpate, exonerate, vindicate
Sample: The widespread public shock at the news of the guilty verdict was caused
partly by biased news stories that had predicted acquittal.
acrid [ ] adj.
sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor:IRRITATING
grating:sound=acrid:odor
acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile
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stridency:sound=acridity:odor
acrid:odor=piercing:sound
acrid<>gentle
Synonyms: astringent, austere, bitter, harsh, sharp
Sample: The acrid odor of burnt gunpowder filled the room after the pistol had been
fired.
acrimonious [ ] adj.
caustic , biting , or rancorous especially in feeling, language, or manner
acrimonious<>harmonious
Synonyms: ANGRY, indignant, irate, ireful, mad, wrathful, wrathy, wroth, wrothful,
wrothy
Sample: His tendency to utter acrimonious remarks alienated his audience.
adamant [ ] adj.
unshakable or immovable especially in opposition:UNYIELDING
adamant:flexibility=refractory:control
impossible:execute=adamant:moved
adamant:yield=cautious:gamble
adamant<>vacillatory
Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE,inexorable,obdurate,relentless,rigid, uncompromising,
unswayable, unyielding
Sample: Although he attempted repeatedly to disabuse her of her conviction of his
insincerity, he was not successful; she remained adamant in her judgment.
adapt [ ] vt.
to make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation) often by modification
adapt<>remain unchanged
adapt<>unchangeable
Synonyms: accommodate, adjust, conform, fit, quadrate, reconcile, square
Sample: The form and physiology of leaves vary according tothe environment in
which they develop:for example, leaves display a wide range of adaptations to different
degrees of light and moisture. (9504)
addict [ ] vt.
to devote or surrender (oneself) to something habitually or obsessively
disabuse:error=rehabilitate:addiction
inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency
Sample: In his stupor, the addict was unaware of the events taking place around him.
adherent [ ] n.
one that adheres:as a follower of a leader, party, or profession
adherent<>forerunner
Synonyms: FOLLOWER, cohort, disciple, henchman, partisan, , sectary, sectator,
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supporter
Sample: In the wake of the scandal, the senator's one-time adherent quietly deserted
him.
adjacent [ ] adj.
having a common endpoint or border also immediately preceding or following
Synonyms: NEIGHBORING, contiguous, abutting, adjoining, approximal, bordering,
conterminous
Sample: Though their apartment lacked a full-scale dining room, an alcove adjacent to
the living room made an adequate breakfast nook for the young couple.
adjourn [ ] vi.
to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place
convoke<>adjourn
Synonyms: DEFER, delay, postpone, shelve, prorogate, prorogue, recess
Sample: The judge adjourned the trial so people could go to lunch.
adjunct [ ] n.
something joined or added to another thing but not essentially a part of it
adjunct<>essential element
Synonyms: APPENDAGE, accessory, appendix, appurtenance
Sample: I will entertain this concept as an adjunct to the main proposal.
ad lib [ ] adv.
without restraint or limit to speak, sing, or act without a script, saying whatever
words come into one's mind
ad lib:impromptu=aside:divergent
Synonyms: IMPROVISE, extemporize, improvisate
Sample: When the actor forgot her lines, she <v.> ad libbed her part.
admission [ ] n.
the act or process of admitting
lottery:raffle=ticket:admission
Synonyms: access, adit, admittance, entrance, entry, ingress, way
Sample: Many colleges state that a student must offer three years of a language as a
requisite for admission.
admonish [ ] v.
to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner
peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation
admonish:denounce=punish:pillory
apprise:information=admonish:warning
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pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove
alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonishery
Synonyms: REPROVE, call down, chide, lesson, monish, rebuke, reprimand, reproach
Sample: He admonished his listeners to change their wicked ways.
adore [ ] vt.
to regard with loving admiration and devotion
terror:apprehension=adoration:affection
fascination:interest=adoration:fondness=abhorrence:dislike
adulate:fawn=woo (love):adore
Synonyms: REVERE, reverence, venerate, worship, affection, idolize
Sample: Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen's novels has oscillated between adoration
and condescension; but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly
than did most of her literary admirers.
adroit [ ] adj.
having or showing skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations
loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly
adroit<>ungainly
ham-handed<>deft/adroit
Synonyms: DEXTEROUS, clever, deft, handy, SKILLFUL
Sample: The finesse and adroitness of the surgeon impressed the observers in the
operating room.
adulate [ ] v.
to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly
fulminate:criticize=adulate:flatter=scorn:reject
adulate:fawn=woo (love):adore
aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration
adulate<>scorn
adulation<>disdain
adulation<>somber affection
vituperate<>adulatory
adulation<>obloquy
adulate<>disparage
Sample: No one is neutral about Stephens; he inspires either uncritical adulation or
profound antipathy in those who work for him.
adulterate [ ] vt.
to corrupt, debase, or make impure by the addition of a foreign or inferior substance or
element stickler
stickler:approximation=purist:adulteration
embellish:austere=adulterate:pure
adulterate:purity=enervate:vigor
adulterate:pure=bolster/brace:weak
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demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway}
demanding:satisfy=closed-mind:sway
dismantle:unity=adulterate:pristine
unalloyed<>adulterated
tainted<>unadulterated
Synonyms: debase, doctor, dope (up), load, sophisticate
Sample: It is a crime to adulterate foods without informing the buyer.
adumbrate [ ] vt.
to suggest or disclose partially
revelation<>adumbration
Synonyms: SKETCH, block (out), chalk (out), characterize, draft, outline, rough (out),
skeleton, skeletonize
adversary [ ] n.
one that contends with, opposes, or resists:ENEMY
supplicant:humility=adversary:resistance
ally<>adversary
Synonyms: OPPONENT, antagonist, anti, con, match, opposer, oppugnant
Sample: Batman struggled to save Gotham City from the machinations of his wicked
adversary, the Joker.
advert [ ] vi.
to turn the mind or attention
advertent<>inattentive
Sample: Since you advert to this matter so frequently, you must regard it as important.
advertise [ ] vt.
to announce publicly especially by a printed notice or a broadcast
advertising:commercial=publishing:journal
Synonyms: DECLARE, announce, annunciate, blazon, broadcast, bruit (about),
proclaim, promulgate
Sample: When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications.
advocate [ ] vt.
to plead in favor of
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass
Synonyms: EXPONENT, champion, expounder, proponent, supporter
Sample: And Walzer advocates as the means of eliminating this tyranny and of
restoring genuine equality "the abolition of the power of money outside its sphere"
aerate [ ] v.
to supply (the blood) with oxygen by respiration
aerate:oxygen=hydrate:water
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aerate<>remove air from
aerial [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or occurring in the air or atmosphere
aerial:air=aquatic:water
Synonyms: AIRY, atmospheric, pneumatic, skyscraping, soaring, ethereal, vaporous,
vapory
Sample: The airplane did aerial tricks such as flying upside-down.
aesthetic [ ] n.
a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste and with the
creation and appreciation of beauty
aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge
gourmet:food=aesthetic:art
Sample: The eradication of pollution is not merely a matter of aesthetics, though the
majestic beauty of nature is indeed an important consideration.
affable [ ] adj.
characterized by ease and friendliness
affable<>irascible
testy<>affable
Synonyms: GRACIOUS, congenial, cordial, genial, sociable,sonsy, amiable, genial
Sample: Although he held a position of responsibility, he was an affable individual and
could be reached by anyone with a complaint.
affected [ ] adj.
assumed artificially or falsely:PRETENDED
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel
posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant
disaffected<>content/contented
affected<>natural
Sample: His affected mannerisms irritated may of us who had known him before his
promotion.
affection [ ] n.
tender attachment:FONDNESS
terror:apprehension=adoration:affection
embrace:affection=frown:displeasure=shrug:indifference
scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection
swagger:bravado=caress:affection
mercurial:mood=fickle:affection
obeisant:esteem=embrace:affection
antipathy<>affection
adulation<>somber affection
Synonyms: INTERESTED, concerned, implicated, involved, assumed, feigned,
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conscious
Sample: The old man could not have been accused of stinting his affection; his
conduct toward the child betrayed his adoration of her.
affidavit [ ] n.
a sworn statement in writing made especially under oath or on affirmation before an
authorized magistrateor officer
affidavit:statement=wedding:ceremony
Sample: The court refused to accept his statement unless he presented it in the form of
an affidavit.
affiliation [ ] n
to bring or receive into close connection as a member or branch
affiliation<>dissociation
Synonyms: ASSOCIATION, alliance ,combination ,conjointment ,conjunction ,
partnership
Sample: His affiliation with the political party was of short duration for he soon
disagreed with his colleagues.
affinity [ ] n.
likeness based on relationship or causal connection
affinity<>aversion
repugnance<>affinity
affinity<>antipathy
Synonyms: alikeness, analogy, comparison, resemblance, semblance, similarity, simile,
similitude
Sample: Although Georgia OKeeffe is best known for her affinity with the desert
landscape, her paintings of urban subjects attest to her longtime residency in New York
City.
afflict [ ] vt.
a:to distress so severely as to cause persistent suffering or anguish b:TROUBLE,
INJURE
Synonyms: TRIAL, calvary, cross, crucible, ordeal, tribulation, visitation
Sample: The "impostor syndrome" often afflicts those who fear that true
self-disclosure will lower them in others' esteem; rightly handled, however, candor may
actually enhance one's standing.
affluent [ ] adj.
having a generously sufficient and typically increasing supply of material possessions
affluent<>needy
impecunious<>wealthy/prosperous/affluent
Synonyms: RICH, moneyed, opulent, wealthy
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agenda [ ] n
a list or outline of things to be considered or done
minute:agenda=log:itinerary
syllabus:course=agenda:meeting:itinerary:trip=program:concert
Synonyms: PROGRAM, calendar, card, docket, programma, schedule, sked, timetable
Sample: We had so much difficulty agreeing upon an agenda that there was very little
time for the meeting.
aggrandize [ ] vt.
to make appear great or greater:praise highly
aggrandize<>disparage
aggrandize<>relegate
efface<>aggrandize
Synonyms: INCREASE, augment, boost, enlarge, expand, extend, heighten, magnify,
sublime, uprear
Sample: The history of the past quarter century illustrates how a President may
aggrandize his power to act aggressively in international affairs without considering the
wishes of Congress.
aggravate [ ] vt.
to make worse, more serious, or more severe:intensify unpleasantly
aggravate<>alleviate
console<>aggravate grief
allay<>increase the intensity of/aggravate/intensify
succor<>aggravate
Synonyms: INTENSIFY, deepen, enhance, heighten, intensate, magnify
Sample: I hurt my foot, then aggravated it by trying to walk too soon.
aggregate [ ] v.
to collect or gather into a mass or whole
coalesce<>disaggregate
disaggregate/disintegrate<>join together
aggregate<>isolated units
aggregate<>disperse
Synonyms: agglomerate, agglomeration, aggregation, conglomerate, conglomeration
Sample: The aggregate wealth of this country is staggering to the imagination.
aggressive [ ] adj.
Inclined to behave in a hostile fashion.
aggressive<>even-meaning
Synonyms: assertive, assertory, militant, pushful, pushing, pushy, self-assertive
Sample: Current data suggest that, although transitional states between fear and
18
aggression exist, fear and aggression are as distinct physiologically as they are
psychologically.
aggrieve [ ] vt.
to give pain or trouble to:DISTRESS
aggrieve<>gratify
Synonyms: DISTRESS, constrain, grieve, hurt, injure, pain, outrage, persecute
Sample: She is the aggrieved person whose fianc did not show up for their wedding.
agony [ ] n.
intense pain of mind or body:ANGUISH, TORTURE
painful:agonizing=important:paramount
agonized:distress=obsessed:concern
Synonyms: DISTRESS, dolor, misery, passion, suffering
Sample: She burned herself on the stove and was in agony.
airtight [ ] adj.
impermeable to air or nearly so
foolproof:fail=airtight:leak
Sample: The fish is packed in airtight cans.
alacrity [ ] n.
promptness in response:cheerful readiness
alacrity:prompt=acumen:shrewd
alacrity:apathetic=temerity:timid
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
alacrity<>dilatoriness/hesitance
alacrity<>recalcitrance
alacrity<>hesitance and reluctance
alacrity<>reluctant
alacrity<>sluggish
Synonyms: dispatch, expedition, goodwill, promptitude, readiness
Sample: He demonstrated his eagerness to serve by his alacrity in executing the orders
of his master.
albino [ ] n. r albinism
an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation
albino:pigment=prairie:tree
alchemy [ ] n.
a medieval chemical science and speculative philosophy aiming to achieve the
transmutation of the base metals into gold, the discovery of a universal cure for disease,
and the discovery of a means of indefinitely prolonging life
alchemy:chemistry=false drug:treatment
Sample: The changing of baser metals into gold was the goal of the students of
alchemy.
19
alibi [ ] n.
an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment
alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonishery
alibi:exculpate=sophism:deceive)
Synonyms: EXCUSE, plea, pretext, right
Sample: Though her alibi seemed implausible, it in fact turned out to be true.
align [ ] v.
to bring into line or alignment
aligned<>improperly adjusted
aligned<>irregular/{curved }/askew
aligned<>warped
aligned<>awry
Synonyms: LINE, allineate, line up, range
Sample: The worker aligned the chairs in straight rows in the meeting hall.
allay [ ] vt.
to subdue or reduce in intensity or severity:ALLEVIATE
allay<>increase the intensity of/aggravate/intensify
allay<>excite {compel }
Synonyms: RELIEVE, alleviate, assuage, lighten, mitigate, mollify, lull, tranquilize
allegiance [ ] n
devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause
pundits:authoritativeness=partisans:allegiance
renegade:allegiance=apostate:faith
Synonyms: FIDELITY, ardor, devotion, faithfulness, fealty, loyalty, piety
Sample: The allegiance of our allies is held by rather tenuous ties; let us hope they will
remain loyal.
allegory [ ] n.
the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or
generalizations abouthuman existence
allegory:fiction=??
Synonyms: figuration, symbolism, symbolization, typification, apologue, fable, myth,
parable
Sample: When Mrs. Malaprop criticizes Lydia for being "as headstrong as an allegory
on the banks of the Nile," she confuses "allegory" and "allegator" in a typical
malapropism.
alleviate [ ] v
RELIEVE, LESSEN
20
abate:tax=alleviate:distress
alleviate:intensity=abate:tax
alleviate:strength=dampen:ardor
alleviate:power=attenuate:force
alleviate:intensity=console:grief
alleviate<>exacerbate
Synonyms: RELIEVE, allay, assuage, ease, lighten, mitigate, mollify
Sample: This should alleviate the pain; if it does not, we shall have to use stronger
drugs.
alliterate [ ] v.
the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or
syllables
alliterate:remove=blazon:efface
Sample: The sentence, "Happy Harry hates to hurry" uses alliteration.
allowance [ ] n.
a share or portion allotted or granted
pittance:allowance=rivulet:stream
Synonyms: RATION, allotment, apportionment, measure, meed, part, portion,
quantum, quota, share
Sample: Despite some allowances for occupational mobility, the normal expectation of
seventeenth-century English society was that the child's vocation would develop along
familial lines; divergence from the career of one's parents was therefore limited.
allude [ ] vi.
to make indirect reference; broadly:REFER
intimate:communicate=allude:refer
allude<>mention explicitly
Synonyms: REFER , advert, bring up, point (out)
Sample: Although scientists claim that the seemingly literal language of their reports
is more precise than the figurative language of fiction, the language of science, like all
language, is inherently allusive.
aloft [ ] adv.
at or toward the upper rigging.
founder<>stay aloft
grounded<>aloft
founder<>keep aloft
Sample: The sailor climbed aloft into the rigging.
aloof [ ] adj.
removed or distant either physically or emotionally
politic:offend=aloof:associated
gregarious<>aloof
21
Synonyms:
UNSOCIABLE ,cool,reserved,solitary,standoffish,unapproachable,unbending,uncompa
nionable
Sample: Although some girls were attracted by Mark's reserve, Judy was put off by it,
for she felt his aloofness indicated a lack of openness.

List 2 alphabetical --- arresting
alphabetical [ ] adj.
arranged in the order of the letters of the alphabet
dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological
Sample: He put the words in the list in alphabetical order.
altruism [ ] n.
unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others
altruist:selflessness=connoisseur:expertise
altruism<>egocentric
Synonyms: CHARITABLE, benevolent, eleemosynary, good, humane, humanitarian,
philanthropic
Sample: That rich woman is altruistic; she pays the expenses for poor students to go to
college.
amalgamate [ ] v.
to merge into a single body
amalgamate<>separate
amalgamate<>isolate
amalgamate<>disintegration
Synonyms: MIX , admix, compound, fuse, interfuse, intermingle, intermix, meld,
merge, mingle
Sample: The unions will attempt to amalgamate their groups into one national body.
amass [ ] v.
to collect for oneself:ACCUMULATE
Synonyms: ACCUMULATE, cumulate, garner, hive, lay up, roll up, stockpile, store
(up), uplay
Sample: The miser's aim is to amass and hoard as much gold as possible.
ambiguous [ ] adj.
doubtful or uncertain especially from obscurity or indistinctness
equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal
ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore
ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth
equivocation:ambiguous=oxymoron:incongruous
watershed<>routine { ambiguity }
22
Synonyms: OBSCURE,amphibological,equivocal,opaque,uncertain, unclear,
unexplicit, unintelligible
Sample: His ambiguous instructions misled us; we did not know which road to take.
ambivalent [ ] adj.
continual fluctuation (as between one thing and its opposite)
Sample: The senators remark that she is ambivalent about running for a second term
is persuasive given the extremely apathetic fund-raising activities of her campaign
committee.
amble [ ] vi.
to walk slowly or leisurely; stroll
amble:walk=chat:talk
tint:suffuse=amble:wander
walk:amble=draw:doodle
amble<>step quickly
Synonyms: SAUNTER, bummel, drift, linger, mope, mosey, muck, stroll
Sample: When she first mounted the horse, she was afraid to urge the animal to go
faster than a gentle amble.
ambrosial [ ] adj.
something extremely pleasing to taste or smell
mellifluous:music=ambrosial:food
Synonyms: luscious, yummy ,aromal, aromatic, balmy, fragrant, perfumed
Sample: ambrosia was supposed to give immortality to any human who ate it.
ameliorate [ ] vt.
to make better or more tolerable
ameliorate:promote=??
amelioration:improve=??
ameliorate<>aggravate
demoralize <>invigorate { ameliorate }
damper<>ameliorate
Synonyms: IMPROVE, amend, better, help, meliorate
Sample: Many social workers have attempted to ameliorate the conditions of people
living in the slums.
amenity [ ] n.
something that conduces to comfort, convenience, or enjoyment
amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful
ameniable<>inimical
Synonyms: agreeability, agreeableness, amiability, cordiality, enjoyableness, geniality,
gratefulness, pleasance, pleasantness, sweetness and light
23
Sample: The host of the party began with the usual amenities of introducing himself
and his guests.
amiable [ ] adj.
being friendly, sociable, and congenial
inimical<>friendly/amiable/amicable
Synonyms: complaisant, easy, good-humored, good-natured, good-tempered, lenient,
mild, obliging
Sample: His amiable disposition pleased all who had dealings with him.
amicable [ ] adj.
characterized by friendly goodwill:PEACEABLE
inimical<>friendly/amiable/amicable
Synonyms: HARMONIOUS , amical, congenial, friendly
Sample: The dispute was settled in an amicable manner with no harsh words.
amiss [ ] adj.
in a faulty way:IMPERFECTLY
Synonyms: faultily, incorrectly, wrongly
Sample: Seeing her frown, he wondered if anything were amiss.
amorphous [ ] adj.
having no definite form:SHAPELESS
amorphous:shape=errant:course
amorphous:shape=wandering:course
Synonyms: FORMLESS, inchoate, shapeless, unformed, unshaped
Sample: John was subject to panic attacks that left him prey to vague, amorphous
fears:he knew he was terrified, but could neither define nor explain the cause of his
terror.
amphibian [ ] n.
any of a class (Amphibia) of cold-blooded vertebrates (as frogs, toads, or salamanders)
intermediate in many characters between fishes and reptiles and having gilled aquatic
larvae and air-breathing adults
eaglet:bird=fawn:mammal {frog:amphibian}
Sample: Frogs are classified as amphibian.
amplify [ ] vt.
to make larger or greater (as in amount, importance, or intensity):INCREASE
mute<>amplify
Synonyms: EXPAND , dilate, distend, inflate, swell
Sample: Her attempts to amplify her remarks were drowned out by the jeers of the
24
audience.
amplitude [ ] n.
the quality or state of being ample:FULLNESS
amplitude<>meagerness
Synonyms: BREADTH , comprehensiveness, fullness, scope, wideness
Sample: The football stadium has seating space of great amplitude.
amulet [ ] n.
a charm (as an ornament) often inscribed with a magic incantation or symbol to protect
the wearer against evil (as disease or witchcraft) or to aid him
amulet:evil=helmet:injury
Synonyms: CHARM, fetish, juju, luck, mascot, periapt, phylactery, talisman, zemi
Sample: Around her neck she wore the amulet that the witch doctor had given her.
anaerobic [ ] adj.
living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen
anaerobic<>living in oxygen
anaerobic<>{respiration}
analgesic [ ] n.
insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness
analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation
aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs
pain:analgesic=sensation:anesthetic
pain:analgesic=symptom:palliative
analgesia:pain=simplify:complexity
tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden
Synonyms: ANODYNE , anesthetic, pain-killer
Sample: The analgesic qualities of his lotion will provide temporary relief.
analogy [ ] n.
a resemblance in some particulars between things otherwise unlike:SIMILARITY
b:comparison based on such resemblance
disparate<>analogous
Synonyms: LIKENESS, affinity, alikeness, comparison, resemblance, semblance,
similarity, simile, similitude
Sample: Your analogy is not a good one because the two situations are not similar.
analysis [ ] n.
separation of a whole into its component parts
measure:dimension=analyze:nature
synthesis<>analysis
Synonyms: breakdown, breakup, dissection, resolution
Sample: Though it would be unrealistic to expect Barnard to have worked out all of
25
the limitations of his experiment, he must be criticized for his neglect of quantitative
analysis.
anarchist [ ] n.
one who rebels against any authority, established order, or ruling power
anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery
anarchist:rebel=apologist:defend
apologist:defend=anarchist:rebel
anarchy<>order
Synonyms: REBEL, anarch, insurgent, insurrectionist, malcontent, mutineer,
revolter
Sample: Only the total overthrow of all governmental regulations would satisfy the
anarchist.
anathema [ ] n.
the denunciation of something as accursed
panegyric<>anathema
Synonyms: CURSE , commination, imprecation, malediction, malison
Sample: He heaped anathema upon his foe.
ancestor [ ] n.
one from whom a person is descended and who is usually more remote in the line of
descent than a grandparent
heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator
scion<>ancestor
Synonyms: antecedent(s), ascendant, forebear, forefather, primogenitor, progenitor
Sample: He was proud of his genealogy and constantly referred to the achievements of
his ancestors..
anecdote [ ] n.
a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident
anecdote:amusement=lecture:instruction={caption:illustration}
skit:play=anecdote:narrative
Synonyms: narration, narrative, tale, yarn
Sample: The anecdote was in execrable taste and shocked the audience.
anemic [ ] adj.
lacking force, vitality, or spirit
anemic<>strong/hale
Synonyms: PALE, bloodless, pallid, waterish, watery
anesthetic [ ] n.
lacking awareness or sensitivity
analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation
aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs
26
pain:analgesic:sensation:anesthetic
soporific:alertment=anesthetic:pain
sensation<>anesthesia
Synonyms: ANODYNE, analgesic, pain-killer
Sample: His monotonous voice acted like an anesthetic; his audience was soon asleep.
anhydrous [ ] adj.
free from water and especially water of crystallization
anhydrous<>wet
animation [ ] n.
possessing or characterized by life:ALIVE
lassitude<>vim/animation
Sample: Her animated expression indicated a keenness of intellect.
animus [ ] n.
a usually prejudiced and often spiteful or malevolent ill will
animus<>friendly
Synonyms: ENMITY, animosity, antagonism, antipathy, hostility, rancor
Sample: The animus of the speaker became obvious to all when he began to indulge in
sarcastic and insulting remarks.
annals [ ] n.
a record of events arranged in yearly sequence
dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological
Synonyms: chronicle
Sample: In the annals of this period, we find no mention of democratic movements.
annoy [ ] vt.
to disturb or irritate especially by repeated acts
testy:annoy=tractable:control
mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy
hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed
maudlin:sentimental=peeved:annoyed
patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed
testy:annoy=hesitate:balk
Synonyms: abrade, bother, chafe, exercise, fret, gall, irk, provoke, ruffle, vex
Sample: Although Tom was aware that it would be impolitic to display annoyance
publicly at the sales conference, he could not hide his irritation with the client's
unreasonable demands.
annul [ ] v.
to declare or make legally invalid or void
annul<>make legal
annul<>reaffirm
27
Synonyms: ABOLISH, abate, abrogate, annihilate, invalidate, negate, nullify, quash,
undo, vitiate
Sample: The parents of the eloped couple tried to annul the marriage.
anodyne [ ] n.
something that soothes, calms, or comforts
Synonyms: analgesic, anesthetic, pain-killer
Sample: His pain was so great that no anodyne could relieve it.
anomalous [ ] adj.
inconsistent with or deviating from what is usual, normal, or expected:IRREGULAR,
UNUSUAL
anomaly:paradigmatic=blemish:flawless
anomalous<>typical/conformity to norms
Synonyms: ABNORMAL, aberrant, atypical, deviant, deviative, heteroclite,
preternatural, unrepresentative, untypical
Sample: He was placed in the anomalous position of seeming to approve procedures
that he despised.
anonymous [ ] adj.
not named or identified
anonymous:identify=nonchalant:excite
Synonyms: innominate, nameless, undesignated, unnamed
Sample: The donor of the gift asked the college not to mention him by name; the dean
readily agreed to respect his anonymity.
antagonize [ ] vt.
to incur or provoke the hostility of
cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize
placate<>antagonize
synergic<>antagonistic
propitiate<>antagonize
mollify<>antagonize/{ire}
Sample: Marshall's confrontational style could alienate almost anyone:he even
antagonized a board of directors that included a number of his supporters and that had a
reputation for not being easily provoked.
antediluvian [ ] adj.
made, evolved, or developed a long time ago
antediluvian:age=colossal:size
Synonyms: ANCIENT, aged, age-old, antique, hoary, Noachian, old, timeworn,
venerable
Sample: The antediluvian customs had apparently not changed for thousands of years.
28
anterior [ ] adj. coming before in time or development
anterior<>ensuing
Synonyms: PRECEDING, antecedent, foregoing, former, past, precedent, previous,
prior
Sample: The head of an insect is located on the anterior part of its body.
anthology [ ] n.
a collection of selected literary pieces or passages or works of art or music
compendium:summary=anthology:collection
Synonyms: album, ana, analects, florilegium, garland, miscellany, omnibus, posy
Sample: She received an anthology of the works of 20th century American poets as a
gift for her birthday.
antic [ ] adj
characterized by clownish extravagance or absurdity
facetious:speech=antic:behavior
Synonyms: PRANK, caper, dido(es), frolic, lark, monkeyshine(s), shenanigan,
shine(s), tomfoolery, trick
Sample: I can watch the Marx brothers' zany antics for hours.
anticipatory [ ] adj.
to give advance thought, discussion, or treatment to
retrospective<>anticipatory
Synonyms: EXPECTANT, anticipant, anticipative, atiptoe, expecting
Sample: The skeleton of a primitive. bird that was recently discovered indicated that
this ancient creature anticipated todays birds in that, unlike earlier birds and unlike
reptilian ancestors, it had not a tooth in its head.
antidote [ ] n.
a remedy to counteract the effects of poison
antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation
remedy:disease=antidote:poisoning
Synonyms: REMEDY, corrective, counteractant, counteractive, counteragent,
countermeasure, counterstep, cure
Sample: We must seek an antidote for whatever toxic substance he has eaten.
antipathy [ ] n.
settled aversion or dislike:DISTASTE
antipathy<>affection
affinity<>antipathy
Synonyms: ENMITY, animosity, animus, antagonism, hostility, rancor
Sample: No one is neutral about Stephens; he inspires either uncritical adulation or
29
profound antipathy in those who work for him.
antiquated [ ] adj
existing since or belonging to earlier times:ANCIENT
Synonyms: ANCIENT , aged, age-old, antediluvian, hoary, Noachian, old, timeworn,
venerable
Sample: Contrary to the antiquated idea that the eighteenth century was a tranquil
island of elegant assurance, evidence reveals that life for most people was filled with
uncertainty and insecurity.
antiseptic [ ] n.
opposing sepsis, putrefaction, or decay;
oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect
Sample: It is advisable to apply an antiseptic to any wound, no matter how slight or
insignificant.
anvil [ ] n.
a heavy usually steel-faced iron block on which metal is shaped
hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar :=:()
Sample: After heating the iron horseshoe in the forge, the blacksmith picked it up with
his tongs and set it on the anvil.
apathy [ ] n.
lack of feeling or emotion:IMPASSIVENESS
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic
Synonyms: impassivity, insensibility, phlegm, stoicism, stolidity, unresponsiveness
Sample: The senators remark that she is ambivalent about running for a second term
is persuasive given the extremely apathetic fund-raising activities of her campaign
committee.
apex [ ] n.
the highest or culminating point
Synonyms: TOP, crest, crown, fastigium, peak, roof, summit, vertex
Sample: He was at the apex of his career.
aphorism [ ] n.
a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment:ADAGE
brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature
euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffusive
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature
Synonyms: MAXIM, apothegm, axiom, brocard, dictum, gnome, moral, rule, truism
Sample: In response to the follies of today's commercial and political worlds, the
author does not express inflamed indignation, but rather affects the detachment and
30
smooth aphoristic prose of an eighteenth-century wit.
apiary [ ] n.
a place where bees are kept; especially:a collection of hives or colonies of bees kept
for their honey
apiary:bee=cage:pet
Sample: Although he spent many hours daily in the apiary, he was very seldom stung
by a bee.
apocalyptic [ ] adj.
forecasting the ultimate destiny of the world:PROPHETIC
apocalyptic:prophetic=inconsequential:illogical
apocalyptic<>inconsequential
Synonyms: PROPHETIC, Delphian, fatidic, mantic, oracular, prophetical, sibylline,
vatic, vaticinal
Sample: His apocalyptic remarks were dismissed by his audience as wild surmises.
apocrypha [ ] n.
writings or statements of dubious authenticity
apocryphal:authentic=??
Sample: To impress his friends, Tom invented apocryphal tales of his adventures in the
big city.
apologist [ ] n.
one who speaks or writes in defense of someone or something
saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend
apologist:defend=anarchist:rebel
disciple:follow=apologist:defend
heretic:unconformity=apologist:defend
patron:support=apologist:defend
apologist<>critic/detractor
Sample: The woman accepted his apology for spilling coffee on her dress.
apophasis [ ] n.
Allusion to something by denying that it will be mentioned, as in I will not bring up
my opponent's questionable financial dealings
apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox
apophasis:claim={caprice:deliberate}
apoplectic [ ] adj.
greatly agitated
apoplectic:angry=emaciated:thin
apoplectic:calmness=callow:mature
apoplectic<>calm
Sample: When he heard the bad news, he became apoplectic.
apostasy [ ] n.
renunciation of a religious faith
apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy
31
apostasy<>fidelity
Synonyms: DEFECTION, desertion, falseness, recreancy, tergiversation
Sample: Because he switched from one party to another, his former friends shunned
him as an apostate.
apostrophe [ ] n
a mark ' used to indicate the omission of letters or figures, the possessive case, or the
plural of letters or figures
apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence
Sample: An apostrophe is used in contractions ("isn't," "doesn't") and in possessives
("that man's wife").
apothecary [ ] n
one who prepares and sells drugs or compounds for medicinal purposes
apothecary:medicine=butcher:meat {librarian:book }
Sample: In Holland, apothecaries still sell spices as well as ointments and pills.
appall [ ] vt.
to overcome with consternation, shock, or dismay
appall<>embolden/nerve
encourage<>appall
Synonyms: DISMAY , consternate, daunt, horrify, shake
Sample: We were appalled by the horrifying conditions in the city's jails.
apparel [ ] vt.
to put clothes on:DRESS
gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak
tonsorial:hair=sartorial:apparel
Synonyms: CLOTHE, array, attire, clad, dress, enclothe, garb, garment, raiment
Sample: XYZ Company is a manufacturer of ladies' apparel.
appeal [ ] vi.
to make an earnest request
remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal
Synonyms: BEG, beseech, brace, crave, entreat, implore, importune, plead, pray,
supplicate
Sample: This poetry is not provincial; it is more likely to appeal to an international
audience than is poetry with strictly regional themes.
appealing [ ] adj.
having appeal:PLEASING
noisome<>appealing
Synonyms: ATTRACTIVE , alluring, attracting, bewitching, captivating, charming,
32
enchanting, fascinating, seductive, siren
appease [ ] vt.
to bring to a state of peace or quiet:CALM
roil<>appease
roil<>clarify
vex<>pacify/appease/soothe
appease<>rile
Synonyms: PACIFY, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, propitiate, sweeten
Sample: We have discovered that, when we try to appease our enemies, we encourage
them to make additional demands.
appellation [ ] n.
A name, title, or designation.
foreword:introductory=appellation:designate
Synonyms: NAME ,appellative, cognomen, compellation, denomination, designation,
nomen, style, title
Sample: He was amazed when the witches hailed him with his correct appellation.
appetite [ ] n.
an inherent craving
appetite:indulge=??
voracity<>lack of appetite
Synonyms: DESIRE , appetition, craving, itch, lust, passion, urge
Sample: A lack of appetite may be indicative of a major mental or physical disorder.
applause [ ] n.
approval publicly expressed
mirth:laughter=approval:applause
approve:applause=?:?
Synonyms: acclaim, acclamation, plaudit(s)
Sample: The speaker was shocked at the lack of applause from the audience.
applicant [ ] n.
one who applies
remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal
Synonyms: CANDIDATE, aspirant, hopeful, seeker
Sample: We have 10 applicants for the position of secretary..
appoint [ ] vt.
to name officially
appoint:official=cast:actor
Synonyms: DESIGNATE, finger, make, name, nominate, tap
33
Sample: After his appointment to this emiment position, he seldom had time for his
former friends.
apposite [ ] adj.
highly pertinent or appropriate:APT
apposite<>extraneous
Synonyms: RELEVANT, ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apropos,
germane, material, pertinent, pointful
Sample: He was always able to find the apposite phrase, the correct expression for
every occasion.
appreciable [ ] adj.
capable of being perceived or measured
appreciable<>imperceptible
ponderable<>inappreciable
Synonyms: PERCEPTIBLE, detectable, discernible, observable, palpable, sensible,
tangible
Sample: I can find no appreciable differences in the witnesses' descriptions of the
accident; they seem the same.
apprehension [ ] n.
suspicion or fear especially of future evil:FOREBODING
apprehension:terror=affection:adoration
Synonyms: apprehensiveness, foreboding, misgiving, premonition, prenotion, presage,
presentiment
Sample: The parents were filled with apprehension about letting their 19-year-old
daughter drive across country alone.
apprentice [ ] n.
an inexperienced person:NOVICE
Synonyms: NOVICE, beginner, colt, freshman, neophyte, newcomer, novitiate, rookie,
tenderfoot, tyro
Sample: It was not the change in office technologybut rather the separation of
secretarial workpreviously seen as an apprenticeship for beginning managersfrom
administrative work that in the 1880s created a new class of "dead-end" jobs
thenceforth considered "womens work."
approbation n.
COMMENDATION, PRAISE
praise:approbation=demur:objection
censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible
endorse:approbation=??
34
execration<>approbation
Synonyms: approval, benediction, blessing, favor, OK (or okay)
Sample: A number of writers who once greatly disparaged the literary critic have
recently recanted, substituting approbation for their former criticism.
appropriate [ ] adj.
especially suitable or compatible:FITTING
meet<>inappropriate/unsuitable
apt<>extremely inappropriate
measured<>inappropriate
Synonyms: FIT , applicable, apt, befitting, felicitous, fitting, just, meet, proper,
suitable
Sample: The demise of the rigorous academic curriculum in high school resulted, in
part, from the progressive rhetoric that sanctioned the study of subjects previously
thought inappropriate as part of school learning.
appropriate [ ] v.
to take or make use of without authority or right
lurk:wait=abscond:depart/{purloin:appropriate}
lurk:concealment=purloin:appropriation
Synonyms: STEAL , annex, filch, lift, pilfer, pinch, purloin, snitch, swipe
Sample: The ranch owners appropriated the lands that had originally been set aside for
the Indians' use.
approve [ ] vt.
to have or express a favorable opinion of
mirth:laughter=approval:applause
approve:applause=?:?
substantiate<>disapprove
Synonyms: accept, approbate, countenance, favor, go (for), hold (with)
Sample: The public approved the condign punishment for the crime.
approximate [ ] adj.
nearly correct or exact
paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise
stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration
Sample: Thusfor instanceit may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the
Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this
atombut only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of
spinmagnetic dipoleand relativistic effectsand that this corrected equation is itself
only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical
35
equations.
apropos [ ] adj.
being both relevant and opportune
apropos<>irrelevant { straight, uniform, symmetrical }
Synonyms: RELEVANT, ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apposite,
germane, material, pertinent, pointful
Sample: I find your remarks apropos of the present situation timely and pertinent.
apt [ ] adj.
unusually fitted or qualified:READY
apt<>extremely inappropriate
apt<>unlikely
aptness<>unsuitability
Synonyms: given, inclined, liable, likely, prone, FIT , appropriate, befitting, felicitous,
fitting, happy, just, meet, proper, suitable
Sample: Aptly enough, this work so imbued with the notion of changing times and
styles has been constantly revised over the years, thereby reflecting its own mutability.
aquatic [ ] adj.
growing or living in or frequenting water
aerial:air=aquatic:water
Sample: We have been able to explore the terrestrial regions much more thoroughly
than the aquatic or celestial regions.
aqueduct [ ] n.
a conduit for water
aqueduct:water=pipeline:gas=vessel:blood
Synonyms: CHANNEL , canal, conduit, course, duct, watercourse
Sample: Many aqueducts from ancient Roman times still stand today near the
Mediterranean Sea.
aquifer [ ] n.
a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel
shale:lode=well:aquifer
arachnid [ ] n.
any of a class (Arachnida) of arthropods comprising chiefly terrestrial invertebrates,
including the spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks, and having a segmented body divided
into two regions of which the anterior bears four pairs of legs but no antennae
spider:arachnid=orange:fruit
arbor [ ] n.
a shelter of vines or branches or of latticework covered with climbing shrubs or vines
arbor:shelter=hedgerow:fence
Sample: The rose arbor was beautiful when the roses were in bloom.
arboreal [ ] adj.
36
of, relating to, or resembling a tree
arboreal:trees=sidereal:stars
finch:bird=arboretum:tree
Sample: Note how well the somewhat greenish coat of the sloth enables it to blend in
with its arboreal surroundings.
archaic [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or characteristic of an earlier or more primitive time:ANTIQUATED
evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency
meteoric:constancy=archaic:currency
archaic<>current
Synonyms: OLD-FASHIONED, antiquated, antique, bygone, dated, old, old-timey,
outdated, out-of-date
Sample: "Methinks," "thee," and "thou" are archaic words that are no longer part of
our normal vocabulary.
archetype [ ] n.
the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or
copies:PROTOTYPE; also:a perfect example
harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify
Synonyms: MODEL , beau ideal, ensample, example, exemplar, ideal, mirror,
paradigm, pattern, standard
Sample: The Brooklyn Bridge was the archetype of the many spans that now connect
Manhattan with Long Island and New Jersey.
archipelago [ ] n.
an expanse of water with many scattered islands
range:mountain=chain:link={archipelago:island }
glade:wood=oasis:desert=archipelago:ocean
grove:trees=archipelago:islands
galaxy:stars=archipelago:islands
Sample:When he looked at the map and saw the archipelagoes in the South Seas, he
longed to visit them.
architect [ ] n.
a person who designs buildings and advises in their construction
choreographer:movement=architect:building {sculptor:statue} choreographer:To plan
out or oversee the movement, development, or details of; orchestrate
Sample: Though one cannot say that Michelangelo was an impractical designer, he
was, of all nonprofessional architects known, the most adventurous in that he was the
least constrained by tradition or precedent. (9510)
archive [ ] n.
a place in which public records or historical documents are preserved
archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon
37
archive:records=museum:artifacts
book:library=file:archive {performance:theatre}
Synonyms: LIBRARY, athenaeum
Sample: The National Archives contain information so seductive that researchers have
been known never to publish because they cannot bear to bring their studies to an end.
arctic [ ] adj.
bitter cold:FRIGID
torrid<>arctic
Synonyms: COLD , chill, chilly, cool, freezing, frosty, gelid, glacial, icy, nippy
Sample: In part of the Arctic, the land grades into the landfast ice so imperceptibly that
you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea.
ardor [ ] n.
extreme vigor or energy:INTENSITY
assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor
alleviate:strength=dampen:ardor
torpor<>ardor
Synonyms: PASSION , calenture, enthusiasm, fervor, fire, hurrah, zeal
Sample: He is full of ardor for her.
arduous [ ] adj.
hard to accomplish or achieve:DIFFICULT
arduous<>facile
Synonyms: HARD, difficult, effortful, labored, laborious, operose, rough, strenuous,
toilsome, uphill
Sample: There is something incongruous about the way the building of monasteries
proliferated in eighteenth-century Bavaria, while in the rest of the Western world
religious ardor was diminishing and church building was consequently declining.
argot [ ] n.
an often more or less secret vocabulary and idiom peculiar to a particular group
argot<>standard language/common verbalism
Synonyms: DIALECT , cant, jargon, lingo, patois, patter, slang, vernacular
Sample: In the argot of the underworld, she "was taken for a ride."
arid [ ] adj.
excessively dry
marsh:sodden=desert:arid
arid<>damp
Synonyms: DRY , bone-dry, droughty, moistureless, sere, thirsty, unwatered, waterless
Sample: The cactus had adapted to survive in an arid environment.
38
armory [ ] n.
a place where arms and military equipment are stored
pantry:food=armory:weapons
Synonyms: arsenal, depot, dump, magazine
Sample: An armory often serves as a military headquarters.
arrest [ ] vt.
to make inactive
arrest<>vitalize
Synonyms: check, halt, interrupt, stall, stay
Sample: medicine brought an arrest to the spread of his cancer.
arresting [ ] adj.
catching the attention:STRIKING, IMPRESSIVE
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
arresting<>banal
Synonyms: NOTICEABLE, arrestive, conspicuous, marked, outstanding, pointed,
prominent, remarkable, salient, signal
Sample: It has thus generally been by way of the emphasis on oral literary creativity
that these Chicano writerswhose English language works are sometimes uninspired
developed the powerful and arresting language that characterized their
Spanish-language works.

List 3 arrhythmic --- bigot
arrhythmic [ ] adj.
lacking rhythm or regularity
arrhythmic<>regular
arrogance [ ] n
a feeling or an impression of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or
presumptuous claims
mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory
intentional:accidental=arrogant:humble
arrogance:defer=lassitude:stir
Synonyms: PRIDE , disdain, disdainfulness, haughtiness, hauteur, loftiness, morgue,
superbity, superciliousness
Sample: The arrogance of the nobility was resented by the middle class.
arroyo [ ] n.
a brook; a creek a water-carved gully or channel
39
grotto:cavern=arroyo:channel
Synonyms: RAVINE, chasm, cleft, clough, clove, gap, gorge, gulch
Sample: Until the heavy rains of the past spring, this arroyo had been a dry bed.
arsenal [ ] n.
a:an establishment for the manufacture or storage of arms and military equipment b:a
collection of weapons
archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon
Synonyms: ARMORY, depot, dump
Sample: The military maintains arsenals all over the country.
articulate [ ] vt.
to give clear and effective utterance to:put into words
ratiocination:thinking=articulation:talking
Synonyms: VOCAL , eloquent, fluent, smooth-spoken
Sample: Her articulate presentation of the advertising campaign impressed her
employers.
artifacts [ ] n.
something created by humans usually for a practical purpose; especially:an object
remaining from a particular period
archive:records=museum:artifacts
Sample: Archaeologists debated the significance of the artifacts discovered in the ruins
of Asia Minor and came to no conclusion.
artifice [ ] n.
false or insincere behavior
artifice<>candor
Synonyms: CUNNING, art, artfulness, cageyness, canniness, craft, craftiness, foxiness,
slyness, wiliness
Sample: The Trojan War proved to the Greeks that cunning and artifice were often
more effective than military might.
artless [ ] adj.
free from guile or craft:sincerely simple
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless
artless<>cunning/guileful
artlessness<>urbanity
sly<>artless
artless<>disingenuous
Synonyms: NATURAL, ingenuous, naive, simple, unaffected, unartful, unartificial,
unschooled, unsophisticated, unstudied
Sample: Early critics of Emily Dickinson's poetry mistook for simplemindedness the
40
surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed with such cunning.
ascendant [ ] n.
governing or controlling influence:DOMINATION
ascendant<>having no influence
ascendant<>having no power
Synonyms: SUPREMACY, ascendancy, dominance, domination, dominion,
masterdom, preeminence, preponderance, prepotence, sovereignty
Sample: In an age without radio or recordings, an age dominated by print, fiction
gained its greatest ascendancy.
ascent [ ] n.
an upward slope or rising grade:ACCLIVITY
Synonyms: ascension, rise, rising
Sample: The ascent of the hummock is not difficult and the view from the hilltop is
ample reward tor the effort.
ascetic [ ] adj.
austere in appearance, manner, or attitude
glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self-denial
ascetic:self-denial=busybody:intrusive
sybarite<>ascetic
voluptuary<>ascetic
indulgent<>ascetic
ascetic<>voluptuary
ascetic<>sumptuous
hedonist<>ascetic
Synonyms: SEVERE, astringent, austere, mortified, stern
Sample: The wealthy young man could not understand the ascetic life led by the
monks.
aseptic [ ] adj.
preventing infection
aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs
Sample: Hospitals succeeded in lowering the mortality rate as soon as they introduced
asceptic conditions.
askew [ ] adj.
out of line:AWRY
aligned<>askew{curve}
Sample: When he placed his hat askew upon his head, his observers laughed.
aspect [ ] n.
a position facing a particular direction:EXPOSURE
transfigure:aspect=transfer:location {transfix:attention}
Synonyms: APPEARANCE, look, mien, seeming
41
Sample: The prospects of discovering new aspects of the life of a painter as
thoroughly studied as Vermeer are not, on the surface encouraging.
asperity [ ] n.
roughness of manner or of temper:HARSHNESS
asperity:optimistic=??
asperity<>mildness of temper
asperity<>soothingness
Sample: These remarks, spoken with asperity, stung the boys to whom they had been
directed.
aspirant [ ] n.
One who aspires, as to advancement, honors, or a high position.
aspirant:quarry=hunter:prey
Synonyms: CANDIDATE, applicant, hopeful, seeker
Sample: Although I am as aspirant for public office, I am not willing to accept the
dictates of the party bosses.
aspiration [ ] n
a strong desire to achieve something high or great
Synonyms: DIFFICULTY , hardness, hardship, rigor, vicissitude
Sample: Youth's aspirations should be as lofty as the stars.
assert [ ] vt.
to state or declare positively and often forcefully or aggressively
calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony
obsequious:servile=belligerent:assertive
assert:belabor=tend:fuss
brassy<>unassertive
Synonyms: affirm, aver, avouch, avow, constate, declare, depose, predicate, profess,
protest
Sample: If the theory is self-evidently true, as its proponents assert, then why does
opposition to it still exist among well-informed people?
assess [ ] v.
to determine the importance, size, or value of
assess:value=plumb:depth
Synonyms: estimate, appraise, evaluate, value, rate
Sample: I would like to have your assessment of the situation in South Africa.
asset [ ] n.
the entire property of a person, association, corporation, or estate applicable or subject
to the payment of debts
42
asset<>liability
Synonyms: capital, resources, wealth
Sample: That company's assets are $1 million, and it owes $700,000, so its net assets
are $300,000.
assiduous [ ] adj
marked by careful unremitting attention or persistent application
rakish:restraint=slothful:assiduity
assiduous<>remiss
assiduous<>remiss/desultory
assiduous<>slipshod
Synonyms: busy, industrious, diligent, sedulous
Sample: The Chinese, who began systematic astronomical and weather observations
shortly after the ancient Egyptians, were assiduous record-keepers, and because of this,
can claim humanity's longest continuous documentation of natural events.
assuage [ ] vt.
to lessen the intensity of (something that pains or distresses):EASE
assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor
gall<>calm/assuage
assuage/subdue<>inflame
assuage<>intensify
Synonyms: relieve, alleviate, lighten, assuage, mitigate, allay
Sample: The king assuaged the fears of his nobles about a war.
assume [ ] vt.
to take to or upon oneself:UNDERTAKE
abdicate<>assume
assume<>refuse/reject
unassuming<>overbearing
usurp<>assume rightfully
Synonyms: affect, pretend, simulate, feign, counterfeit, sham
Sample: Belying his earlier reputation for intransigence as a negotiator, Morgan had
recently assumed a more conciliatory stance for which many of his erstwhile critics
praised him.
astounding [ ] adj.
causing astonishment or amazement
indelible:forget=astounding:expect
Sample: I was astounded at how high the repair bill was.
astute [ ] adj.
having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity
43
fatuous<>astute
Synonyms: shrewd, sagacious, perspicacious
Sample: She is an astute investor in the stock market and always knows which stocks
to avoid.
asymmetrical [ ] adj.
not of equal size or similar shape:
circular:asymmetrical=protean:rigid
Sample: Most striking among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye
placement:before maturity one eye migratesso that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on
the same side of the head.
asylum [ ] n.
an inviolable place of refuge and protection giving shelter to criminals and
debtors:SANCTUARY
refugee:asylum=??
Synonyms: REFUGE , harborage, sanctuary, shelter
Sample: The refugees sought asylum from religious persecution in a new land.
atone [ ] v.
to supply satisfaction for:EXPIATE
guilt:expiation/atonement=fatigue:repose (take a rest)
Sample: He knew no way in which he could atone for his brutal crime.
atrocious [ ] adj.
extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel:BARBARIC
atrocious:bad=momentous:important
Synonyms: OUTRAGEOUS, monstrous, shocking
Sample: The most technologically advanced societies have been responsible for the
greatest atrocities; indeed, savagery seems to be in direct proportion to development.
attenuate [ ] v.
to lessen the amount, force, magnitude, or value of:WEAKEN
attenuate:force=decelerate:speed
attenuate:thickness=enervate:vitality
collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness
debase:value=attenuate:force
abate:force=attenuate:thickness
abridge:length=attenuate:thickness
attenuate:force/thickness=simplify:complexity
attenuate:thickness=cool:temperature
alleviate:power=attenuate:force
attenuate:force=retrenchment:money
attenuate<>intensify
44
Synonyms: WEAKEN, blunt, cripple, debilitate, disable, enfeeble, sap, unbrace,
undermine, unstrengthen
Sample: The two people argued so much that their friendship was attenuated.
attorney [ ] n
A person legally appointed by another to act as his or her agent in the transaction of
business, specifically one qualified and licensed to act for plaintiffs and defendants in
legal proceedings
attorney:defendant=?? :=??
Sample: The prosecutor presented a well-reasoned case, but the defense attorney's
compelling arguments for leniency won over the jury.
audacious [ ] adj.
intrepidly daring:ADVENTUROUS
audacious:trepidation=laconic:volubility
audacious:caution=inedible:food
circumspect<>audacious/reckless/direct encounter
audacious<>timid
audacious<>circumspect { meticulous }
Synonyms: bold, courageous, adventuresome, daredevil, daring
Sample: Audiences cheered as Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia made their
audacious, death-defying leap to freedom and escaped Darth Vader's troops.
audible [ ] adj.
heard or capable of being heard
audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious
audible:stentorian=discernible:manifest
Synonyms: aural, auricular
Sample: music and laughter were audible from the street outside the nightclub.
augur [ ] n.
to foretell especially from omens
intercessor:mediate=translator:interpret/augur:prediction
augur:predict=pundit:opine
pundit:opinion=augur:prediction
maven:experience=luminary:eminence/augur:prediction
worship:sacrifice=prediction:augury
augury:appearance=??
Synonyms: prophet, auspex, forecaster, foreseer, foreteller, haruspex, Nostradamus,
predictor
Sample: Although a change in management may appear to augur a shift in a
companys fortunes, more often than not its impact is inconsiderable.
45
auspicious [ ] adj.
affording a favorable auspice:PROPITIOUS
auspicious<>boding ill {ill-bred}
auspicious<>untoward
auspicious<>unfavorable
inauspicious<>propitious
auspicious<>ominous
Synonyms: favorable, benign, bright, dexter, fortunate, propitious
Sample: With favorable weather conditions, it was an auspicious moment to set sail.
austere [ ] adj.
markedly simple or unadorned
abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate
laconic:speech=austere:design
baroque<>austere
lavish<>austere
Synonyms: severe, stern, ascetic
Sample: His austere demeanor prevented us from engaging in our usual frivolous
activities.
authenticity [ ] n.
not false or imitation:REAL, ACTUAL
genuine:authenticity=entire:integrity { honest:trust }
discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic
specious:authenticity=??
apocryphal:authentic=??
spuriousness<>authenticity
semblance<>authentic article
Synonyms: genuine, undoubted, undubitable, unquestionable, veritable
Sample: The authenticity of the painting as one of Picasso's was proven by an expert.
authority [ ] n.
power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior
authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention
authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans
contumacious:authority=reactionary:change=hidebound:innovation=conservative:novelt
y
recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change
impostor:identity=usurper:authorization {barbarian:property }
Synonyms: EXPERT, master, professional, proficient, virtuoso, wizard
Sample: By forcing our surrender to the authority of the clock systematic timekeeping
has imposed a form of tyranny on society.
autocracy [ ] n.
46
government in which one person possesses unlimited power
pundit:??=autocracy:power
Synonyms: TYRANNY, despotism, dictatorship, totalitarianism
Sample: He ran his office like an autocrat, giving no one else any authority.
avarice [ ] n.
excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain:GREEDINESS, CUPIDITY
avarice:money=gluttony:food
stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy
avarice<>generosity {sobriety}
contented<>avaricious
Synonyms: CUPIDITY, avariciousness, avidity, greed, rapacity
aversion [ ] n.
a feeling of repugnance toward something with a desire to avoid or turn from
aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration
aversion:inclination=??
affinity<>aversion
aversion<>court
penchant<>aversion
propensity/proclivity<>aversion
proclivity<>aversion
Synonyms: ANTIPATHY , allergy, dyspathy
Sample: Their mutual aversion was so great that they refused to speak to one another.
avid [ ] adj.
characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit
reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm
avid<>indifferent
Synonyms: EAGER, anxious, appetent, ardent, athirst
Sample: He was avid for learning and read everything he could get.
avulse [ ] vt
to separate, cut, or tear off by avulsion
avulse<>link
avulse<>suture
awash [ ] adj.
covered with water:FLOODED
awash<>dry
Sample: After the flood, the ground floors of houses were awash with water and mud.
awe [ ] n.
an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder that is inspired by
authority or by the sacred or sublime
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
47
awe<>irreverence
Synonyms: REVERENCE , fear
Sample: Their piety was expressed in quotidian behavior:they worshipped regularly,
according all the regenerative processes of nature respect, and even awe..
awkward [ ] adj.
lacking dexterity or skill
craven:admirable=deft:awkward
dexterous:awkward=??
lithe<>awkward
svelte<>paunchy and awkward
Synonyms: CLUMSY , lumbering, lumpish, ungainly
Sample: Martha Graham introduced a form of choreography that seemed awkward and
alien to those who had been brought up on classic ballet.
awl [ ] n.
a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes (as in leather or wood)
awl:pierce=pestle:hash
Sample: She used an awl to punch additional holes in the leather belt she had bought.
awning [ ] n.
a rooflike cover extending over or in front of a place (as over the deck or in front of a
door or window) as a shelter
awning:sun=umbrella:rain
Sample: Not wanting to get wet, they waited under the awning for a lull in the rain.
awry [ ] adj.
in a turned or twisted position or direction:ASKEW
awry<>orderly/aligned
Synonyms: cockeyed
Sample: He held his head awry, giving the impression that he had caught cold in his
neck during the night.
babble [ ] vt.
to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds
babble:sense=parrot:originality
babble/waffle<>express succinctly
Synonyms: gabble, prate, prattle, twaddle, waffle
Sample: None of these translations to screen and stagehoweverdramatize the
anarchy at the conclusion of A Connecticut Yankeewhich ends with the violent
overthrow of Morgans three-year-old progressive order and his return to the
nineteenth centurywhere he apparently commits suicide after being labeled a lunatic
48
for his incoherent babblings about drawbridges and battlements.
backhanded [ ] adj.
INDIRECT, DEVIOUS; especially:SARCASTIC
backhanded<>forthright
backset [ ] n.
SETBACK
backset<>hike
Synonyms: SETBACK, check, reversal, reverse
badge [ ] n.
a device or token especially of membership in a society or group
chevron:badge=caisson:cart V
Synonyms: INSIGNIA, emblem
Sample: The military officer wore a badge showing his rank.
badger [ ] vt.
to harass or annoy persistently
badger:bother=belabor:mention
Synonyms: BAIT , heckle, hector, hound, ride
Sample: She was forced to change her telephone number because she was badgered by
obscene phone calls.
badinage [ ] n.
playful repartee:BANTER
badinage<>serious conversation
badinage<>sincere conversation
Synonyms: BANTER, backchat
Sample: Her friends at work greeted the news of her engagement with cheerful
badinage.
baffle [ ] vt.
to check or break the force or flow of by or as if by a baffle
Synonyms: FRUSTRATE, balk, beat, bilk, circumvent, dash, disappoint, foil, ruin,
thwart
Sample: The new code baffled the enemy agents.
bait [ ] n.
ENTICE, LURE. to attack in speech or writing as by derision or insult; to gall or
exasperate by repeated wanton attacks
bait<>disarm
bait<>mollify
Synonyms: MOLEST, heckle, persecute, torment
Sample: The soldiers baited the prisoners, terrorizing them.
49
baleful [ ] adj.
deadly or pernicious in influence
baneful<>salubrious
bale<>mirth
Synonyms: sinister, malefic, maleficent, malign
Sample: Casting a baleful eye at his successful rival, the rejected suitor stole off,
vowing to have his revenge.
balk [ ] n.
to check or stop by or as if by an obstacle:BLOCK
balk<>move ahead willingly
Synonyms: FRUSTRATE , baffle, circumvent, foil, thwart
Sample: The chief of police balked at sending his officers into the riot-torn area.
balky [ ] adj.
refusing or likely to refuse to proceed, act, or function as directed or expected
balky<>tractable
Synonyms: cross-grained, ornery, perverse, restive, wrongheaded
ballad [ ] n.
a narrative composition in rhythmic verse suitable for singing
ballad:song=lyric:poem=comedian:actor
Sample: n a most impressive demonstration, Pavarotti sailed through Verdi's "Celeste
Aida," normally a tenor's nightmare, with the casual enthusiasm of a folk singer
performing one of his favorite ballads.
ballast [ ] n.
Heavy material that is placed in the hold of a ship or the gondola of a balloon to
enhance stability.
ballast:stability=truss:support
Sample: The ship was listing badly to one side; it was necessary to shift the ballast in
the hold to get her back on an even keel.
ballet [ ] n.
a theatrical art form using dancing, music, and scenery to convey a story, theme, or
atmosphere
instrumentalist:symphony=dancer:ballet
Sample: Martha Graham introduced a form of choreography that seemed awkward and
alien to those who had been brought up on classic ballet.
balm [ ] n.
a balsamic resin, especially:one from small tropical evergreen trees
antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation
balm<>piquant
Sample: Friendship is the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love.
50
balmy [ ] adj.
having the qualities of balm:SOOTHING
inclement<>balmy
balmy<>piquant
Synonyms: GENTLE , bland, faint, lenient, mild, smooth, soft
Sample: A balmy breeze refreshed us after the sultry blast.
bamboozle [ ] v.
to deceive by underhanded methods:DUPE, HOODWINK
Synonyms: DUPE, befool, fool, gull, hoax, hoodwink, trick
Sample: I was bamboozled when I bought that bad used car.
ban [ ] n.
to prohibit especially by legal means ban:protect
Sample: The government put a ban on the sale of that drug.
banal [ ] adj.
lacking originality, freshness, or novelty:TRITE
arresting<>banal
banality<>freshness
banality<>original
Synonyms: insipid, vapid, flat, jejune
Sample: Although Harry, Stack Sullivan is one of the most influential social scientists
of this century, his ideas are now so commonplace in our society that they seem almost
banal.
baneful [ ] adj.
productive of destruction or woe:seriously harmful
salubrious<>baneful
Synonyms: pernicious, noxious, deleterious
Sample: A bad, aching back is the bane of her existence.
banish [ ] vt.
to drive out or remove from a home or place of usual resort or continuance, especially
compulsory removal from a country not necessarily one's own
evict:residence=banish:country
Synonyms: exile, deport, transport
Sample: The king banished the murderer from the land.
banister [ ] n.
a handrail with its supporting posts
staircase:banister=garden:fence
Synonyms: RAILING, balustrade, rail
51
Sample: Children like to slide down a banister.
banquet [ ] n.
a sumptuous feast; especially:an elaborate and often ceremonious meal for numerous
people often in honor of a person
writer/author:novel=chef:banquet
recluse:banquet=??
Sample: He was famous for his felicitous remarks and was called upon to serve as
master-of-ceremonies at many banquet.
barb [ ] n.
a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment
barb:caustic=pan:harsh
Sample: The barb from the fishhook caught in his finger as he grabbed the fish.
barbarous [ ] adj.
mercilessly harsh or cruel
barbarous<>quiescent
barbarous<>civilized
barbarize<>civilize
Synonyms: barbaric, barbarian, Gothic, Hunnic, Hunnish, rude, savage, uncivil,
uncivilized, uncultivated, wild
Sample: Some people think capital punishment is barbarous.
barefaced [ ] adj.
OPEN, UNCONCEALED
barefaced/aboveboard<>surreptitious
Synonyms: SHAMELESS, arrant, brassy, brazen, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold,
unabashed, unblushing
Sample: Shocked by Huck Finn's barefaced lies, Miss Watson prayed the good Lord
would give him a sense of his unregenerate wickedness.
bargain [ ] n.
to negotiate over the terms of a purchase, agreement, or contract:HAGGLE
debate:issue=bargain:price
Sample: Her stay in the hospital cost her $30,000, which was a lot more than she
bargained for.
baroque [ ] n./adj.
characterized by grotesqueness, extravagance, complexity, or flamboyance
baroque<>austere
Synonyms: ORNATE, flamboyant, florid, luscious, rich
Sample: Accustomed to the severe, angular lines of modern skyscrapers, they found
the flamboyance of baroque architecture amusing.
52
barren [ ] adj.
lacking vegetation, especially useful vegetation
barren<>prolific
Synonyms: STERILE, effete, impotent, infecund, infertile, unfruitful
Sample: Agronomists are increasingly worried about "desertification," the
phenomenon that is turning many of the world's fertile fields and pastures into barren
wastelands, unable to support the people living on them.
barter [ ] n.
to trade by exchanging one commodity for another
jog:exercise=barter:trade
correspond:letters=barter:commodities
Synonyms: TRADE , bargain, exchange, swap, traffic, truck
Sample: Years ago, hunters bartered furs for guns.
base [ ] adj.
being of comparatively low value and having relatively inferior properties
debase:value=attenuate:force
base<>virtuous
base<>noble
sublime<>base/common
base<>patrician
Synonyms: low, vile
Sample: It is almost impossible to protect oneself from such a base canard.
baseboard [ ] n.
a molding covering the joint of a wall and the adjoining floor
veneer:furniture=baseboard:wall
bathetic [ ] adj.
exceptional commonplaceness:TRITENESS
offbeat<>bathetic
offbeat<>hackneyed
Synonyms: TRITE, commonplace, hack, hackneyed, stale, stereotyped, stereotypical,
tired
bedeck [ ] vt.
to clothe with finery:DECK
bedeck<>strip
Synonyms: ADORN, beautify, deck, decorate, dress (up), embellish, garnish,
ornament, prank, trim
Sample: The walls were bedecked with flags and the tables with flowers.
bedlam [ ] n.
a place, scene, or state of uproar and confusion
53
tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive
tumult/bedlam/riot<>serenity
Synonyms: LUNATIC , dement, loon, loony, madling, maniac
Sample: With three children, our house is bedlam sometimes.
belabor [ ] vt.
to explain or insist on excessively
badger:bother=belabor:mention
assert:belabor=tend:fuss
Synonyms: BEAT , baste, drub, lambaste, pound, pummel, wallop
Sample: The debate coach warned her student not to bore the audience by belaboring
his point.
beleaguer [ ] vt.
TROUBLE, HARASS
beleaguer<>delight
Synonyms: BESIEGE, beset, blockade, invest
Sample: Many industries are so beleaguered by the impact of government sanctions,
equipment failure, and foreign competition that they are beginning to rely on industrial
psychologists to salvage what remains of employee morale.
belie [ ] v.
to show (something) to be false or wrong
belie<>affirm
belie<>confirm
Synonyms: MISREPRESENT, color, distort, falsify, garble, miscolor, misstate, pervert,
twist, warp
Sample: It is disappointing to note that the latest edition of the bibliography belies its
long-standing reputation for exhaustiveness by omitting some significant references to
recent publications.
belittle [ ] vt.
to speak slightingly of:DISPARAGE
Synonyms: derogate, detract (from), diminish, discount, disparage, minimize, write off
Sample: Parents should not belittle their children's early attempts at drawing, but
should encourage their efforts.
bellicose [ ] adj.
favoring or inclined to start quarrels or wars
imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable
bellicose<>appeasing
bellicose<>incline to peace
bellicose<>peaceful
54
Synonyms: belligerent, pugnacious, quarrelsome, contentious
Sample: His bellicose disposition alienated his friends.
belligerence [ ] n.
an aggressive or truculent attitude, atmosphere, or disposition
obsequious:servile=belligerent:assertive
belligerent<>peaceful
belligerent<>conciliatory
Synonyms: ATTACK , aggression, aggressiveness, combativeness, fight, pugnacity
Sample: Whenever he had too much to drink, he became belligerent and tried to pick
fights with strangers.
bellwether n.
One that serves as a leader or as a leading indicator of future trends
bellwether:leadership=advisor:consultant
bemoan [ ] vt.
to express deep grief or distress over
Synonyms: deplore, lament, bewail
Sample: She bemoans the fact that she did not finish high school.
bend [ ] vi.
to make submissive:SUBDUECOMPROMISE
bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble
Synonyms: CURVE, bow, crook, round
Sample: The director of personnel bends over backwards to help each new employee.
benediction [ ] n.
the invocation of a blessing
curse<>benediction
Synonyms: BLESSING , benison
Sample: Scrooge later became Tiny Tim's benefactor and gave him a benediction.
beneficent [ ] adj.
doing or producing good; especially:performing acts of kindness and charity
beneficent:harm=tenacious:yield
philanthropist:beneficence=comedian:humor
noxious<>beneficial
toxic<>beneficial
Sample: Certainly Murray's preoccupation with the task of editing the Oxford English
Dictionary begot a kind of monomania, but it must be regarded as a beneficent or at
least an innocuous one.
55
benign [ ] adj
a:showing kindness and gentleness b:FAVORABLE, WHOLESOME
benignant<>vicious
Synonyms: FAVORABLE , auspicious, bright, dexter, fortunate, propitious, white
Sample: The old man was well liked because of his benign attitude toward friend and
stranger alike.
bent [ ] n.
a strong inclination or interest:BIAS
Synonyms: LEANING, disposition, inclination, inclining, penchant, predilection,
predisposition, proclivity, propensity, tendency
Sample: Because the high seriousness of their narratives resulted in part from their
metaphysics, Southern writers were praised for their philosophical bent.(9504)
bequest [ ] n.
something bequeathed:LEGACY
heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator
Synonyms: LEGACY , devise, inheritance
Sample: Though many medieval women possessed devotional books that had
belonged to their mothers, formal written evidence of women bequeathing books to
their daughters is scarce, which suggests that such bequests were customary and
required no documentation.
berate [ ] v.
to scold or condemn vehemently and at length
berate<>commend
berate<>praise
Synonyms: SCOLD, bawl out, chew out, jaw, rail, rate, revile, tongue-lash, upbraid,
vituperate
beseech [ ] v.
to request earnestly:IMPLORE
supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious
Synonyms: beg, appeal, crave, entreat, implore, importune, invoke, plead, pray,
supplicate
Sample: In his will, Father bequeathed his watch to Phillip; the bequest meant a great
deal to the boy.
besmirch [ ] v.
SULLY, SOIL
besmirch<>honor
Synonyms: taint, besmear, defile, discolor, smear, soil, stain, sully, tar, tarnish
Sample: The scandalous remarks in the newspaper besmirch the reputations of every
56
member of the society.
betray [ ] vt.
to deliver to an enemy by treachery
Synonyms: reveal, disclose, divulge
Sample: The actual rigidity of Wilson's position was always betrayed by his refusal to
compromise after having initially agreed to negotiate a settlement.
bibliophile [ ] n.
a lover of books especially for qualities of format; also:a book collector
bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting}
bigot [ ] n
a person obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his or her own opinions and prejudices
bigot:tolerance=turncoat:constancy
bigot:dedication=rage:anger
bigoted:advice=conservative:change
posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant
bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan {servile:domination}
Synonyms: ENTHUSIAST, bug, fanatic, fiend, freak, maniac, nut, zealot
Sample: Brought up in a democratic atmosphere, student was shocked by the bigotry
and narrowness expressed by several of his classmates.

List 4 bit --- canvas
bit [ ] n.
the jaws of tongs or pincers
bit:drill=blade:razor
Sample: I lost one of the bits for my drill.
bland [ ] adj
not irritating, stimulating, or invigorating:SOOTHING
tangy<>bland
Synonyms: GENTLE , balmy, faint, lenient, mild, smooth, soft
Sample: The Thai restaurant offered an unusual gustatory experience for those used in
a bland cuisine.
blandishment [ ] n.
something that tends to coax or cajole:ALLUREMENT
blandishment:coax=medal:honor
blandishment<>threat
Synonyms: FLATTERY, adulation, blarney, incense, oil, soft soap
Sample: Despite the salesperson's blandishments, the customer did not buy the outfit.
blase [ ] adj.
apathetic to pleasure or excitement as a result of excessive indulgence or enjoyment
57
miser:munificent=zealot:blase
Synonyms: SOPHISTICATED, disenchanted, disentranced, disillusioned, mondaine,
sophisticate, worldly
Sample: Your blase attitude gives your students an erroneous impression of the joys of
scholarship.
blaspheme [ ] vt.vi.
to speak of or address with irreverence
Sample: The people in the room were shocked by his his blasphemous language.
blast [ ] n.
a violent gust of wind
blast:whiff=gush:trickle
Sample: The blast furnace had a special opening at the bottom to allow the workers to
remove the worthless slag.
blatant [ ] adj.
completely obvious, conspicuous, or obtrusive especially in a crass or offensive
manner:BRAZEN
ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
blatant<>inconspicuous/unimpressive/unobtrusive
blatant<>subtle
Synonyms: VOCIFEROUS, boisterous, obstreperous, vociferant, SHAMELESS,
barefaced, brazen, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold, unabashed, unblushing
Sample: Caught in a blatant lie, the scoundrel had only one regret:he wished that he
had lied more subtly.
blazon [ ] vt.
to publish widely:PROCLAIM
alliterate:remove=blazon:efface
blazon:adorn=pillar:support
blazon<>efface
diffidence<>blazonness
Sample: The company name is emblazoned in big letters on their office building.
bleach [ ] vt.
to remove color or stains from
Synonyms: WHITEN, blanch, blench, decolor, decolorize, white
Sample: The sun bleached the curtains hanging out to dry.
blemish [ ] v.
to spoil by a flaw
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless
anomaly:paradigmatic=blemish:flawless
58
pristine:blemish=??
Synonyms: INJURE, damage, harm, hurt, impair, mar, prejudice, spoil, tarnish, vitiate
Sample: That report was so poor it will certainly leave a blemish on his record.
blight [ ] n.
a disease or injury of plants resulting in withering, cessation of growth, and death of
parts without rotting
blighted<>hale/sound
Sample: Far from undermining the impression of permanent decline, the tawdry statue
seemed emblematic of its blighted surroundings.
bliss [ ] n.
complete happiness
dislike:loathing=pleasure:bliss
Synonyms: HAPPINESS, beatitude, blessedness
Sample: Their dreams of conjugal bliss were shattered as soon as their temperaments
clashed.
blunder [ ] v.
a gross error or mistake resulting usually from stupidity, ignorance, or carelessness
protocol:blunder=bumper:damage
Synonyms: ERROR, boner, bungle, lapse, mistake, slip, trip
Sample: The criminal's fatal blunder led to his capture.
blunt [ ] adj.
to make less sharp or definite
blunt<>whet
Synonyms: DULL, disedge, obtund
Sample: Although he was blunt and gruff with most people, he was always gentle with
children.
blurb [ ] n.
A brief publicity notice, as on a book jacket.
blurb:notice=gloss:explanation gloss:a brief explanation
blurb:notice=cameo:appearance A brief but dramatic appearance of a prominent actor,
as in a single scene of a motion picture.
Synonyms: PUFF , plug, write-up
Sample: The famous writer wrote a blurb about the new author to put on the book
jacket.
59
blurt [ ] vt.
to utter abruptly and impulsively ? usually used with out
flit:move=blurt:utter
Synonyms: EXCLAIM, blat, bolt, cry out, ejaculate
Sample: Before she could stop him, he blurted out the news.
bluster [ ] vt.
to talk or act with noisy swaggering threats
blustering:speak=swaggering:walk
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
Synonyms: ROAR, bawl, bellow, clamor, rout
boding [ ] n.
an omen, prediction, or presentiment especially of coming
evil:PORTENT ,FOREBODING
auspicious<>boding ill
Synonyms: OMINOUS, baleful, baneful, fateful, ill-omened, inauspicious, unlucky,
unpropitious
boggle [ ] vi.
to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples
boggle<>embolden
Synonyms: DEMUR, balk, gag, jib, scruple, shy, stickle, stumble
Sample: The U.S. government's debt is so huge that it boggles the mind.
boisterous [ ] adj.
noisily turbulent:ROWDY
boisterous<>quiet
Synonyms: VOCIFEROUS, blatant, clamorous
Sample: The unruly crowd became even more boisterous when he tried to quiet them.
bolster [ ] n.
a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support or bearing
bolster:support=tackle:hoist
adulterate:pure=bolster/brace:weak
Synonyms: SUPPORT, bear up, brace, buttress, carry, prop, shore (up), sustain, upbear,
uphold
Sample: The debaters amassed file boxes full of evidence to bolster their arguments.
bombast [ ] n.
pretentious inflated speech or writing
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast
bombast:pompous=tirade:critical
pompous:bombast=exaggerated:hyperbole
60
bombast<>down to earth language/understated
Synonyms: fustian, highfalutin, rant, rhapsody, rhetoric, rodomontade
Sample: Filled with bombast, the orator's speech left the audience more impressed
with his pomposity than with his logic.
bonhomie [ ] n.
good-natured easy friendliness
congenial:bonhomie=??
bonhomie:good natured=??
bonus [ ] n.
something in addition to what is expected or strictly due
bonus:employee={decoration:soldier}
Sample: I didn't think anyone would remember my birthday, so when all my friends
sent cards it was a real bonus.
boo [ ] v.
to deride especially by uttering boo
snare<>boo
boon [ ] n.
BENEFIT, FAVOR
boon<>misfortune
Synonyms: GIFT , benevolence, compliment, favor, largess, present
Sample: Having a good library at the school is a boon for the students.
boor [ ] n.
a rude or insensitive person
insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp
sensitive:boor=sagacity:simpleton
Synonyms: chuff, churl, clodhopper, clown
Sample: Though Mr. Potts constantly interrupted his wife, she ignored his boorish
behavior, for she had lost hope of teaching him courtesy.
bootless [ ] adj.
USELESS, UNPROFITABLE
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence
interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile
bootless:futility=void:empty
Synonyms: FUTILE, abortive, fruitless, ineffective, ineffectual, unavailable,
unavailing, unproductive, useless, vain
bore [ ] vt.
to make a hole by or as if by boring
die:shaping=drill:boring
entrance<>disappoint/disgust/repel/repulse/bore
food:hunger=stimulation:boredom
61
Synonyms: ENNUI, pall, tire, weary, PERFORATE, drill, prick, punch, puncture
Sample: The debate coach warned her student not to bore the audience by belaboring
his point.
bottleneck [ ] n.
NARROW
{bottleneck:indefinite=??:??}
Sample: An accident on the road caused a bottleneck in traffic.
bough [ ] n.
a branch of a tree; especially:a main branch
Synonyms: LIMB, branch
bound [ ] n.
a:to make secure by tying b:to confine, restrain, or restrict as if with bonds c:to put
under an obligation d:to constrain with legal authority
boundless<>limited
boundary<>unrestrained
Sample: bough of the pine tree broke and fell to the ground.
box [ ] vi.
to fight with the fists:engage in boxing
box:fight=debate:argue
Synonyms: SLAP, blip, buffet, cuff, smack, spank
bracing [ ] adj.
giving strength, vigor, or freshness
bracing<>vapid
denounce<>bracing
Synonyms: INVIGORATING, animating, exhilarating, exhilarative, quickening,
stimulating, stimulative, tonic, vitalizing
Sample: The cold air of autumn is bracing.
bracket [ ] n.
an overhanging member that projects from a structure (as a wall) and is usually
designed to support a vertical load or to strengthen an angle
buttress:wall=bracket:shelf
Synonyms: JOIN , associate, combine, conjoin, connect, couple, link, relate, unite,
wed
Sample: That doctor's salary is in the top tax bracket.
brackish [ ] adj.
REPULSIVE
brackish:repulse=??
Sample: He found the only wells in the area were brackish; drinking the water made
62
him nauseous.
braggadocio [ ] n.
a:empty boasting b:arrogant pretension:COCKINESS
Synonyms: BRAGGART, blower, blowhard, boaster, bragger, puckfist, vaunter
Sample: He was disliked because his manner was always full of braggadocio.
braid [ ] v.
made by intertwining three or more strands
grooved:striated=braided:stranded
Sample: She wears her hair in a braid.
brake [ ] n.
to retard or stop by a brake
divert:shunt=retard:brake
brake:decelerate=clamp:compression
Synonyms: HINDER, bar, block, dam, impede, obstruct
Sample: The public put the brakes on using coins instead of paper money.
brash [ ] adj.
done in haste without regard for consequences
frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion
candor:subterfuge=brash:deliberate
Synonyms: RASH, hasty, hot-headed, ill-advised, incautious, inconsiderate,
mad-brained, madcap, reckless, thoughtless
Sample: The brash insurance salesman invaded the sacrosanct privacy of the office of
the president of the company.
brassy [ ] adj.
being shamelessly bold
diffident<>brassy
furtive<>open/forthright/brassy
brassy<>humble
brassy<>unassertive
Synonyms: SHAMELESS, arrant, barefaced, blatant, brazen, brazenfaced, impudent,
overbold, unabashed, unblushing
Sample: New Yorkers have a stereotype as being loud and brassy, but I find them to be
very friendly.
brattish [ ] adj.
an ill-mannered annoying child
tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous
bravura [ ] adj.
marked by an ostentatious display of skill
bravura:performance=resplendent:appearance
63
bray [ ] v.
to emit (an utterance or a sound) loudly and harshly
Sample: The donkey brayed and would not move.
brazen [ ] adj.
marked by contemptuous boldness
impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive
brazen<>modest
brazen<>self effacing
Synonyms: SHAMELESS, arrant, barefaced, blatant, brassy, brazenfaced, impudent,
overbold, unabashed, unblushing, brassy
Sample: We could see by his brazen attitude that he was impenitent.
breach [ ] v.
to make a breach in
breach<>solder
solder<>breach
Synonyms: GAP , break, discontinuity, hole, opening, fissure, fracture, rent, rift,
rupture, schism, split, hiatus, interim, interruption, interval
Sample: They found a breach in the enemy's fortifications and penetrated their lines.
breezeway [ ] n.
a roofed often open passage connecting two buildings (as a house and garage) or halves
of a building
breezeway:building=stairway:floor
brevity [ ] n.
shortness or conciseness of expression
brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram
Synonyms: shortness ,conciseness
Sample: brevity is essential when you send a telegram or cablegram; you are charged
for every word.
bribe [ ] v. & n.
to induce or influence by or as if by bribery
bribe:incorruptible=affect:insensible {hear:uncommunicative}
Sample: Although competitors offered him bribes, he refused to disclose any
information about his company's forthcoming product.
bridle [ ] v.
to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle
bridled<>without restraint
Sample: She bridled at the idea of spending so much money.
brisk [ ] adj.
64
keenly alert:LIVELY
ponderous<>lively/vibrant/brisk
Synonyms: AGILE, active, lively, nimble, sprightly, spry, yare, zippy
Sample: brisk wind blew through our hair.
bristle [ ] n.
to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance (as in response to a slight)
bristle<>cower
bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution { condone:mercy} {condemn:warning}
Synonyms: ANGER, blow up, boil, boil over, burn, flare (up), fume, rage, seethe
Sample: The dog bristled at the sight of the cat.
brittle [ ] adj.
easily broken, cracked, or snapped
manifest:perceive=brittle:break
Synonyms: SHORT, crisp, crumbly, crump, crunchy, friable
Sample: The brittle fronds of the Boston fern break easily and become brown, so that
the overall appearance of the plant is ruined unless the broken fronds are cut off.
broach [ ] v.
to open for the first time
broach<>close off
Synonyms: BROOCH, clip, pin, bring up, introduce, moot, ventilate
Sample: He did not even try to broach the subject of poetry.
bromide [ ] n.
a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion
equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed
bromide<>unhackneyed
Synonyms: COMMONPLACE, banality, platitude, rubber stamp, shibboleth, tag,
truism
Sample: "Have a nice day" is a bromide.
browbeat [ ] vt.
to intimidate or disconcert by a stern manner or arrogant speech : BULLY
instigator:incite=bully:browbeat
Synonyms: INTIMIDATE, bludgeon, bluster, bulldoze, bully, cow, dragoon,
hector
Sample: Billy resisted Ted's attempts to browbeat him into handing over his lunch
money.
bruit [ ] vt.
65
to noise abroad:REPORT
bruit<>keep secret
Synonyms: DECLARE, advertise, announce, annunciate, blaze (abroad), blazon,
broadcast, proclaim, promulgate, publish
buck [ ] n.
to refuse assent:BALK
buck<>assent to
Synonyms: RESIST, combat, contest, dispute, duel, fight, oppose, repel, traverse,
withstand
Sample: She bucks making changes in her way of doing things.
bucolic [ ] adj.
relating to or typical of rural life
hovel:palatial=city:bucolic
palatial:hovel=bucolic:city
bucolic<>urban
bucolic<>sophisticated
Synonyms: RURAL, agrestic, campestral, countrified, country, out-country, outland,
pastoral, provincial, rustic
Sample: The meadow was the scene of bucolic gaiety.
budge [ ] vi.
to give way:YIELD
palter:candor=diehard:budge
vagary:predict=diehard:budge
Sample: Negotiations between the union and the employers have reached a stalemate;
neither side is willing to budge from previously stated positions.
buffer [ ] v.
to lessen the shock of:CUSHION
buffer:impact=?? :=??
Sample: The mountains are a <n.> buffer against the storms from the sea.
buffoon [ ] n.
a ludicrous figure:CLOWN
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag
Synonyms: CLOWN, harlequin, zany
Sample: His strut as he marched about the parade ground revealed him for what he
was:a pompous buffoon.
bulge [ ] n.
a protuberant or swollen part or place
bulge<>depressed region
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Synonyms: PROJECTION, jut, outthrust, protrusion, protuberance
Sample: A ganglionic cyst is a fluid-filled tumor (generally benign) that develops near
a joint membrane or tendon sheath, and that bulges beneath the skin, forming a
protuberance.
bully [ ] n.
one habitually cruel to others who are weaker
instigator:incite=bully:browbeat
bully:intimidate=stupid:gullibility { dupe:duplicity }
sabotage:subvertness=bull:intimidation { dupe:duplicity }
bully:scare=??
underdog<>bully
Synonyms: browbeater, bulldozer, harasser, harrier, hector, intimidator
Sample: The bully mistreated everyone in the class with impunity for he felt that no
one would dare retaliate.
bumper [ ] n.
a device for absorbing shock or preventing damage
protocol:blunder=bumper:damage
Sample: The car bumper hit the wall.
bumptious [ ] adj.
presumptuously, obtusely, and often noisily self-assertive:OBTRUSIVE
dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness
impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness
bumptious<>humble
bungle [ ] vt.vi.
to act or work clumsily and awkwardly
bungle<>bring off
Synonyms: ERROR, blooper, blunder, boner, bull, fluff, lapse, mistake, slip
Sample: I was afraid you would bungle his assignment but I had no one else to send.
buoy [ ] vt.
SUPPORT, UPLIFT
buoyed<>unsupported
Synonyms: SUPPORT, bolster, prop, sustain, uphold
Sample: The coach used all the tricks at his command to buoy up the enthusiasm of his
team, which I had become dispirited at the loss of the star player.
buoyant [ ] adj
a:capable of floating b:CHEERFUL, GAY
bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble
buoyant:float=heavy:drop
67
hangdog<>buoyant
buoyant<>sink
Synonyms: ELASTIC, airy, bouncy, effervescent, expansive, resilient, volatile
Sample: She has a buoyant personality.
burgeon [ ] v.
to grow and expand rapidly:FLOURISH
burgeon<>wither
burgeon<>subdue
burgeoning<>waning
Synonyms: INCREASE , augment, build, enlarge, expand, heighten, mount, multiply,
run up, snowball
Sample: With the burgeoning of scientific knowledge, work on the new edition of a
textbook begins soon after completion of the original.
burial [ ] n.
the act or process of burying
inter:burial=obliterate:removal
Synonyms: GRAVE, sepulcher, sepulture, tomb, entombment, inhumation, interment,
sepulture
Sample: The mortician prepared the corpse for burial.
burlesque [ ] n.
mockery usually by caricature
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
doggerel:verse=burlesque:play
Sample: The caricatures he drew always emphasized personal weaknesses of the
people he burlesqued.
burnish [ ] v.
to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing
numb:insensible=burnish:lustrous
burnish:dull=mar:flawless
Synonyms: POLISH, buff, furbish, glance, glaze, gloss, rub, shine
Sample: The maid burnished the brass fixtures until they reflected the lamplight.
burrow [ ] n.
to construct by tunneling
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern
Synonyms: LAIR, couch, den, lodge, HOVEL, hole, SNUGGLE, cuddle, nestle,
nuzzle
Sample: Some animals burrow with their paws.
68
busybody [ ] n.
an officious or inquisitive person
ascetic:self-denial=busybody:intrusive
Synonyms: butt-in, intermeddler, meddler, nose, nosey Parker, prier (or pryer), snoop
Sample: Like a gadfly, he irritated all the guests at the hotel; within forty eight hours,
everyone regarded him as an annoying busybody.
butt [ ] v.
to thrust or push head foremost:strike with the head or horns
butt:head=nudge:elbow
Sample: Two goats butted each other.
buttress [ ] n.
a projecting structure of masonry or wood for supporting or giving stability to a wall or
building
strut:wing=buttress:wall
buttress:wall=bracket:shelf
buttress:edifice=splint:limb
Sample: Just as architects buttress the walls of cathedrals with flying buttresses,
debates buttress their arguments with facts.
buttress [ ] vt.
to furnish or shore up with a buttress; also:SUPPORT, STRENGTHEN
contravene<>buttress
Synonyms: SUPPORT, bear up, bolster, brace, carry, prop, sustain, uphold
Sample: Workers buttressed the weak wall with steel beams.
bygone [ ] n.
gone by:PAST; especially:OUTMODED
Synonyms: OLD-FASHIONED, antiquated, antique, archaic, belated, dated,
oldfangled, old-time, out-of-date
Sample: We used to argue all the time, but now we have let bygones be bygones and
are friends.
byline [ ] n.
a line at the beginning of a news story, magazine article, or book giving the writer's
name
article:byline=movie:credits
cabal [ ] n.
the artifices and intrigues of a group of persons secretly united to bring about an
overturn or usurpation especially in public affairs
cabal:association=plot:plan
cabal:association=spat:quarrel
Synonyms: PLOT , conspiracy, intrigue, machination, practice, scheme
69
Sample: The cabal was defeated when its scheme was discovered.
cacophony [ ] n.
harsh or discordant sound:DISSONANCE
cacophony:sound=malodor:scent
fetid:smell=cacophonous:sound
cacophony:voice=gaucherie:skill
malodorous:smell=cacophony/jarring:sound
cacophony:melody=genteel:churl
cacophonous<>dulcet/euphonious
Synonyms: DISSONANT, cacophonic, discordant, disharmonic, disharmonious,
inharmonic, inharmonious, unharmonious, unmusical
Sample: Some people seem to enjoy the cacophony of an orchestra that is tuning up.
cadet [ ] n.
one in training for a military or naval commission; especially:a student in a service
academy
cadet:veteran=tadpole:frog
Sample: The West Point cadets were immaculate as they lined up for inspection.
cadge [ ] v.
BEG, SPONGE
cadge<>earn
Synonyms: BEGGAR, bummer, moocher, panhandler
caisson [ ] n.
a usually 2-wheeled vehicle for artillery ammunition attachable to a horse-drawn limber
chevron:badge=caisson:cart V
cajole [ ] v.
to persuade with flattery or gentle urging especially in the face of reluctance:COAX
blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede
wheedle:cajolery=extort:coercion { scourge:possession}
cajole:reluctant=??
Synonyms: COAX, blandish, blarney, con, soft-soap, sweet-talk, wheedle
Sample: I will not be cajoled into granting your wish.
calamity [ ] n.
An event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; a disaster:
Synonyms: FATAL, cataclysmic, catastrophic, disastrous, fateful, ruinous
Sample: As news of the calamity spread, offers of relief poured in to the stricken
community.
calcify [ ] vi.
to make inflexible or unchangeable
calcification<>flexibility
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calibrate [ ] vt.
to determine, rectify, or mark the graduations of
measure:dimensions:calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth
calibrated<>unstandardized
Sample: The worker calibrated a cutting tool.
calligrapher [ ] n.
one who writes a beautiful
bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting}
callous [ ] adj.
a:feeling no emotion b:feeling no sympathy for others
callous:impassive=dupe:duplicity
callous:compassion=??
callous<>sympathetic
Synonyms: UNFEELING, coldhearted, hardhearted, heartless, obdurate, stony,
stonyhearted, uncompassionate, unemotional, unsympathetic
Sample: Our young people, whose keen sensitivities have not yet become calloused,
have a purer and more immediate response than we do to our environment.
callow [ ] adj
lacking adult sophistication:IMMATURE
frank:secretiveness=callow:maturity
apoplectic:calm=callow:mature
callow<>behaving with adult sophistication
Synonyms: INEXPERIENCED, fresh, green, raw, unexperienced, unpracticed,
unseasoned, untried, unversed, young
callus [ ] n.
a thickening of or a hard thickened area on skin or bark
gully:erosion=callus:friction
Sample: In that youthful movement, the leaders were only a little less callow than their
immature followers.
calorie [ ] n.
the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of
one gram of water one degree Celsius that is equal to about 4.19 joules
power:watt=calorie:heat=decibel:sound=volt:electricity
Sample: Coal is much more calorific than green wood.
calumniate [ ] v.
to utter maliciously false statements, charges, or imputations about
corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood
calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony
calumny:representation=perjury:testimony
calumniate<>vindicate
calumnious<>flattering
71
calumny<>approbation
Synonyms: MALIGN, asperse, defame, denigrate, libel, scandalize, slander, traduce,
vilify, villainize
Sample: He could endure his financial failure, but he could not bear the calumny that
his foes heaped upon him.
camaraderie [ ] n.
a spirit of friendly good-fellowship
camaraderie<>enmity
Synonyms: comradery, good-fellowship
Sample: What he loved best about his job was the sense of camaraderie he and his
co-workers shared.
cameo [ ] n.
a:a small piece of sculpture on a stone or shell cut in relief in one layer with another
contrasting layer serving as background b:A brief but dramatic appearance of a
prominent actor, as in a single scene of a motion picture.
peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture
blurb:notice=cameo:appearance blurb:A brief publicity notice, as on a book jacket.
Sample: Tourists are advised not to purchase cameos from the street peddlers of Rome
who sell poor specimens of the carver's art.
camouflage [ ] n.
behavior or artifice designed to deceive or hide
malinger:duty=camouflage:detection
Sample: Soldiers camouflaged themselves to blend in with the jungle by wearing
green uniforms.
candidate [ ] n.
one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office, membership, or award
roster:personnel=slate:candidate
ballot:candidates=??
Synonyms: applicant, aspirant, hopeful, seeker
Sample: Candidates who oppose the present state income tax must be able to propose
alternate ways to continue the financing of state operations.
candor [ ] n.
unreserved, honest, or sincere expression:FORTHRIGHTNESS
palter:candor=diehard:budge
candor:subterfuge=brash:deliberate
artifice<>candor
mendacity<>candor
Sample: The "impostor syndrome" often afflicts those who fear that true
72
self-disclosure will lower them in others' esteem; rightly handled, however, candor may
actually enhance one's standing.
cane [ ] n.
A stick used as an aid in walking or carried as an accessory
cane:walk=glasses:see
Sample: The old man walks with the aid of a cane.
canon [ ] n.
a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council
religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy
canon<>apocrypha
canonical<>nontraditional
Synonyms: LAW, assize, decree, decretum, edict, ordinance, precept, regulation, rule,
statute
Sample: His bad behavior violates the canons of good conduct.
canopy [ ] n.
a cover (as of cloth) fixed or carried above a person of high rank or a sacred
object:BALDACHIN
canopy:cover=tag:identify
Sample: The canopy over the bed is made of red cloth.
cantankerous [ ] adj
difficult or irritating to deal with
Synonyms: bearish, cankered, cranky, cross-grained, crotchety, ornery, vinegarish,
vinegary, waspish, waspy
Sample: Constantly complaining about his treatment and refusing to cooperate with
the hospital staff, he was a cantankerous patient.
canvas [ ] n.
a piece of cloth backed or framed as a surface for a painting
canvas:painter=marble:sculptor
Sample: Because the painter Albert Pinkham Ryder was obsessed with his quest for
perfection, he was rarely satisfied with a painting, creating endless variations of a scene
on one canvas, one on top of another.

List 5 canvass --- cogent
canvass [ ] v.
to seek orders or votes:SOLICIT
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass
Synonyms: DISCUSS, agitate, argue, debate, dispute, moot, thrash out, toss (around)
Sample: After canvassing the sentiments of his constituents, the congressman was
73
confident that he represented the majority opinion of his district.
canyon [ ] n.
a deep narrow valley with steep sides and often with a stream flowing through it
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern
Sample: The company was forced to retreat through the barrage of heavy canyons.
capitulate [ ] v.
to cease resisting:ACQUIESCE
acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical}
capitulate<>resist
capitulation<>resistance
capitulate<>oppose
Synonyms: YIELD, bow, buckle (under), cave, defer, knuckle(under), submit,
succumb
caprice [ ] n.
a sudden, impulsive, and seemingly unmotivated notion or action
caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied
apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate
caprice:whimsical=insight:discerning
caprice:predict=??
capricious:change=??
capricious<>steadfast
caprice<>confirmation
capricious<>constant
capricious<>pertinacious
Synonyms: bee, conceit, crank, crotchet, fancy, freak, humor, maggot, megrim, notion,
vagary, whim, whimsy
Sample: Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's
personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code
with impassivity.
caption [ ] n.
the part of a legal document that shows where, when, and by what authority it was taken,
found, or executed
Synonyms: legend, underline
Sample: I find the captions that accompany these cartoons very clever and humorous.
captivate [ ] vt.
to influence and dominate by some special charm, art, or trait and with an irresistible
appeal
captivate<>repulse
Synonyms: ATTRACT, allure, bewitch, charm, draw, enchant, fascinate, magnetize,
take, wile
Sample: Her beauty and intelligence have captivated many men.
74
careworn [ ] adj.
showing the effect of grief or anxiety
careworn<>lighthearted
Synonyms: HAGGARD, drawn, pinched, worn
caricature [ ] n.
exaggeration by means of often ludicrous distortion of parts or characteristics
brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature
caricature:presentation=??
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature
Synonyms: MOCKERY, burlesque, farce, mock, sham, travesty, burlesque, parody,
takeoff, travesty
Sample: The caricatures he drew always emphasized personal weaknesses of the
people he burlesqued.
carouse [ ] vi.
to drink liquor deeply or freely
roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw
Synonyms: BINGE, bat, bender, booze, drunk, jag, spree, tear, REVEL , frolic, hell,
riot, roister, spree, wassail
Sample: They caroused all night, going from one bar to another.
carp [ ] vi.
to find fault or complain querulously
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
complain:carp=drink:guzzle
Synonyms: NAG, fuss, henpeck, peck (at)
Sample: Welcoming constructive criticism, Lexy appreciated her editor's comments,
finding them free of carping.
cartographer [ ] n.
one that makes maps
cartographer:map=tailor:clothing=lexicographer:dictionary
Sample: Though not a professional cartographer, Tolkien was able to construct a map
of the fictional world.
cast [ ] n.
the set of actors in a dramatic production; to assign a certain role to (an actor)
appoint:official=cast:actor
letter:signature=playbill:cast
Sample: The director cast a famous actress in the leading role.
castigate [ ] v.
to subject to severe punishment, reproof, or criticism
75
castigation:disapproval=crime:misbehave
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial{ glorification:merit }
peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation
castigation:reproof=loathing:dislike
castigation:reproof=soaking:damp
Synonyms: LAMBASTE, blister, excoriate, flay, lash (into), scarify, scathe, scorch,
scourge, slash
Sample: Sensitive even to mild criticism, Woolf could not bear castigation that she
found in certain reviews.
catalyze [ ] vt.
BRING ABOUT, INSPIRE
catalyze<>retard
catalyst<>prevent
Synonyms: STIMULUS, goad, impetus, impulse, incentive, incitation, incitement,
motivation, spur, stimulant
Sample: Many chemical reactions cannot take place without the presence of a catalyst.
cataract [ ] n.
WATERFALL; especially:a large one over a precipice
Synonyms: WATERFALL, cascade, chute, fall(s), spout, cataclysm, deluge, flooding,
overflow, pour, torrent
Sample: She gazed with awe at the mighty cataract known as Niagara Falls.
catastrophe [ ] n.
a momentous tragic event ranging from extreme misfortune to utter overthrow or ruin
catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment
oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic
Synonyms: DISASTER, calamity, cataclysm, misadventure, tragedy, woe(s)
Sample: People frequently denigrate books about recent catastrophes as morally
despicable attempts to profit, from misfortune, but in my view our desire for such books,
together with the venerable tradition to which they belong, legitimizes them.
categorical [ ] adj.
ABSOLUTE, UNQUALIFIED
acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical}
categorical<>qualified/conditional
Synonyms: ULTIMATE, absolute ,EXPLICIT, clean-cut, clear-cut, definite, definitive,
express, specific, unambiguous
Sample: Though the captain claimed he was never, never sick at sea, he finally
qualified his categorical denial; he was hardly ever sick at sea.
cater [ ] vi.
76
to supply what is required or desired
Synonyms: BABY, cocker, coddle, cosset, cotton, humor, indulge, mollycoddle,
pamper, spoil, INDULGE, gratify, humor
Sample: If those large publishers that respond solely to popular literary trends
continue to dominate the publishing market, the initial publication of new writers will
depend on the writers' willingness to cater to popular tastes.
catholic [ ] adj.
COMPREHENSIVE, UNIVERSAL; especially:broad in sympathies, tastes, or
interests
catholic<>narrow
Synonyms: UNIVERSAL, cosmic, cosmopolitan, ecumenical, global, planetary,
worldwide
Sample: He was extremely catholic in his taste and read everything he could find in
the library.
caustic [ ] adj
marked by incisive sarcasm
barb:caustic=pan:harsh
caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry
caustic:smoothing=??
caustic<>palliating/genial
caustic<>smooth
Synonyms: SARCASTIC, acerb, acerbic, corrosive
Sample: The critic's caustic remarks angered the hapless actors who were the subjects
of his sarcasm.
cavalier [ ] n.
A gallant or chivalrous man, especially one serving as escort to a woman of high social
position; a gentleman
rapscallion:mischievous=sluggard:lazy {cavalier:arrogant}
Sample: Sensitive about having her ideas taken lightly, Marcia felt insulted by Mark's
cavalier dismissal of her suggestion.
caveat [ ] n.
a warning enjoining one from certain acts or practices
overture/preamble:introductory=caveat:warning/ cautionary
Synonyms: WARNING, admonition, caution, forewarning, monition
cavern [ ] n.
CAVE; especially:one of large or indefinite extent
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern
cavern:spelunker=ocean:diver
Synonyms: CAVE, grotto, subterranean
77
Sample: In the darkness of the cavern, the glowworms hanging from the cavern roof
glimmered like distant stars.
cavil [ ] v
to raise trivial and frivolous objection
cavil:criticize=probe:investigate
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil
nitpick:criticize=cavil:object
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil
faultfinding:criticize=quibble:cavil
Synonyms: QUIBBLE, chicane, hypercriticize
Sample: I respect your sensible criticisms, but I dislike the way you cavil about
unimportant details.
cavort [ ] vi.
to walk or move in a spirited manner:PRANCE
dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly
cavort<>trudge
Synonyms: GAMBOL, caper, frisk, frolic, rollick, romp
Sample: At the end of the school year, children cavorted on their way home.
cede [ ] vt.
to yield or grant typically by treaty
cede<>possess
Synonyms: RELINQUISH, abandon, give up, hand over, leave, resign, surrender,
waive, yield
Sample: I intend to cede this property to the city.
celebrity [ ] n.
the state of being celebrated
celebrity<>obscurity
Synonyms: FAME, notoriety, renown, reputation, reputeluminary, name, notability,
notable, somebody
Sample: Hamlet resented his mother's celerity in remarrying within a month after his
father's death.
cement [ ] n.
a binding element or agency:as a substance to make objects adhere to each other
cement<>fracture
Sample: That sidewalk is made of cement.
censor [ ] vt.
78
to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable
censorship:communication=preservative:decay
censorship:information=sanitation:disease
vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate
Synonyms: blip, bowdlerize, expurgate, screen
Sample: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual,
historians of the 1960's portrayed him as a doctrinaire thinker, eager to fill the young
with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.
censorious [ ] adj.
marked by or given to censure
pliable:influenced=censorious:condemn
censorious<>eulogistic
Synonyms: CRITICAL, captious, carping, caviling, cavillous, critic, faultfinding,
hypercritical, overcritical
Sample: censorious people delight in casting blame.
censure [ ] n./v.
to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy
lamentable:pity=reprehensible:censure
remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure
censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible
exonerate<>censure
extol<>censure
Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, condemn, denounce, denunciate, knock, rap,
reprehend, reprobate, skin
Sample: During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted remarkably, from general
endorsement of it as a worthwhile, stable institution to widespread censure of it as an
oppressive and bankrupt one whose dissolution was both imminent and welcome.
census [ ] n.
a count of the population
census:population=inventory:stock
Sample: The census is taken in the USA every ten years.
centrifuge [ ] n.
a machine using centrifugal force for separating substances of different densities, for
removing moisture, or for simulating gravitational effects
centrifuge:separate=colander:drain
Sample: At the dairy, we employ a centrifuge to separate cream from milk.
ceramic [ ] n.
of or relating to the manufacture of any product (as earthenware, porcelain, or brick)
made essentially from a nonmetallic mineral (as clay) by firing at a high temperature
shard:ceramic=crumb:cake
79
Sample: Square ceramic tiles cover the bathroom walls.
ceremony [ ] n.
a formal act or series of acts prescribed by ritual, protocol, or convention
affidavit:statement=wedding:ceremony
Synonyms: RITE, ceremonial, formality, liturgy, observance, ritual, service
Sample: Their nuptial ceremony was performed in Golden Gate Park.
certitude [ ] n.
the state of being or feeling certain
certitude<>obscurity
Synonyms: CERTAINTY, assurance, assuredness, confidence, conviction, sureness,
surety
Sample: I can say with certitude that the man has died.
cessation [ ] n.
a temporary or final ceasing (as of action):STOP
cessation<>commencement
cessation<>start
cessation<>continuation
Synonyms: END , cease, close, conclusion, desistance, ending, finish, period, stop,
termination
Sample: The workers threatened a cessation of all activities if their demands were not
met.
chaff [ ] n.
the seed coverings and other debris separated from the seed in threshing grain
winnow:chaff=filter:impurities
Synonyms: BANTER, fun, jest, joke, jolly, josh, kid, rag, razz, rib
Sample: When you separate the wheat from the chaff, be sure you throw out the chaff.
chagrin [ ] n.
disquietude or distress of mind caused by humiliation, disappointment, or failure
chagrin:mind=grimace:face
chagrin<>elated
chagrin<>cheerful
Sample: He made a bad mistake, much to his chagrin.
chameleon [ ] n.
any of a family (Chamaeleontidae) of chiefly arboreal Old World lizards with prehensile
tail, independently movable eyeballs, and unusual ability to change the color of the skin
salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist
Sample: He's a real chameleon; when he's with liberal friends he says he's a liberal,
80
but when he's with conservative friends, he tells them he's conservative.
champion [ ] vt.
to act as militant supporter of:UPHOLD, ADVOCATE
champion<>disparage
impugn<>champion
Synonyms: SUPPORT, advocate, back, backstop, side (with), uphold
Sample: He championed the civil rights movement in the 1960s.
chaotic[ :a state of utter confusion b:a confused mass or mixture
chaotic<>strictly structured
chaotic<>strictly featured
Sample: He tried to bring order into the chaotic state of affairs.
charade [ ] n.
a word represented in riddling verse or by picture, tableau, or dramatic action
charade:word=mime:story
charade:dissimulate=void:emptiness
Sample: The couple pretended to be happy, but it was just a charade.
charlatan [ ] n.
one making usually showy pretenses to knowledge or ability:FRAUD, FAKER
Sample: When they realized that the Wizard didn't know how to get them back to
chary [ ] adj.
discreetly cautious:as a:hesitant and vigilant about dangers and risks b:slow to grant,
accept, or expend
chary<>rash
Synonyms: CAUTIOUS, calculating, careful, circumspect, considerate, discreet,
gingerly, guarded, safe, wary
Sample: A prudent, thrifty New Englander, DeWitt was as chary of investing money in
junk bonds as he was chary of paying people unnecessary compliments.
chasm [ ] n.
a deep cleft in the surface of a planet (as the earth):GORGE
cleft:chasm=cut:gash
Sample: They could not see the bottom of the chasm.
check [ ] n.
to block the progress of
jolt:move=check:stop
propagate<>check
goad<>check
check<>hasten
Synonyms: arrest, buck, foil, thwart, frustrate
Sample: Thrusting out her arm, Grandma checked Bobby's lunge at his sister. "Young
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man," she said, "you'd better check your temper."
chef [ ] n.
a skilled cook who manages the kitchen (as of a restaurant)
author:novel=chef:banquet
chef:kitchen=chemist:laboratory
Sample: How did the inventive chef ever concoct such strange dish?
cherubic [ ] adj.
innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy
cherubic<>somber
Sample: With her cheerful smile and rosy cheeks, she was a particularly cherubic
child.
chevron [ ] n.
a sleeve badge that usually consists of one or more chevron-shaped stripes that indicates
the wearer's rank and service (as in the armed forces)
chevron:badge=caisson:cart
chiaroscuro [ ] n.
the interplay or contrast of dissimilar qualities, pictorial representation in terms of light
and shade without regard to color
chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy/intricacy={tapestry:intricacy }
chic [ ] adj.
smart elegance and sophistication especially of dress or manner:STYLE
Synonyms: FASHION, craze, cry, dernier cri, fad, furore, mode, rage, style, vogue
chicanery [ ] n
deception by artful subterfuge or sophistry:TRICKERY
chicanery:clever=tactlessness:truthful
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
chicanery<>forthrightness {deep conviction/firm opposition}
Synonyms: DECEPTION, chicane, dishonesty, double-dealing, fourberie, fraud,
hanky-panky, highbinding, sharp practice, trickery
Sample: Your deceitful tactics in this case are indications of chicanery.
chide [ ] v.
to voice disapproval to:reproach in a usually mild and constructive manner:SCOLD
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle
Synonyms: REPROVE, admonish, call down, lesson, monish, rebuke, reprimand,
reproach, tick off
Sample: Grandma began to chide Steven for his lying.
chip [ ] n.
a small usually thin and flat piece (as of wood or stone) cut, struck, or flaked off
chip:stone=shard:glass chip:a small usually thin and flat piece shard:a piece or
82
fragment of a brittle substance
Sample:After the glass is annealed, it will be less subject to chipping and cracking.
choke [ ] vt.
to check normal breathing of by compressing or obstructing the trachea or by poisoning
or adulterating available air
smother:choke=??
Synonyms: strangle, throttle; compare SUFFOCATE
Sample: The murderer choked his victim to death.
choleric [ ] adj.
easily moved to often unreasonable or excessive anger:hot-tempered
cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize
choleric<>difficult to provoke
choleric<>pacific
Synonyms: choleric, crabbed, cranky, irascible, irritable, testy
Sample: His flushed, angry face indicated a choleric nature.
chord [ ] n.
three or more musical tones sounded simultaneously
constellation:star=chord:note{ queue:person}
chord:note=grove:tree { table:index river:stream,flower:stem }
Sample: The sound of her voice on the telephone struck a chord (of love) with him.
choreography [ ] n.
the composition and arrangement of dances especially for ballet
choreography:dance=plot:story
choreographer:movement=architect:building {sculptor:statue}
Sample: Martha Graham introduced a form of choreography that seemed awkward and
alien to those who had been brought up on classic ballet.
chronic [ ] adj.
always present or encountered; especially:constantly vexing, weakening, or troubling
chronic<>sporadic
Synonyms: USUAL, accepted, accustomed, customary, habitual, routine, wonted
Sample: The doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches and nausea to
traces of formaldehyde gas in his apartment.
chronicle [ ] n.
a usually continuous historical account of events arranged in order of time without
analysis or interpretation
Sample: The gossip columnist was paid to chronicle the latest escapades of the
socially prominent celebrities.
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chronological [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or arranged in or according to the order of time
dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological
Sample: A television reporter gave a chronological description of the football game.
churlish [ ] adj.
marked by a lack of civility or graciousness:SURLY
uncouth:churl=conspiratorial:conniver
cacophony:melody=genteel:churl
complaisance<>churlishness
genteel<>churlish
Synonyms: BOORISH, cloddish, clodhopping, clownish, coarse, loutish, lowbred,
uncivilized, uncultured, unpolished
Sample: Dismayed by his churlish manners at the party, the girls vowed never to invite
him again.
cipher [ ] n.
a method of transforming a text in order to conceal its meaning
cipher:cryptic=precis:concise
Sample: Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him
circuitous [ ] adj.
not being forthright or direct in language or action
immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness
Synonyms: INDIRECT, circular, collateral, oblique, roundabout
Sample: Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him
circumference [ ] n.
the perimeter of a circle
border:country=circumference:circle
Sample: Washington Irving emphasized the rotundity of the governor by describing
his height and circumference.
circumlocutory adj.
the use of an unnecessarily large number of words to express an idea
circumlocutory<>direct encounter
circumlocution<>pithy utters/utter concisely/straightforword utter
circumlocutory<>straightforward
circumscribe [ ] vt.
to construct or be constructed around (a geometrical figure) so as to touch as many
points as possible
circumscribed<>unlimited
Synonyms: LIMIT, bar, confine, delimit, delimitate, prelimit, restrict
Sample: By identifying scientific rigor with a quantitative approach, researchers in the
84
social sciences may often have limited their scope to those narrowly circumscribed
topics that are well suited to quantitative methods.
circumspect [ ] adj.
careful to consider all circumstances and possible consequences:PRUDENT
circumspect<>audacious/reckless
temerity<>circumspection
rash<>circumspective
Synonyms: CAUTIOUS, calculating, careful, chary, considerate, discreet, gingerly,
guarded, safe, wary
Sample: Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect.
circumvent [ ] vt.
to manage to get around especially by ingenuity or stratagem
circumvent<>confront
circumvention<>direct encounter
Synonyms: SKIRT, bypass, circumnavigate, detour
Sample: Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstancesits authors
react to those circumstances in ways other than ideologicaland talking about novels
and stories primarily as instruments of ideology circumvents much of the fictional
enterprise.
cistern [ ] n.
an artificial reservoir (as an underground tank) for storing liquids and especially
water (as rainwater)
cistern:liquids=landfill:refuse
Sample: A cistern in the village catches and holds rainwater.
citation [ ] n.
an official summons to appear (as before a court)
summons:citation=?? :citation:an official summons to appear (as before a court)
Sample:The police officer received a citation for saving a man's life.
civility [ ] n.
COURTESY, POLITENESS
civility<>rudeness
clairvoyant [ ] adj.
unusually perceptive:DISCERNING
dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee }
Sample: Cassandra's clairvoyant warning was not heeded by the Trojans.
clandestine [ ] adj.
marked by, held in, or conducted with secrecy:SURREPTITIOUS
clandestine:secretly=overt:openly
clandestine<>open
Synonyms: SECRET, covert, furtive, hugger-mugger, hush-hush, stealthy,
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surreptitious, undercover, underneath, under-the-table
Sample: After avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting.
clarion [ ] n.
loud and clear
clarion<>soft and undistinct
Synonyms: FAIR, clear, cloudless, fine, pleasant, rainless, sunny, sunshiny, unclouded,
undarkened
Sample: We woke to the clarion to muffle its striking.
clarity [ ] n.
the quality or state of being clear:LUCIDITY
ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth
consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion
equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation clarity
misunderstood:clarify=erroneous:retract
ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity
roil<>clarify/appease
obfuscate<>clarify
equivocation<>clarity
muddy<>clarity
clarity<>opaque
Synonyms: clearness, limpidity, lucidity, perspicuity, plainness
Sample: Harry Levin explicated James Joyce's novels with such clarity that even
Finnegan's Wake seemed comprehensible to his students.
clasp [ ] n.
a device (as a hook) for holding objects or parts together
lathe:shape=clasp:fasten
Sample: She fastened the clasp on her necklace.
claustrophobia [ ] n.
abnormal dread of being in closed or narrow spaces
recluse:crowd=claustrophobia:enclosure
Sample: His fellow classmates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to
lock him in his room.
cleft [ ] n.
a usually V-shaped indented formation:a hollow between ridges or protuberances
cleft:chasm=cut:gash
Synonyms: RAVINE, arroyo, chasm, clough, clove, gap, gorge, gulch
Sample: Erosion caused a cleft in the huge boulder.
clement [ ] adj.
86
inclined to be merciful:LENIENT
clement<>pitiless
Synonyms: FORBEARING, charitable, easy, indulgent, lenient, merciful, tolerant
Sample: I like to read a good book in inclement weather.
cliche [ ] adj.
a trite phrase or expression
hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:original
equivocate:misleading=cliched:hackneyed
Synonyms: COMMONPLACE, banality, bromide, platitude, prosaicism, prosaism,
rubber stamp, shibboleth, tag, truism
Sample: High school compositions are often marred by such cliches as "strong as an
ox."
clique [ ] n.
a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons; especially one held together by
common interests, views, or purposes
clique:intimates=flock:sheep
Synonyms: cabal, camarilla, camp, circle, clan, coterie, in-group, mafia, mob, ring
Sample: She charged that a clique had assumed control of school affairs.
clog [ ] n.
something that shackles or impedes:ENCUMBRANCE
clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations
Synonyms: ENCUMBRANCE, cumbrance, hindrance, impedance, impediment
Sample: The wine did not flow because the air vent in the barrel was clogged.
closed-minded [ ] adj.
not easily subdued, remedied, or removed
demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway}
:demanding:satisfy=closed-mind:sway
Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, deaf, hardheaded, intractable, pigheaded,
self-willed, unpliable, unpliant, unyielding
closet [ ] n.
a cabinet or recess for especially china, household utensils, or clothing
pantry:food=closet (wardrobe):clothes
freeze:water=clot:blood
Sample: In their incommodious quarters, they had to improvise for closet space.
clot [ ] n.
a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood
clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed
87
Sample: The nibs of fountain pens often become clotted and corroded.
cloudburst [ ] n.
a sudden copious rainfall
gust:wind=cloudburst:rainfall
clout [ ] n.
PULL, INFLUENCE
clout<>impuissance
clout<>{ impotent }
Synonyms: PULL, influence
Sample: Gatsby wondered whether he had enough clout to be admitted to the
exclusive club.
cloying [ ] adj.
excessively sweet or sentimental
garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet
loquacious:talkative=cloying:sweet
Synonyms: SATIATE, fill, glut, gorge, jade, pall, sate, stodge, surfeit
Sample: Disliking the cloying sweetness of standard wedding cakes, Jody and Tom
chose a homemade carrot cake for their reception.
clumsy [ ] adj.
lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace
Synonyms: awkward, gawky, lumbering, lumpish, splathering, splay, ungainly;
Sample: Although his attempts to appear psychotic were so clumsy as to be almost
ludicrous, there is evidence that Ezra Pound was able to avoid standing trial for treason
merely by faking symptoms of mental illness.
coagulant [ ] n.
something that produces coagulation
coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve
coagulate<>liquefy/dissolve
Sample: Blood coagulates and closes a cut.
coalesce [ ] v.
to unite into a whole:FUSE
coalesce<>disaggregate
polarize<>coalesce
Synonyms: JOIN, associate, bracket, combine, conjoin, connect, link, relate, unite,
wed
Sample: The brooks coalesce into one large river.
coarse [ ] adj.
not precise or detailed with respect to adjustment or discrimination
88
coarse:surface=??
fastidious<>coarse
Synonyms: crass, crude, gross, incult, inelegant, low, raw, rough, rude, uncouth,
uncultivated, uncultured, unrefined, vulgar
Sample: homespun wit, like homespun cloth, was often coarse and plain.
coax [ ] vt.
to manipulate with great perseverance and usually with considerable effort toward a
desired state or activity
equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten
blandishment:coax=medal:honor/prevarication:deceive
Synonyms: blandish, blarney, cajole, con, soft-soap, sweet-talk, wheedle
Sample: The mother coaxed her child to take some bad-tasting medicine.
coda [ ] n.
a concluding musical section that is formally distinct from the main structure
dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata
coda<>overture
Sample: The piece concluded with a distinctive coda that strikingly brought together
various motifs.
coerce [ ] vt.
to bring about by force or threat
wheedle:cajolery=extort:coercion { scourge:possession}
Synonyms: FORCE, compel, concuss, constrain, make, oblige, shotgun
Sample: They forced him to obey, but only by great coercion.
coeval [ ] adj.
of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration
congruent:dimension=coeval:age
Sample: coeval with the dinosaur, the pterodactyl flourished during the Mesozoic era.
cogent [ ] adj.
appealing forcibly to the mind or reason:CONVINCING
cogent:convince=repugnant:repel
cogent<>unconvincing
Synonyms: VALID, convincing, satisfactory, satisfying, solid, sound, telling
Sample: She presented cogent arguments to the jury.

List 6 cognizant --- convert
cognizant [ ] adj.
knowledgeable of something especially through personal experience
incognizance:knowledgeable=penury:wealthy
89
cognizant<>oblivious
Synonyms: AWARE, alive, apprehensive, au courant, awake, conscious, knowing,
sensible, sentient, witting
Sample: The pressure of populating on available resources is the key to understanding
history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no cognizance of demographic
facts is intrinsically flawed.
colander [ ] n.
a perforated utensil for washing or draining food
centrifuge:separate=colander:drain
Sample: Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it.
collapse [ ] vt.
to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely
collapse:implode=divide:sunder
collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness
Synonyms: bend, break, cave, crumple, fold up, yield
Sample: While the delegate clearly sought to dampen the optimism that has emerged
recently, she stopped short of suggesting that the conference was near collapse and
might produce nothing of significance.
collude [ ] v.
CONSPIRE, PLOT
collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey
collude:cooperate=stalk:follow
Synonyms: PLOT, cogitate, connive, conspire, contrive, devise, intrigue, machinate,
scheme (out)
colonnade [ ] n.
a series of columns set at regular intervals and usually supporting the base of a roof
structure
colonnade:pillar=queue:person
colossal [ ] adj.
of a bulk, extent, power, or effect approaching or suggesting the stupendous or
incredible
antediluvian:age=colossal:size
Synonyms: HUGE, behemothic, cyclopean, elephantine, gargantuan, gigantic,
mammoth, monstrous, titanic, vast
Sample: Radio City Music Hall has a colossal stage.
coma [ ] n.
a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison
coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion
Synonyms: FAINT, blackout, swoon, syncope
90
Sample: If the doctor's prognosis is correct, the patient will be in a coma for at least
twenty-four hours.
combustible [ ] adj.
capable of combustion
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible
Sample: After the recent outbreak of fires in private homes, the fire commissioner
ordered that all combustible materials be kept in safe containers.
comely [ ] n.
having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain
comeliness<>unattractiveness
Synonyms: BEAUTIFUL, attractive, beauteous, bonny, fair, good-looking, handsome,
lovely, pretty, pulchritudinous
Sample: I would rather have a poor and comely wife than a rich and homely one.
comity [ ] n.
friendly social atmosphere:social harmony
comity<>enmity
Synonyms: GOODWILL, amity, benevolence, friendliness, friendship, kindliness
Sample: A spirit of comity should exist among nations.
commencement [ ] n.
an act, instance, or time of beginning
cessation<>commencement
cease<>inaugurate/commencement
Synonyms: BEGINNING, alpha, birth, dawn, dawning, genesis, onset, opening, outset,
outstart
Sample: Although the commencement speaker had some good things to say, we had to
laugh at his pomposity and general air of parading his own dignity.
commencement [ ] n.
the ceremonies or the day for conferring degrees or diplomas
commencement<>matriculation
Sample: Her exemplary behavior was praised at commencement.
commend [ ] vt.
to mention with approbation:PRAISE
berate<>commend
execrable<>commendable/laudable
deplore<>commend
Sample: The young woman was so sedulous that she received a commendation for her
hard work.
commensurate [ ] adj.
91
equal in measure or extent:COEXTENSIVE
preponderant<>commensurate
tantamount<>incommensurate
parity<>uncommensurateness
Sample: The powers and satisfactions of primeval people, though few and meager,
were commensurate with their few and simple desires.
commercial [ ] n.
an advertisement broadcast on radio or television
advertising:commercial=publishing:journal
Sample: Television programs are often interrupted by commercials.
commitment [ ] n.
an engagement to assume a financial obligation at a future date
crime:misdemeanor=commitment:decision
dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
ambivalent<>commitment
noncommittal<>confirm
Sample: The technical know-how, if not the political commitment appears already at
hand to feed the world's exploding population and so to eradicate at last the ancient
scourges of malnutrition and famine.
committed [ ] adj.
OBLIGATE, BIND
profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed
Sample: A radical committed to social change, Reed had no patience with the
conservative views prevalent in the America of his day.
commodious [ ] adj.
comfortably or conveniently spacious:ROOMY
taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu
commodious<>constricted/cramped
commodious<>constringed
Synonyms: SPACIOUS, ample, capacious, roomy, wide
Sample: In their incommodious quarters, they had to improvise for closet space.
commonsense [ ] adj.
sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgment
preposterous<>commonsensical
commotion [ ] n.
an agitated disturbance:TO-DO
squall:commotion=flash:illumination
Sample: After the commotion and excitement of the city, I appreciate the tranquillity
of these fields and forests.
compendium [ ] n.
92
a brief summary of a larger work or of a field of knowledge:ABSTRACT
compendium:summary=anthology:collection
encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise
{pertinacity:changeable}{recapitulation:lengthy}
Synonyms: digest, pandect, sketch, survey, syllabus
Sample: Because the report contained much more information than the reviewers
needed to see, the author was asked to submit a compendium instead.
compensate [ ] vt.vi.
to offset an error, defect, or undesired effect
Synonyms: atone (for), balance, counterbalance, counterpoise, countervail, make up,
offset, outweigh, redeem, set off
Sample: In small farming communities, accident victims rarely sue or demand
compensation:transforming a personal injury into a claim against someone else is
viewed as an attempt to elude responsibility for one's own actions.
complacency [ ] n.
COMPLACENCE; especially:self-satisfaction accompanied by unawareness of actual
dangers or deficiencies
complacency<>anxiety
Synonyms: CONCEIT, amour propre, complacence, conceitedness, consequence,
egoism, egotism, narcissism, pride, vainglory
Sample: The accusations we bring against others should bewarnings to ourselves; they
should not justify complacency and easy judgments on our part concerning our own
moral conduct.
complaisance [ ] n.
disposition to please or comply:AFFABILITY
complaisance:intractable=adeptness:maladroit
complaisance<>obstinacy
complaisance<>churlishness
Sample: Their air of cheerful self-sacrifice and endless complaisance won them
undeserved praise, for their seeming gallantry was wholly motivated by a craven wish to
avoid conflict of any sort.
compliant [ ] adj.
ready or disposed to comply:SUBMISSIVE
compliant:servile=trusting:gullible
obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield
Sample: The design for the new school had to be in compliance with the local building
code.
compliment [ ] vt.
expressing or containing a compliment
apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed
93
vituperative<>complimentary
Synonyms: COMMEND, acclaim, applaud, hail, kudize, praise, recommend
Sample: Complimented on her appearance, Stella self-consciously simpered.
comply [ ] vi.
to conform or adapt one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity
mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain
Synonyms: OBEY, conform, follow, keep, mind, observe
Sample: Nothing that few employees showed any enthusiasm for complying with the
corporation's new safety regulations, Peterson was forced to conclude that acceptance of
the regulations would be grudging, at best.
composed [ ] adj.
free from agitation:CALM; especially:SELF-POSSESSED
distraught<>composed
discombobulate<>compose
Synonyms: COOL, collected, disimpassioned, imperturbable, nonchalant, unflappable,
unruffled
Sample: We must comply with the terms of the covenant.
compress [ ] vt.
to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing
compression<>increase in volume
distention<>compression
Sample: She compressed the package under her arm.
compromise [ ] n.
to come to agreement by mutual concession
mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction
implacable:compromise=honest:swindle
intransigent<>open to compromise
polemical<>compromising
Sample: Schlesinger has recently assumed a conciliatory attitude that is not
commended. by his colleagues, who continue to disparage compromise.
compromise [ ] v.
to cause the impairment of
Synonyms: ENDANGER, hazard, imperil, jeopard, jeopardize, jeopardy, menace,
peril, risk
Sample: The academic education offered to university students is essential and must
not be compromised, but that does not mean universities should neglect the
extracurricular, yet still important, aspects of university life.
compunction [ ] n.
94
anxiety arising from awareness of guilt
compunction<>absence of misgiving { animosity }
Synonyms: PENITENCE, attrition, contriteness, contrition, penance, penitency,
remorse, repentance, rue, ruth
Sample: The judge was especially severe in this sentencing because he felt that the
criminal had shown no compunction for his heinous crime.
concatenate [ ] v.
to link together in a series or chain
concatenate<>separate
Synonyms: INTEGRATE, articulate
Sample: It is difficult to understand how these events could concatenate as they did
without outside assistance.
concede [ ] v.
to grant as a right or privilege
concede<>refuse to grant
Synonyms: ACKNOWLEDGE, admit, allow, avow, confess, fess (up), grant, let on,
own, own up
Sample: While Parker is very outspoken on issues she cares about, she is not fanatical;
she concedes the strength of opposing arguments when they expose weaknesses
inherent in her own.
concentrate [ ] v.
to bring or direct toward a common center or objective:FOCUS
dilute:concentrated=??
concentrate<>dilute solution
deploy<>concentrate
Sample: For the two weeks before the examination, the student immureed himself in
his room and concentrated upon his studies.
concerted [ ] adj.
mutually contrived or agreed on
concerted<>individually devised
Sample: The girl scouts in the troop made a concerted effort to raise funds for their
annual outing, and emitted a concerted sigh when their leader announced that they had
reached their goal.
concerto [ ] n.
a piece for one or more soloists and orchestra with three contrasting movements
Sample: We listened to a wonderful violin concerto.
conciliate [ ] v.
APPEASE:to cause to subside:ALLAY especially:to buy off (an aggressor) by
concessions usually at the sacrifice of principles
95
sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive
conciliate<>vex
vex<>conciliation
contentious<>conciliatory
conciliate<>nettle
discontent<>conciliate
rile<>conciliate
belligerent<>conciliatory
Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, mollify, placate, propitiate, sweeten
Sample: Schlesinger has recently assumed a conciliatory atti-tude that is not
commended. by his colleagues, who continue to disparage compromise.
concise [ ] adj.
marked by brevity of expression or statement:free from all elaboration and superfluous
detail
synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity
Synonyms: breviloquent, brief, compendiary, compendious, curt, laconic, short, short
and sweet, succinct, summary, terse
Sample: When you define a new word, be concise; the shorter the definition, the easier
it is to remember.
concord [ ] n
a state of agreement:HARMONY
concord<>dissension
dissonance<>concord
schism<>concord
concord<>enmity/rancor
Sample: Watching Tweediedum and Tweedledee battle, Alice wondered why the two
brothers could not manage to life in concord.
concur [ ] vi.
to act together to a common end or single effect
concur<>naysay
concur<>dissent
Synonyms: AGREE, coincide, concert, concur, harmonize
Sample: Did you concur with the decision of the court or did you find it unfair?
condemn [ ] vt.
to declare to be reprehensible, wrong, or evil usually after weighing evidence and
without reservation
bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution { condone:mercy} {condemn:warning}
pliable:influenced=censorious:condemn
countenance<>condemn
exaltation<>condemnation
96
extol<>condemn/impugn/detract
panegyric<>condemnation
Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, denounce, denunciate, knock, rap, reprehend,
reprobate, skin
Sample: The criminal was condemned to be flayed alive.
condescending [ ] adj.
showing or characterized by condescension:PATRONIZING
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery
patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed
Sample: The action and charades in a melodrama can be so immediately classified that
all observers can hiss the villain with an air of smug but enjoyable condescension.
condign [ ] adj.
deserved, appropriate
condign<>undeserved/unmerited
Synonyms: JUST, appropriate, deserved, due, merited, requisite, rhadamanthine, right,
rightful, suitable
Sample: The public approved the condign punishment for the crime.
condole [ ] v.
to express sympathetic sorrow
condolence:sympathy/compassion=gibe:derision
Sample: He apologized for his belated note of condolence to the widow of his friend
and explained that he had just learned of her husband's untimely death.
condone [ ] vt.
to pardon or overlook voluntarily; especially:to treat as if trivial, harmless, or of no
importance
bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution { condone:mercy} {condemn:warning}
condone<>denounce
condone<>exact
Synonyms: excuse pardon forgive
Sample: Unlike Widow Douglass, who condoned Huck's minor offenses, Miss Watson
did nothing but scold.
conducive [ ] adj.
tending to promote or assist
conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate
Sample: The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, a reciprocity
between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are conducive to
the maintenance of community.
confess [ ] v.
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to disclose one's faults; specifically:to unburden one's sins or the state of one's
conscience to God or to a priest
recantation:error=confession:crime
Synonyms: ACKNOWLEDGE, admit, allow, avow, concede, fess (up), grant, let on,
own, own up
Sample: The bank teller confessed his embezzlement of the funds.
confidant [ ] n.
one to whom secrets are entrusted
Sample: He had no confidants with whom he could discuss his problems at home.
confident [ ] adj.
characterized by assurance; especially:SELF-RELIANT
confident:timid=open:shy
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory
Synonyms: assured, sanguine, secure, self-assured, self-confident, undoubtful
Sample: I know I am fallible, but I feel confident that I am right this time.
confine [ ] vt.
something that restrains
loose:confinement=disabuse:misconception
Synonyms: LIMIT, bar, circumscribe, delimit, delimitate, prelimit, restrict
Sample: How could words, confined as they individually are to certain precise
meanings specified in a dictionary, eventually come, when combined in groups, to
create obscurity and actually to prevent thought from being communicable?
confluence [ ] n.
a coming or flowing together, meeting, or gathering at one point
confluence<>divergence
Synonyms: CONCOURSE, concursion, gathering, junction, meeting
Sample: They built the city at the confluence of two rivers.
conform [ ] vt.
to be similar or identical; also:to be in agreement or harmony
incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey
heretic:unconformity=generous:liberality { authority:superiority }
dissent<>conform
Synonyms: ADAPT, accommodate, adjust, fit, quadrate, reconcile, square, suit, tailor,
tailor-make
Sample: In conformity with our rules and regulations, I am calling a meeting of our
organization.
confront [ ] vt.
98
to face especially in challenge:OPPOSE
craven:confront=honest:deceive
circumvent<>confront
Synonyms: affront, encounter, face, meet
Sample: Despite the contingencies of time, space, and history, human societies the
world over have confronted the same existential problems and have come to remarkably
similar solutions, differing only in superficial details.
congeal [ ] v.
to make viscid or curdled:COAGULATE
congeal<>melt/disintegrated
congeal<>fail to solidify
Synonyms: COAGULATE, clot, gel, gelate
Sample: His blood congealed in his veins as he saw the dread monster rush toward
him.
congenial [ ] adj.
OCIABLE, GENIAL
congenial:bonhomie=??:??
dour<>congenial/genial
Synonyms: CONSONANT , agreeable, compatible, congruous, consistent,
sympathetic
Sample: Even those siblings whose childhood was dominated by familial feuding and
intense rivalry for their parents' affection can nevertheless develop congenial and even
intimate relationships with each other in their adult lives.
congruent [ ] adj.
superposable so as to be coincident throughout
congruent:dimension=coeval:age
incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey
variance<>congruity
congruence<>disagreeable
Synonyms: harmonious , corresponding
Sample: The author did not see the incongruity inherent in her scathing criticism of a
writing style so similar to her own.
conjecture [ ] n./v.
inference from defective or presumptive evidence
conjecture<>restrain from the speculation
conjecture<>fact
Synonyms: guess, presume, pretend, suppose, surmise, think
Sample: The development of containers, possibly made from bark or the skins of
99
animals, although this is a matter of conjecture, allowed the extensive sharing of forage
foods in prehistoric human societies.
connive [ ] vi
to cooperate secretly or have a secret understanding
connive:cooperate=pry:watch
uncouth:churl=conspiratorial:conniver
Synonyms: PLOT, cogitate, collude, conspire, contrive, devise, intrigue, machinate,
scheme (out)
Sample: With the connivance of his friends, he plotted to embarrass the teacher.
connoisseur [ ] n.
EXPERT; especially:one who understands the details, technique, or principles of an
art and is competent to act as a critical judge
connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine
Synonyms: aesthete, cognoscente, dilettante
Sample: She had developed into a connoisseur of fine china.
conquest [ ] n.
the act or process of conquering
inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest
Synonyms: VICTORY, triumph, win
Sample: In his conquest of Europe, Hitler was aided by the quislings who betrayed
their own people and served in the puppet governments established by the Nazis.
conscientious [ ] adj.
Thorough and assiduous
conscientious<>careless
Synonyms: UPRIGHT , honest, honorable, just, right, scrupulous, true
Sample: She does all her work in a conscientious manner.
consensus [ ] n.
group solidarity in sentiment and belief
consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion
law:criminality=consensus:factionalism {lesson:falsehood}
expedition:foot dragging=consensus:factionalism
schism:consensus=interruption:continuity
Synonyms: consent , unison , accord , agreement
Sample: Congress is having great difficulty developing a consensus on energy policy,
primarily because the policy objectives of various members of Congress rest on such
divergent assumptions.
conservative [ ] adj.
tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or
100
institutions:TRADITIONAL
bigoted:advice=conservative:change
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty
hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed
hidebound:conservative=manic:interested/excited {peeved:annoyed }
conserve<>exhaust
Synonyms: die-hard, fogyish, old-line, orthodox, reactionary, right, tory,
traditionalistic
Sample: The conservative father viewed his daughter's radical boyfriend with
disapprobation.
conservatory [ ] n
a school specializing in one of the fine arts
conservatory:music=seminary:theology=observatory:astronomy
Sample: A gifted violinist, Marya was selected to study at the conservatory.
conserve [ ] n.vt.
to keep in a safe or sound state
conserve<>waste/squander/exhaust
Synonyms: preserve , save ,maintain
Sample: In winter, some people conserve energy by lowering the heat at night.
considerable [ ] adj.
worth consideration:SIGNIFICANT
restive:calmness=piddling:considerable
Synonyms: IMPORTANT, big, consequential, material, meaningful, momentous,
significant, substantial, weighty
Sample: Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of
lawnotwithstanding of course a considerable and inevitable number of
coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive
enactments are concernedthat its study is indispensable in order to appreciate
adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena.
consign [ ] vt.
to give, transfer, or deliver into the hands or control of another; also:to commit
especially to a final destination or fate
consignment:invoice=??
Synonyms: COMMIT , commend, confide, entrust, hand over, relegate, turn over
Sample: The court consigned the child to her paternal grandmother's care.
console [ ] vt.
to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of:COMFORT
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embarrass:shame=console:comfort
disturb:serenity=console:grief
alleviate:intensity=console:grief
Synonyms: COMFORT, buck up, cheer, solace, upraise
Sample: When her father died, Marius did his best to console Cosette.
consolidate [ ] vt.
to join together into one whole:UNITE
consolidation<>fragmentation
consolidate<>dissolve
Synonyms: UNIFY , compact, concentrate, integrate
Sample: I had so many bank accounts at different banks that I consolidated them all
into one.
consonance [ ] n.
harmony or agreement among components
consonant<>dissonant
consonant<>discrepant
Synonyms: HARMONY, accord, agreement, chime, concord, concordance, tune
Sample: Her agitation seemed out of consonance with her usual calm.
conspicuous [ ] adj
obvious to the eye or mind
authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention
conspicuous:see=transparent:understand
hermitage:secluded=landmark:conspicuous
conspicuous:sheltered=??
blatant<>inconspicuous
nondescript<>conspicuous
salient<>unconspicuous
prominent<>inconspicuous
Synonyms: NOTICEABLE, arresting, arrestive, marked, outstanding, pointed,
prominent, remarkable, salient, striking
Sample: Everyone at the wedding was well-dressed, but she was conspicuous in jeans
and a cowboy hat.
conspiracy [ ] n.
An agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act.
uncouth:churl=conspiratorial:conniver
infiltrate:enter=conspire:plan
spy:watch=conspire:cooperate
Synonyms: PLOT , cabal, covin, intrigue, machination, practice, scheme
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Sample: Any language is a conspiracy against experience in the sense that it is a
collective attempt to manage experience by reducing it into discrete parcels.
constellation [ ] n.
the configuration of stars.
constellation:star=chord:note{ queue:person}
Sample: Big Dipper and Little Dipper are constellations that we see in the sky at night.
constitute [ ] vt.
to appoint to an office, function, or dignity
abdicate<>constitute
Synonyms: FOUND , create, establish, institute, organize, set up, start
Sample: Having sufficient income of her own constituted for Alice a material
independence that made possible a degree of security in her emotional life as well.
constrained [ ] adj.
to appoint to an office, function, or dignity
constrain<>release
intemperate<>constrained
Synonyms: RESERVED, incommunicable, noncommittal, restrained
Sample: The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the
details of human behavior but one of imposing constraintsways of feeling
thinkingand acting that "come naturally" in archetypal situations in any culture.
constringe [ ] vt.
to cause to contract; constrict.
commodious<>constringed
Synonyms: CONSTRICT, narrow
consult [ ] v.
COUNCIL, CONFERENCE; specifically:a deliberation between physicians on a case
or its treatment
bellwether:leadership=advisor:consultant
Synonyms: CONFER, advise, collogue, confab, confabulate, huddle, parley, powwow,
treat
Sample: I advise you to consult a dermatologist about your acne.
consummate [ ] adj.
Complete in every detail; of the highest degree; extremely skilled and accomplished.
Synonyms: accomplished, finished, perfected, ripe, virtuosic
Sample: I have never seem anyone who makes as many stupid errors as you do; you
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must be a consummate idiot.
contagious [ ] adj.
communicable by contact:CATCHING
sprain:injure=cold:contagion
contagious<>incommunicable
Synonyms: INFECTIOUS, catching, communicable
Sample: Wang's zeal was contagious; soon all his fellow students were busily making
posters, inspired by his ardent enthusiasm for the cause.
contaminate [ ] vt.
to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact or association
hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident
Synonyms: defile, pollute, soil, taint
Sample: The sewage system of the city so contaminated the water that swimming was
forbidden.
contemplate [ ] vt.
to view or consider with continued attention:meditate on consider
Synonyms: CONSIDER, excogitate, mind, perpend, ponder, study, think (out or over),
weigh
Sample: The acts of vandalism that these pranksters had actually perpetrated were
insignificant compared with those they had contemplated but had not attempted. (9510)
contempt [ ] n.
the act of despising:the state of mind of one who despises:DISDAIN
measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly
paragon:admire=pariah:contempt
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt
despicable:contempt=reprehensible:censure
scoff:contempt=thankful:gratitude
hilarious:laughter=contemptible:distain
estimable<>contemptible
deify<>watch with contempt
Synonyms: DESPITE, despisal, despisement, disdain, disparagement, scorn
Sample: Marshal Philippe Pertain, unlike any other French citizen of this century, has
been, paradoxically, the object of both great veneration and great contempt.
content [ ] adj.
feeling or manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions, status, or situation
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
gripe:discontent=praise:admiration
disaffected<>content
restiveness<>contentment
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contented<>avaricious
Synonyms: satisfied , pleased , contented , complacent
Sample: The nation was seething with discontent as the nobleman continued their
arrogant ways.
contentious [ ] adj.
exhibiting an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes
meddlesome:pry=contentious:argue
contentious<>conciliatory
contention<>general agreement
Synonyms: BELLIGERENT, bellicose, combative, gladiatorial, militant, pugnacious,
quarrelsome, truculent, warlike
Sample: We heard loud and contentious noises in the next room.
contingent [ ] adj.
likely but not certain to happen:POSSIBLE
Synonyms: ACCIDENTAL, casual, chance, fluky, fortuitous, incidental, odd
Sample: Manipulating laboratory tissue cultures with hormones is one thing; using
hormones to treat human beings, however, is contingent on whether hormones that work
in the laboratory can affect whole organisms, and in predictable ways.
contort [ ] v.
to twist into or as if into a strained shape or expression
contortion:body=grimace:face
Synonyms: DEFORM, distort, misshape, torture, warp, wind
Sample: As the effects of the opiate wore away, the contortions of the patient became
more violent and demonstrated how much pain she was enduring.
contradictory [ ] adj.
involving, causing, or constituting a contradiction
paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise
oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic
Synonyms: OPPOSITE, antipode, antipole, antithesis, contra, contrary, converse,
counter, counterpole, reverse
Sample: The detective was stymied by the contradictory evidence in the robbery
investigation.
contravene [ ] v.
to oppose in argument:CONTRADICT
contravene<>support
contravene<>buttress
Synonyms: VIOLATE, breach, break, infract, infringe, offend, transgress
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Sample: By idiosyncratically refusing to dismiss an insubordinate member of his staff,
the manager not only contravened established policy, but he also jeopardized his
heretofore good chances for promotion.
contrite [ ] adj.
grieving and penitent for sin or shortcoming
apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed
penitent:contrition=??
impenitent<>contrite
Synonyms: REMORSEFUL, apologetic, attritional, compunctious, penitent,
penitential, regretful, repentant, sorry
Sample: Her contrite tears did not influence the judge when he imposed sentence.
contrived [ ] adj.
ARTIFICIAL, LABORED
contrived:design=??
Synonyms: artificial , labored
Sample: It is difficult to distinguish between the things that charismatic figures do
spontaneously and those that are carefully contrived for effect.
control [ ] n.
an individual or group used as a standard of comparison in a control experiment
control<>group experimented on
contumacious [ ] adj.
stubbornly disobedient:REBELLIOUS
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty
contumacious<>obedient
Synonyms: INSUBORDINATE, factious, insurgent, mutinous, rebellious, seditious
Sample: The contumacious mob shouted defiantly at the police.
conundrum [ ] n.
a:a question or problem having only a conjectural answer b:an intricate and difficult
problem
conundrum:solve=??
Synonyms: MYSTERY, Chinese puzzle, closed book, enigma, mystification, puzzle,
puzzlement, riddle, why
Sample: During the long car ride, she invented conundrums to entertain the children.
convalesce [ ] vi.
to recover health and strength gradually after sickness or weakness
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce
Synonyms: IMPROVE , ameliorate, gain, look up, mend, perk (up), recuperate
Sample: After his heart attack, he went through a long convalescence at home.
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convenience [ ] n.
something (as an appliance, device, or service) conducive to comfort or ease
opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience
opportune<>inconvenient
Synonyms: AMENITY , comfort, facility
Sample: In spite of the fact that it is convenient to divide the life span of animals into
separate stages such as prenatal, adolescent, and senescent, these periods are not really
distinct.
convention [ ] n.
usage or custom especially in social matters
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention
reactionary:convention=??
ossify<>transcend conventions
Synonyms: CONTRACT, agreement, bargain, bond, compact, covenant, pact,
transaction
Sample: Once Renaissance painters discovered how to render volume and depth, they
were able to replace the medieval convention of symbolic, two-dimensional space with
the more realistic illusion of actual space.
conventional [ ] adj.
lacking originality or individuality:TRITE
hero:admirable=eccentric:unconventional
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated
offbeat<>conventional
Sample: George Bernard Shaw's iconoclastic plays often startled more conventional
people.
convergent [ ] adj.
tending to move toward one point or to approach each other:CONVERGING
convergent<>moving apart
discrepancy<>convergence
converge<>spread out
Synonyms: converging , confluent
Sample: Marchers converged on Washington for the great Save Our Cities-Save Our
Children Marc
conversant [ ] adj.
having frequent or familiar association
conversant<>unfamiliarity
conversant<>ignorant
Synonyms: FAMILIAR , abreast, acquainted, au courant, au fait, informed, up, versant,
versed
Sample: The lawyer is conversant with all the evidence.
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convert [ ] vt.
to bring over from one belief, view, or party to another
veer:direction=convert:belief
hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert
Synonyms: TRANSFORM, change, commute, metamorphose, transfigure, translate,
transmogrify, transmute, transpose, transubstantiate
Sample: On his trip to Japan, though the President spoke at length about the merits of
American automobiles, he made few converts to his beliefs.

List 7 convex --- deference
convex [ ] adj.
curved or rounded like the exterior of a sphere
convex<>dent
Sample: He polished the convex lens of his telescope.
convey [ ] vt.
to transfer or deliver to another
collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey
splint:immobilize=duct:convey
Sample: The appreciation of traditional oral American Indian literature has been
limitedhampered by poor translations and by the difficultyeven in the rare culturally
sensitive and aesthetically satisfying translationof completely conveying the original
s verse structuretoneand syntax.
conviction [ ] n.
a strong persuasion or belief
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment /conviction
cogent<>unconvincing
Synonyms: CERTAINTY, assurance, assuredness, certitude, confidence, sureness,
surety
Sample: Few of us take the pains to study our cherished convictions; indeed, we
almost have a natural repugnance to doing so.
conviction [ ] n.
the act or process of convicting of a crime especially in a court of law
mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction
Sample: The warden will incarcerate the felon after conviction.
convivial [ ] adj.
relating to, occupied with, or fond of feasting, drinking, and good company
convivial:sociability=??
Synonyms: SOCIAL , companionable, sociable
108
Sample: The convivial celebrators of the victory sang their college songs.
convoke [ ] v.
to call together to a meeting
convoke<>adjourn
Synonyms: assemble, call, convene, summon
Sample: Congress was convoked at the outbreak of the emergency.
convoluted [ ] adj.
INVOLVED, INTRICATE
convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience
convoluted:complexity=transient:evanescence
Synonyms: complex , winding , intricate, complicated
Sample: A misconception frequently held by novice writers is that sentence structure
mirrors thought:the more convoluted the structure, the more complicated the ideas.
convulsion [ ] n.
an abnormal violent and involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the muscles
convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion
Synonyms: COMMOTION, clamor, ferment, outcry, tumult, upheaval, upturn
Sample: He began to choke and went into convulsions.
coop [ ] n.
a cage or small enclosure (as for poultry)
corral:horses=coop:chickens
Sample: Mr. Jones obtained a watchdog to prevent the nocturnal raids on his chicken
coops.
copious [ ] adj.
present in large quantity:taking place on a large scale
copious<>sparse
Synonyms: PLENTIFUL, abundant, ample, bounteous, bountiful, generous, liberal,
plenteous, plenty
Sample: She had copious reasons for rejecting the proposal.
coquette [ ] n.
a woman who endeavors without sincere affection to gain the attention and admiration
of men
supplicant:beseeching=coquette:flirtatious
Sample: Because she refused to give him an answer to his proposal of marriage, he
called her a coquette.
cord [ ] n.
a unit of wood cut for fuel equal to a stack 4 x 4 x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet
109
ream:paper=cord:wood
Sample: She bought a cord of wood for use in her fireplace.
cordon [ ] n.
a line of persons or objects around a person or place
levee:river=cordon:crowd
Sample: The police cordon was so tight that the criminals could not leave the area.
cornucopia [ ] n
an inexhaustible store:ABUNDANCE
cornucopia<>lack/pittance
Sample: American farmers grow a cornucopia of food for people.
coronation [ ] n.
the act or occasion of crowning; also:accession to the highest office
coronation:reign=wedding:marriage
Sample: When Princess Elizabeth became Queen Elizabeth II, England celebrated her
coronation.
corporeal [ ] adj.
having, consisting of, or relating to a physical material body:as a:not spiritual b:not
immaterial or intangible:SUBSTANTIAL
corporeal<>intangible/disembodied
spiritual<>corporeal
incorporeal<>incarnate
Synonyms: MATERIAL, gross, objective, phenomenal, physical, sensible, substantial,
tangible
Sample: He was not a churchgoer; he was interested only in corporeal matters.
corral [ ] vt.
a pen or enclosure for confining or capturing livestock
corral:horses=coop:chickens
Sample: Cowboys leave their horses in the corral after work.
corroborate [ ] vt.
to support with evidence or authority:make more certain
corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood
corroboration<>lessening of certainty
Synonyms: CONFIRM, authenticate, bear out, justify, substantiate, validate, verify
Sample: Unless we find a witness to corroborate your evidence, it will not stand up in
court.
corrosive [ ] adj.
tending or having the power to corrode
etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive
110
Synonyms: SARCASTIC, acerb, acerbic, archilochian, caustic
Sample: The corrosive effect of air pollution on great buildings and statues eventually
turns them to powder.
cosmopolitan [ ] n.
having worldwide rather than limited or provincial scope or bearing
bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan {servile:domination
insularity<>cosmopolitanism
insular<>cosmopolitan
Synonyms: UNIVERSAL, catholic, cosmic, ecumenical, global, planetary, worldwide
Sample: Hong Kong is a cosmopolitan city with people from all over the world.
cosset [ ] v.
to treat as a pet:PAMPER
cosset<>slight
cosseted<>unspoiled
Synonyms: BABY, cater (to), cocker, coddle, humor, indulge, mollycoddle, pamper,
spoil
Sample: Cosseted Child, Convincing Bohemian, Robert Louis Stevenson Was Also, a
New Book Shows, the Star of an Extraordinary Life.
coterie [ ] n.
an intimate and often exclusive group of persons with a unifying common interest or
purpose
coterie:group=??
Synonyms: CLIQUE, cabal, camarilla, camp, circle, clan, in-group, mafia, mob, ring
Sample: After his book had been published, he was invited to join the literary coterie
that lunched daily at the hotel.
countenance [ ] n.
to extend approval or toleration to:SANCTION
countenance<>condemn
Synonyms: APPROVE, accept, approbate, favor, go (for), hold (with)
Sample: While many people utilize homeopathic remedies to treat health problems,
other people do not countenance such alternative treatments, relying on conventional
medical treatments instead.
counterfeit [ ] n.
made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive:FORGED
sophism:reasoning=counterfeit:money
Synonyms: ASSUME, act, affect, bluff, fake, feign, pretend, put on, sham, simulate
Sample: Criminals counterfeited the $20 bills by printing them secretly.
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counterpart [ ] n.
one of two corresponding copies of a legal instrument:DUPLICATE
Synonyms: PARALLEL, analogue, correlate, correspondent, countertype, match
Sample: As early as the seventeenth century, philosophers called attention to the
problematic character of the issue, and their twentieth-century counterparts still
approach it with uneasiness. (9504)
court [ ] n.vt.
to seek the affections of; especially:to seek to win a pledge of marriage from
aversion<>court
court<>repel intentionally/repulse intentionally/snub
spurn<>court ,crave, embrace
Synonyms: ADDRESS, make up (to), pursue, spark, sue, sweetheart, woo
Sample: Jones was unable to recognize, the contradictions in his attitudes that were
obvious to everyone else; even the hint of an untruth was repugnant to him, but he
courted serious trouble by always cheating on his taxes.
courtesy [ ] n.
a courteous act or expression
Synonyms: amenity, attention, gallantry
Sample: A firm believer in old-fashioned courtesy, Miss Post deprecated the modern
tendency to address new acquaintances by their first names.
coven [ ] n.
an assembly or band of usually 13 witches
retainer:retinue=witch:coven
Sample: A coven of witches beside a tree is a possible rebus for the town Coventry.
covetous [ ] adj.
marked by inordinate desire for wealth or possessions or for another's possessions
troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious
Synonyms: acquisitive, desirous, grabby, greedy
Sample: The child was covetous by nature and wanted to take the toys belonging to
his classmates.
cow [ ] v.
to destroy the resolve or courage of
cowed<>undaunted
embolden<>abash/faze/cow
Synonyms: INTIMIDATE, bludgeon, bluster, browbeat, bulldoze, bully, bullyrag,
dragoon, hector, strong-arm
Sample: The little boy was so cowed by the hulking bully that he gave up his lunch
112
money without a word of protest.
cowardice [ ] n.
lack of courage or resolution
cowardice:intimidate=perplexed:obfuscate
cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize
pluck<>cowardice
pluckish<>coward
Sample: When the boat turned over, the man showed cowardice by saving himself
while leaving his wife to drown.
cower [ ] vi.
to shrink away or crouch especially for shelter from something that menaces, domineers,
or dismays
fear:cower=anger:rant
bristle<>cower
Synonyms: FAWN, apple-polish, bootlick, cringe, grovel, honey (up), kowtow, toady,
truckle
Sample: The frightened child cowered in the corner of the room.
craft [ ] n.
skill in planning, making, or executing:DEXTERITY
Synonyms: ART, adroitness, cunning, dexterity, expertise, know-how, skill
Sample: His desk was cluttered with paper, pen, ink, dictionary and other
paraphernalia of the writing craft.
cramp [ ] adj.
CONFINE, RESTRAIN
commodious<>constricted/cramped
Synonyms: RESTRICTION , circumscription, limitation, stint, stricture
Sample: She lives in a cramped little apartment.
crass [ ] adj.
having or indicating such grossness of mind as precludes delicacy and discrimination
crass<>refined
Synonyms: COARSE, crude, gross, inelegant, raw, rough, rude, uncouth, unrefined,
vulgar
Sample: The philosophers deplored the crass commercialism.
craven [ ] adj
lacking the least bit of courage:contemptibly fainthearted
craven:admirable=deft:awkward
craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift
craven:heroic=volatile:constant
113
heroic:craven=erratic:permanent
craven:confront=honest:deceive
dastard:craven=??
Synonyms: COWARDLY, coward, gutless, lily-livered, poltroonish, poor-spirited,
pusillanimous, spunkless, unmanly
Sample: Their air of cheerful self-sacrifice and endless complaisance won them
undeserved praise, for their seeming gallantry was wholly motivated by a craven wish to
avoid conflict of any sort.
craving [ ] n.
an intense, urgent, or abnormal desire or longing
terror:fear=craving:desire
exult:satisfaction=crave:longing
spurn<>court/crave/embrace
Synonyms: LONG, ache, dream, hanker, hunger, lust, pine, sigh, suspire, thirst
Sample: Although he wished to break the nicotine habit, he found himself impotent in
resisisting the craving for a cigarette.
credence [ ] n.
acceptance as true or valid; belief
credence<>skeptic/doubt
Synonyms: BELIEF, credit, faith
Sample: Do not place any credence in his promises.
credulous [ ] adj.
ready to believe especially on slight or uncertain evidence
penitent:obdurate=skeptic:credulous
Synonyms: unsuspecting, unsuspicious, unwary
Sample: When Jack claimed he hadn't eaten the jelly doughnut, Jill took an
incredulous look at his smeared face and laughed.
creek [ ] n.
a natural stream of water normally smaller than and often tributary to a river
hill:mountain=creek:river
Sample: We went fishing in the creek.
creep [ ] vi.
to move slowly,quietly and carefully, esp so as not to attract attention
creep<>move swiftly
Synonyms: crawl, slide, snake
Sample: The husband came home very late and he crept by his wife so he would not
wake her up.
114
crescendo [ ] n.
a gradual increase; specifically:a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage
crescendo<>decrease in volume
Synonyms: APEX, acme, apogee, climax, crest, culmination, peak
Sample: The overture suddenly changed from a quiet pastoral theme to a crescendo
featuring blaring trumpets and clashing cymbols.
crest [ ] n.
the top of a wave
crest:wave=summit/peak:mountain
acme:mountain=crest:wave
Synonyms: TOP, apex, crown, fastigium, peak, roof, summit, vertex
crestfallen [ ] adj.
feeling shame or humiliation:DEJECTED
crestfallen<>exultant
Synonyms: DOWNCAST, blue, cast down, dejected, depressed, disconsolate,
dispirited, down, downhearted, low
Sample: We were surprised at his reaction to the failure of his project; instead of being
crestfallen, he was busily engaged in planning new activities.
criterion [ ] n
a standard on which a judgment or decision may be based
Synonyms: STANDARD, benchmark, gauge, measure, touchstone, yardstick
Sample: The primary criterion for judging a school is its recent performance:critics are
reluctant to extend credit for earlier victories.
crockery [ ] n.
EARTHENWARE
crockery:earthenware=??
cronyism [ ] n.
partiality to cronies especially as evidenced in the appointment of political hangers-on
to office without regard to their qualifications
nepotism:relative=cronyism:friend
croon [ ] v.
to sing or speak in a gentle murmuring manner; especially:to sing in a soft intimate
manner adapted to amplifying systems
croon:sing=murmur:speak
Sample: When Desi crooned, "Baby, light my fire," literal-minded Lucy looked
around for some paper to ignite.
crouch [ ] v.
to bend or bow servilely:CRINGE
Synonyms: huddle, hunch, scrooch
115
Sample: The earthquake shattered his usual stolidity; trembling, he crouched on the no
longer stable ground.
crown [ ] vt.
to place a crown or wreath on the head of; specifically:to invest with regal dignity and
power
inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king
Sample: The prophet Samuel anointed David with oil, crowning him king of Israel.
crucial [ ] adj.
important or essential as resolving acrisis:DECISIVE
relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious
crucial<>inconsequential
Synonyms: ACUTE, climacteric, critical, desperate, dire
Sample: Despite its virtues, the book deals inadequately with a number of crucial
issues.
crude [ ] adj.
marked by the primitive, gross, or elemental or by uncultivated simplicity or vulgarity
delicacy<>crudity
Synonyms: COARSE, crass, gross, inelegant, raw, rough, rude, uncouth, unrefined,
vulgar
Sample: Unenlightened authoritarian manage rarely recognize a crucial reason for the
low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups:a
modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents schism.
crutch [ ] n.
a support typically fitting under the armpit for use by the disabled in walking
crutch:walk=glasses:see
crutch:support=??
Sample: He broke his foot and is on crutches now.
crux [ ] n.
an essential point requiring resolution or resolving an outcome
crux<>peripheral element
Synonyms: SUBSTANCE core, gist, kernel, matter, meat, nub, pith, purport
Sample: This is the crux of the entire problem.
cryptic [ ] adj.
having or seeming to have a hidden or ambiguous meaning:MYSTERIOUS
cipher:cryptic=precis:concise
cryptic:perplex=??
cryptic<>self explain
cryptic<>self explanatory
Synonyms: dark, Delphian, enigmatic, mystifying
116
Sample: His cryptic remarks could not be interpreted.
cuisine [ ] n.
manner of preparing food:style of cooking; also:the food prepared
connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine
Sample: He likes French cuisine and his wife enjoys Mexican cuisine.
culpable [ ] adj.
meriting condemnation or blame especially as wrong or harmful
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame
culpable<>innocent
Synonyms: BLAMEWORTHY, blamable, blameful, demeritorious, guilty,
reprehensible
Sample: Corrupt politicians who condone the activities of the gamblers are equally
culpable.
cultivated [ ] adj.
REFINED, EDUCATED
feral<>cultivated
cultivate<>cause to wither
Synonyms: GENTEEL, cultured, polished, refined, urbane, well-bred
Sample: The cultivation of the emotion of natsukashii, interpretable as "pleasant
sorrow," brings Japanese to Kyoto in the spring, not to savor the cherry blossoms in full
bloom but to grieve over the fading, falling flowers.
cumbersome [ ] adj.
unwieldy because of heaviness and bulk
cumbersome<>easy to handle
Synonyms: UNWIELDY, cumbrous, ponderous, unhandy
Sample: He was burdened down with cumbersome parcels.
cunning [ ] adj.
characterized by wiliness and trickery
watchful:waylaid=cunning:gulled
artless<>cunning/guileful
ingenuous<>cunning
Synonyms: CLEVER, adroit, canny, dexterous, ingenious, slim, sly
Sample: Early critics of Emily Dickinson's poetry mistook for simplemindedness the
surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed with such cunning.
curator [ ] n.
one that has the care and superintendence of something; especially:one in charge of a
museum, zoo, or other place of exhibit
ranger:forest=curator:museum
117
Sample: The members of the board of trustees of the museum expected the new
curator
curmudgeon [ ] n.
a crusty, ill-tempered, and usually old man
curmudgeon<>agreeable person
Sample: Although he was regarded by many as a curmudgeon, a few of us were aware
of the many kindnesses and acts of charity that he secretly performed.
curriculum [ ] n.
A group of related courses, often in a special field of study:
curriculum:course=menu:dish { agenda:meeting } :menu:a list of the dishes that
may be ordered (as at a restaurant) or that are to be served (as at a banquet)
Sample:Unfortunately, since courses in nutrition are often neglected in medical school
curriculums. a family physician is unlikely to be an enlightening source of general
information about diet.
cursory [ ] adj.
rapidly and often superficially performed or produced:HASTY
cursory<>painstakingly thorough
fastidious<>easygoing/cursory/uncritical
Synonyms: SUPERFICIAL, depthless, shallow, sketchy, uncritical
Sample: A cursory examination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson; a more
extensive study should be undertaken.
curt [ ] adj.
sparing of words:TERSE
curt:words=parsimonious:resource
Synonyms: CONCISE, breviloquent, brief, compendiary, compendious, laconic, short,
succinct, summary
Sample: He asked his boss a question, but got a curt reply, "I have no time for you
now!"
curtail [ ] vt.
to make less by or as if by cutting off or away some part
curtail:period=enervate:energy
curtail:duration=abase:strength
protract<>curtail
Synonyms: SHORTEN, abbreviate, abridge, cut, cut back, retrench, slash
Sample: To avoid annihilation by parasites, some caterpillars are able to curtail periods
of active growth by prematurely entering a dormant state, which is characterized by the
suspension of feeding.
cyclone [ ] n.
118
a storm or system of winds that rotates about a center of low atmospheric pressure, and
often brings heavy rain
snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone
Synonyms: TORNADO, twister
Sample: A cyclone tore up trees and houses.
cynical [ ] adj.
having or showing the attitude or temper of a cynic; especially:contemptuously
distrustful of human nature and motives
ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness
Synonyms: SARDONIC, ironic, wry
Sample: For some time now, disinterestedness has been presumed not to exist:the
cynical conviction that everybody has an angle is considered wisdom.
dabble [ ] vi.
to work or involve oneself superficially or intermittently especially in a secondary
activity or interest
martinet :leniency=dabbler :dedication
dabble<>dedicate/devote
dabbler<>specialist
dabble<>specialize
Synonyms: AMATEUR, abecedarian, dilettante, nonprofessional, smatterer, tyro,
uninitiated
Sample: That she seemed to prefer dabbling to concentrated effort is undeniable;
nevertheless, the impressive quality of her finished paintings suggests that her actual
relationship to her art was anything but- superficial.
daft [ ] adj.
SILLY, FOOLISH
daft:saint=??
daft<>judicious
Synonyms: INSANE, bedlamite, cracked, crazed, crazy, demented, deranged, mad,
unbalanced, unsound
dally [ ] vi.
a:to act playfully; especially:to play amorously b:to deal lightly:TOY
Synonyms: TRIFLE, coquet, flirt, fool, lead on, string along, toy, wanton
Sample: Laertes told Ophelia that Hamlet could only dally with her affections.
damp [ ] n. & adj. v.
MOISTURE,HUMIDITY, DAMPNESS
tint:suffuse=damp:quench
assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor
119
alleviate:strength=dampen:ardor
sere<>lush/damp
dampen<>scorch
Synonyms: dampish, dank, moist, moisty, wettish
Sample: While the delegate clearly sought to dampen the optimism that has emerged
recently, she stopped short of suggesting that the conference was near collapse and
might produce nothing of significance.
damper [ ] n.
a dulling or deadening influence
damper<>ameliorate
Sample: Their child is sick, and that puts a damper on their vacation plans.
dandy [ ] n
a man who gives exaggerated attention to personal appearance
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
Synonyms: FOP, Beau Brummel, blood, buck, coxcomb, dude, exquisite, lounge lizard,
macaroni, popinjay
Sample: That man is quite a dandy; he always wears expensive new clothes.
dank [ ] adj.
unpleasantly moist or wet
dank:moisture=??
Synonyms: DAMP, dampish, moist, moisty, wettish
Sample: The walls of the dungeon were dank and slimy.
dapper [ ] adj.
neat and trim in appearance
dapper:fastidious=??
indulge:adherent=slovenly:dapper
dapper<>frowsy
unkempt<>dapper
slovenly<>dapper
Synonyms: bandbox, doggish, doggy, natty, sassy, sparkish, spiffy, spruce, sprucy,
well-groomed
Sample: In "The Odd Couple," Tony Randall played Felix Unger, an excessively
dapper soul who could not stand to have a hair out of place.
dappled [ ] adj.
marked with small spots or patches contrasting with the background
striated:groove=mottled/dappled:spot
Synonyms: VARIEGATED, discolor, motley, multicolor, multicolored, multihued,
120
parti-colored, varicolored, versicolor, versicolored
Sample: The sunlight filtering though the screens created a dappled effect on the wall.
daredevil [ ] n.
a recklessly bold person
prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton
daredevil:??=malcontent:dissatisfaction
Synonyms: ADVENTUROUS, adventuresome, audacious, daring, foolhardy, rash,
reckless, temerarious, venturesome, venturous
Sample: The daredevil rode his motorcycle over 15 parked cars.
dart [ ] vi.
to move suddenly or rapidly fall
descend:plummet=move:dart
Synonyms: FLY, float, sail, scud, shoot, skim
Sample: child darted out in front of the car.
dastard [ ] n.
a person who acts treacherously or underhandedly
dastard:craven=??
Synonyms: COWARD, chicken, craven, funk, funker, poltroon, quitter, yellowbelly
daunt [ ] vt.
to lessen the courage of:COW, SUBDUE
dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment
dauntless:intimidate=irrepressible:restrain
cowed<>undaunted
daunt<>embolden/make resolute
daunting<>meek
dauntless<>craven/easily discouraged/pusillanimous
dauntless<>trepid
Synonyms: DISMAY, appall, consternate, horrify, shake
Sample: He was timid and cowardish; always backing up at daunting situations.
dawdle [ ] vi. & vt.
to move lackadaisically
hie<>dawdle
Synonyms: IDLE, bum, diddle-daddle, laze, lazy, loaf, loiter, loll, lounge
Sample: Inasmuch as we must meet a deadline, do not dawdle over this work.
deactivate [ ] vt.
to make inactive or ineffective
deactivate<>potentiate
Sample: deactivated that military unit and sent the soldiers home.
121
deaden [ ] vt.
to impair in vigor or sensation:BLUNT
tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden
Synonyms: benumb, blunt, desensitize, dull, mull, numb
Sample: We put soundproofing in the walls to deaden the noise from the road outside.
deadpan [ ] adj.
marked by an impassive matter-of-fact manner, style, or expression
impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive
Synonyms: EXPRESSIONLESS, blank, empty, inexpressive, unexpressive, vacant
Sample: We wanted to see how long he could maintain his deadpan expression.
dearth [ ] n.
an inadequate supply:LACK
plethora<>dearth
spate<>dearth
Synonyms: ABSENCE, default, defect, lack, miss, privation, want
Sample: The dearth of skilled labor compelled the employers to open trade schools.
debark [ ] vt.
To unload, as from a ship or an airplane.
debark:ship=dismount:horse { unload:truck } dismount:To get off or down, as from
a horse or vehicle.
Sample: The passengers debarked at noon.
debase[ to lower in status, esteem, quality, or character
debase:value=attenuate:force/intensity
enervate:vitality=debase:value
debase:value=simplify:complexity
debase:status=lower:height
debased<>ennobled
deification<>debasement
Synonyms: animalize, bastardize, bestialize, brutalize, canker, corrupt, debauch,
demoralize, deprave, pervert, poison, rot, stain, vitiate, warp
Sample: Do not debase youself by becoming maudlin.
debilitate [ ] vt.
to impair the strength of:ENFEEBLE
attenuate:thickness=debilitate:strength
debilitate<>invigorate/fortify
Synonyms: WEAKEN, attenuate, blunt, cripple, disable, enfeeble, sap, unbrace,
122
undermine, unstrengthen
Sample: Overindulgence debilitates character as well as physical stamina.
debonair [ ] adj.
LIGHTHEARTED, NONCHALANT
Sample: The debonair youth was liked by all who met him, because of his cheerful
and obliging manner.
debris [ ] n.
the remains of something broken down or destroyed
debris:destroy=ash:burn
Synonyms: REFUSE, garbage, junk, litter, offal, riffraff, rubbish, spilth, trash, waste
Sample: A full year after the earthquake in Mexico City, workers were still carting
away the debris.
debunk [ ] v
to expose the sham or falseness of
debunk<>perpetuate to sham
debunk<>unexposure
Synonyms: EXPOSE, discover, show up, uncloak, undress, unmask, unshroud
Sample: Pointing out that he conhsistently had voted afainst strenghtening
antipollution legislation, reporters debunked the candidate's claim that he was a fervent
environmentalist.
debut [ ] n
a first appearance
debut:career=embarkment:journey
debut<>farewell performance
Sample: As a debutante, she was often mentioned in the society columns of the
newspapers.
decadence [ ] n.
the process of becoming decadent:the quality or state of being decadent
decadence<>wholesomeness
Synonyms: DETERIORATION, declension, declination, decline, degeneracy,
degeneration, devolution, downfall, downgrade
Sample: The moral decadence of the people was reflected in the lewd literature of the
period.
decant [ ] vt.
to pour out, transfer, or unload as if by pouring
subterfuge:deceive=decant:pour
Sample: Be sure to decant this wine before serving it.
123
decelerate [ ] v.
to reduce the speed of:slow down
retrench:expense=decelerate:speed
attenuate:force=decelerate:speed
Synonyms: DELAY, bog (down), detain, embog, hang up, mire, retard, set back,
slacken, slow (up or down)
Sample: Although sales have continued to increase since last April, unfortunately the
rate of increase has decelerated.
decibel [ ] n.
a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from zero for the average
least perceptible sound to about 130 for the average pain level
decibel:sound=volt:electricity=watt:power=lumen:light
Sample: A sound level of 90 decibels is extremely loud.
decipher [ ] vt.
a:to make out the meaning of despite indistinctness or obscurity b:to interpret the
meaning of
legible:decipher=??
decipher:hieroglyph=separate:component
Synonyms: DECODE, break, crack, cryptanalyze, decrypt
Sample: I could not decipher the doctor's handwriting.
decode [ ] vt.
to convert (as a coded message) into intelligible form
tacit:infer=encoded:decode
Synonyms: break, crack, cryptanalyze, decipher, decrypt
Sample: Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him
in cipher.
decorum [ ] n.
propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance
miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum
decorum<>impropriety
indecorous<>proper
mangy<>decorous
Synonyms: decency, dignity, etiquette, propriety, seemliness
Sample: Many philosophers agree that the verbal aggression of profanity in certain
radical newspapers is not trivial or childish, but an assault on decorum essential to the
revolutionaries purpose.
decrepit [ ] adj.
wasted and weakened by or as if by the infirmities of old age
decrepit<>vigorous
124
decrepit<>sturdy
decrepit<>sound
Synonyms: WEAK, feeble, flimsy, fragile, frail, infirm, insubstantial, unsound,
unsubstantial, weakly
Sample: I was unprepared for the state of decrepitude in which I had found my old
friend; he seemed to have aged twenty years in six months.
dedication [ ] n.
a devoting or setting aside for a particular purpose
bigot:dedication=rage:anger
martinet :leniency=dabbler :dedication
zeal:dedication=mesmerism:interest
dabble<>dedicate/devote
Synonyms: DEVOTE, consecrate, hallow
Sample: Let us memorialize his great contribution by dedicating this library in his
honor.
default [ ] n. & v.
a failure to pay financial debts
default:pay=yield:resist
Synonyms: FAILURE, delinquency, dereliction, neglect, oversight
Sample: As a result of her husband's failure to appear in court, she was granted a
divorce by default.
deference [ ] n.
respect and esteem due a superior or an elder; also:affected or ingratiating regard for
another's wishes
defer:leader=admire:hero
deferential:offend=scornful:respect
acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical}
frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant
emulation:exemplar=deference:authority
maudlin:sentimental=obsequious:deferential
arrogance:defer=lassitude:stir
exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference
impudent<>deferential/respectful
deferential<>imperious
impudent<>reverence/deference
Synonyms: HONOR, homage, obeisance, reverence
Sample: The deference with which the French aristocracy greeted the middle-class
Rousseau was all the more remarkable because he showed so little respect for them.

125
List 8 deficiency --- disarm
deficiency [ ] n.
an amount that is lacking or inadequate:SHORTAGE
surfeit<>deficiency
Synonyms: FAILURE, defalcation, deficit, inadequacy, insufficience, insufficiency,
lack, scantiness, shortage, underage
Sample: Yet Waizers argumenthowever deficientdoes point to one of the most
serious weak- nesses of capitalism-namelythat it brings to predominant positions
in a society people whono matter how legitimately they have earned their material
rewardsoften lack those other qualities that evoke affection or admiration.
defile [ ] v
a narrow passage or gorge
precipice:steepness=defile:narrowness
Synonyms: CONTAMINATE, pollute, soil, taint
Sample: The hoodlums defiled the church with their scurrilous writing.
definitive [ ] adj.
serving to provide a final solution or to end a situation
definitive<>provisional
Synonyms: EXPLICIT, categorical, clean-cut, clear-cut, definite, express, specific,
unambiguous
Sample: Vaillant, who has been Particularly interested in the means by which people
attain mental health, seems to be looking for definitive answers:a way to close the book
on at least a few questions about human nature.
defoliate [ ] vt. & vi.
to deprive of leaves especially prematurely
defoliants:leave=insecticide:insect
Synonyms: contort, distort, misshape, torture, warp, wind
Sample: In Vietnam the army made extensive use of chemical agents to defoliate
the woodlands.
deforest [ ] vt.
the action or process of clearing of forests; also:the state of having been cleared of
deforest:tree=insecticide:insect
Sample: Loggers deforested a valley by cutting its trees.
defraud [ ] vt.
to deprive of something by deception or fraud
126
Synonyms: CHEAT, beat, bilk, chouse, cozen, do, flimflam, gyp, swindle, take
Sample: As you gloat over your ill-gotten wealth, do you think of the many victims
you have defrauded?
deft [ ] adj.
characterized by facility and skill
craven:admirable=deft:awkward
maladroit:deft=voluble:terse
deft<>maladroit
ham-handed<>deft/adroit
Synonyms: DEXTEROUS, adroit, clever, handy, neat-handed, nimble
Sample: The deft waiter uncorked the champagne without spilling a drop.
defuse [ ] vt.
to make less harmful, potent, or tense
defuse<>foment
Synonyms: DEAD, asleep, cold, deceased, departed, exanimate, extinct, inanimate,
late, lifeless
Sample: They defused the bomb, so it couldn't explode.
defy [ ] vt.
to challenge to do something considered impossible:DARE
acquiesce<>defy
defy<>obey
Synonyms: FACE, beard, brave, challenge, dare, double-dog dare, front, outdare,
outface, venture
Sample: Mr. Barrett never expected his meek daughter would dare to defy him by
eloping with her suitor.
dehydrate [ ] vt.
to remove bound water or hydrogen and oxygen from (a chemical compound) in the
proportion in which they form water
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
dehydrate:water=wither:vitality=fade:brightening
fatigue:rest=dehydration:water
descent:altitude=dehydrate:moisture
dehydrate:water=repose/rest:fatigue
dehydrate:moisture=desertification:vegetation
reconstitute<>dehydrate
Synonyms: DRY, desiccate, exsiccate, parch, sear
Sample: Vigorous dancing quickly dehydrates the body; between dances, be sure to
drink more water than normal.
127
deify [ ] v.
To worship or revere as a god
deification<>debasement
deify<>watch with contempt
Sample: Admire the rock star all you want; just don't deify him.
deject [ ] vt.
to make gloomy
mollify:anger=hearten:dejection
dejected<>exultant
deject<>gladden
Synonyms: DISCOURAGE, chill, demoralize, dishearten, disparage, dispirit
Sample: A man with a dejected look sat waiting for a bus.
deleterious [ ] adj.
harmful often in a subtle or unexpected way
wholesome<>deleterious
deleterious<>salutary/salubrious
Synonyms: HARMFUL, damaging, detrimental, hurtful, injurious, mischievous,
nocent, nocuous, prejudicial, prejudicious
Sample: It is a great advantage to be able to transfer useful genes with as little extra
gene material as possible, because the donor's genome may contain, in addition to
desirable genes, many genes with deleterious effects.
deliberate [ ] adj.
to think about or discuss issues and decisions carefully
apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate
headlong:deliberation=??
candor:subterfuge=brash:deliberate
hasty<>characterized by deliberation
hasty<>deliberate
impetuous<>deliberate
Synonyms: advised, aforethought, considered, designed, premeditated, prepense,
studied, studious, thought-out
Sample: The President reached a decision only after lengthy deliberation,
painstakingly weighing the divergent opinions expressed by cabinet members.
delicacy [ ] n.
the quality or state of being dainty:FINENESS
chiaroscuro:contrast={ tapestry:intricacy } filigree:delicacy
delicacy<>crudity
husky<>delicate
Synonyms: bonne bouche, dainty, goody, kickshaw, morsel, treat
Sample: The diplomat, selected for her demonstrated patience and skill in conducting
128
such delicate negotiations, declined to make a decision during the talks because any
sudden commitment at that time would have been inopportune.
delinquent [ ] n.
offending by neglect or violation of duty or of law
Synonyms: NEGLIGENT, behindhand, careless, derelict, disregardful, lax, neglectful,
regardless, remiss, slack
Sample: The juvenile delinquent is a potential murderer.
delirium [ ] n
a mental disturbance characterized by confusion, disordered speech, and hallucinations
coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion
Synonyms: frenzy, furor
Sample: The drunkard in his delirium saw strange animals.
delude [ ] vt.
to mislead the mind or judgment of:DECEIVE, TRICK
delusion:thought=hallucination:perception {mirage:imagination}
transparent<>delusive
Synonyms: DECEIVE, beguile, betray, bluff, double-cross, humbug, illude, juggle,
mislead, take in
Sample: Do not delude yourself into believing that he will relent.
deluge [ ] n.
adj. an overflowing of the land by water b:a drenching rain
rain:deluge=wind:hurricane
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide
deluge<>drizzle
Synonyms: FLOOD, cataclysm, cataract, flooding, inundation, niagara, overflow, pour,
spate, torrent
Sample: When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications.
delve [ ] vt. & vi.
to make a careful or detailed search for information
quaff:sip=delve:skim
scrutinize:gloss=delve:skim
Synonyms: DIG, excavate, grub, shovel, spade
Sample: Delving into old books and manuscripts is part of a researcher's job.
demagogue [ ] n.
a leader who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to
gain power
demagogue:instruct=??
129
Synonyms: rabble-rouser
Sample: He was accused of being a demogogue because he made promises that
aroused futile hopes in his listeners.
demanding [ ] adj.
requiring much time, effort, or attention:EXACTING
demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway}
Synonyms: ONEROUS, burdensome, exacting, exigent, grievous, oppressive, taxing,
tough, trying, weighty
demise [ ] n.vt.
DIE, DECEASE
Synonyms: DEATH, curtains, decease, defunction, dissolution, passing, quietus,
silence, sleep
Sample: The demise of the rigorous academic curriculum in high school resulted, in
part, from the progressive rhetoric that sanctioned the study of subjects previously
thought inappropriate as part of school learning.
demography [ ] n.
the statistical study of human populations especially with reference to size and density,
distribution, and vital statistics
demography:population=meteorology:weather
Sample: In conducting a survey, one should take into account demographic trends in
the region.
demolition [ ] n.
the act of demolishing; especially:destruction in war by means of explosives
recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition
Sample: One of the major aims of the air force was the complete demolition of all
means of transportation by the bombing of rail lines and the terminals.
demoralize [ ] vt.
a:to weaken the morale of:DISCOURAGE, DISPIRIT b:to upset or destroy the normal
functioning of c:to throw into disorder
demoralize <>invigorate/cheer { ameliorate }
Synonyms: DEBASE, bastardize, bestialize, brutalize, corrupt, debauch, deprave,
pervert, vitiate, warp
Sample: Poor leadership demoralized the workers.
demotic adj.
Of or relating to the common people; popular
demotic<>profound
Sample: He lamented the passing of aristocratic society and maintained that a demotic
society would lower the nation's standards.
130
demur [ ] v
to take exception:OBJECT
praise:approbation=demur:objection
demur<>accept
accede<>demur
Synonyms: balk, boggle, gag, jib, scruple, shy, stick, stickle, strain, stumble
Sample: To demur at this time will only worsen the already serious situation; now is
the time for action
denigrate [ ] vt.
to cast aspersions on:DEFAME
denigrate<>honor
Synonyms: MALIGN, asperse, calumniate, defame, libel, scandalize, slander, tear
down, traduce, vilify
Sample: The current penchant for touting a product by denigrating a rival, named in
the advertisement by brand name, seems somewhat foolhardy:suppose the consumer
remembers only the rival's name?
denouement [ ] n.
the final outcome of the main dramatic complication in a literary work
joke:punch line=plot:denouement
Sample: The play was childishly written; the denouement was obvious to sophisticated
theatergoers as early as the middle of the first act.
denounce [ ] v.
to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil
admonish:denounce=punish:pillory {persuade:convince} :=:
(/:)
condone<>denounce
denounce<>bracing
Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, condemn, denunciate, knock, rap, reprehend,
reprobate, skin
Sample: Although it is unusual to denounce museum-goers for not painting, it is quite
common, even for those. who are unenthusiastic about sports, to criticize spectators for
athletic inactivity.
dent [ ] n.
a depression or hollow made by a blow or by pressure
convex<>dent
Sample: The accident left a dent in my car door.
denude [ ] v
131
to strip of all covering or surface layers
denude<>cover
Synonyms: STRIP, bankrupt, bare, denudate, deprive, dismantle, disrobe, divest
Sample: The hurricane denuded the trees of their leaves.
denunciate [ ] vt.
to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial{ glorification:merit }
execrate:denunciate=??
panegyric<>denunciation
accolade<>denunciation
Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, condemn, denounce, knock, rap, reprehend,
reprobate, skin
Sample: The government issued a denunciation of the terrorist group.
depart [ ] vi.
to go away:LEAVE
abscond:depart=pilfer:take
lurk:wait=abscond:depart
Synonyms: GO, blow, exit, get away, get off, leave, pull out, quit, retire, withdraw
Sample: Because the order in which the parts of speech appear in the sentences of a
given language is decided merely by custom, it is unjustifiable to maintain that every
departure from that order constitutes a violation of a natural law.
depict [ ] vt.
to represent by or as if by a picture
Synonyms: REPRESENT, delineate, describe, image, interpret, limn, picture, portray,
render
Sample: The artist depicted a landscape in bright colors.
despise [ ] vt.
to look down on with contempt or aversion
reverence<>despise
Synonyms: abhor, contemn, disdain, look down, scorn, scout
Sample: He was placed in the anomalous position of seeming to approve procedures
that he despised.
deplete [ ] vt.
to lessen markedly in quantity, content, power, or value
enrich<>deplete
Synonyms: bankrupt, drain, draw, draw down, exhaust, impoverish, use up
Sample: country has depleted its natural resources completely.
132
deplore [ ] vt.
to feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn.
deplore<>laud
deplore<>accolade/extol
deplore<>commend
Synonyms: bemoan, bewail, grieve, lament, moan, weep
Sample: Every citizen must deplore the poor housing conditions in the city.
deploy [ ] v.
to extend (a military unit) especially in width
deploy<>concentrate
Sample: That the Third Battalion's fifty-percent casualty rate transformed its assault
on Hill 306 from a brilliant stratagem into a debacle does not gainsay eyewitness reports
of its commander's extraordinary cleverness in deploying his forces.
deportation [ ] n.
the removal from a country of an alien whose presence is unlawful or prejudicial
deportation:country=eviction:dwelling
Synonyms: EXILE, banishment, displacement, expulsion, ostracism, relegation
Sample: Prison officials took her to the airport for deportation.
depose [ ] vt.
to testify to under oath or by affidavit
perjure<>deposition
Synonyms: dethrone, discrown, disenthrone, displace, disthrone, uncrown, unmake
Sample: A lawyer deposed a witness in her office.
deposit [ ] vt.
a natural accumulation (as of iron ore, coal, or gas)
deposit<>process of eroding
Sample: Sediment deposits slowly on the ocean bottom.
depravity [ ] n.
a corrupt act or practice
doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue
Synonyms: VICE, corruption, immorality, wickedness
Sample: In many science fiction films, the opposition of good and evil is portrayed as
a conflict between technology, which is beneficent, and the errant will of a depraved
intellectual.
deprecate [ ] vt.
BELITTLE, DISPARAGE
deprecate:value=restrict:diameter
deprecate<>extol
133
vaunt<>deprecate
deprecate<>endorse
Synonyms: DISAPPROVE, discommend, discountenance, disesteem, disfavor, frown,
object
Sample: She is a modest person, so she responds to praise with self-deprecating
remarks.
depreciate [ ] v.
to lower the price or estimated value of
fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger
imperious:fawn=swagger:self depreciate
imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger
depreciation:value=ossification:flexible
Synonyms: cheapen, decry, devalorize, devaluate, devalue, downgrade, lower, mark
down, soften, underprize, underrate, undervalue, write down, write off
Sample: The boss depreciated the abilities of a worker.
depress [ ] vt.
to press down
despondent:depressed=saturnine:gloomy/masterful:skilled
depressant:mood=??:??
protuberant<>depressed
Synonyms: LOWER, couch, demit, droop, let down, sink
Sample: I feel depressed in bad weather.
deprivation [ ] n.
the state of being deprived:PRIVATION; especially:removal from an office, dignity, or
benefice
deprivation<>surfeit/fecundity
Synonyms: PRIVATION, deprivement, dispossession, divestiture, loss
Sample: The people of that country live in a state of deprivation without freedom or
enough food.
deracinate [ ] vt.
UPROOT
deracinate<>plant
derelict [ ] n.
a destitute homeless social misfit:VAGRANT, BUM
stickler:derelict=poseur:unaffected
derelict<>pillar of society
Synonyms: OUTCAST, castaway, Ishmael, Ishmaelite, leper, offscouring, pariah,
untouchable
Sample: Derelicts often beg on the streets.
134
deride [ ] vt.
to subject to usually bitter or contemptuous ridicule
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
smirk:smugness=sneer:derision
ridicule:derision=??
apologize:regret=gibe:derision
condolence:sympathy/compassion=gibe:derision
deride<>praise
veneration<>derision
Synonyms: RIDICULE, lout, mock, quiz, rally, razz, scout, taunt, twit
Sample: That newspaper columnist derides the mayor whenever she can.
derivative [ ] adj.
lacking originality:BANAL
precursory<>derivative
Synonyms: SECONDARY, derivate, derivational, derived
Sample: Her first concert appearance was disappointingly perfunctory and derivative,
rather than the inspired performance in the innovative style we had anticipated.
derogatory [ ] adj.
expressive of a low opinion:DISPARAGING
Synonyms: depreciative, depreciatory, detracting, disadvantageous, disparaging,
dyslogistic, pejorative, slighting, uncomplimentary
Sample: The two candidates for mayor criticized each other's ideas, but without
making derogatory remarks.
descent [ ] v. n.
an inclination downward:SLOPE
descent:altitude=dehydrate:moisture
Synonyms: decline, declivity, dip, drop, fall
Sample: The airplane made a long descent before landing.
descendant [ ] n
one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype
forbears<>descendants
Synonyms: OFFSPRING, begats, brood, children, issue, posterity, progeniture,
progeny, scions, seed
Sample: That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants
an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted.
desecrate [ ] vt.
135
to violate the sanctity of:PROFANE
desecrate<>sanctify/revere
hallowed<>desecrate
Synonyms: RAVAGE, depredate, desolate, despoil, devastate, devour, pillage, sack,
spoliate, waste
Sample: The invading army desecrated this holy place when they camped here.
desert [ ] vt.
to withdraw from or leave usually without intent to return
Synonyms: ABANDON, chuck, forsake, quit, renounce, throw over
Sample: The father's desertion of the family left them with no support.
desiccate [ ] vt.
to preserve (a food) by drying:DEHYDRATE
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry
desiccate:moisture=detoxify:poison
cleanser:dirt=desiccant:moisture
desiccation:moisture=deceleration:velocity {disintoxication:immunity }
Synonyms: DRY, dehydrate, exsiccate, parch, sear
Sample: My stereo was shipped with little bags of desiccant to keep it dry.
designate [ ] adj. vt.
foreword:introductory=appellation:designate
Synonyms: NAME, baptize, call, christen, denominate, dub, entitle, style, term, title
Sample: An official designated his aide to represent him at the conference.
despair [ ] n.
to lose all hope or confidence
abandon:inhibition=despair:hope
Synonyms: despond, give up
Sample: Ironically, Carver's precision in sketching lives on the edge of despair ensures
that his stories will sometimes be read too narrowly, much as Dickens' social-reformer
role once caused his broader concerns to be ignored.
despicable [ ] adj.
deserving to be despised:so worthless or obnoxious as to rouse moral indignation
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn
despicable:value=mulish:flexible
despicable:contempt=reprehensible:censure
Synonyms: CONTEMPTIBLE, beggarly, cheap, despisable, mean, pitiable, scummy,
136
scurvy, shabby, sorry
Sample: He was drunk and his behavior at the party was despicable.
despondent [ ] adj.
feeling or showing extreme discouragement, dejection, or depression
despondent:depressed=saturnine:gloomy/masterful:skilled
elated<>despondent
sanguine<>despondent
Synonyms: despairing, desperate, desponding, forlorn, hopeless
Sample: He is despondent over his inability to find a job.
dessert [ ] n.
a usually sweet course or dish (as of pastry or ice cream) served at the end of a meal
dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata
Sample: We had apple pie and coffee for dessert.
desultory [ ] adj.
disappointing in progress or performance:SLUGGISH
desultory:plan=languid:energy
desultory:plan=facile:profundity
assiduous<>remiss/desultory
Sample: She works in a desultory way and completes nothing.
detach [ ] vt.
to separate especially from a larger mass and usually without violence or damage
tether<>detach
Synonyms: abstract, disassociate, disconnect, disengage, dissociate, uncouple, unfix
Sample: The Board of Directors tried to detach themselves from the company
president and his illegal actions.
detain [ ] v.
to hold or keep in or as if in custody
detain<>manumit
Synonyms: ARREST, apprehend, nab, pick up, pinch, pull in, run in
Sample: The police detained a man for questioning in the crime.
deter [ ] vt.
to turn aside, discourage, or prevent from acting
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract
inducement<>deterrent
deter<>spur
Synonyms: DISSUADE, disadvise, discourage, divert
Sample: A woman deterred a criminal from attacking her by yelling for the police.
137
detestable [ ] adj.
arousing or meriting intense dislike:ABOMINABLE
Synonyms: HATEFUL, abhorrent, abominable, hateable, horrid, odious
Sample: He deserves life in prison for his detestable act.
detour [ ] vi.
to send by a circuitous route
detour:route=digress:topic
Synonyms: SKIRT, bypass, circumnavigate, circumvent
Sample: We could not appreciate the beauty of the many cascades as we made detours
around each of them to avoid getting wet.
detract [ ] vt. & vi.
to diminish the importance, value, or effectiveness of something
extol<>condemn/impugn/detract
Synonyms: DECRY, belittle, depreciate, derogate, diminish, discount, disparage,
dispraise, minimize, write off
Sample: Her heavy makeup detracts from her good looks.
detritus [ ] n.
a product of disintegration, destruction, or wearing away
detritus<>valuable product
Synonyms: DEBRIS
Sample: The road was blocked by the detritus from a rock slide.
deviation [ ] n.
noticeable or marked departure from accepted norms of behavior
Synonyms: aberration, deflection, departure, divergence, diversion, turning
Sample: Rousseau's short discourse, a work that was generally consistent with the
cautious, unadorned prose of the day, deviated from that prose style in its unrestrained
discussion of the physical sciences.
devise [ ] vt.
to form in the mind by new combinations or application of and ideas or principles
Synonyms: LEGACY , bequest, inheritance
Sample: The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being to
preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential.
devoted [ ] adj.
devote:to give over or direct (as time, money, or effort) to a cause, enterprise, or activity
devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious
fanatic:devoted=prude:proper
138
elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence
dabble<>dedicate/devote
Synonyms: LOVING, affectionate, dear, doting, fond, lovesome
Sample: The president's secretary and his chief aide adored him, and both wrote
obsessively devoted personal memoirs about him; unfortunately, however, idolatry does
not make for true intimacy.
devout [ ] adj.
devoted to religion or to religious duties or exercises
religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy
impiety<>devoutness
Synonyms: godly, holy, pietistic, pious, prayerful, religious
Sample: She is a devout Catholic
dew [ ] n.
moisture condensed upon the surfaces of cool bodies especially at night
dew:condensation=rust:corrosion
Sample: You'll wet your shoes walking through the morning dew.
dexterous [ ] adj.
mentally adroit and skillful:CLEVER
dexterous:awkward=??
dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee }
Synonyms: adroit, clever, deft, handy, neat-handed, nimble
Sample: His fingers are very dexterous in carving figures out of wood.
diabolic [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or characteristic of the devil:DEVILIS
diabolic<>benefict
diabolical<>seraphic
Synonyms: FIENDISH, demoniac, demonian, demonic, devilish, diabolonian, satanic,
serpentine, unhallowed
Sample: He has a diabolic mind, always making evil plans.
diagnose [ ] vt.vi.
to recognize (as a disease) by signs and symptoms
diagnose:treat=proofread:correct
Synonyms: IDENTIFY, determinate, diagnosticate, distinguish, finger, pinpoint, place,
recognize, spot
Sample: Doctors diagnose illnesses.
diaphanous [ ] adj
139
characterized by such fineness of texture as to permit seeing through
diaphanous<>opaque
diaphanous<>substantial
diaphanous<>impermeable of light
Synonyms: FILMY, flimsy, gauzy, gossamer, sheer, tiffany, transparent
Sample: The movie star wore a diaphanous gown.
diatribe [ ] n.
a bitter and abusive speech or writing
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse
Synonyms: TIRADE, harangue, jeremiad, philippic
Sample: The politician launched into a diatribe against the government policy.
didactic [ ] adj
designed or intended to teach
didactic:teach=hortatory:urge=exhortative:urge { generous:liberality }
didactic:teach=fantastic:amaze
Synonyms: moral, moralizing, preachy, schoolmasterish, sermonic, sermonizing,
teachy
Sample: The didactic qualities of his poetry overshadow its literary qualities; the
lesson he teaches is more memorable than the lines.
die [ ] v.
any of various tools or devices for imparting a desired shape, form, or finish to a
material or for impressing an object or material
reel:winding=die:shaping=drill:boring
Sample: A die is used to make pennies with President Lincoln's image on them.
diehard [ ] adj.
strongly or fanatically determined or devoted
palter:candor=budge:diehard
vagary:predict=diehard:budge
Synonyms: CONSERVATIVE, fogyish, old-line, orthodox, reactionary, right, tory,
traditionalistic
Sample: He's a diehard who always votes Conservative even though the party keeps
losing.
diffident [ ] adj.
hesitant in acting or speaking through lack of self-confidence
diffident<>brassy
expansive<>reserved/diffident
nervy<>diffident
140
diffidence<>braveness
expansive<>reserved/diffident/taciturn/withdrawn
diffidence<>blazonness
Synonyms: SHY, bashful, coy, demure, modest, retiring, self-effacing, timid,
unassertive, unassured
Sample: Although normally diffident, Alison felt so strongly about the issue that she
put aside her reserve and spoke up at the committee meeting.
diffuse [ ] adj.
being at once verbose and ill-organized
euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse
Synonyms: WORDY, long-winded, palaverous, prolix, redundant, verbose, windy
Sample: The sea was not an obstacle to the diffusion of the windmill; on the contrary,
while the concept of the new invention passed quickly from seaport to seaport, it made
little headway inland.
digit [ ] n.
A human finger or toe.
fang:tooth=finger:digit
Sample: The hand has five digits.
dignity [ ] n.
quality or state of being worthy, honored, or esteemed
Synonyms: DECORUM, decency, etiquette, propriety, seemliness
Sample: My doctor is a woman of great dignity.
digress [ ] v.
to turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument
digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant
digressive:topic/subject=stray:group
digressive:topic=random:pattern
aberrant:standard=digressive:topic
digressive:topic=errant:standard
detour:route=digress:topic
aside:digression=summary:excerpt
Synonyms: depart, divagate, diverge, excurse, ramble, stray, wander
Sample: The speaker talked about modern art, then digressed into a discussion of a
painter from 500 years ago.
dilapidate [ ] vi.vt.
to bring into a condition of decay or partial ruin
dilapidated<>restored
dilapidated<>still in use
Synonyms: RUIN, bankrupt, do in, shipwreck, wreck
141
Sample: Those poor people live in a dilapidated house with holes in the roof and
broken windows.
dilate [ ] vt.
to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent:DISTEND, WIDEN
dilate<>contract
Synonyms: EXPAND, amplify, distend, inflate, swell
Sample: When there is less light, the pupils in our eyes dilate.
dilatory [ ] adj.
characterized by procrastination:TARDY
dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain
alacrity<>dilatoriness/hesitance
precipitate<>retard/dilatory
Synonyms: SLOW, deliberate, laggard, leisurely, unhasty, unhurried
Sample: The company has no patience for employees with dilatory work habits.
dilettante [ ] n.
a person having a superficial interest in an art or a branch of knowledge:DABBLER
dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence
Synonyms: AMATEUR, abecedarian, dabbler, nonprofessional, smatterer, tyro,
uninitiate
Sample: His occasional trips to the opera show he is a dilettante in the arts.
diligent [ ] adj.
characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic effort:PAINSTAKING
malign:ill will=diligent:effort
satire:lampoon=diligence:effort
procrastination<>diligence
Synonyms: ASSIDUOUS, industrious, operose, sedulous
Sample: He raised his grades by being a very diligent student.
dilute [ ] v.
to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture
slacken:tautness=dilute:strength/concentration
dilute:concentrated=??
Sample: My tea was too strong, so I diluted it with more water.
dimension [ ] n.
MAGNITUDE, SIZE ,SCOPE, ASPECT
congruent:dimension=coeval:age
measure:dimensions=calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth
Sample: The dimensions of a room (package, building lot, etc.) are its length, width,
142
and depth (or height).
diminish [ ] v.
a: to make less or cause to appear less b: to lessen the authority, dignity, or reputation of :
BELITTLE
diminish<>increase/escalate
Synonyms: DECREASE, abate, close, drain (away), dwindle, lessen, reduce, taper,
taper off
Sample: The company's reputation for quality has diminished; it has a <adj.>
diminished reputation.
din [ ] n.
a loud continued noise; especially:a welter of discordant sounds
stench:nose=din:ear
Synonyms: babel, brouhaha, clamor, hubbub, hullabaloo, jangle, music, pandemonium,
racket, racketry, tintamarre, tumult, uproar
Sample: There was a terrible din made by the crowd waiting for the rock concert.
dingus [ ] n.
an ornamental attachment or decoration:DOODAD
Synonyms: DOODAD, doohickey, gadget, jigger, thingumbob
dingy [ ] adj.
SHABBY, SQUALID
dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere
Synonyms: SHABBY, broken-down, dilapidated, down-at-heel, faded, run-down,
seedy, tacky, threadbare, tired
Sample: He could find only a dingy room in an old rundown hotel.
diocesan [ ] adj.
a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese
diocesan<>ecumenical
diplomatic [ ] adj.
a: of, relating to, or concerned with diplomacy or diplomats b: employing tact and
conciliation especially in situations of stress
xenophobic:diplomatic=??
Synonyms: TACTFUL, delicate, politic, tactical, SUAVE
Sample: She gave a diplomatic response to a hostile question and brought calm to the
situation.
dire [ ] adj.
DISMAL, OPPRESSIVE
dire<>pleasant
Synonyms: DEPLORABLE, afflictive, calamitous, distressing, grievous, heart
143
breaking, lamentable, regrettable, unfortunate, woeful
Sample: His business is bankrupt and he is in dire trouble.
dirge [ ] n.
a song or hymn of grief or lamentation; especially:one intended to accompany
funeral or memorial rites
Sample: A band played a funeral dirge at the service for the dead President.
disabuse [ ] v.
to free from error, fallacy, or misconception
disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease
loose:confinement=disabuse:misconception
mislead<>disabuse
Synonyms: purge, undeceive, undelude
Sample: Although he attempted repeatedly to disabuse her of her conviction of his
insincerity, he was not successful; she remained adamant in her judgment.
disaffected [ ] adj
discontented and resentful especially against authority REBELLIOUS
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel
disaffected<>contented/win over
disaffect<>mollify
Sample: She has become disaffected by her work (situation, pay, etc.).
disagreeable [ ] adj.
causing discomfort:UNPLEASANT, OFFENSIVE
disagreeable:hateful=harmful:lethal
oppression:disagreement:??
Synonyms: BAD, displeasing, rotten, sour, unhappy, unpleasant
Sample: She is so disagreeable that no one will work with her.
disarm [ ] vi.
to deprive of means, reason, or disposition to be hostile
bait<>disarm
Synonyms: PARALYZE, cripple, disable, immobilize, incapacitate, prostrate
Sample: She disarmed her opponent with her friendly manner.

List 9 disavow --- earshot
disarray [ ] n.
a: a lack of order or sequence : CONFUSION, DISORDER b : disorderly dress :
DISHABILLE
shipshape:disarray=squalid:cleanliness
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Synonyms: CONFUSION, chaos, clutter, disorder, huddle, muddle, snarl,
topsy-turviness
Sample: Her hair and clothes were in disarray after she fell.
disavow [ ] vt.
to deny responsibility for:REPUDIATE
disavow<>affirm
Synonyms: DISCLAIM, deny, disacknowledge, disallow, disown, repudiate
Sample: He disavows any further connection with what we now know is a criminal
organization.
discard [ ] vt.
to get rid of especially as useless or unpleasant
retain<>discard
Synonyms: abdicate, cashier, cast, chuck, ditch, dump, jettison, junk, lay aside, reject,
scrap, shed, shuck (off), slough, throw away, throw out, wash out
Sample: We must discard this trash (those old ideas, etc.).
discernible [ ] adj.
discern + ible
audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious
audible:stentorian=discernible:manifest
Sample: Though historically there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the
sovereign state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people
after the conquest of Israel) the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old
Testament is very close to that of the Talmud one of the primary codifications of
Jewish law in the Diaspora.
discerning [ ] adj.
showing insight and understanding:DISCRIMINATING
palatable:savory=discernible:manifest
perspicacious:discerning=ravishing:attractive
caprice:whimsical=insight:discerning
myopic<>discerning
Synonyms: WISE, gnostic, insighted, insightful, knowing, knowledgeable, perceptive,
sagacious, sage, wisehearted
Sample: She has a discerning mind and quickly understood how to solve our problem.
discharge [ ] vt.
to dismiss from employment
discharge<>hire
Synonyms: EXEMPT, absolve, dispense, excuse, let off, privilege (from), relieve,
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spare
Sample: Management discharged 100 workers.
disciple [ ] n.
one who accepts and assists in spreading the doctrines of another
disciple:follow=apologist:defend
Sample: She is a disciple of the British school of economics.
discipline [ ] n.
a rule or system of rules governing conduct or activity
stickler:exacting=martinet:disciplinal
coltish:discipline=loutish:grace
obstreperous<>disciplined
Synonyms: PUNISHMENT, castigation, chastisement, correction, punition, rod
Sample: The student disrupted the class, so the teacher disciplined him by giving him
extra work to do.
disclaim [ ] vt.vi.
to renounce a legal claim to
Synonyms: deny, disacknowledge, disallow, disavow, disown, repudiate
Sample: The defendant disclaimed his right to trial by jury and chose instead trial
before a judge.
discography [ ] n.
a descriptive list of phonograph records by category, composer, performer, or date of
release
list:discography=tool:hoe
discombobulate [ ] v.
UPSET, CONFUSE
discombobulated:order=erratic:consistency
discombobulate<>compose
Synonyms: DISCOMPOSE, agitate, bother, disquiet, disturb, flurry, fluster, perturb,
unhinge, upset
Sample: The noise discombobulates him so that he can't think.
discomfit [ ] v.
to put into a state of perplexity and embarrassment:DISCONCERT
discomfit:blush=contemptuous:sneer
discomfit<>mollify
Sample: The king was discomfitted by the loss of the battle.
discommode [ ] v.
to cause inconvenience to:TROUBLE
discommode<>assist
discommode<>convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify
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discommode<>oblige
discompose [ ] vt.
to destroy the composure of
discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic
discompose:placid=fabricate:ingenuous
discompose<>pacificate
Synonyms: agitate, bother, discombobulate, dismay, disquiet, disturb, flurry, fluster,
perturb, unhinge, unsettle, untune, upset
Sample: The novice square dancer became so discomposed that he wandered into
wrong set.
disconcert [ ] vt.
to throw into confusion
disconcert<>placate
Synonyms: EMBARRASS, abash, confound, confuse, discomfit, discountenance, faze,
rattle
Sample: I was disconcerted by the sight of a strange man at my door.
discord [ ] n.
lack of agreement or harmony (as between persons, things, or ideas)
discordant:sound=anachronistic:time
harmony<>discord
Synonyms: conflict, contention, difference, disaccord, disharmony, dispeace,
dissension, dissent, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, inharmony,
mischief, strife, unpeace, variance
Sample: The children trying out musical instruments produced a terrible discord.
discourse [ ] n.
formal and orderly and usually extended expression of thought on a subject
lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse
Synonyms: SPEECH, speaking, talk, utterance, verbalization
Sample: College students become familiar with academic discourse.
discredit [ ] v.
to deprive of good repute:DISGRACE
exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit
Synonyms: blow up, disprove, explode, puncture, shoot
Sample: Scientists have discredited many popular beliefs, like the belief the world was
flat.
discrepancy [ ] n.
Divergence or disagreement, as between facts or claims; difference.
discrepancy<>converge
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consonant<>discrepant
Synonyms: DISSIMILARITY, alterity, difference, dissemblance, dissimilitude,
distinction, divergence, divergency, otherness, unlikeness
Sample: Calculations of the density of alloys based on Bernal-type models of the
alloys metal component agreed fairly well with the experimentally determined values
from measurements on alloys consisting of a noble metal together with a metalloidsuch
as alloys of palladium and siliconor alloys consisting of ironphosphorusand carbon
although small discrepancies remained.
discrete [ ] adj.
constituting a separate entity : individually distinct
infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap
Synonyms: DISTINCT, different, diverse, separate, several, various
Sample: That company is a discrete entity from the others, which are all owned by the
parent company.
discretion [ ] n.
the quality of being discreet:CIRCUMSPECTION; especially:cautious reserve in
speech frivolous
frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion
foolish:discretion=impecunious:money
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention
Synonyms: PRUDENCE, canniness, caution, discreetness, foresight, forethought,
precaution, providence
Sample: Lawyers and doctors must act with discretion and not speak about their
clients.
discretionary [ ] adj.
left to discretion:exercised at one's own discretion
discretionary<>obligatory
discretionary<>mandatory
discretionary<>preordain
Synonyms: OPTIONAL, elective, facultative, nonobligatory
Sample: A discretionary account is one where the owner allows a stockbroker to make
and act on decisions to trade.
discriminate [ ] vt.vi.
to mark or perceive the distinguishing or peculiar features of
epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching
liken:similarity=discriminate:difference
sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating
hilarious:laughter=contemptible:distain
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equitable<>discriminatory/unfair
Synonyms: KNOW, difference, differentiate, discern, discrepate, distinguish, extricate,
separate, sever, severalize
Sample: This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to
othernonracial forms of discriminationfor while some justices have refused to find
any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavoredmost
have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations. sexual
Discrimination in particularare "suspect" and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the
courts.
discursive [ ] adj.
moving from topic to topic without order:RAMBLING
discursive<>keen on title
discursive<>succinct
discursive<>concentrate
Sample: Her writing is discursive but thorough.
disdain [ ] v.
a feeling of contempt for what is beneath one:SCORN
snub:disdain=double-cross:disloyalty
adulation<>disdain
Synonyms: DESPITE, contempt, despisal, despisement, disparagement, scorn
Sample: Some artists immodestly idealize or exaggerate the significance of their work;
yet others, disdaining to exalt the role of the artist, reject a transcendent view of art
disembody [ ] v.
to divest of a body, of corporeal existence, or of reality
disembodied<>corporeal
Sample: Many people believe that at the moment of death, a person's soul becomes
disembodied.
disengage [ ] vt.
to release from something that engages or involves
disengage<>mesh :mesh:to cause (as gears) to engage
Synonyms: DETACH, abstract, disassociate, disconnect, dissociate, uncouple, unfix
Sample: Be sure to disengage the gears when you park the car.
disentangle [ ] v.
to free from entanglement : UNRAVEL
disentangle:snarl=??
Synonyms: EXTRICATE, discumber, disembroil, disencumber, unentangle,
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unscramble, untangle, untie, untwine
Sample: The bookkeeper disentangled the records and cleared up mistakes.
disgorge [ ] v.
to discharge by the throat and mouth:VOMIT
vomit:disgorge=??
disgorge<>swallow
disgorge/excrete<>ingest
Synonyms: ERUPT, belch, eject, eruct, expel, irrupt, spew
Sample: A mother bird disgorged food for her young.
disgruntle [ ] vt.
to make ill-humored or discontented ? usually used as a participial adjective
disgruntle<>refresh
disgruntled<>contented
Synonyms: DISCONTENTED, discontent, dissatisfied, malcontent, malcontented,
uncontent, uncontented, ungratified
Sample: He is disgruntled about not receiving an increase in pay.
disguise [ ] vi.
to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity
padding:damage=disguise:recognition
Synonyms: camouflage, cloak, dissemble, dissimulate, dress up, mask
Sample: She disguised her evil intentions by pretending to be friendly.
disgust [ ] n.
marked aversion aroused by something highly distasteful:REPUGNANCE
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
odious:disgust=menacing:fear
scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{ hurl:disgust}
entrancing<>disappoint/disgust/repel/repulse/bored
Synonyms: nauseate, reluct, repel, repulse, revolt, sicken
Sample: For many young people during the Roaring Twenties, a disgust with the
excesses of American culture combined with a wanderlust to provoke an exodus abroad.
dishevel [ ] vt.
to throw into disorder or disarray
Sample: After falling down, he was all disheveled.
disinclination [ ] n.
a preference for avoiding something:slight aversion
aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration
aversion:inclination=??
disinclination:bent=??
150
leaning<>disinclination
Synonyms: DISLIKE, aversion, bad books, disfavor, disliking, displeasure, disrelish,
dissatisfaction, distaste, indisposition
Sample: She is disinclined to accept the job offer because the pay is too low.
disinfect [ ] vt.
to free from infection especially by destroying harmful microorganisms
oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect
aseptic:disinfection=anesthetic:numbness
Sample: He disinfected the bathroom with a germicide.
disinterested [ ] adj.
free from selfish motive or interest:UNBIASED
factional<>disinterested
iniquity<>disinterestedness
Synonyms: INDIFFERENT, aloof, casual, detached, incurious, remote, unconcerned,
uncurious, uninterested, withdrawn
Sample: Whereas biologists must maintain a disinterested attitude toward the subjects
of their research, social scientists must, paradoxically, combine personal involvement
and scholarly detachment.
disjunctive [ ] adj.
marked by breaks or disunity
nominal:significance=disjunctive:unity
Sample: A disjunction in computer logic caused the problem.
dismantle [ ] vt.
to take to pieces; also:to destroy the integrity or functioning of
dismantle:unity=adulterate:pristine
Synonyms: STRIP, bankrupt, bare, denudate, denude, deprive, disrobe, divest
Sample: A mechanic dismantled the engine to replace one part.
disparage [ ] v.
to depreciate by indirect means (as invidious comparison):speak slightingly about
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
aggrandize<>disparage
champion<>disparage
extol<>disparage
kudos<>disparage
adulate<>disparage
revere<>disparage
Synonyms: DECRY, abuse, belittle, depreciate, derogate, detract (from), dispraise,
downcry, minimize, write off
Sample: A number of writers who once greatly disparaged the literary critic have
151
recently recanted, substituting approbation for their former criticism.
disparate [ ] adj.
containing or made up of fundamentally different and often incongruous elements
disparate<>like
disparate<>analogous
Synonyms: DIFFERENT, dissimilar, distant, divergent, diverse, unalike, unequal,
unlike, unsimilar, various
Sample: Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to
describe the cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they
undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern
nation state composed of many disparate groups.
dispassionate [ ] adj.
not influenced by strong feeling; especially:not affected by personal or emotional
involvement
dispassionate:biased=??
dispassionate<>responsive
dispassionate<>partial
Synonyms: NEUTRAL, abstract, colorless, detached, disinterested, impersonal,
poker-faced, unpassioned
Sample: The judge takes a dispassionate attitude toward matters before her.
dispatch [ ] v.
promptness and efficiency in performance or transmission
dispatch<>leisureliness
Sample: He performs his duties with dispatch by quickly doing what his boss asks.
disposal [ ] n.
systematic destruction; especially:destruction or transformation of garbage
recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition
Synonyms: discarding, disposition, dumping, jettison, junking, relegation, riddance,
scrapping, throwing away
Sample: I was at her disposal whenever she needed my advice.
disquiet [ ] n./v.
to take away the peace or tranquillity of:DISTURB, ALARM
disquiet<>put at ease
Synonyms: DISCOMPOSE, agitate, bother, disturb, flurry, fluster, perturb, unhinge,
untune, upset
Sample: City life disquieted the poet, so she returned to the countryside.
disregard [ ] v.
to pay no attention to : treat as unworthy of regard or notice
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
152
flout:disregard=taunt:challenge
disregard<>nurture
Synonyms: NEGLECT, blink (at or away), discount, fail, forget, ignore, omit,
overlook, overpass, slight
Sample: Please disregard my last letter, as I now have new information for you.
disrupt [ ] vt.
to throw into disorder
saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend
Synonyms: DISORDER, disarray, discompose, disorganize, disturb, mess (up),
muddle, rummage, unsettle, upset
Sample: Although providing wild chimpanzees with food makes them less shy and
easier to study, it is also known to disrupt their normal social patterns.
dissect [ ] vt.vi.
to analyze and interpret minutely
specimen:dissect=sentence:parse
Synonyms: SEPARATE, break up, dichotomize, disjoin, disjoint, dissever, divide, part,
sever, sunder
Sample: The biology student dissected a frog in the laboratory.
dissemble [ ] v.
to put on a false appearance:conceal facts, intentions, or feelings under some pretense
dissemble:honesty=snub:politeness
dissemble:information=masquerade:feeling
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub
Synonyms: DISGUISE, camouflage, cloak, dissimulate, dress up, mask
Sample: He dissembled about his past employment history.
disseminate [ ] vt.
to spread abroad as though sowing seed
disseminate:information=foment:discontentment
disseminate<>garner
nucleate<>disseminate
Synonyms: SPREAD, circulate, diffuse, disperse, distribute, propagate, radiate, strew
Sample: Those who fear the influence of television deliberately underplay its
persuasive power, hoping that they might keep knowledge of its potential to effect social
change from being widely disseminated. (9504)
dissension n.
DISAGREEMENT; especially:partisan and contentious quarreling
concord<>dissension
Synonyms: DISCORD, conflict, contention, difference, disaccord, dissent, dissidence,
153
disunity, strife, variance
Sample: There was a great deal of noisy dissension among the arguing committee
members.
dissent [ ] vi.
to withhold assent
dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group
dissent<>conform
Synonyms: DIFFER, disaccord, disagree, discord, divide, vary
Sample: Unenlightened authoritarian manage rarely recognize a crucial reason for the
low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups:a
modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents schism.
dissertation [ ] n.
an extended usually written treatment of a subject; specifically:one submitted for a
doctorate
Synonyms: DISCOURSE, disquisition, memoir, monograph, monography, thesis,
tractate, treatise
Sample: After years of writing it, her doctoral dissertation was accepted and she
received her Ph.D.
dissipate [ ] vt.
a: to break up and drive off (as a crowd) b: to cause to spread thin or scatter and
gradually vanish c: to lose (as heat or electricity) irrecoverably d:to spend or use up
wastefully or foolishly
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
dissipation:temperation=fecundity:sterility
accumulation<>dissipation
dissipate<>accumulate
dissipate<>gather
amass<>dissipate
Synonyms: WASTE, blow, blunder (away), consume, fool (away), fritter, frivol away,
squander, throw away, trifle (away)
Sample: Ever prey to vagrant impulses that impelled him to squander his talents on a
host of unworthy projects, his very dissipation nonetheless enhanced his reputation, for
the sheer energy of his extravagance dazzled observers.
dissociate [ ] vt.vi.
to separate from association or union with another
affiliation<>dissociation
Synonyms: DETACH, abstract, disassociate, disconnect, disengage, uncouple, unfix
Sample: The candidate tried to dissociate himself in the minds of the voters from the
past failures of his party.
154
dissolute [ ] adj
lacking restraint; especially:marked by indulgence in things
libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag
voluble:speech=licentious:dissoluteness
Synonyms: ABANDONED, licentious, profligate, reprobate, self-abandoned,
unprincipled
Sample: He is dissolute; he cheats on his taxes every year.
dissolve [ ] vt.vi.
to cause to pass into solution. to separate into component parts:DISINTEGRATE
clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed
coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve
bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble
consolidate<>dissolve
coagulant<>liquefy/dissolve
Sample: The powder dissolved in water.
dissonance [ ] n
lack of agreement; especially:inconsistency between the beliefs one holds or between
one's actions and one's beliefs
dissonance<>concord
Synonyms: DISCORD, conflict, contention, difference, disaccord, disharmony,
dissension, dissidence, strife, variance
Sample: They ended their marriage because of the dissonance in their relationship.
dissuade [ ] vt.
to advise (a person) against something
remonstrance:dissuade=reprehension:censure
remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal
inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest
protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreaty
dissuade<>abet
dissuade<>enhance
Synonyms: deter, disadvise, discourage, divert
Sample: My father dissuaded me from taking a job in another city.
distention [ ] n.
the act of distending or the state of being distended especially unduly or abnormally
distention<>compression
distillation [ ] n.
the process of purifying a liquid by successive evaporation and condensation
synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity
155
distill:purity=leaven:volume
liquefy:fluid=distill:pure
Sample: Vodka is a distillate of wheat, corn, or potatoes.
distinction [ ] n.
the quality or state of being distinguishable
nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion
nicety:distinction=spoof:parody
nebulous<>distinct
repute<>lack of distinction
eclipse<>make distinctive
Synonyms: DISSIMILARITY, alterity, difference, discrepancy, dissemblance,
dissimilitude, divergence, divergency, otherness, unlikeness
Sample: The necessity of establishing discrete categories for observations frequently
leads to attempts to make absolute distinctions. when there are in reality only
gradations.
distinguished [ ] adj.
marked by eminence, distinction, or excellence
nicety:indistinguishable=??
eminent<>undistinguished
Synonyms: FAMOUS, celebrated, celebrious, eminent, famed, great, illustrious,
notable, prominent, renowned
Sample: She is a distinguished novelist.
distort [ ] vt.
to twist out of the true meaning or proportion
brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature
Synonyms: MISREPRESENT, belie, color, falsify, garble, miscolor, misstate, pervert,
twist, warp
Sample: Literature is inevitably a distorting rather than a neutral medium for the
simple reason that writers interpose their own vision between the reader and reality.
distract [ ] vt.
to draw or direct (as one's attention) to a different object or in different directions at the
same time
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract
rapt<>distracted
Synonyms: CONFUSE, addle, ball up, befuddle, bewilder, fluster, fuddle, mix up,
throw off
Sample: To list Reilly's achievements in a fragmentary way is misleading, for it
distracts our attention from the integrating themes of her work.
distraught [ ] adj.
156
agitated with doubt or mental conflict
troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious
distraught<>composed
Synonyms: distracted, distrait, distressed, harassed, tormented, troubled, worried
Sample: The distraught parents frantically searched the ravine for their lost child.
distress [ ] n.
DISTRESS, SUFFERING, MISERY, AGONY
abate:tax=alleviate:distress
agonized:distress=obsessed:concern
Synonyms: aggrieve, constrain, grieve, hurt, injure, pain
Sample: I am afraid you will have to alter your roseate views in the light of the
distressing news that has just arrived.
district [ ] n.
a : a territorial division (as for administrative or electoral purposes) b : the basic
administrative unit for local government in Northern Ireland
gerrymander:district=rig:contest
Synonyms: LOCALITY, area, neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity
Sample: Because of the prisoner's record, the district attorney refused to reduce the
charge from grand larceny to petit larceny.
ditch [ ] n.
a long narrow excavation dug in the earth
ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern
Synonyms: TRENCH, cut
Sample: I fell into the ditch that runs by the side of the road.
ditty [ ] n.
an especially simple and unaffected song
fable:tale=ditty:song
Sample: We sang little ditties last night.
diurnal [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or occurring in the daytime
diurnal<>nocturnal
Synonyms: DAILY, quotidian
Sample: A farmer cannot neglect his diurnal tasks at any time; cows, for example,
must be milked regularly.
diverge [ ] vi.
to move or extend in different directions from a common point:draw apart
ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent
157
diverge:apart=traverse:across
confluence<>divergence
Synonyms: DIGRESS, depart, divagate, excurse, ramble, stray, wander
Sample: Hardys weakness derived from his apparent inability to control the comings
and goings of these divergent impulses and from his unwillingness to cultivate and
sustain the energetic and risky ones.
diver [ ] n.
a person who stays underwater for long periods by having air supplied from the surface
or by carrying a supply of compressed air
cavern:spelunker=ocean:diver
Sample: He is a deep-sea diver (or) skydiver.
divert [ ] vt.
to turn from one course or use to another:DEFLECT
divert:shunt=retard:brake
Synonyms: TURN, avert, deflect, pivot, sheer, veer, volte-face, wheel, whip, whirl
Sample: A loud noise diverted everyone's attention from their work..
divestiture [ ] n.
the act of divesting
divestiture<>acquisition
Synonyms: PRIVATION, deprivation, deprivement, dispossession, loss
Sample: They advised the divestiture of real-estate holdings.
divulge [ ] vt.
to make known (as a confidence or secret)
divulge<>keep secret
Synonyms: REVEAL, betray, blab (out), disclose, discover, give away, mouth, spill,
tell, unclose
Sample: I will not tell you this news because I am sure you will divulge it prematurely.
doctrine [ ] n.
a principle or position or the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of
belief:DOGMA
doctrine:heretical=course:errant
doctrine:heterodoxy=spontaneous:studied {adaptability:stable}
Synonyms: canon, dogma, tenet
Sample: While the new doctrine seems almost certainly correctthe one papyrus
fragment raises the specter that another may be unearthedshowingfor instancethat
it was a posthumous production of the Danaid tetralogy which bested Sophoclesand
158
throwing the date once more into utter confusion.
dodder [ ] vi.
to progress feebly and unsteadily
dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly
Sample: Although he is not as yet a doddering and senile old man, his ideas and
opinions no longer can merit the respect we gave them years ago.
doff [ ] vt.
to remove (an article of wear) from the body
doff<>don
dogged [ ] adj.
marked by stubborn determination
dogged<>yielded
dogged<>easily discouraged
Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE, adamant, brassbound, inexorable, obdurate, relentless,
rigid, single-minded, steadfast, unbending
Sample: Les Miserables tells of Inspector Javert's long, dogged pursuit of the criminal
Jean Valjean.
doggerel [ ] adj.
loosely styled and irregular in measure especially for burlesque or comic effect;
also:marked by triviality or inferiority
doggerel:verse=burlesque:play
doggerel:poem=sketch:draw
Sample: Although we find occasional snatches of genuine poetry in her work, most of
her writing is mere doggerel.
doggo [ ] adv.
in hiding
doggo:instability=??
Sample: The man doffed his hat to the woman.
dogma [ ] n.
something held as an established opinion;especially:a definite authoritative tenet
dogma<>heresy
Synonyms: DOCTRINE, canon, tenet
doldrums [ ] n.
state or period of inactivity, stagnation, or slump
doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue
Synonyms: TEDIUM, boredom, ennui, yawn
dolorous [ ] adj.
causing, marked by, or expressing misery or grief
dolorous<>jubilant/happy
Synonyms: DEPLORABLE, afflictive, calamitous, dire, distressing, grievous,
159
heartbreaking, lamentable, regrettable, woeful
Sample: He found the dolorous lamentations of the bereaved family emotionally
disturbing and he left as quickly as he could.
dolt [ ] n.
a stupid person
wag:humorous=dolt:stupid
Synonyms: DUNCE, boob, booby, chump, dolthead, oaf
Sample: I thought I was talking to a mature audience; instead, I find myself addressing
a pack of dolts.
domicile [ ] n.
a dwelling place:place of residence:HOME
nomad:domicile=freelancer:employer
Synonyms: HABITATION, abode, commorancy, dwelling, home, house, residence,
residency
Sample: Althoughhis legal domicile was in New York City, his work kept him away
from his residence for many years.
domination [ ] n.
supremacy or preeminence over another
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued
inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest
indomitable:control=exacting:satisfy
indominatable<>easly subdued
Synonyms: SUPREMACY, ascendancy, dominance, dominion, masterdom,
preeminence, preponderancy, prepotence, prepotency, sovereignty
Sample: The legendary Colossus of Rhodes, bronze statue of the sun god that
dominated the harbor of the Greek seaport, was one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
don [ ] vt.
to put on (an article of clothing)
doff<>don
Synonyms: assume, draw on, get on, huddle (on), put on, slip (on), throw
Sample: When Clark Kent had to don his Superman outfit, he changed clothes in a
convenient phone booth.
donor [ ] n.
one that gives, donates, or presents something
legacy:predecessor=gift:donor
Synonyms: bestower , conferror ,donator ,presenter
Sample: Not only are liver transplants never rejectedbut they even induce a state of
160
donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organssuch
as skinfrom that donor are accepted permanently.
doodle [ ] n. v.
an aimless or casual scribble, design, or sketch
draw:doodle=travel:ramble
walk:amble=draw:doodle
Synonyms: FIDDLE , mess, mess around, potter, puddle, putter, tinker
Sample: Her school notebook is covered with doodles that look like flowers.
dour [ ] adj.
STERN, HARSH
dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness
dour<>congenial/genial
dour<>jocund
Synonyms: SULLEN, crabbed, gloomy, glum, morose, saturnine, sulky, surly, ugly
Sample: A man with a dour look on his face lives alone in that house.
downpour [ ] n.
a pouring or streaming downward; especially:a heavy rain
downpour:flooding=wind:erosion
wind:erosion=downpour:flooding
Sample: We were caught in a downpour and ran for cover under a tree.
doyen [ ] n.
a:the senior member of a body or group b:a person considered to be knowledgeable or
uniquely skilled as a result of long experience in some field of endeavor
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated
Synonyms: EXPERT, artist, authority, master, master-hand, maven, passed master,
proficient, virtuoso
Sample: She is the doyenne of Washington society.
doze [ ] vi.
to fall into a light sleep
doze:sleep=nudge:prod
Sample: Its hunger sated, the lion dozed.
draconian [ ] adj.
CRUEL; also:SEVERE
palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity
draconian:inclemency=fret:vexation
draconian<>indulgent/mild
draconian<>genial
Synonyms: RIGID, ironhanded, rigorist, rigorous, strict, stringent, unpermissive
161
Sample: The invading army used draconian measures to control the people; they cut
off the hands and feet of anyone who opposed them.
drain [ ] vt.
to exhaust physically or emotionally
ripen:mature=drain:empty
tonic<>draining { nagging }
Synonyms: DEPLETE, bankrupt, draw, draw down, exhaust, impoverish, use up
Sample: Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it.
drawl [ ] v.
to utter in a slow lengthened tone
inch:move=drawl:speak
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
Sample: He drawls when he speaks; he speaks with a southern drawl.
dreary [ ] adj.
having nothing likely to provide cheer, comfort, or interest:GLOOMY, DISMAL
jocund<>dreary
Synonyms: GLOOMY, black, bleak, depressing, depressive, dismal, dispiriting,
funereal, oppressive, somber
Sample: During his checkered career he had lived in palatial mansions and in dreary
boardinghouses.
drench [ ] v.
to wet thoroughly (as by soaking or immersing in liquid)
drenched:wet=antithetic:different
Synonyms: WET, deluge, douse, drown, soak, sop, souse
Sample: The heavy rain drenched our clothes.
drivel [ ] vi.
to utter in an infantile or imbecilic way
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast
Synonyms: DROOL, dribble, salivate, slabber, slaver, slobber
Sample: What he says is drivel; don't believe him.
drizzle [ ] n./v.
a fine misty rain
deluge<>drizzle
Synonyms: sprinkle
Sample: There is a fine drizzle this morning.
droll [ ] adj.
162
having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality
grisly:flinch=droll:laugh
droll<>grave
droll<>serious
droll<>somber
Synonyms: LAUGHABLE, comic, comical, farcical, funny, gelastic, ludicrous,
ridiculous, risible
Sample: He was a popular guest because his droll anecdotes were always entertaining.
droplet [ ] n.
a tiny drop (as of a liquid)
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide
Synonyms: DROP , drib, driblet, globule, gobbet
Sample: I felt a few droplets of rain on my shoulder.
drudgery [ ] n.
dull, irksome, and fatiguing work:uninspiring or menial labor
drudgery<>rewarding work
Synonyms: donkeywork, grind, labor, plugging, toil, travail
Sample: Cinderella's fairy godmother rescued her from a life of drudgery.
dubious [ ] adj.
questionable or suspect as to true nature or quality
disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction
dubious<>certain
Synonyms: DOUBTFUL, dubitable, equivocal, fishy, open, problematic, suspect,
uncertain, unclear, undecided
Sample: It is his dubious distinction to have proved what nobody would think of
denying, that Romero at the age of sixty-four writes with all the characteristics of
maturity.
dulcet [ ] adj
pleasing to the ear
cacophonous<>dulcet/euphonious
Synonyms: MELODIOUS , euphonic, euphonious, mellisonant, melodic, sweet,
tuneful
Sample: The dulcet sounds of the birds at dawn were soon drowned out by the roar of
traffic passing our motel.
dull [ ] adj.
lacking brilliance or luster
tarnish:dull=vitrify:smooth
163
brilliance<>dullness
perspicuous<>dull
resplendent<>dull
trenchant<>vague/dull
perspicacious<>dull { awkard }
Synonyms: RETARDED, backward, dim-witted, feebleminded, half-witted, imbecile,
moronic, simple, simpleminded, slow dim, fade, muddy, pale, tarnish
Sample: We need more inquisitive students in this school; lectures are dull.
dullard [ ] n.
a stupid or unimaginative person
wit<>dullard
Synonyms: DUNCE, dullhead,, dummy, idiot, ignoramus, moron, simpleton, stupid
dune [ ] n
a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind
sand:dune=word:sentence { water:canal}
Sample: The sand dunes on the desert are formed by the wind.
dupe [ ] n.
one that is easily deceived or cheated:FOOL
reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe
callous:impassive=dupe:duplicity
Synonyms: FOOL ,butt, chump,fall,guy,gudgeon,gull,mark,pigeon, sap, sucker
Sample: While the gullible Watson often was made a dupe by unscrupulous parties,
Sherlock Holmes was far more difficult to fool.
dwelling [ ] n.
a shelter (as a house) in which people live
deportation:country=eviction:dwelling
potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling
Synonyms: HABITATION abode, commorancy, domicile, home, house, residence,
residency
Sample: She lives in an old dwelling on the edge of town.
dyspeptic [ ] adj.
INDIGESTION
genial<>dyspeptic
Synonyms: ILL-TEMPERED, bad-tempered, hot-tempered, ill-humored, ill-natured,
rusty, tempersome
Sample: All the talk about rich food made him feel dyspeptic.
eaglet [ ] n.
a young eagle
164
eaglet:bird=fawn:mammal {frog:amphibian}
earnest [ ] adj.
characterized by or proceeding from an intense and serious state of mind
facetious<>earnest
Synonyms: intentness, serious-mindedness, seriousness
Sample: They began to work in earnest when the boss arrived.
earplug [ ] n.
device of pliable material for insertion into the outer opening of the ear (as to keep out
water or deaden sound)
earplug:noise=shield:impact
Sample: She wears earplugs when she swims.
earshot [ ] n.
the range within which the unaided voice may be heard
earshot:hear=ken:see
Synonyms: hearing
Sample: I called to him, but he could not hear me because he was out of earshot.

List 10 earsplitting --- espouse
earsplitting [ ] adj.
distressingly loud or shrill
earsplitting:voice=??
earsplitting:loud=heartrending:sad
Synonyms: blaring, full-mouthed, piercing, roaring, stentorian, stentorious,
stentorophonic
Sample: The rock music was earsplitting and gave me a headache.
eavesdrop [ ] v.
to listen secretly to the private conversation of others
hear:eavesdrop=follow:shadow
Sample: He liked to eavesdrop on his neighbors' conversations.
ebullience [ ] n.
the quality of lively or enthusiastic expression of thoughts or feelings:EXUBERANCE
ebullience<>impassiveness
ebullience<>torpor
ebullient<>torpid
ebullience<>lifelessness
Synonyms: buoyancy, effervescence, exuberance, exuberancy
Sample: His ebullient nature could not be repressed.
eccentric [ ] adj.
165
deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct especially in odd or
whimsical ways
hero:admirable=eccentric:unconventional
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated
Synonyms: STRANGE curious, erratic, idiosyncratic, odd, oddball, peculiar, queer,
singular, weird
Sample: In Germany her startling powers as a novelist are widely admired, but she is
almost unknown in the English-speaking world because of the difficulties of translating
her eccentric prose.
echelon [ ] n.
an arrangement of a body of troops with its units each somewhat to the left or right of
the one in the rear like a series of steps
echelon:hierarchy=??
Synonyms: LINE file, queue, rank, row, string, tier
Sample: That news reporter interviews people in the highest echelons of government.
eclat [ ] n.
brilliant or conspicuous success
eclat<>fiasco
Synonyms: FAME, celebrity, notoriety, renown, rep, reputation, repute
eclectic [ ] n.
selecting what appears to be best in various doctrines, methods, or styles
Synonyms: discriminating, select, selective
Sample: Despite claims that his philosophy can be traced to a single source, the
philosophy in fact draws liberally on several traditions and methodologies and so could
justifiably be termed eclectic.
eclipse [ ] n
a falling into obscurity or decline; also:the state of being eclipsed
eclipse:prestige=(enervation)enfeeble:vigor
eclipse<>make distinctive
eclipse<>make more prominent/bring to more prominent
Synonyms: OBSCURE, adumbrate, becloud, bedim, darken, dim, murk, overcloud,
overshadow, shadow
Sample: The new stock market high eclipsed the previous record set in 1985.
ecstasy [ ] n.
a state of overwhelming emotion; especially:rapturous delight
ecstatic<>persevered
Synonyms: heaven, rapture, rhapsody, seventh heaven, transport
166
Sample: The announcement that the war had ended brought on an ecstasy that resulted
in many uncontrolled celebrations.
ecumenical [ ] adj.
worldwide or general in extent, influence, or application
ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity
diocesan<>ecumenical
ecumenical<>factionalism/provincial
Synonyms: UNIVERSAL catholic, cosmic, cosmopolitan, global, planetary,
worldwide
Sample: Reading the epigrams of Pope, I admire the economy of his verse:in few
words he conveys worlds of meaning.
edifice [ ] n.
BUILDING; especially:a large or massive structure
tower:edifice=rampart:barrier
buttress:edifice=splint:limb
Synonyms: erection, pile, structur
Sample: The addition of a second tower will give this edifice the symmetry that it now
lacks.
efface [ ] v.
to make (oneself) modestly or shyly inconspicuous
alliterate:remove=blazon:efface
blazon<>efface
efface<>emboss
efface<>bring to preeminent
efface<>aggrandize
effacing<>institute
Synonyms: ERASE, annul, black (out), blot out, cancel, delete, expunge, obliterate,
wipe (out), x (out)
Sample: Although retiring, almost self-effacing in his private life, he displays in his
plays and essays a strong penchant for publicity and controversy.
effervesce [ ] vi.
to show liveliness or exhilaration
effervescence:feeling=fury:anger
effervesce<>be flat
effervescent<>still
effervesce<>droop
Synonyms: EBULLIENCE, buoyancy, exuberance, exuberancy
Sample: Nothing depressed her for long; her natural effervescence soon reasserted
itself.
167
effete [ ] adj.
having lost character, vitality, or strength
effete<>hale/sound
Synonyms: STERILE, barren, impotent, infecund, infertile, unfruitful depleted, done,
done in, drained, exhausted, far-gone, spent, used up, washed-out, worn-out decadent,
decayed, degenerate, overripe
Sample: The literature of the age reflected the effete condition of the writers; no new
ideas were forthcoming.
effluvia [ ] n. pl.
a by-product especially in the form of waste
effluvia<>desired products
Sample: Air pollution has become a serious problem in our major cities; the effluvium
and the poisons in the air are hazards to life.
effulgent [ ] adj
radiant splendor:BRILLIANCE
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence
Synonyms: BRIGHT ,beaming,brilliant,fulgent,incandescent, lambent, lucent,
luminous, radiant, refulgent
effusive [ ] adj.
characterized or formed by a nonexplosive outpouring of lava
gush:effusive=rage:irate
emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandious}
effusive<>lack of emotion
effusive<>reticent
Synonyms: gushing, gushy, slobbering, slobbery, sloppy
Sample: Her effusive manner of greeting her friends finally began
to irritate them.
egalitarian [ ] n.
a belief in human equality especially with respect to social, political, and economic
rights and privileges
meliorism:progress=egalitarian:equity
Sample: He is an egalitarian, not an elitist.
egocentric [ ] adj
concerned with the individual rather than society
altruism<>egoism
Synonyms: individualist, individualistic
Sample: His egoism prevented him from seeing the needs of his colleagues.
168
elaborate [ ] adj.
marked by complexity, fullness of detail, or ornateness
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy
abstract<>elaborate
Synonyms: complicated, fancy, intricate
Sample: The crude typewriter on display in this museum is the prototype of the
elaborate machines in use today.
elastic [ ] adj.
capable of being easily stretched or expanded and resuming former shape:FLEXIBLE
ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch
elastic:expand=viable:live
Synonyms: flexible, resilient, springy, stretch, stretchy, supple, whippy
Sample: With a bifurcated branch and a piece of elastic rubber, he made a crude but
effective slingshot.
elated [ ] adj.
marked by high spirits:EXULTANT
elated<>despondent
elation<>dejection
elate<>depress {reprobate}
hangdog<>elated
Synonyms: excited, exhilarated, turned-on
Sample: Because they had expected the spacecraft Voyager 2 to be able to gather data
only about the planets Jupiter and Saturn, scientists were elated by the wealth of
information it sent back from Neptune twelve years after leaving Earth.
eleemosynary [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or supported by charity
philanthropist:eleemosynary=??
Synonyms: CHARITABLE , altruistic, benevolent, good, humane, humanitarian,
philanthropic
elegant [ ] adj.
of a high grade or quality:SPLENDID
insolent<>polite {elegant}
Synonyms: CHOICE, dainty, delicate, exquisite, rare, select, superior
Sample: Because early United States writers thought that the mark of great literature
was grandiosity and elegance not to be found in common speech, they avoided the
vernacular.
elegy [ ] n.
a song or poem expressing sorrow or lamentation especially for one who is dead
satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow
169
elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence
hymn:praise=elegy:sorrow
paean:song=elegy:poem
Sample: On the death of Edward King, Milton composed the elegy "Lycidas."
elephantine [ ] adj.
having enormous size or strength:MASSIVE
microscopic<>elephantine
Synonyms: HUGE, behemothic, colossal, enormous, gargantuan, gigantic, mammoth,
mastodonic, monstrous, prodigious
elevate [ ] vt.
to raise in rank or status:EXALT
debasement<>elevation
Synonyms: LIFT , hoist, pick up, raise, rear, take up, uphold, uplift, upraise, uprear
Sample: Mountain goats live in the higher elevations above the valley.
elf [ ] n.
a small lively creature; also:a usually lively mischievous or malicious person
elf:imperious=??
elicit [ ] vt.
to draw forth or bring out
evoke<>fail to elicit
Synonyms: EDUCE , evince, evoke, extort, extract, milk
Sample: The defense attorney claimed that the police had entrapped his client; that is,
they had elicited the illicit action of which they now accuse of him.
elitism [ ] n.
leadership or rule by an elite
ellipsis [ ] n
the omission of one or more words that are obviously understood but that must be
supplied to make a construction grammatically complete
apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence
Sample: Sometimes an ellipsis can lead to a dangling modifier, as in the sentence
"Once dressed, you should refrigerate the potato salad.
elliptical [ ] adj.
of or relating to deliberate obscurity (as of literary or conversational style)
elliptical<>palpable
Sample: An elliptical billiad ball wobbles because it is not perfectly round; an
elliptical remark baffles because it is not perfectly clear.
elongate [ ] v.
to extend the length of
Synonyms: EXTEND , draw, draw out, lengthen, prolong, prolongate, protract, spin
170
(out), stretch
Sample: The mirror was curved so that it elongated my image, making me look tall
and thin.
elucidate [ ] v.
to give a clarifying explanation
abet:encouragement=elucidate:clarity
garble<>elucidate
obfuscate<>elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly
Synonyms: CLARIFY clear, clear up, explain, illuminate, illustrate
Sample: He was called upon to elucidate the disputed points in his article.
emaciate [ ] v.
to cause to lose f unaffectlesh so as to become very thin
apoplectic:angry=emaciated:thin
firmness:obstinacy=supple:spineless/thin:emaciated
emaciate<>invigorate
Sample: His long period of starvation had left him emaciated.
emanate [ ] vi.
to come out from a source
Synonyms: SPRING , arise, birth, derive (from), flow, issue, originate, proceed, rise,
stem
Sample: A strong odor of sulfur emanated from the spring.
emancipate [ ] v.
to free from restraint, control, or the power of another; especially:to free from
bondage
emancipate<>shackle
emancipation<>bondage
Synonyms: FREE, discharge, liberate, loose, loosen, manumit, release, unbind,
unchain, unshackle
Sample: At first, the attempts of the Abolitioninst to emancipate the slaves were
unpopular in New England as well as in the South.
embargo [ ] n.
a legal prohibition on commerce
embargo:commerce=quarantine:contact
Sample: As a result of the embargo, trade with colonies was at a standstill.
embark [ ] vi.
to make a start
debut:career=embarkment:journey
dismount:horse=disembark:ship
conclude<>embark on
171
Synonyms: BOARD
Sample: In devoting herself to the study of gorillas, Dian Fossey embarked on a
course of action that was to cost her her life.
embarrass [ ] vt.
to place in doubt, perplexity, or difficulties
catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment
embarrass:shame=console:comfort
unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement
blush:embarrassment=nod:agreement/bow:respect/shrug:indifference
disembarrass:entanglement=??
Synonyms: abash, confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze,
rattle
Sample: Crosby's colleagues have never learned, at least not in time to avoid
embarrassing themselves, that her occasional bogus air of befuddlement presages a
display of her formidable intelligence.
embed [ ] vt.
to enclose closely in or as if in a matrix
embed<>extract
Synonyms: ENTRENCH , fix, infix, ingrain, lodge, root
Sample: As long as the nuclear family is embedded in a larger kinship group through
contiguous residence on undivided land, the pressure to share and thus to get along with
relatives is strong.
embezzle [ ] vt.
to appropriate (as property entrusted to one's care) fraudulently to one's own use
embezzle:fraud=??
Synonyms: misappropriate, peculate
Sample: The authorities did not discover the campaign manager's malfeasance until
after he had spent most of the money he had embezzled.
embolden [ ] v.
to instill with boldness or courage
appall<>embolden/nerve
embolden<>abash/faze/cow
boggle<>embolden (
embolden<>daunt
Sample: His early success emboldened him to take even greater risks.
embrace [ ] n.v.
close encircling with the arms and pressure to the bosom especially as a sign of
affection:HUG
embrace:affection=shrug:indifference
172
abrogate<>embrace/institute/uphold
eschew<>embrace, greet , welcome
abjure<>embrace/espouse
ostracize<>include/embrace
spurn<>court ,crave, embrace
renounce<>embrace
Synonyms: clasp, clinch, clip, enfold, hug, press, squeeze
Sample: Having fully embraced the belief that government by persuasion is preferable
to government by coercion, the leaders of the movement have recently repudiated most
of their previous statements supporting totalitarianism.
encompass [ ] v.
to form a circle about:ENCLOSE
encompass<>exclude
Synonyms: SURROUND , beset, circle, compass, encircle, environ, gird, girdle, hem,
ring
Sample: Although we were encompassed by enemy forces, we were cheerful for we
were well stocked and could withstand a siege until our allies joined us.
emigrate [ ] vi.vt
to leave one's place of residence or country to live elsewhere
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification
Synonyms: MIGRATE, transmigrate
Sample: The Roth family, whose progenitors emigrated from Germany early in the
nineteenth century, settled in Peru, Illinois.
eminence [ ] n.
one that is eminent, prominent, or lofty:as a person of high rank or attainments
master:experience=luminary:eminence
maven:experience=luminary:eminence
eminent<>undistinguished
Synonyms: distinction, illustriousness, kudos, preeminence, prestige, prominence,
prominency, renown
Sample: After his appointment to this emiment position, he seldom had time for his
former friends.
emphasis [ ] n.
special consideration of or stress or insistence on something
underscore:emphasis=brand:ownership
Synonyms: accent, accentuation, stress
Sample: But the plays complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as
compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois famouswell-considered ideal of
173
ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unityor Fanons emphasis on an ideal
internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles.
emulate [ ] vt.
strive to equal or excel
emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary
emulation:exemplar=deference:authority
Synonyms: RIVAL, compete, rivalize
Sample: However original they might be, Roman poets were bound to have some
favorite earlier author whom they would emulate.
enact [ ] vt.
to establish by legal and authoritative act; specifically:to make (as a bill) into law
rescission<>enactment
Synonyms: constitute, establish, make
Sample: Because much is needed legislation had to be enacted, the governor ordered
the legislature to convene in special session by January 15.
enamel [ ] n.
a hard calcareous substance that forms a thin layer capping the teeth
enamel:tooth=bark:tree
Sample: The enamel protects the inside part of the tooth.
enclosure [ ] n.
something that encloses
stockade:enclosure=pillar:support
recluse:crowd=claustrophobia=enclosure
Synonyms: COURT close, courtyard, artilage, quad, quadrangle, yard
Sample: From the outset, the concept of freedom of the seas from the proprietary
claims of nations was challenged by a contrary notion-that of the enclosure of the
oceans for reasons of national security and profit.
encomium [ ] n.
glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise;
encomium:eulogize=quibble:cavil
encomium:eulogy=discontent:complain
encomium<>harsh criticism
Synonyms: citation, eulogy, panegyric, salutation, tribute
Sample: Uneasy with the encomiums expressed by his supporters, Tolkien felt
unworthy of such high praise.
encompass [ ] v.
to form a circle about:ENCLOSE obsolete:to go completely around
Synonyms: SURROUND , beset, circle, compass, encircle, environ, gird, girdle, hem,
174
ring
Sample: Although we were encompassed by enemy forces, we were cheerful for we
were well stocked and could withstand a siege until our allies joined us.
encounter [ ] n. v.
to come upon face-to-face
circumlocutory(circumlocution)<>direct encounter
Synonyms: CONFRONT , affront, face, meet
Sample: He had expected gratitude for his disclosure, but instead he encountered
indifference bordering on hostility.
encumber [ ] v.
to impede or hamper the function or activity of:HINDER
encumber<>remove impediment
Synonyms: BURDEN, charge, clog, cumber, lade, load, saddle, tax, weigh, weight
Sample: Some people encumber themselves with too much luggage, when they take
short trips.
encyclopedia [ ] n.
a work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or treats
comprehensively a particular branch of knowledge usually in articles arranged
alphabetically often by subject
encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise/condensed
{pertinacity:changeable}{recapitulation:lengthy}
Synonyms: comprehensive, inclusive
Sample: The encyclopedia salesman claimed the new edition was a veritable
cornucopia of information, an inexhaustible source of knowledge for the entire family.
endorse [ ] vt.
to approve openly especially:to express support or approval of publicly and definitely
rider:bill=endorsement:policy
endorse:approbation=??
endorse<>oppose publicly
impugn<>endorse
deprecate<>endorse
Synonyms: APPROVE, accredit, certify, OK (or okay), sanction
Sample: During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted remarkably, from general
endorsement of it as a worthwhile, stable institution to widespread censure of it as an
oppressive and bankrupt one whose dissolution was both imminent and welcome.
enduring [ ] adj.
LASTING, DURABLE
ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch
ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living
175
transitory:endure=immutable:change
transitory<>enduring
Synonyms: CONTINUE , abide, carry through, last, perdure, persist
Sample: Keats believed in the enduring power of great art, which outlast its creator's
brief lives.
enervate [ ] vt.
to lessen the vitality or strength of
enervate:vitality=debase:value
curtail:period=enervate:energy
eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor
dispirit:morale=enervate:strength
enervate<>invigorate
enervate<>fortify/strengthen
vitality<>enervation
Synonyms: UNNERVE, castrate, emasculate, unman, unstring
Sample: In the absence of any stimulation caused by danger, hardship, or even cultural
difference, most utopian communities deteriorate into placid but enervating backwaters.
enfeeble [ ] vt.
to make feeble:deprive of strength
eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor
palliate:anger=enfeeble:vigor
enfeeble<>invigorate
tonic<>enfeebling
Synonyms: WEAKEN , attenuate, blunt, cripple, debilitate, disable, sap, unbrace,
undermine, unstrengthen
Sample: His long illness enfeebled him.
enfranchise [ ] vt.
to endow with a franchise:as to admit to the privileges of a citizen and especially to the
right of suffrage
enfranchise:vote=license:practice
enfranchise<>enfetter
enfranchise<>resubject
enfranchise<>subjugate
Synonyms: affranchise, franchise
Sample: During periods of social and cultural stability, many art academies are so
firmly controlled by dogmatists that all real creative work must be done by the
disenfranchised.
engender [ ] vt.
to cause to exist or to develop:PRODUCE
quash<>engender
176
Synonyms: GENERATE , breed, cause, hatch, induce, muster (up), occasion, produce,
provoke, work up
Sample: To receive praise for real accomplishments engenders self-confidence in a
child.
engross [ ] vt
to take or engage the whole attention of:occupy completely
attentive:officious=refined:snobbish { absorbed:engrossed}
engrossed:absorbed=intimate:close
Synonyms: ENGAGE , busy, immerse, occupy, soak
Sample: John was so engrossed in his studies that he did not hear his mother call.
enigmatic [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or resembling an enigma:MYSTERIOUS
juggernaut:unstoppable=enigma:impenetrable
enigmatic:simplistic=??
enigmatic<>broadly known { wildly accepted}
enigmatic<>readily understood
Synonyms: CRYPTIC, dark, mystifying
Sample: Many have sought to fathom the enigmatic smile of the Mona Lisa.
enlighten [ ] vt.
to furnish knowledge to:INSTRUCT
equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten
Synonyms: ILLUMINATE , edify, illume, illumine, improve, irradiate, uplift
Sample: In the days before the mass marketing of books, censorship was a prime
source of publicity, which helped the sale of the book and inspired Ralph Waldo
Emerson to remark:"Every burned book enlightens the world".
enmity [ ] n.
positive, active, and typically mutual hatred or ill will
camaraderie<>enmity
comity<>enmity
concord<>enmity/rancor
Synonyms: animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, hostility, rancor
Sample: At Camp David President Carter labored to bring an end to the enmity that
prevented Egypt and Israel from living in peace.
ennoble [ ] vt.
to make noble:ELEVATE
debase<>ennoble
Synonyms: EXALT , aggrandize, dignify, distinguish, erect, glorify, honor, magnify,
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sublime, uprear
ennui [ ] n.
a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction:BOREDOM
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic
ennui:enthusiastic=somnolence:alert
ennui<>energy/enthusiasm
ennui<>keen interest
ennui<>exuberance
Synonyms: TEDIUM, boredom, doldrums, yawn
Sample: The monotonous routine of hopital life induced a feeling of ennui which
made him moody and irritable.
enrapture [ ] vt.
to fill with delight
enraptured<>indifferent
Synonyms: TRANSPORT, enravish, entrance, ravish, trance
Sample: The audience was enraptured by the freshness of the voices and the excellent
orchestration.
enslave [ ] vt.
to reduce to or as if to slavery:SUBJUGATE
manumit<>enslave
Synonyms: enthrall, subjugate
ensue [ ] vi.
to take place afterward or as a result
anterior<>ensuing
Synonyms: following, succeeding
Sample: Because the potential hazards pollen grains are subject to as they are
transported over long distances are enormouswindpollinated plants havein the view
abovecompensated for the ensuing loss of pollen through happenstance by virtue of
producing an amount of pollen that is one to three orders of magnitude greater than the
amount produced by species pollinated by insects.
entangle [ ] vt.
to wrap or twist together:INTERWEAVE
exoneration:blame=disentangle:snarl
disembarrass:entanglement=??
disentangle<>snarl
Synonyms: ensnarl, intertangle, perplex, snarl, tangle
Sample: She entangled her friends in foolish schemes to get rich.
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enthusiasm [ ] n.
strong excitement of feeling:ARDOR
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic
ennui:enthusiastic=somnolence:alert
enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia
reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm
madness:enthusiasm=??
ennui<>energy/enthusiasm
halfhearted<>enthusiastic
Synonyms: PASSION , ardor, fervor, fire, hurrah, zeal
Sample: In spite of lackluster reviews in the press, the production of her play was
rescued from almost certain oblivion by enthusiastic audiences whose acumen was
greater than that of the critics.
entice [ ] vt.
to attract artfully or adroitly or by arousing hope or desire:TEMPT
command:entreaty=goad:enticement
entice:tempt=affectionate:love
formidable<>enticing
Synonyms: LURE, allure, bait, decoy, entrap, inveigle, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll
Sample: Personnel experts say that attractive benefits alone will not always keep
ambitious executives from changing jobs for better long-range opportunities, but they
think the enticements may deter many executives from accepting routine offers from
other companies.
entrance [ ] vt.
to carry away with delight, wonder, or rapture
entrancing(entrance vt.)<>disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore
unprepossessing<>entrancing/winsome
Synonyms: entry, ingress, ingression
Sample: Shafts of sunlight on a wall could entrance her and leave her spellbound.
entrap [ ] vt.
to catch in or as if in a trap
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied
Synonyms: catch, benet, catch up, ensnare, entangle, snare, tangle, trap lure, allure,
bait, decoy, entice, inveigle, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll
Sample: The defense attorney claimed that the police had entrapped his client; that is,
they had elicited the illicit action of which they now accuse of him.
entreaty [ ] n.
an act of entreating:PLEA
command:entreaty=goad:enticement
protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat
179
Synonyms: PRAYER, appeal, application, imploration, imprecation, orison, petition,
plea, suit, supplication
entry [ ] n.
a descriptive record (as in a card catalog or an index)
journal:entries=run:performance
Sample: The clerk made an entry of the sale in the company books.
enumerate [ ] vt.
to specify one after another:LIST
Synonyms: COUNT, number, numerate, tale, tally, tell
Sample: Huck hung his head in shame as Miss Watson enumerated his many flaws.
enunciate [ ] v.
a:to make a definite or systematic statement of b:ANNOUNCE, PROCLAIM
waffle:enunciate=embed:disinter
enunciate<>mumble
Synonyms: ARTICULATE, phonate, pronounce, say
Sample: How will people understand you if you do not enunciate?
envision [ ] vt.
to picture to oneself
Synonyms: THINK , conceive, envisage, fancy, feature, image, imagine, realize,
vision, visualize
Sample: What kind of career do you envision for yourself?
ephemeral [ ] adj.
lasting a very short time
convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience
ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch
ephemeral:endure=inert:react {ineffectual:proceed}
ephemeral:transience=permanent:perpetually
repellent:attract=ephemeral:endure
ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility {xenophobia:diplomatic}
ephemeral<>permanent/perpetual
ephemeral<>eternal
ephemeral<>endured
Synonyms: TRANSIENT, evanescent, fleeting, fugacious, fugitive, momentary,
passing, short-lived, transitory, volatile
Sample: Changes of fashion and public taste are often ephemeral and resistant to
analysis, and yet they are among the most sensitive gauges of the state of the public's
collective consciousness.
epic [ ] n.
180
extending beyond the usual or ordinary especially in size or scope
epic<>modest
Sample: Kurosawa's film Seven Samurai is an epic portraying the struggle of seven
warriors to destroy a band of robbers.
epicure [ ] n.
one with sensitive and discriminating tastes especially in food or wine
epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching
sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating
Synonyms: bon vivant, gastronome, gastronomer, gastronomist, gourmand, gourmet
Sample: epicures frequent this restaurant because it features exotic wines and dishes.
epigram [ ] n.
a concise poem dealing pointedly and often satirically with a single thought or event and
often ending with an ingenious turn of thought
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram
paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise
Sample: Reading the epigrams of Pope, I admire the economy of his verse:in few
words he conveys worlds of meaning.
epilogue [ ] n.
a concluding section that rounds out the design of a literary work the final scene of a
play that comments on or summarizes the main action the concluding section of a
musical composition:CODA
dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata
terminus:stop=epilogue:story
epilogue:prose=finale:music
epilogue:prose=finale?
preface<>epilogue
Synonyms: afterword
Sample: The audience was so disappointed in the play that many did not remain to
hear the epilogue.
epistemology [ ] n.
the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference
to its limits and validity
aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge
Sample: "What is more important, a knowledge of nature of the nature of knowledge?"
the epistemologist asked the naturalist.
epitomize [ ] vt.
to serve as the typical or ideal example of
Synonyms: condense, digest, inventory, nutshell, sum, summarize, summate, sum up,
181
synopsize
Sample: Many Americans believe that individual initiative epitomized the 1890's and
see the entrepreneur as the personification of that age.
equable [ ] adj.
marked by lack of noticeable, unpleasant, or extreme variation or inequality
equable<>intemperate
Synonyms: STEADY, constant, even, stabile, stable, unchanging, unfluctuating,
uniform, unvarying
Sample: After the hot summers and cold winters of New England, he found the
climate of the West Indies equable and pleasant.
equipoise [ ] n.
a state of equilibrium
equipoise:vacillate=??
Synonyms: BALANCE, equilibrium, poise, stasis
Sample: Robins words were not without emotion:they retained their level tone only
by a careful equipoise between imminent extremes.
equity [ ] n.
justice according to natural law or right; specifically:freedom from bias or favoritism
illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution
equitable<>discriminatory/unfair
Sample: My equity in my brokerage account is $15,000 because I have $20,000 in
stock but owe $5,000 as a loan.
equivocal [ ] adj.
subject to two or more interpretations and usually used to mislead or confuse
equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth
equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten
equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
equivocate:commitment=procrastinate:action
equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness
grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive
rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite}
equivocate:misleading=cliched:hackneyed
equivocation:ambiguous=oxymoron:incongruous
waffle<>speak unequivocally
equivocation<>clarity
Synonyms: OBSCURE, ambiguous, amphibological, tenebrous, uncertain, unclear,
unexplicit, unintelligible, vague
Sample: One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to reconstruct the intricacies of
182
complex ancient societies from meager and often equivocal physical evidence.
erect [ ] vt.
SET UP, ESTABLISH
suspend<>erect
slouch<>stand erect
Synonyms: BUILD, construct, put up, raise, rear, uprear
Sample: They erected a lighthouse on the promontory to warn approaching ships of
their nearness to the shore.
erect [ ] adj.
characterized by firm or rigid straightness in bodily posture
prostrate<>erect
Synonyms: arrect, raised, stand-up, straight-up, upright, upstanding
Sample: She is elderly, but she stands erect.
erode [ ] v.
to diminish or destroy by degrees
accrete:growth=erode:destruction
downpour:flooding=wind:erosion
gully:erosion=callus:friction
wind:erosion=downpour:flooding
singe:incinerate=erode:destruction
deposit<>process of eroding
Synonyms: EAT, bite, corrode, eat away, gnaw, scour, wear (away)
Sample: The limestone was eroded by the dripping water
errant [ ] adj.
traveling or given to traveling
amorphous:shape=errant:course
doctrine:heretical=course:errant
digress:topic=errant:standard
Synonyms: ERRATIC, devious, stray, wandering
Sample: Many a charming taerrantle has been written about the knights-errant who
helped the weak and punished the guilty during the Age of Chivalry.
erratic [ ] adj.
having no fixed course:WANDERING
heroic:craven=erratic:permanent
Synonyms: devious, errant, stray, wandering
Sample: Experienced and proficient, Susan is a good, reliable trumpeter her music is
often more satisfying than Carol's brilliant but erratic playing.
erudite [ ] adj
183
possessing or displaying erudition:LEARNED
erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect
erudite<>smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered
erudition<>illiteracy
Synonyms: LEARNED, scholarly, scholastic
Sample: His erudite writing was difficult to read because of the many allusions
which were unfamiliar to most readers.
escalate [ ] v
to increase in extent, volume, number, amount, intensity, or scope
escalate<>diminish
Synonyms: ASCEND, climb, escalade, mount, scale, upclimb, upgo
Sample: What had started out as a mere spat escalated into a full-blown argument.
eschew [ ] v
to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds:SHUN
eschew<>embrace/greet/welcome
Synonyms: ESCAPE, avoid, bilk, double, duck, elude, evade, shun, shy
Sample: He tried to eschew all display of temper.
esoteric [ ] adj
designed for or understood by the specially initiated alone
esoteric<>common accepted
esoteric<>generally known
Synonyms: RECONDITE, abstruse, acroamatic, deep, heavy, hermetic, occult, orphic,
profound, secret
Sample: In the appendix to the novel, the critic sought to annotate many of the more
esoteric references.
espouse [ ] vt.
to take up and support as a cause:become attached to
lurk:concealment=espouse:marriage
abjure<>embrace/espouse
repudiate<>espouse/uphold
Synonyms: ADOPT, embrace, take on, take up
Sample: She was always ready to espouse a worthy cause.

List 11 esteem --- filibuster
esteem [ ] n.v.
184
to set a high value on:regard highly and prize accordingly
obeisant:esteem=embrace:affection
esteem:idolatrize=favor:bribe
infuriate:rage=commend:esteem {scrounge:possession}
stigma<>mark of esteem
odium<>esteem
Synonyms: REGARD, account, admiration, consideration, estimation, favor, respect
Sample: I esteem Ezra Pound both for his exciting poetry and for his acute comments
on literature.
estimable [ ] adj.
worthy of esteem
estimable<>contemptible
Sample: She has an estimable reputation for choosing wise investments.
estrange [ ] vt.
to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had formerly been
love, affection, or friendliness:ALIENATE
estrangement<>rapprochement
Synonyms: ALIENATE, DISAFFECT
Sample: The estranged wife sought a divorce.
etch [ ] n. v.
a chemical agent used in etching
etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive
Sample: Since it is now routine to build the complex central processing unit of a
computer on a single silicon chip using photolithography and chemical etching, it seems
plausible that other miniature structures might be fabricated in similar ways.
eternal [ ] adj.
a:continued without intermission:PERPETUAL b:seemingly endless
ephemeral<>eternal
Synonyms: EVERLASTING, amaranthine, ceaseless, endless, immortal, never-ending,
unending, world-without-end
Sample: In sharp contrast to the intense idealism of the young republic, with its
utopian faith in democracy and hopes for eternal human progress, recent developments
suggest a mood of almost unrelieved cynicism.
ethereal [ ] adj.
a:lacking material substance:IMMATERIAL, INTANGIBLE b:marked by unusual
delicacy or refinement
ethereal<>material/ponderous
ponderous<>ethereal/gossamer/lively
Synonyms: AIRY, aerial, vaporous, vapory
185
Sample: Visitors were impressed by her ethereal beauty, her delicate charm.
ethics [ ] n.
the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation
logic:reasoning=ethics:behavior
Sample: Forget about ethics! He's such an opportunist that he'll vote in favor of any
deal that will give him a break.
eulogize [ ] vt.
to speak or write in high praise of:EXTOL
encomiast:eulogize=quibbler:cavil
panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize
encomium:eulogy=discontent:complain
eulogy:speak=??
eulogize<>pan
eulogy<>stricture
Synonyms: PRAISE, bless, celebrate, cry up, extol, glorify, hymn, laud, magnify,
panegyrize
Sample: All the eulogies of his friends could not remove the sting of the calumny
heaped upon him by his enemies.
euphemism [ ] n.
the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or
suggest something unpleasant
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
euphemistic:offend=invulnerable:injure
euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse
Synonyms: nice Nelly, nice-nellyism
Sample: The modern age is a permissive one in which things can be said explicitly, but
the old tradition of euphemism dies hard.
euphonious [ ] adj.
pleasing to the ear
cacophonous<>dulcet/euphonious
Synonyms: MELODIOUS, dulcet, euphonic, mellisonant, melodic, sweet, tuneful
Sample: Noted for its euphony even when it is spoken, the Italian language is
particularly pleasing to the ear when sung.
euphoria [ ] n.
a feeling of well-being or elation
satisfaction:euphoria=??
Synonyms: elation, exaltation, intoxication
Sample: "Jill's been on cloud nine ever since Jacj asked her out," said Betty,
186
dismissing her friend's euphoria.
evacuate [ ] v.
a:to remove especially from a military zone or dangerous area b:to withdraw from
military occupation of c:VACATE
evacuate<>conquer/occupy
Sample: The people evacuated the town because of the flood.
evade [ ] vt.vi.
to avoid answering directly:turn aside
evade:answer=goldbrick:work
Synonyms: ESCAPE, AVOID, ELUDE, SHUN, ESCHEW
Sample: Although internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not
always civil to suspected tax evaders.
evanescent [ ] adj.
tending to vanish like vapor
evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency
evanescent:disappear=pliant:yield
convoluted:complexity=transient:evanescence
periodic:recur=evanescent:vanish
abiding<>evanescent
Synonyms: TRANSIENT, ephemeral, fleeting, fugacious, fugitive, momentary,
passing, short-lived, transitory, volatile
Sample: The natures of social history and lyric poetry are antithetical, social history
always recounting the evanescent and lyric poetry speaking for unchanging human
nature, that timeless essence beyond fashion and economics.
evasive [ ] adj.
tending or intended to evade:EQUIVOCAL
inclemency:evasion=??
Synonyms: equivocating, prevaricative, prevaricatory, shifty, shuffling
everlasting [ ] adj.
lasting or enduring through all time:ETERNAL
countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration
Synonyms: amaranthine, ceaseless, endless, eternal, immortal, never-ending, unending,
world-without-end
Sample: Your evasive answers convinced the judge that you were witholding
important evidence.
evict [ ] vt.
to force out:EXPEL
deportation:country=eviction:dwelling
evict:residence=banish:country
harbor<>evict
187
Synonyms: EJECT, boot (out), chase, chuck, dismiss, extrude, kick out, out, throw out
Sample: They did not pay the rent on their apartment for three months, so the landlord
evicted them.
evoke [ ] vt.
to call forth or up
evoke:hot-headed=??
evoke<>fail to elicit
Synonyms: EDUCE, elicit, evince, extort, extract, milk
Sample: Although my grandmother's china has intrinsically little value, I shall always
cherish it for the memories it evokes.
ewe [ ] n.
the female of the sheep especially when mature; also:the female of various related
animals
sheep:ewe=swan:pen pen:A female swan.
Sample: The architects of New York's early skyscrapers, hinting here at a
twelfth-century cathedral, there at a fifteenth-century palace, sought to legitimize the
city's social strivings by evoking a history the city did not truly possess.
exacerbate [ ] vt.
to make more violent, bitter, or severe
palliate<>exacerbate
Synonyms: acerbate, embitter, envenom
Sample: It was her view that the country's problems had been exacerbated by foreign
technocrats, so that to invite them to come back would be counterproductive.
exacting [ ] adj.
tryingly or unremittingly severe in making demands
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled
indomitable:control=exacting:satisfy
condone<>exact
Synonyms: ONEROUS, burdensome, demanding, exigent, grievous, oppressive,
taxing, tough, trying, weighty
Sample: The colonies rebelled against the exacting financial claims of the mother
country.
exaggerate [ ] vt.vi.
to enlarge or increase especially beyond the normal:OVEREMPHASIZE
anger:tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole
exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram
malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature
188
Synonyms: EMBROIDER, color, embellish, fudge, magnify, overcharge, overdraw,
overpaint, overstate, pad
Sample: In today's world, manufacturers' innovations are easily copied and thus
differences between products are usually slight; advertisers, therefore, are forced to
exaggerate these differences in order to suggest the uniqueness of their clients' products.
exalt [ ] v.
to elevate by praise or in estimation:GLORIFY
exaltation<>condemnation
Synonyms: aggrandize, dignify, distinguish, ennoble, erect, glorify, honor, magnify,
pedestal, stellify, sublime, uprear
Sample: The actor Alec Guinness was exalted to the rank of knighthood by the Queen;
he now is known as Sir Alec Guinness.
exasperate [ ] vt.
a:to excite the anger of:ENRAGE b:to cause irritation or annoyance to
mollify<>exasperate
mitigate<>exacerbate
Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, gall, get, huff, nettle, peeve, pique, rile, roil
Sample: Johnny often exasperates his mother with his pranks.
exceptional [ ] adj.
deviating from the norm
prosaic<>exceptional/imaginary/exciting
commonplace<>exceptional
Synonyms: extraordinary, phenomenal, rare, remarkable, singular, uncommon,
uncustomary, unimaginable, unique, unordinary, unthinkable, unusual, unwonted
excerpt [ ] n.
to select (a passage) for quoting:EXTRACT
aside:digression=summary:excerpt
Synonyms: extract
Sample: The cinematic equivalent of an excerpt from a novel is a clip from a film.
exclamation [ ] n.
a sharp or sudden utterance
exclaim:utter=flare:shine
Sample: He could not repress an ejaculation of surprise when he heard the news.
excoriate [ ] v.
to censure scathingly
excoriate<>extol/praise lavishly
accolade<>excoriate
Synonyms: LAMBASTE, blister, castigate, flay, lash (into), scarify, scathe, scorch,
189
scourge, slash
Sample: These shoes are so ill-fitting that they will excoriate the feet and create
blisters.
excrete [ ] vt.
to separate and eliminate or discharge (waste) from the blood or tissues or from the
active protoplasm
excrete<>ingest
excrete<>absorb
Sample: Sweat is excreted through pores in the skin.
excruciate [ ] vt.
to subject to intense mental distress
excruciate<>exult
Sample: I have an excruciating stomachache (headache, back pain, etc.).
exculpate [ ] vt.
to clear from alleged fault or guilt
exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir
hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve
alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory
exculpate<>inculpate
Synonyms: absolve, acquit, clear, disculpate, exonerate, vindicate
Sample: He was exculpated of the crime when the real criminal confessed.
excursive [ ] adj.
constituting a digression:characterized by digression
digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant
Sample: We took an excursion to Alaska on a cruise ship.
execrate [ ] v.
to declare to be evil or detestable:DENOUNCE
execrate:denunciate=??
execrable<>commendable/laudable
execration<>approbation
execrate<>laud
Synonyms: anathematize, curse, damn, objurgate
Sample: The world execrates the memory of Hitler and hopes that genocide will never
again be the policy of any nation.
execute [ ] vt.
to carry out fully:put completely into effect
impossible:execute=adamant:moved
vagary:predict=impossibility:execute
Synonyms: ADMINISTER, administrate, carry out, govern, render
190
Sample: Although the minuet appeared simple, its intricate steps had to be studied
very carefully before they could be gracefully executed in public.
exemplary [ ] adj.
serving as a pattern
emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame=redoubtable:regard
corrective:amends=paradigm:exemplify
exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference
Synonyms: GOOD, blameless, guiltless, inculpable, innocent, irreprehensible, pure,
righteous, unblamable, virtuous
Sample: Her exemplary behavior was praised at commencement.
exempt [ ] adj. vt. n.
free or released from some liability or requirement to which others are subject
exempt:liability=pardon:penalty
Synonyms: absolve, discharge, dispense, excuse, let off, privilege (from), relieve,
spare
Sample: The court exempted me from jury duty because I'm a minister.
exert [ ] vt.
to bring to bear especially with sustained effort or lasting effect
Synonyms: exercise, ply, put out, throw, wield
Sample: After two nights without sleep, she felt sluggish and incapable of exertion.
exhaust [ ] vt.
to consume entirely:USE UP
infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap
thirsty:imbibe=exhausted:rest
Synonyms: DEPLETE, bankrupt, drain, draw, draw down, impoverish, use up
Sample: There are, as yet, no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been
exhausted to the extent that they no longer interest ecologists.
exhilarate [ ] vt.
to make cheerful
exhilarate<>sadden
Synonyms: ELATE, commove, excite, inspire, set up, spirit (up), stimulate
Sample: The cold autumn air exhilarates me.
exhortation [ ] n.
language intended to incite and encourage
exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit
exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite
191
exhortation:motivate=obloquy:discredit
exhortative:urge=didactic:teach { risible:ridicule}
Sample: The evangelist will exhort all sinners in his audience to reform.
exodus [ ] vt.
a mass departure:EMIGRATION
exodus<>influx
Synonyms: DEPARTURE, egress, egression, exit, exiting, offgoing, setting-out,
withdrawal
Sample: For many young people during the Roaring Twenties, a disgust with the
excesses of American culture combined with a wanderlust to provoke an exodus abroad.
exonerate [ ] v.
to relieve of a responsibility, obligation, or hardship
exoneration:blame=disentangle/extricat:snarl
exonerate<>censure
exonerate<>inculpate
incrimination<>exoneration
exonerate<>incriminate
Synonyms: EXCULPATE, absolve, acquit, clear, disculpate, vindicate
Sample: I am sure this letter naming the actual culprit will exonerate you.
exorbitant [ ] adj.
exceeding in intensity, quality, amount, or size the customary or appropriate limits
exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty
Synonyms: EXCESSIVE , dizzy, extravagant, extreme, immoderate, inordinate,
towering, unconscionable, undue, unmeasurable
Sample: The people grumbled at his exorbitant prices but paid them because he had a
monopoly.
exotic [ ] adj.
introduced from another country:not native to the place where found
exotic<>indigenous
Sample: Because of his exotic headdress, he was followed in the streets by small
children who laughed at his strange appearance.
expansive [ ] adj.
characterized by high spirits, generosity, or readiness to talk:OPEN
intrude:expansive=??
expansive<>reserved/diffident/taciturn/withdrawn
expansive<>malicious
expansive<>limited
Synonyms: DEMONSTRATIVE, outgoing, unconstrained, unreserved,
192
unrestrained
Sample: The father was in an expansive mood and gave presents to all of his children.
expedite [ ] vt.
to accelerate the process or progress of:speed up
expedite:process=accelerate:pace
expedite<>retard
Sample: We hope you will be able to expedite delivery because of our tight schedule.
expedition [ ] n.
efficient promptness:SPEED
expedition:foot dragging=consensus:factionalism
expedition<>foot dragging
Synonyms: HASTE, celerity, dispatch, expeditiousness, hurry, hustle, rustle, speed,
speediness, swiftness
Sample: Although the ostensible purpose of this expedition is to discover new lands,
we are really interested in finding new markets for our products.
expiation [ ] n.
the act of making atonement
guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose
Sample: He tried to expiate his crimes by a full confession to the authorities.
explicit [ ] adj.
fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity:leaving no
question as to meaning or intent
explicit<>obscure
immanent<>explicit
inchoate<>explicit
Synonyms: categorical, clean-cut, clear-cut, definite, definitive, express, specific,
unambiguous
Sample: In certain forms of discourse such as the parable, the central point of a
message can be effectively communicated even though this point is not explicit.
exponent [ ] n.
one that expounds or interprets
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass
Synonyms: advocate, champion, expounder, proponent, supporter
Sample: She is an exponent of vegetarianism.
expurgate [ ] v.
to cleanse of something morally harmful, offensive, or erroneous; especially:to
expunge objectionable parts from before publication or presentation
vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate
inexpurgate<>obliterate
193
Synonyms: PURIFY, cleanse, lustrate, purge
Sample: The editors felt that certain passages in the book had to be expurgated before
it could be used in the classroom.
exquisite [ ] adj.
marked by flawless craftsmanship or by beautiful, ingenious, delicate, or elaborate
execution
tawdry<>exquisite
Synonyms: CHOICE, dainty, delicate, elegant, rare, recherch, select, superior
Sample: The detail on the watch face is exquisite.
extant [ ] adj.
currently or actually existing
extant<>extinct/lost
extant<>missing
Synonyms: alive, around, existent, existing, living
Sample: Although the authorities suppressed the book, many copies are extant and
may be purchased at exorbitant prices.
extemporize [ ] v.
to do something extemporaneously:IMPROVISE; especially:to speak
extemporaneously
juggernaut:unstoppable=extemporization:spontaneous { boast:dishonest }
Synonyms: IMPROVISE, ad-lib, improvisate
Sample: Novice extemporaneous speakers often talk in a halting fashion as they grope
for the right words.
extenuate [ ] vt.
to lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of by making partial
excuses:MITIGATE
moderate:intensity=extenuate:seriousness
buffer:impact=??
Synonyms: THIN, attenuate, wiredraw
Sample: It is easier for us to extenuate our own shortcomings than those of others.
exterminate [ ] vt.
to get rid of completely usually by killing off
Synonyms: ANNIHILATE, abate, abolish, blot out, eradicate, extinguish, extirpate,
root out, uproot, wipe (out)
Sample: Some people exterminate garden insects by spraying poison on the plants.
extinct [ ] adj.
194
no longer existing
extant<>extinct
extinct<>resuscitated
extinction<>perpetuation
Sample: If a species of parasite is to survive, the host organisms must live long enough
for the parasite to reproduce ; if the host species becomes extinct , so do its parasites.
(9504)
extinguish [ ] vt.
to cause to cease burning:QUENCH
extinguish<>kindle
ignite<>extinguish
extinguish<>rekindle
Synonyms: ANNIHILATE, abate, abolish, blot out, eradicate, exterminate, extirpate,
root out, uproot, wipe (out)
Sample: As a Scout, Marisa learned how to light a fire, how to stoke it if it started to
die down, and how to extinguish it completely.
extol [ ] v.
to praise highly:GLORIFY
deprecate<>extol
excoriate<>extol/praise lavishly
extol<>censure
extol<>disparage
extol<>condemn/impugn/detract
extol<>malign
extol<>vilify
Synonyms: PRAISE, bless, celebrate, cry up, eulogize, glorify, hymn, laud, magnify,
panegyrize
Sample: The astronauts were extolled as the pioneers of the Space Age.
extort [ ] vt.
to obtain from a person by force, intimidation, or undue or illegal power:WRING
sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation
extort:obtain=
Synonyms: exact, gouge, pinch, screw, shake down, squeeze, wrench, wrest, wring
Sample: The blackmailer extorted money from his victim.
extraneous [ ] adj
a:not forming an essential or vital part b:having no relevance
apposite<>extraneous
extraneous<>essential
extraneous<>intuitive
195
Synonyms: IRRELEVANT, foreign, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite,
irrelative
Sample: Do not pad your paper with extraneous matters; stick to essential items only.
extravagant [ ] adj
a:spending much more than necessary b:PROFUSE, LAVISH
frugality<>extravagancy
Synonyms: EXCESSIVE, dizzy, exorbitant, extreme, immoderate, inordinate,
towering, unconscionable, undue, unmeasurable
Sample: Ever prey to vagrant impulses that impelled him to squander his talents on a
host of unworthy projects, his very dissipation nonetheless enhanced his reputation, for
the sheer energy of his extravagance dazzled observers.
extricate [ ] v.
to free or remove from an entanglement or difficulty
Synonyms: clear, clear away, discumber, disembarrass, disembroil, disencumber,
disentangle, disentwine, unentangle, unscramble, untangle, untie, untwine
Sample: He found that he could not extricate himself from the trap.
extrinsic [ ] adj.
not forming an essential or inherent part of a thing; extraneous.
extrinsic<>inherent
immanent<>extrinsic
Synonyms: alien, extraneous, foreign
Sample: Do not be fooled by extrinsic causes. We must look for the intrinsic reason.
extrovert [ ] n.
a gregarious and unreserved person
extrovert:outgoing=perfectionist:exacting
Sample: A good salesperson in usually an extrovert, who likes to mingle with people.
exuberant [ ] adj.
joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic
ennui<>exuberance
soaking:wet=exuberant:happy=frigid:cool
Synonyms: brash, ebullient, effervescent, high-spirited, vivacious
Sample: His speeches were famous for his exuberant language and vivid imagery.
exude [ ] vt.vi
to undergo diffusion
exude<>absorb
Synonyms: bleed, ooze, percolate, strain, sweat, transude, weep
196
Sample: The maple syrup is obtained from the sap that the trees exude in early spring.
exultant [ ] adj.
filled with or expressing great joy or triumph:JUBILANT
exult:satisfaction=crave:longing
abject<>exultant
dejected<>exultant
exultant<>dejected
crestfallen<>exultant
Synonyms: cock-a-hoop, cock-a-whoop, exulting, jubilant, triumphal, triumphant
Sample: We exulted when our team won the victory.
fabricate [ ] vt.
CONSTRUCT, MANUFACTURE; specifically:to construct from diverse and usually
standardized parts
discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic
discompose:placid=fabricate:ingenuous
Synonyms: MAKE, assemble, build, construct, fashion, form, frame, manufacture,
produce, shape
Sample: Scientists' pristine reputation as devotees of the disinterested pursuit of truth
has been compromised by recent evidence that some scientists have deliberately
fabricated experimental results to further their own careers.
facetious [ ] adj.
joking or jesting often inappropriately:WAGGISH
facetious:speech=antic:behavior
facetious<>earnest
facetious<>lugubrious
Synonyms: WITTY, humorous, jocose, jocular
Sample: Your facetious remarks are not appropriate at this serious moment.
facilitate [ ] vt.
to make easier:help bring about
facilitate<>impeding
obstruct<>facilitate
hamper<>facilitate
arduous<>facile
facile<>profound
Sample: Histocompatibility antigens that attack foreign tissue in the body cannot have
been conserved through evolution expressly to foil organ transplantation; on the
contrary, they have been found to facilitate many essential biological functions.
faction [ ] n.
a party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or
self-seeking:CLIQUE
197
consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion
law:criminality=consensus:factionalism {lesson:falsehood}
expedition:foot dragging=consensus:factionalism
factional<>disinterested
ecumenical<>factionalism/provincial
faction<>unity
Synonyms: COMBINATION, bloc, coalition, combine, part, ring
Sample: The quarrels and bickering of the two small factions within the club disturbed
the majority of the members.
fade [ ] vi.
to change gradually in loudness, strength, or visibility
abate:force=fade:loudness
abate:intensity=fade:loudness
Synonyms: DULL, dim, muddy, pale, tarnish
Sample: The horseman passed by me and faded into the distance.
fail-safe [ ] n.
incorporating some feature for automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated
possible source of failure
fail-safe:malfunction=??
Sample: As a fail-safe action, my computer automatically copies my work every two
minutes, so almost nothing can be lost.
faint [ ] adj.
lacking strength or vigor:performed, offered, or accomplished weakly or languidly
stentorian<>faint
Synonyms: GENTLE, balmy, bland, lenient, mild, smooth, soft
Sample: The radio signal is too faint to be heard clearly.
fainthearted [ ] adj.
lacking courage or resolution:TIMID
Sample: He was too faint-hearted to climb the mountain with the others.
fallacy [ ] n.
a:a false or mistaken idea b:erroneous character:ERRONEOUSNESS
disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease
verifiable<>fallacious
fallacious<>sound/valid/veritable
fallacy<>valid argument
Synonyms: erroneousness, error, fallaciousness, falsehood, falseness, falsity, untruth
Sample: There must be a fallacy in this syllogism; I cannot accept its conclusion.
falsehood [ ] n.
198
absence of truth or accuracy
corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood
Synonyms: FALLACY, erroneousness, error, fallaciousness, falseness, falsity, untruth
Sample: The boy's father punished him for telling a falsehood.
falter [ ] vt.
a:to hesitate in purpose or action:WAVER b:to lose drive or effectiveness
falter:act=stammer:speak
Synonyms: TEETER, lurch, stagger, stumble, topple, totter, wobble
Sample: When told to dive off the high board, she did not falter, but proceeded at
once.
fantasy [ ] n.
imaginative fiction featuring especially strange settings and grotesque characters
nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy
imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy
Synonyms: IMAGINATION, fancy, imaginativeness
Sample: Sue knew so many computer programmers who spent their spare time playing
fantasy games that she began to think that playing Dungeon & Dragons was a generic
trait.
farce [ ] n.
ridiculous or empty show
farce:performance=limerick:poem
Synonyms: MOCKERY, burlesque, caricature, mock, sham, travesty
Sample: Nothing went right; the entire interview degenerated into a farce.
fascinate [ ] vt.
to be irresistibly attractive
fascination:interest=adoration:fondness
Synonyms: ATTRACT, allure, bewitch, captivate, charm, draw, enchant, magnetize,
take, wile
Sample: Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novelsbringing to our attention in
the process some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnsons
Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man.
fast [ ] n.
the act to eat sparingly or abstain from some foods
fast:eat=respite:labor
fast:eat=moratorium:act
Sample: From time to time, I fast for a day to lose weight.
fast [ ] adv.
199
in a firm or fixed manner
fast<>loosely attach
Synonyms: HARD, firm, firmly, fixedly, solidly, steadfastly, tight, tightly
Sample: That door won't open; it is stuck fast.
fasten [ ] vt.
to attach especially by pinning, tying, or nailing
lathe:shape=clasp:fasten
fastness<>unsecured palace
Sample: The student fastened his attention on the teacher.
fastidious [ ] adj
showing or demanding excessive delicacy or care
devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious
dapper:fastidious=??
fastidious:outshine=recalcitrant:resist
fastidious<>coarse
fastidious<>easygoing/cursory/uncritical
Synonyms: NICE, dainty, finical, finicking, finicky, fussy, particular, pernickety,
persnickety, squeamish
Sample: The waitresses disliked serving him dinner because of his very fastidious
taste.
fathom [ ] v.
to penetrate and come to understand
erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect
measurable<>unfathomable
occult<>bare/patent/readily fathomable
measurable<>unfathomed
Synonyms: KNOW, appreciate, apprehend, cognize, comprehend, grasp, have,
understand
Sample: Many have sought to fathom the enigmatic smile of the Mona Lisa.
fatigue [ ] n.
weariness or exhaustion from labor, exertion, or stress
fatigue:rest=dehydration:water
dehydrate:water=fatigue:repose/rest
guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose
indefatigable<>soon tired
Synonyms: :exhaustion, lassitude, tiredness, weariness
Sample: He is suffering from fatigue and wants to go to bed early.
fatuous [ ] adj.
200
complacently or inanely foolish:SILLY
fatuous<>astute
Synonyms: simple, asinine, brainless, foolish, sheepheaded, silly, unwitty,
weak-headed, weak-minded, witless.
Sample: Everybody is always laughing behind his back at his fatuous statements.
fawn [ ] n
to court favor by a cringing or flattering manner
adulate:fawn=woo:adorn
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger=fawn:hauteur
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield
parsimonious:spend=peremptory:fawn
reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn
fawn:attentive=garish:colorful
sycophant:fawn=malcontent:complaint
Synonyms: apple-polish, bootlick, brownnose, cotton, slaver, toady, honey(up)
Sample: Helen valued people who behaved as if they respected themselves; nothing
irritated her more than an excessively obsequious waiter or a fawning salesclerk.
faze [ ] vt.
to disturb the composure of:DISCONCERT, DAUNT
embolden<>abash/faze/cow
fazed<>undisturbed
Synonyms: embarrass, abash, confound, dumbfound, mystify, nonplus, perplex, puzzle;
confuse, muddle; appall, daunt, dismay, horrify; annoy, bother, irritate, vex
Sample: The bad news did not faze him at all.
feckless [ ] adj.
WEAK, INEFFECTIVE
feckless<>responsible
Synonyms: fustian, good-for-nothing, meaningless, purposeless, unpurposed, useless,
worthless
Sample: If animal parents were judged by human standards, the cuckoo would be one
of nature's more feckless creatures, blithely laying its eggs in the nests of other birds,
and leaving the incubating and nurturing to them.
fecund [ ] adj.
fruitful in offspring or vegetation:PROLIFIC
deprivation<>fecundity
Synonyms: fertile, childing, fruitful, productive, proliferant, prolific, rich, generating
201
Sample: The Neoplatonists' conception of a deity, in which perfection was measured
by abundant fecundity, was contradicted by that of the Aristotelians, in which perfection
was displayed in the economy of creation.
feeble [ ] adj.
markedly lacking in strength
hardy<>tender/feeble
Synonyms: weak, decrepit, flimsy, fragile, frail, infirm, insubstantial, unsubstantial,
wanky, weakly
Sample: His feeble attempts at solving the problem are worthless.
fender [ ] n
a device in front of locomotives and streetcars to lessen injury to animals or pedestrians
in case of collision
fender:collision=??
Sample: The right front fender on my car needs to be repaired.
feral [ ] adj.
not domesticated or cultivated:WILD
feral<>cultivated
Synonyms: brutish, animal, beastly, bestial, brutal, brute, ferine, swinish
fertilize [ ] vt.
to make fertile
fertilize:grow=immunize:resist
Sample: Most farmers fertilize their farmland with chemicals.
fervid [ ] adj.
marked by often extreme fervor
fervid<>restrained
Synonyms: impassioned, ardent, blazing, burning, fervent, fiery, glowing, hot-blooded,
passionate, perfervid
Sample: Her fervid enthusiasm inspired all of us to undertake the dangerous mission.
fervor [ ] n.
intensity of feeling or expression
ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic
fervor:zealot=improvidence:spendthrift
zealotry<>lack of fervor
fervor<>indifferent
fervor<>uninterested
Synonyms: passion, ardor, calenture, enthusiasm, fire, hurrah, zeal
Sample: On this solemn day, the congregation responded to the prayers of the priest
202
during the litany with fervor and intensity.
fetid [ ] adj.
having a heavy offensive smell
grating:sound=fetid:smell
fetid:smell:cacophonous:sound
Synonyms: malodorous, fusty, noisome, putrid, rancid, rank, reeking, smelly, stinking,
strong
Sample: The neglected wound became fetid.
fetter [ ] n.
to restrain from motion, action, or progress
enfranchise<>enfetter
liberalistic<>enfetterist
fetter<>free
management<>unfettered liberty
Synonyms: shackle, bond(s), chain, gyve(s), iron(s)
Sample: Liberty is not easy, but far better to be an unfettered fox, hungry and
threatened on its hill, than a well-fed canary, safe and secure in its cage.
fiasco [ ] n.
a complete failure
fiasco<>a notable success
Sample: Our ambitious venture ended in a fiasco and we were forced to flee.
fictitious [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or characteristic of fiction:IMAGINARY
fictitious<>factual
Synonyms: chimerical, fanciful, fantastic, fictional, fictive, illusory, imaginary,
suppositious, supposititious, unreal; fake, mock, sham, simulated
Sample: Although this book purports to be a biography of George Washington, many
of the incidents are fictitious.
fidelity [ ] n.
the quality or state of being faithful
respect:baseness=trust=infidelity {indistinct:observe}{unintelligible:grasp}
apostasy<>fidelity
Synonyms: allegiance, ardor, devotion, faithfulness, fealty, loyalty, piety
Sample: A dog's fidelity to its owner is one of the reasons why that animal is a favorite
household pet.
figurative [ ] adj.
representing by a figure or resemblance:EMBLEMATIC
Sample: Ironically, the proper use of figurative language must be based on the
203
denotative meaning of the words, because it is the failure to recognize this literal
meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their attendant incongruity.
filibuster [ ] n./v.
the use of extreme dilatory tactics in an attempt to delay or prevent action especially in a
legislative assembly
filibuster:delay=hoax:deceive
Sample: Even though we disapproved of Senator Foghorn's political goals, we were
impressed by his ability to filibuster endlessly to keep an issue from coming to a vote.

List 12 filigree --- genuine
filigree [ ] n.
ornamental openwork of delicate or intricate design
chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy={ filigree:delicacy }
chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy
Sample:The pendant with gold filigree that she wore round her neck trembled with each
breath she took.
filly [ ] n.
a young female horse usually of less than four years
filly:horse=pullet:chicken
Sample: There was a special race for fillies.
filter [ ] vt.
a porous article or mass (as of paper or sand) through which a gas or liquid is passed to
separate out matter in suspension
winnow:chaff=filter:impurities
Sample: A very specialized feeding adaptation in zooplankton is that of the tadpolelike
appendicularian who lives in a walnut-sized (or smaller) balloon of mucus equipped
with filters that capture and concentrate phytoplankton.
finch [ ] n.
any of numerous songbirds (especially families Fringillidae, Estrildidae, and
Emberizidae) having a short stout usually conical bill adapted for crushing seeds
finch:bird=arboretum:tree
finch:bird=aspen:tree=lizard:reptile=eagle:bird
finesse [ ] n.
skillful handling of a situation:adroit maneuvering
finesse<>ineptitude
Synonyms: manipulate, beguile, exploit, jockey, maneuver, play
Sample: The finesse and adroitness of the surgeon impressed the observers in the
operating room.
finicky [ ] adj.
extremely or excessively nice, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards
fluent:glib=humorous:wry { meticulous:finicky }
Synonyms: nice, dainty, fastidious, finical, finicking, fussy, particular, pernickety,
204
persnickety, squeamish
Sample: The old lady was finicky about her food and ate very little.
flaccid [ ] n.
not firm or stiff; also:lacking normal or youthful firmness
flaccidity<>firmness
Synonyms: limp, flabby, flimsy, floppy, sleazy
Sample: Noting the murder victim's flaccid musculature and pearlike figure, she
deduced that the unfortunate fellow had earned his living in some sedentary occupation.
flagging [ ] adj.
LANGUID, WEAK
flagging<>thriving
flagging<>vibrant
flag<>wax
Sample: When the opposing hockey team scored its third goal only minutes into the
first period, the home team's spirits flagged.
flamboyant [ ] adj.
marked by or given to strikingly elaborate or colorful display or behavior
furtive:openness=flamboyant:reserved
flamboyant<>subdued
flamboyant<>understate
Synonyms: ornate, baroque, florid, luscious, rich, rococo
Sample: Thomas Paine, whose political writing was often flamboyant, was in private
life a surprisingly simple man:he lived in rented rooms, ate little, and wore drab clothes.
flange [ ] n.
a projecting edge of cloth used for decoration on clothing
Sample: The flange on the metal wheel kept it on the track.
flannel [ ] n.
outer garments of flannel; especially:men's trousers
flannel:cloth=linen:fabric{ limerick:poem }
Sample: He wears gray flannel suits.
flatter [ ] vt.
to praise excessively especially from motives of self-interest
flatter:praise=loquacious:talkative
sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation=toady:flatter
querulous:complain=sycophant:flattery
invective<>flatter
Synonyms: become, enhance, suit
205
Sample: He was always accompanied by several of his minions because he enjoyed
their subservience and flattery.
flaw [ ] n. v.
a defect in physical structure or form
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile
Sample: It is puzzling to observe that Jone's novel has recently been criticized for its
lack of structure, since commentators have traditionally argued that its most obvious
flaw is its relentlessly rigid, indeed schematic, framework.
flax [ ] n.
any of a genus (Linum of the family Linaceae, the flax family) of herbs; especially:a
slender erect annual (L. usitatissimum) with blue flowers commonly cultivated for its
bast fiber and seed
clay:porcelain=flax:linen
fledge vi.
to acquire the feathers necessary for flight or independent activity
fledge<>molt
Sample: It is hard for an unfledged writer to find a sympathetic publisher.
flexible [ ] adj.
capable of being flexed:PLIANT
adamant:flexibility=refractory:control
limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty
static:move=pliable:inflexible
inflexible:alternate=??
calcification<>flexibility
flexible<>mulish
Synonyms: elastic, resilient, springy, stretch, stretchy, supple, whippy
Sample: She is flexible and always open to new ideas..
flinch [ ] vn.
to withdraw or shrink from or as if from pain:WINCE; also:to tense the muscles
involuntarily in anticipation of discomfort
grisly:flinch=droll:laugh
stoic:flinch=??
Synonyms: recoil, blanch, blench, quail, shrink, squinch, start, wince
Sample: He did not flinch in the face of danger but fought back bravely.
flint [ ] n.
a massive hard quartz that produces a spark when struck by steel
pestle:grind=flint stone:sharpen
flippancy [ ] n
206
unbecoming levity or pertness especially in respect to grave or sacred matters
flippancy<>seriousness
flippancy<>sobriety
flippancy<>gravity
Synonyms: lightness, flightiness, frivolity, levity, light-mindedness, volatility
Sample: Your flippancy at this serious moment is offensive.
flirt [ ] vi.
to behave amorously without serious intent
flirt:decency=??
supplicant:beseeching=coquette:flirtatious
Synonyms: trifle, coquet, dally, fool, lead on, string along, toy, wanton
Sample: He flirted with disaster when he bet a lot of money at the horseraces.
flit [ ] n.vi.
to move about rapidly and nimbly.
flit:move=blurt:utter
flit<>plod
Sample: Like a bee flitting from flower to flower, Rose flitted from one boyfriend to
the next.
flock [ ] n.
a group of birds or mammals assembled or herded togetherto gather or move in a flock
clique:intimates=flock:sheep
herd:animals=flock:birds
flock<>segregate
Synonyms: multitude, army, cloud, crowd, host, legion, rout, scores
Sample: The flock of sheep was made up of dozens of ewes, together with only a
handful of rams.
flounder [ ] vi
to proceed or act clumsily or ineffectually
flounder:process=??
flounder<>slide
Synonyms: wallow, blunder, lurch, stumble
Sample: When we asked him about his past, he floundered for a moment and then
answered.
flourish [ ] vi.
to grow luxuriantly:THRIVE
flourish<>waste away
flourish<>wither
Synonyms: succeed, arrive, go, make out, prosper, score, thrive
207
Sample: Although Irish literature continued to flourish after the sixteenth century, a
comparable tradition is absent in the visual arts:we think about Irish culture in terms of
the word, not in terms of pictorial images.
flout [ ] v\n.
to treat with contemptuous disregard:SCORN
flout:disregard=taunt:challenge (challenge:to confront or defy boldly)
Synonyms: scoff, fleer, gibe, jeer, jest, quip(at), scout(at), sneer
Sample: The headstrong youth flouted all authority; he refused to be curbed.
fluctuate [ ] vi.
to shift back and forth uncertainly
pristine:decay=stable:fluctuation
Sample: Until the current warming trend exceeds the range of normal climatic
fluctuations, there will be, among scientists, considerable uncertainty about the
possibility that increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 can cause long-term warming
effects.
fluent [ ] adj.
a:ready or facile in speech b:effortlessly smooth and rapid:POLISHED
fluent:glib=humorous:wry
fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky
fluent<>halting
Synonyms: cursive, effortless, flowing, running, smooth
Sample: She speaks fluent Japanese.
plumage [ ] n.
the feathers of a bird
plumage:bird=foliage:bush
flush [ ] vi
to pour liquid over or through; especially:to cleanse or wash out with or as if with a
rush of liquid
galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush
Synonyms: rich, affluent, moneyed, opulent, wealthy
Sample: His flushed, angry face indicated a choleric nature.
fluster [ ] v.
to put into a state of agitated confusion:UPSET
flustered<>calm
Synonyms: discompose, agitate, bother, discombobulate, disquiet, disturb, flurry,
perturb, unhinge, upset
Sample: The teacher's sudden question flustered him and he stammered his reply.
fluvial [ ] adj.
208
of, relating to, or living in a stream or river
fluvial:river=sidereal:star
foible [ ] n
a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior:WEAKNESS
squabble:dispute=foible:failing
tiff:squabble=foible:failing
squabble:quarrel=foible:failing
Synonyms: fault, failing, frailty, vice
Sample: We can overlook the foibles of our friends; no one is perfect.
foil [ ] v. n.
a thin piece of material (as metal) put under an inferior or paste stone to add color or
brilliance
foil:metal=veneer:wood
Synonyms: frustrate, baffle, balk, beat, bilk, buffalo, circumvent, dash, disappoint,
thwart
Sample: In "Star Wars," dark, evil Darth Vader is a perfect foil for fair-haired, naive
Luke Skywalker.
foliage [ ] n.
the aggregate of leaves of one or more plants
plumage:bird=foliage:bush
Sample: Every autumn before the leaves fell he promised himself he would drive
though the New England to admire the colorful fall foliage.
folly [ ] n.
a foolish act or idea
folly<>sagacious
Synonyms: foolishness, absurdity, craziness, dottiness, inanity, insanity, insanity,
preposterousness, senselessness, silliness, witlessness
Sample: I am often impressed by my own tolerance of other peoples idiocies:what is
harder to appreciate is that they, in their folly, are equally engaged in putting up with
mine.
foment [ ] vt.
to promote the growth or development of:ROUSE, INCITE
conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate
disseminate:information=foment:discontentment
defuse<>foment
foment<>inhibit
quell<>foment/instigate/rouse
squelch<>foment
foment<>quash/quell
impede<>promote/foment
209
placate<>foment
Synonyms: incite, abet, instigate, provoke, raise, set, set on, stir(up), whip(up)
Sample: This report will foment disssension in the club.
fondness [ ] n.
tender affection
fascination:interest=adoration:fondness
Synonyms: love, affection, attachment, devotion, appetite, inclination, liking, soft spot,
taste, weakness
Sample: She had an inordinate fondness for candy.
foolhardy [ ] adj.
foolishly adventurous and bold:RASH
Synonyms: adventurous, adventuresome, audacious, daredevil, daring, rash, reckless,
temerarious, venturesome, venturous
Sample: Don't be foolhardy. Get the advice of experienced people before undertaking
this venture.
footloose [ ] adj.
having no ties:free to move about
dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment
footloose<>attached
Sample: After military service, he was footloose and fancy-free, so he toured Europe.
forebear [ ] n.
ANCESTOR, FOREFATHER; also : PRECURSOR
forebears<>descendants
Synonyms: ancestor, antecedent, ascendant, forefather, primogenitor, progenitor
Sample: Reverence for one's forebears (sometimes referred to as ancestor worship)
plays an important part in many Oriental cultures.
ford [ ] n.
A shallow place in a body of water, such as a river, where one can cross by walking or
riding on an animal or in a vehicle
ford:river=pass:mountain{ shore:lake } pass:A way, such as a narrow gap between
mountains, that affords passage around, over, or through a barrier.
Sample: Rather than risk using the shaky rope bridge, David walked a half-mile
downstream until he came to the neartest ford.
forestry [ ] n.
the management of growing timber
tree:forestry=flower:horticulture
210
Sample: Her son went to Yale University to study forestry.
foreword [ ] n.
prefatory comments (as for a book) especially when written by someone other than the
author
foreword:introductory=appellation:designate
Synonyms: INTRODUCTION, exordium, overture, preamble, preface, prelude,
prelusion, proem, prolegomenon, prologue
Sample: The author wrote a foreword to be used as the first page of her book.
forgery [ ] n.
an act of forging; especially:the crime of falsely and fraudulently making or altering a
document (as a check)
plagiarism:ideas=forgery:documents
Sample: The painting, which sold for $500,000, turned out to be a forgery; it was only
really worth $10,000.
formidable [ ] adj.
causing fear, dread, or apprehension
formidable<>comforting
formidable<>simple
formidable<>enticing
formidable<>reassuring
formidable<>genial
Synonyms: fearful, appalling, awful, dreadful, frightful, horrible, horrific, shocking,
terrible, terrific; hard, arduous, difficult, effortful, labored, laborious, strenuous,
toilsome, tough, uphill
Sample: Even though formidable winters are the norm in the Dakotas, many people
were unprepared for the ferocity of the blizzard of 1888.
forthright [ ] adj.
free from ambiguity or evasiveness:going straight to the point
acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile
furtive<>open/forthright/brassy
Synonyms: straightforward, aboveboard, plain dealing, straight, frank, candid, direct,
open, openhearted, plain, single, undisguised, unvarnished
Sample: In the midst of so many evasive comments, this forthright statement,
whatever its intrinsic merit, plainly stands out as an anomaly.
fortify [ ] vt.
to make strong:as to give physical strength, courage, or endurance to
debilitated<>fortified
vitiate<>fortify
enervate<>fortify/strengthen
Synonyms: strengthen, energize, invigorate, reinforce
211
Sample: He fortified himself with a glass of whisky before going out in the cold
weather.
foster [ ] vt.
to promote the growth or development of:ENCOURAGE
foster<>stifle { retract }
Synonyms: nurse, cherish, cultivate, nourish, nursle, nurture; advance, encourage,
forward, further, promote, serve
Sample: No one expected Foster to forsake his wife and children and run off with
another woman.
founder [ ] n.
one that founds or establishes
Synonyms: father, architect, author, creator, generator, inventor, maker, originator,
patriarch, sire
Sample: Among those drowned when the Titanic sank was the founder of the Abraham
& Straus chain.
founder [ ] vt.
to become submerged:SINK
founder<>stay aloft
founder<>keep aloft
founder<>afloat
Synonyms: sink, go down, go under, submerge, submerse
Sample: After hitting the submerged iceberg, the Titanic started taking in water rapidly
and soon foundered.
fracture [ ] n.
RUPTURE, TEAR
cement<>fracture
Synonyms: breach, break, fissure, rent, rift, rupture, schism, split
Sample: They found a small fracture in the wing of the plane.
fragile [ ] adj.
a:easily broken or destroyed b:constitutionally delicate:lacking in physical vigor
fragile:break=porous:penetrate
limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty
hardness<>frailty
Synonyms: breakable, frail, frangible, shatterable, shattery; weak, decrepit, feeble,
flimsy, frail, infirm, insubstantial, unsound, unsubstantial, weakly
Sample: That dish is fragile, so be careful.
fraudulent [ ] adj.
212
characterized by, based on, or done by fraud:DECEITFUL
authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical
hoax:fraudulent=paragon:excellent
Sample: The government seeks to prevent fraudulent and misleading advertising.
freelancer [ ] n.
a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one
employer
nomad:domicile=freelancer:employer
freewheel [ ] vi.
to move, live, or play freely or irresponsibly
Sample: It is assumed that scientists will avoid making fraudulent claims about the
results of their experiments because of the likelihood that they will be exposed when
other researchers cannot duplicate their findings.
frenzy [ ] n.
a violent mental or emotional agitation
convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion
energetic:frenetic=firm:obdurate
Sample: As soon as they smelled smoke, the frenzied animals milled about in their
cages.
frequent [ ] v.
to associate with, be in, or resort to often or habitually
frequent<>shun { avoid }
Synonyms: affect, hang around, hang out, haunt, resort
Sample: He frequents the local restaurants often.
fresco [ ] n.
the art of painting on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments
fresco:wall=parquetry:floor
Sample: The cathedral is visited by many tourists who wish to admire the frescoes by
Glotto.
fret [ ] v
an agitation of mind:IRRITATION
draconian:inclemency=fret:vexation
Synonyms: ANNOY, abrade, bother, chafe, exercise, gall, irk, provoke, ruffle, vex
Sample: To fret over your poor grades is foolish; instead, decide to work harder in the
future.
friable [ ] adj.
easily crumbled or pulverized
friable:crumble=malleable:alter
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible
friable:crumbed=lucid:comprehended
213
friable<>not easily crumbled/resistance to be pulverized
friable<>difficult to crumble
Synonyms: short, brittle, crisp, orumbly, crump, crunchy
Sample: The pages of the old book are yellowed and friable.
friction [ ] n.
the rubbing of one body against another
abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
abraded:friction=vaporized:heat
Sample: At this time when harmony is essential, we cannot afford to have any friction
in our group.
frieze [ ] n.
a heavy durable coarse wool and shoddy fabric with a rough surface
frieze:building=illumination:manuscript
Sample: The frieze of the church was adorned with sculpture.
frigid [ ] adj.
a : intensely cold b : lacking warmth or ardor : INDIFFERENT c:lacking imaginative
qualities : INSIPID
sweltering<>frigid
soaking:wet=exuberant:happy=frigid:cool
soaking:damp=frigid:cool
Synonyms: cold, arctic, chill, chilly, cool, freezing, frosty, gelid, glacial, icy; inhibited,
passionless, undersexed, unresponsive
Sample: Alaska is in the frigid zone.
frivolous [ ] adj.
intensely cold
frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion
grandeur<>frivolous
frivolous<>sober
temperance<>frivolous
Synonyms: giddy, bird-witted, dizzy, empty-headed, featherbrained, flighty,
harebrained, rattlebrained
Sample: Though Nancy enjoyed Bill's frivolous, lighthearted companionship, she
sometimes wondered whether he could ever be serious.
frothy [ ] adj.
gaily frivolous or light in content or treatment:INSUBSTANTIAL
frothy<>weighty
frowzy [ ] adj. (frowsy)
having a slovenly or uncared-for appearance
dapper<>frowsy
Synonyms: slatternly, blowsy, dowdy, draggletailed, slattern, sordid; malodorous,
214
funky, fusty, musty, noisome, rank, reeking, smelly, stale, stinking
frugal [ ] adj.
characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources
parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride
frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant
frugal:impecunious=temperate:sober
obsequious:attentiveness=parsimonious:frugality
officious:attentive=parsimony:frugal
frugality<>extravagancy
prodigal<>frugal
Synonyms: sparing, canny, chary, economical, saving, Scotch, stewardly, thrifty,
unwasteful, wary
Sample: She is most frugal in matters of business, but in her private life she reveals a
streak of prodigality.
frustrate [ ] v
a:to balk or defeat in an endeavor b:to induce feelings of discouragement in
frustrate<>abet
Synonyms: baffle, balk, beat, bilk, buffalo, circumvent, dash, disappoint, foil, ruin,
thwart;
Sample: Eric was frustrated because, although he was adept at making lies sound
plausible, when telling the truth, he lacked the power to make himself believed.
full-bodied [ ] adj.
imparting to the palate the general impression of substantial weight and rich texture
full-bodied:flavor=resonant:sound
Synonyms: strong, concentrated, lusty, potent, robust
Sample: That red wine has a full-bodied taste.
fulminate [ ] v.
to send forth censures or invectives
fulminate:criticize=adulate:flatter
Sample: The people against whom she fulminated were innocent of any wrongdoing.
fungi [ ] n.
any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms
usually classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews,
smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts
fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist
furnace [ ] n.
an enclosed structure in which heat is produced
furnace:heat=generator:electricity
Sample: The blast furnace had a special opening at the bottom to allow the workers to
215
remove the worthless slag.
furor [ ] n.
A general commotion; public disorder or uproar.
furor<>serenity
Synonyms: DELIRIUM, frenzy
Sample: The story of her embezzlement of the funds created a furor on the stock
exchange.
furtive [ ] adj.
done by stealth:SURREPTITIOUS
caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied
furtive:openness=flamboyant:reserved
furtive<>open/forthright/brassy
furtively<>candidly
sublime<>furtive
Synonyms: secret, clandestine, covert, hugger-mugger, hush-hush, stealthy, sub-rosa,
surreptitious
Sample: The boy gave a furtive look at his classmate's test paper.
fury [ ] n.
intense, disordered, and often destructive rage
effervescence:feeling=fury:anger
Synonyms: ANGER, indignation, ire, mad, rage, wrath
Sample: The storm attacked the coast with the fury of a hurricane.
fussy [ ] adj.
Calling for or requiring great attention to sometimes trivial details
assert:belabor=tend:fuss
garrulous:talkative=fussy:careful
Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, heedful, meticulous,
painstaking, punctilious, punctual, scrupulous
Sample: Dentists criticize the practice of giving fussy children sweets to pacify them.
fusty [ ] adj.
saturated with dust and stale odors:MUSTY
fusty<>fresh
futility [ ] n.
the quality or state of being futile:USELESSNESS
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence
interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile
bootless:futility=void:empty
futility<>effectiveness
Sample: Give he previously expressed interest and the ambitious tone of her recent
216
speeches, the senators attempt to convince the public that she is not interested in
running for a second term is futile .
gab [ ] n.
to talk in a rapid or thoughtless manner:CHATTER
Synonyms: CHAT, babble, chatter, clack, gabble, jaw, prate, prattle, yak, yakety-yak
Sample: Students like to gab while they eat lunch.
gadfly [ ] n.
a person who stimulates or annoys especially by persistent criticism
gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse
Sample: Like a gadfly, he irritated all the guests at the hotel; within forty eight hours,
everyone regarded him as an annoying busybody.
gaffe [ ] n.
a social or diplomatic blunder
gaffe:tactless=??
miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum
illusion:perception=gaffe:judgment
Synonyms: blooper, boner, impropriety, indecorum, solecism
Sample: According to Miss Manners, to call your husband by your lover's name is
worse than a mere gaffe; it is a tactical mistake.
gainsay [ ] v.
to declare to be untrue or invalid
gainsay<>affirm
Synonyms: deny, contradict, contravene, cross, disaffirm, impugn, negate, negative,
traverse
Sample: That the Third Battalion's fifty-percent casualty rate transformed its assault
on Hill 306 from a brilliant stratagem into a debacle does not gainsay eyewitness reports
of its commander's extraordinary cleverness in deploying his forces.
gait [ ] n.
a manner of walking or moving on foot
gait:walk=parlance:speak
Synonyms: speed, celerity, pace, quickness, rapidity, rapidness, swiftness, velocity
Sample: The lame man walked with an uneven gait.
galaxy [ ] n.
an assemblage of brilliant or notable persons or things
galaxy:stars=archipelago:island
Sample: Unlike the easily studied neutral and ionized materials that compose the
primary disk of the Milky Way itself, the components of the region surrounding our
galaxy have proved more resistant to study.
217
gall [ ] v.
to fret and wear away by friction:CHAFE
gall<>lull
gall<>calm/assuage
galling<>placating
gall<>placate
Synonyms: ANNOY , abrade, bother, chafe, exercise, fret, irk, provoke, ruffle, vex
Sample: It galled me when my best friend stopped speaking to me.
galvanize [ ] v.
to stimulate or excite as if by an electric shock
galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush
galvanize<>lull
galvanize<>allay
Synonyms: provoke, excite, innervate, innerve, motivate, move, pique, prime, quicken,
stimulate
Sample: The entire nation was galvanized into strong military activity by the news of
the attack on Pearl Harbor.
gamble [ ] v.
to stake something on a contingency:take a chance
adamant:yield=cautious:gamble
Synonyms: bet, game, lay, play, put(on), set, stake, wager; chance, hazard, risk
Sample: Corrupt politicians who condone the activities of the gamblers are equally
culpable.
gangling [ ] adj.
loosely and awkwardly built:LANKY
Synonyms: gangly, lanky, rangy, spindling, spindly
Sample: He is tall with gangling arms.
garble [ ] v.
to so alter or distort as to create a wrong impression or change the meaning
correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible
ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity
garble<>elucidate
garble<>report accurately
Synonyms: misrepresent, belie, color, distort, falsify
Sample: The mannual that came with my VCR was no masterpiece of expository
prose:its explanations were so garbled that I couldn't even figure out how to rewind a
tape.
garish [ ] adj.
218
clothed in vivid colors
prying:inquisitive=garish:colorful
fawn:attentive=garish:colorful
Synonyms: gaudy, blatant, brazen, chintzy, flashy, glaring, loud
Sample: She wore a garish rhinestone necklace.
garment [ ] n.
an article of clothing
hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet
lint:covering=tarpaulin:garment
tarpaulin:covering=raincoat:garment
Synonyms: clothe, apparel, array, attire, clad, dress, enclothe, garb, raiment
Sample: She always discarded all garments that were no longer modish.
garner [ ] n.
a:GRANARY b:a grain bin
Synonyms: reap, gather, harvest, ingather, clean, cull, extract, gather, pickup,
accumulate, amass, cumulate, hive, lay up, roll up, stockpile, store(up), uplay
Sample: She hoped to garner the world's literature in one library.
garrulous [ ] adj
given to prosy, rambling, or tedious loquacity:pointlessly or annoyingly talkative
garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet
garrulous:talkative=fussy:careful
garrulous/loquacious:words=prodigal:money
Synonyms: talktive, babblative, chatty, loose-lipped, loose-tongued, loquacious,
multiloquent, talky, tonguey
Sample: Many club members avoided the company of the garrulous junior executive
because his contant chatter bored them to tears.
gash [ ] n.
a deep long cut in flesh
cleft:chasm=cut:gash
Synonyms: cut, incise, pierce, slash, slice, slit
Sample: The boy fell and gashed his cheek.
gasification [ ] n.
conversion into gas; especially:conversion of coal into natural gas
gasification/vaporization<>solidification
Sample: Despite many decades of research on the gasification of coal, the data
accumulated are not directly applicable to environmental questions; thus a new program
219
of research specifically addressing such questions is warranted.
gauche [ ] adj.
lacking social experience or grace; also:not tactful:CRUDE
cacophony:voice=gaucherie:skill
gaucheness<>polish
Sample: Such remarks are gauche and out of place; you should apologize for making
them.
gaudy [ ] adj.
ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented
gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak
Synonyms: blatant, brazen, chintzy, flashy, garish, glaring, loud, meretricious, tawdry,
tinsel
Sample: Her gaudy taste in clothes apalled us.
gauge [ ] n.
a measurement (as of linear dimension) according to some standard or system
gauge:pressure=scale:weight
measure:dimensions:calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth
Synonyms: standard, benchmark, criterion, measure, touchstone, yardstick
Sample: Changes of fashion and public taste are often ephemeral and resistant to
analysis, and yet they are among the most sensitive gauges of the state of the public's
collective consciousness.
gear [ ] n.
a toothed wheel
gear:tooth=screw:thread
Synonyms: cog, cogwheel, pinion, toothed wheel, spurwheel, sprocket, ragwheel,
lanternwheel.
Sample: The car could not go up the acclivity in high gear.
genealogy [ ] n.
an account of the descent of a person, family, or group from an ancestor or from older
forms
Sample: He was proud of his genealogy and constantly referred to the achievements of
his ancestors.
generality [ ] n.
the quality or state of being general
ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity
Sample: This report is filled with generalities; you must be more specific in your
statements.
genial [ ] adj.
marked by or diffusing sympathy or friendliness
220
resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality
genial<>dyspeptic
caustic<>palliating/genial
dour<>congenial/genial
mordant<>genial
genial<>truculent
Synonyms: GRACIOUS, affable, congenial, cordial, sociable
Sample: This restaurant is famous and popular because of the geniality of the
proprietor, who tries to make everyone happy.
genteel [ ] adj.
free from vulgarity or rudeness:POLITE
genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear
truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse
genteel<>loutish
genteel<>churlish
Synonyms: cultivated, cultured, polished, refined, urbane, well-bred
Sample: We are looking for a man with a genteel apperance who can inspire
confidence by his cultivated manner.
genuine [ ] adj.
ACTUAL, TRUE
genuine:authenticity=entire:integrity { honest:trust }
spurious<>genuine
Synonyms: AUTHENTIC, bona fide, indubitable, real, sure-enough, true, undoubted,
unquestionable, veritable, very
Sample: If you want to buy antiques, look for a reputable dealer; far too many dealers
today pass off fakes as genuine antiques.

List 13 germane --- helmet
germane [ ] adj.
being at once relevant and appropriate:FITTING
germane<>irrelevant
Sample: The lawyer objected that the testimony being offered was not germane to the
case at hand.
gesture [ ] n.
a movement usually of the body or limbs that expresses or emphasizes an idea,
sentiment, or attitude
parody:style=mime:gesture
Sample: Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in
power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some propitiatory gesture of
comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his involvement
221
with the high and mighty.
ghastly [ ] adj.
intensely unpleasant, disagreeable, or objectionable
ghastly:unpleasant=??
Synonyms: grim, grisly, gruesome, hideous, horrible, horrid, horrifying, lurid,
macabre, terrible, terrifying
Sample: The murdered man was a ghastly sight.
gibe [ ] v.
to deride or tease with taunting words
apologize:regret=gibe:derision
condolence:sympathy/compassion=gibe:derision
Synonyms: SCOFF, fleer, flout, gird, jeer, jest, quip (at), scout (at), sneer
Sample: As you gibe at their superstitious beliefs, do you realize that you, too, are
guilty of similarly foolish thoughts?
giddy [ ] adj.
lightheartedly silly:FRIVOLOUS
giddiness<>grave
giddy<>serious
Synonyms: bird-witted, dizzy, empty-headed, featherbrained, flighty, fribble, fribbling,
frivolous, harebrained, hoity-toity, light, light-headed, rattlebrained, scatterbrained, silly,
skittish, volage, yeasty
Sample: He felt his giddy youth was past.
ginger [ ] n.
a thickened pungent aromatic rhizome that is used as a spice and sometimes medicinally
ginger:spice=??
glacier [ ] n.
a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley or spreading outward on a
land surface
glacial:slow=??
glacier:ice=sea:water
Sample: The glacier left many striated rocks.
glade [ ] n.
an open space surrounded by woods
glade:wood=oasis:desert=archipelago:ocean
glance [ ] n.
a quick or cursory look
peck:kiss=glance:look
Sample: The blueprints for the new automobile were striking at first glance. But the
designer had been basically too conservative to flout previous standards of beauty.
glaze [ ] n.
222
to give a smooth glossy surface to
glaze:porcelain=varnish:wood
glaze:porcelain=veneer:furniture
glaze<>rumple
Sample: The freezing rain glazed the streets and made driving hazardous.
glib [ ] adj.
marked by ease and fluency in speaking or writing often to the point of being insincere
or deceitful
fluent:glib=humorous:wry { meticulous:finicky }
maladroit:skill=glib:profundity
glib<>labored
glib<>taciturn
Synonyms: silver-tongued, vocative, voluble, well-hung
Sample: He is a glib and articulate speaker.
glimmer [ ] v. & n.
a:to shine faintly or unsteadily b:to give off a subdued unsteady reflection
Synonyms: FLASH, coruscate, glance, gleam, glint, glisten, glitter, shimmer, sparkle,
twinkle
Sample: In the darkness of the cavern, the glowworms hanging from the cavern roof
glimmered like distant stars.
glisten [ ] v.
to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection of or as if of a moist or polished surface
dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere
Synonyms: FLASH, coruscate, glance, gleam, glimmer, glint, glitter, shimmer, sparkle,
twinkle
Sample: Her pendant earrings glistened in the light.
glitch [ ] n.
a usually minor malfunction
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense
Sample: A glitch in the computer is stopping the printer from working.
Gloat vi. to observe or think about something with triumphant and often malicious
satisfaction, gratification, or delight
primp:vain=gloat:smug
Sample: As you gloat over your ill-gotten wealth, do you think of the many victims
you have defrauded?
gloomy [ ] adj.
low in spirits:MELANCHOLY
despondent:depressed=saturnine:gloomy/masterful:skilled
forthy<>gloomy
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Synonyms: SULLEN, crabbed, dour, glum, morose, saturnine, sulky, surly, ugly
Sample: Do not be misled by his saturnine countenance; he is not as gloomy as he
looks.
glorify [ ] vt.
to make glorious by bestowing honor, praise, or admiration
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial {glorification:merit}
Sample: Poets glorified the Roman emperors in their poems.
gloss [ ] n.
a brief explanation (as in the margin or between the lines of a text) of a difficult or
obscure word or expression
blurb:notice=gloss:explanation
Synonyms: PRAISE, bless, celebrate, cry up, eulogize, extol, hymn, laud, magnify,
panegyrize
Sample: No matter how hard he tried to talk around the issue, President Bush could
not gloss over the fact that he had raised the taxes after all.
glossary [ ] n.
a collection of textual glosses or of specialized terms with their meanings
glossary:text=legend:map
Sample: I have found the glossary in this book very useful; it has eliminated many
trips to the dictionary.
glossy [ ] adj.
having a surface luster or brightness
varnish:glossy=sand:smooth
glut [ ] n.
an excessive quantity:OVERSUPPLY
glut<>dearth
Synonyms: SATIATE, clog, fill, gorge, jade, pall, sate, stodge, surfeit
Sample: I want this photograph printed on glossy paper, not matte.
glutinous [ ] adj.
having the quality of glue:GUMMY
etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive
glutinous<>non viscous
Sample: Molasses is a glutinous substance.
glutton [ ] n.
one given habitually to greedy and voracious eating and drinking
avarice:money=gluttony:food
glutton:overindulge=ascetic:self denial
gluttonous<>abstentious
Sample: When Mother saw that Bobby had eaten all the cookies, she called him a little
224
glutton.
goad [ ] vt.
something that urges or stimulates into action:SPUR
command:entreaty=goad:enticement
gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse
goad<>check
Sample: He was goaded by his friends until he yielded to their wishes.
gobble [ ] vt.
to swallow or eat greedily
quaff:sip=gobble:nibble
swill:sip=gobble:nibble
Synonyms: GULP, bolt, cram, englut, guzzle, ingurgitate, slop, slosh, wolf
Sample: He was so hungry that he gobbled his food up.
goggle [ ] n.
to stare with wide or protuberant eyes
goggles:eyes=gloves:hands=earmuff:ear
Sample: In the laboratory, she wears goggles to protect her eyes from chemicals.
goldbrick [ ] vi.
to shirk duty or responsibility
evade:answer=goldbrick:work
gorge [ ] vi.
to eat greedily or to repletion
reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge
Synonyms: SATIATE, cloy, fill, glut, jade, pall, sate, stodge, surfeit
Sample: There have been attempts to explain these taboos in terms of inappropriate
social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not
simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily needor between those already
satiated and those who appear to be shamelessly gorging.
gossamer [ ] nadj
something light, delicate, or insubstantial
gossamer<>substance
gossamer<>ponderous
Synonyms: FILMY, diaphanous, flimsy, gauzy, sheer, tiffany, transparent
Sample: Nylon can be woven into gossaner or thick fabrics.
gourmet [ ] n.
a connoisseur of food and drink; broadly:CONNOISSEUR
bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting}
connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine
225
gourmet:food=aesthetic:art
Sample: The gourmet stated that this was the best onion soup she had ever tasted.
grandeur [ ] n.
the quality or state of being grand:MAGNIFICENCE
grandeur=mean=??
grandeur<>frivolous
Sample: No matter how often he hiked through the mountains, David never failed to
be struck by the grandeur of the Sierra Nevada range.
grandiloquent [ ] adj
a lofty, extravagantly colorful, pompous, or bombastic style, manner, or quality
especially in language
gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak
grandiloquent<>secretive
Synonyms: RHETORICAL, aureate, bombastic, declamatory, euphuistic, flowery,
magniloquent, overblown, sonorous, swollen
Sample: The politician could bever speak simply; she was always grandiloquent.
grandiose [ ] adj.
characterized by affectation of grandeur or splendor or by absurd exaggeration
ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility
grandiose<>trivial
Synonyms: GRAND, august, imposing, lordly, magnificent, majestic, noble, princely,
royal, stately
Sample: Because early United States writers thought that the mark of great literature
was grandiosity and elegance not to be found in common speech, they avoided the
vernacular.
grandstand [ ] v.
to play or act so as to impress onlookers
grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive
Sample: We sat in the grandstand to watch the baseball game.
grant [ ] vt.
to bestow or transfer formally specifically:to give the possession or title of by a deed
concede<>refuse to grant
withhold<>grant
Synonyms: ACKNOWLEDGE, admit, allow, avow, concede, confess, fess (up), let on,
own, own up
Sample: Everyone took his probity for granted; his defalcations, therefore, shocked us
all.
gratify [ ] vt.
to be a source of or give pleasure or satisfaction to
226
gratify:desire=slake:thirsty
aggrieve<>gratify
irk<>gratify
gratify<>displease
Synonyms: PLEASE, arride, delectate, delight, gladden, happify, pleasure
Sample: Her parents were gratified by her success.
grating [ ] adj
noisily,rasping,harsh
grating:sound=acrid:odor==fetid:smell
Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, burn (up), gall, get, nettle, peeve, pique, provoke,
rile
Sample: That singer has a grating voice.
gratuitous [ ] adj.
not involving a return benefit, compensation, or consideration
gratuitous<>merited/warranted
Synonyms: FREE, chargeless, complimentary, costless, gratis
Sample: Quit making gratuitous comments about my driving; no one asked you for
your opinion.
grave [ ] adj.
having a serious and dignified quality or demeanor
frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion
droll<>grave
giddiness<>gravity
grave<>insignificant
flippancy<>gravity
Synonyms: ENGRAVE, etch, incise
Sample: Robert Louis Stevenson's grave is on a knoll in Samoa; to reach the grave site,
you must climb uphill and walk a short distance along a marked path.
green [ ] adj.
a:deficient in training, knowledge, or experience b:deficient in sophistication and
savoir faire:NAIVE c:not fully qualified for or experienced in a particular function
inexperience:green=pertinacity:refractory
pelf:impecunious=experience:green
Synonyms: INEXPERIENCED, callow, fresh, raw, unconversant, unpracticed,
unseasoned, untried, unversed, young
Sample: The general sent the green soldiers for more training.
gregarious [ ] adj.
227
tending to associate with others of one's kind:SOCIAL
poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness
gregarious:reserved=??
gregarious<>aloof
Synonyms: SOCIAL, sociable
Sample: Typically, party-throwers are gregarious; hermits are not.
grievous [ ] adj
causing or characterized by severe pain, suffering, or sorrow
smart:pain=grieve:sorrow
solace:grief=pacification:anger
grievous<>slight
joyous<>grievous
Synonyms: ONEROUS, burdensome, demanding, exacting, exigent, oppressive,
superincumbent, taxing, tough, weighty
Sample: The death of her brother was a grievous loss.
grimace [ ] n.
a facial expression usually of disgust or disapproval
contortion:body=grimace:face
chagrin:mind=grimace:face
Sample: Even though he remained silent, his grimace indicated his displeasure.
grin [ ] vi.
to draw back the lips so as to show the teeth especially in amusement or laughter;
broadly:SMILE
pout<>grin
Synonyms: SMILE, beam
Sample: Grinning from ear to ear, Bonnie Blair was clearly elated by her Olympic
victory.
gripe [ ] v.
to complain with grumbling
gripe:discontent=praise:admiration
Synonyms: fuss, squawk, yammer, yawp (or yaup)
Sample: He gripes all the time about the bad weather.
grisly [ ] adj.
inspiring horror or intense fear
grisly:flinch=droll:laugh
Synonyms: GHASTLY, gruesome, hideous, horrible, horrid, horrifying, lurid, macabre,
terrible, terrifying
228
Sample: She shuddered at the grisly sight.
groove [ ] adj.
a long narrow channel or depression
grooved:striated=braided:strand
striated:groove=dappled:spot
grotesque [ ] adj.
FANCIFUL, BIZARRE
imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy
Synonyms: FANTASTIC, antic, bizarre
Sample: The gargoyles adorning the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris are amusing in
their grotesqueness.
grotto [ ] n.
A small cave or cavern
grotto:cavern=arroyo:channel
Sample: The Blue Grotto in Capri can be entered only by small boats rowed by natives
through a natural opening in the rocks.
grove [ ] n.
a planting of fruit or nut trees
grove:trees=archipelago:islands
Sample: A pine grove grows near the farmhouse.
grovel [ ] vi.
to lie or creep with the body prostrate in token of subservience or abasement
minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner
imperious:grovel=??
Synonyms: FAWN, apple-polish, bootlick, cower, cringe, honey (up), kowtow, toady,
truckle
Sample: Even though we have been defeated, we do not have to grovel before our
conquerors.
grumble [ ] n.
to mutter in discontent
Synonyms: croak, grouch, grouse, murmur, mutter, scold
Sample: The cross old lady has a proclivity to grumble.
guarantee [ ] vt.
to engage for the existence, permanence, or nature of:undertake to do or secure
vouch<>refuse to guarantee
Synonyms: bail, bond, guaranty, security, surety, warranty
Sample: The constitutional guarantee of free speech may have been aimed at
229
protecting native speakers of English from censorship, but it is not a great extension to
interpret it as protecting the right to express oneself in any natural language or dialect.
guffaw [ ] vi.vt.
a loud or boisterous burst of laughter
Synonyms: LAUGH, chortle, chuckle, giggle, hee-haw, snicker, tehee, titter
Sample: The remark was only slightly humorous, inviting a chuckle, perhaps, but
certainly not a guffaw.
guile [ ] n.
deceitful cunning:DUPLICITY
acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile
guile:artless=blemish:flawless
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
guile:naif=tardy:prompt
artless<>cunning/guile
manipulate<>guileless
Synonyms: DECEIT, cunning, dissemblance, dissimulation, duplicity
Sample: His imperturbability in the face of evidence indicating his deliberate fraud
failed to reassure supporters of his essential probity; instead, it suggested a talent for
guile that they had never suspected.
guilt [ ] n.
feelings of culpability especially for imagined offenses or from a sense of
inadequacy:SELF-REPROACH
narcissism:love=guilt:blame
guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose
Synonyms: BLAME, culpability, fault, onus
Sample: This salesman is guilty of hyperbole in describing his product; it is wise to
discount his claims.
gullible [ ] adj.
easily duped or cheated
compliant:servile=trusting:gullible
gullible:artless=??
gullible:chicanery=servile:domination
vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled
bully:intimidate=stupid:gullibility
mawkish:sentimental=gullible:trust
Synonyms: EASY, fleeceable, naive, susceptible
Sample: She was gullible and trusting, an easy victim for the first swindler who came
along.
230
gully [ ] n.
a trench which was orig. worn in the earth by running water and through which water
often runs after rains
gully:erosion=callus:friction
Sample: Steeper than a gully, less precipitous than a canyon, a ravine is, like them, the
product of years of erosion.
gum [ ] n.
any of numerous colloidal polysaccharide substances of plant origin that are gelatinous
when moist but harden on drying and are salts of complex organic acids
resin:tree=gum:rubber plant
gush [ ] n.
a sudden outpouring
blast:whiff=gush:trickle
gush:effusive=rage:irate
Sample: It is imperative that we stanch the gushing wound before we attend to the
other injuries.
gust [ ] n.
a sudden brief rush of wind
gust:wind=cloudburst:rainfall {flare:light}
Synonyms: OUTBURST, access, burst, eruption, explosion, flare-up, sally
Sample: The gusty weather made sailing precarious.
guzzle [ ] vi.vt.
to drink especially liquor greedily, continually, or habitually
complain:carp=drink:guzzle
Synonyms: DRINK, booze, imbibe, liquor (up), soak, swig, swill, swizzle, tank up,
tipple
Sample: He guzzled all the beer at the party before he left.
habitable [ ] adj.
capable of being lived in:suitable for habitation
potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling
Synonyms: LIVABLE, inhabitable, lodgeable, occupiable, tenantable
Sample: Their old cabin in the woods is habitable but not very comfortable.
hack [ ] n.
a writer who aims solely for commercial success
mercenary:soldier=hack:writer
Synonyms: drudge, grub, grubber, hireling, mercenary, slavey
hackneyed [ ] adj.
lacking in freshness or originality
windy:concise=hackneyed:original
231
equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed
equivocate:misleading=cliched:hackneyed
offbeat<>hackneyed
bromide<>unhackneyed
Synonyms: TRITE, bathetic, cliche, commonplace, hack, stale, timeworn, tired,
well-worn, worn-out
Sample: The English teacher criticized her story because of its hackneyed and
unoriginal plot.
halcyon [ ] adj.
CALM, PEACEFUL
halcyon<>tempestuous
halcyon<>stormy
Synonyms: CALM, hushed, placid, quiet, still, stilly, untroubled
Sample: In those halcyon days, people were not worried about sneak attacks and
bombings.
hale [ ] adj.
free from defect, disease, or infirmity:SOUND; also:retaining exceptional health and
vigor
effete<>hale
hale<>infirm labyrinth
blighted<>hale
anemic<>strong/hale
wan<>hale
Synonyms: HEALTHY, fit, right, sane, sound, well, well-conditioned, well-liking,
wholesome
Sample: After a brief illness, he was soon hale.
half-baked [ ] adj.
a:lacking adequate planning or forethought b:lacking in judgment, intelligence, or
common sense
half-baked<>well thought of
Sample: She has these half-baked ideas on how to make money.
hallow [ ] vt.
to make holy or set apart for holy use
hallowed<>desecrate
Synonyms: BLESS, consecrate, sanctify
Sample: She was laid to rest in hallowed ground.
hallucination [ ] n.
perception of objects with no reality usually arising from disorder of the nervous system
or in response to drugs (as LSD)
232
delusion:??=hallucination:perception {mirage:imagination}
Synonyms: DELUSION, ignis fatuus, illusion, mirage, phantasm
Sample: I think you were frightened by a hallucination that you created in you own
mind.
halting [ ] adj.
marked by a lack of sureness or effectiveness
fluent<>halting
Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, inept, lumbering, maladroit,
unhandy, unhappy, wooden
Sample: Novice extemporaneous speakers often talk in a halting fashion as they grope
for the right words.
ham-handed [ ] adj.
lacking dexterity or grace:HEAVY-HANDED
ham-handed<>deft/adroit
Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, halting, heavy-handed, inept,
maladroit, unhandy, wooden
hamper [ ] vt.
to restrict the movement of by bonds or obstacles:IMPEDE
seminal<>hampering further development
hamper<>facilitate
Synonyms: clog, curb, entrammel, fetter, hobble, hog-tie, leash, shackle, tie, tie up,
trammel
Sample: The minority party agreed not to hamper the efforts of the leaders to secure a
lasting peace.
hamstring [ ] vt.
to make ineffective or powerless:CRIPPLE
hamstring:effectiveness=??
Sample: The student president tried to hamstring the school senate because she didn't
agree with its decision.
handle [ ] vt.
to act, behave, or feel in a certain way when handled or directed
cumbersome<>easy to handle
Synonyms: dispense, maneuver, manipulate, ply, swing, wield
Sample: The personnel department handles the procurement of new employees.
hangdog [ ] adj.
SAD, DEJECTED
hangdog<>buoyant
hangdog<>elated
233
hangdog<>sprightly
hankering [ ] n.
to have a strong or persistent desire:YEARN
hankering<>odium
hankering<>lack of desire
Sample: Europeans in America often hanker for a good cup of coffee.
haphazard [ ] n.,adj.&adv.
marked by lack of plan, order, or direction
methodical<>haphazard
systematic<>haphazard
Synonyms: RANDOM, aimless, designless, desultory, hit-or-miss, indiscriminate,
irregular, unaimed, unconsidered, unplanned
Sample: His haphazard reading left him unaquainted with the authors of the books.
hapless [ ] adj.
having no luck:UNFORTUNATE
hapless<>fortunate
Synonyms: UNLUCKY, ill-fated, ill-starred, luckless, misfortunate, star-crossed,
unfortunate, unhappy, untoward
Sample: No work illustrated his disdain for a systematic approach to research better
than his dissertation, which was rejected primarily because his bibliography constituted,
at best, a haphazard survey of the major texts in his field.
harangue [ ] n.
to address in a ranting way
harangue<>speak temperately
Synonyms: ORATE, bloviate, declaim, mouth, perorate, rant, rave, soapbox
Sample: In her lengthy harangue, the principal berated the offenders.
harass [ ] v
to annoy persistently
haunt:familiar=harass:irritating
Synonyms: RAID, foray, harry, maraud
harbinger [ ] n.
one that presages or foreshadows what is to come
harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify
Synonyms: ANNOUNCE , forerun, foreshow, herald, preindicate, presage
Sample: Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its first stressful experiences are
part of a natural process of development, not harbingers of childhood unhappiness or
prophetic signs of adolescent anxiety.
234
harbor [ ] n.
to give shelter or refuge to
harbor<>evict
Synonyms: chamber, haven, house, roof, shelter, shield
Sample: The church harbored illegal aliens who were political refugees.
hard-bitten [ ] adj.
seasoned or steeled by difficult experience:TOUGH
hard-bitten<>tender
Sample: She is a hard-bitten fighter against crime.
hardheaded [ ] adj.
STUBBORN, WILLFUL
Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, intractable, mulish, pertinacious,
perverse, pigheaded, self-willed, stubborn
Sample: The boss is hardheaded about office policies; she will not change the rules for
anyone.
harebrained [ ] adj.
FOOLISH
Synonyms: GIDDY, dizzy, empty-headed, featherbrained, flighty, frivolous,
rattlebrained, scatterbrained, silly, skittish
Sample: He has these harebrained ideas for getting rich that always fail.
harmonious [ ] adj.
marked by accord in sentiment or action
acrimonious<>harmonious
harmony<>discord
Synonyms: blending, chiming, consonant, harmonic, musical, symphonic,
symphonious
Sample: Edith Wharton sought in her memoir to present herself as having achieved a
harmonious wholeness by having reconciled the conflicting elements of her life.
harness [ ] vt.
UTILIZE
harness<>failed to utilize
harness<>not able to utilize
Sample: When we built a dam across the river, we harnessed the river's power to
produce electricity.
harp [ ] n.
a plucked stringed instrument consisting of a resonator, an arched or angled neck that
may be supported by a post, and strings of graded length that are perpendicular to the
soundboard
235
horn:blow=harp:pluck
Sample: She plays the harp in a symphony orchestra.
harry [ ] v.
to make a pillaging or destructive raid on:ASSAULT
harry<>comfort
harried<>untroubled
Synonyms: RAVAGE, depredate, desecrate, desolate, despoil, devastate, havoc, pillage,
sack, spoliate
Sample: The guerrilla band harried the enemy nightly.
harsh [ ] adj.
a:causing a disagreeable or painful sensory reaction:IRRITATING b:physically
discomforting:PAINFUL
barb:caustic=pan:harsh
encomium<>harsh criticism
mollycoddle<>treat harshly
paean<>harshly lampoon
harshen<>soften
Synonyms: ROUGH, asperous, craggy, jagged, rugged, scabrous, scraggy, uneven,
unlevel, unsmooth
Sample: We asked the gardening expert to recommend particularly hardy plants that
could withstand our harsh New England winters.
hasten [ ] vt.
to move or act quickly
hasten<>slow the progress of
hasten<>check
hasten<>retard
check<>hasten
Synonyms: SPEED, accelerate, hurry, quicken, shake up, step up, swiften
Sample: His mother said she is ill, so he hastened to her house to help.
hasty [ ] adj.
done or made in a hurry
hasty<>characterized by deliberation
hasty<>well considered
hasty<>deliberate
Synonyms: FAST, breakneck, expeditious, expeditive, fleet, harefooted, quick, rapid,
speedy, swift
Sample: Donald had planned to kill his wife for months; clearly, her death was a case
of deliberate, willful murder, not a crime of passion committed by a hasty, willful youth
unable to foresee the consequences of his deeds.
236
haunt [ ] vt.
to visit often:FREQUENT
haunt:familiar=harass:irritating
persecute:injure=haunt:remember
haunt<>shun
Synonyms: FREQUENT, affect, hang around, hang out, resort
hauteur [ ] n
ARROGANCE, HAUGHTINESS
fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger
hauteur<>humility
hauteur<>humbleness
Synonyms: PRIDE, arrogance, disdain, disdainfulness, haughtiness, loftiness, morgue,
superbity, superciliousness
havoc [ ] n.
great confusion and disorder
havoc<>serenity
Synonyms: RUIN, confusion, destruction, devastation, loss, ruination
heart [ ] vt.
to give heart to:CHEER:HEARTEN
mollify:anger=heart:dejection
dismay<>hearted
headlong [ ] adj.
Impetuous; rash.
headlong<>deliberate
Synonyms: PRECIPITATE, abrupt, hasty, hurried, impetuous, precipitant, precipitous,
rushing, subitaneous, sudden
Sample: The slave seized the unexpected chance to make a headlong dash across the
border to freedom.
hearken [ ] vi.
to give respectful attention
hearken<>ignore
Synonyms: LISTEN, attend, hark, hear, heed
heartrending [ ] adj.
causing intense sorrow or distress
earsplitting:loud=heartrending:sad
heartrending:sad=deafening:loud
Synonyms: DEPLORABLE, afflictive, calamitous, dire, distressing, grievous,
heartbreaking, lamentable, regrettable, unfortunate
Sample: The death of their child is a heart-rending tragedy.
237
hedge [ ] nvt.
a means of protection or defense (as against financial loss)
hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident
Synonyms: EQUIVOCATE, dodge, evade, pussyfoot, shuffle, sidestep, tergiversate,
tergiverse, weasel
Sample: Buying real estate is a hedge against bad times.
hedonic [ ] adj. n.
of, relating to, or characterized by pleasure
hedonist<>ascetic
Sample: Hedonism is a way of life for many people.
heinous [ ] adj
hatefully or shockingly evil:ABOMINABLE
heinous<>commendable
Synonyms: OUTRAGEOUS, atrocious, crying, desperate, monstrous, scandalous,
shocking
Sample: Hitler's heinous crimes will never be forgotten.
heirloom [ ] n.
something of special value handed on from one generation to another
heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator
Sample: She treasured the brooch because it was an heirloom.
helmet [ ] n.
any of various protective head coverings usually made of a hard material to resist
impact
amulet:evil=helmet:injury
Sample: Bicyclists wear helmets to protect their heads.

List 14 hem --- inane
hem [ ] n.
a border of a cloth article doubled back and stitched down
hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet
Sample: The hem on her skirt needs sewing.
herald [ ] vt.
to give notice of:ANNOUNCE
unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement
unherald<>proclaim
Synonyms: ANNOUNCE, forerun, foreshow, harbinger, preindicate, presage
Sample: For many years an unheralded researcher, Barbara McClintock gained
238
international renown when she won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.
herbicide [ ] n.
an agent used to destroy or inhibit plant growth
insect:pesticide=plant:herbicide
Sample: Though environmentalists have targeted some herbicides as potentially
dangerous, the manufacturers, to the environmentalists' dismay, defend the use of these
herbicides on lawns.
hereditary [ ] adj.
characteristic of or fostered by one's predecessors
Sample: Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited diseases, acting
most strongly against the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary diseases that
are lethal would be expected to be very rare, but, surprisingly, they are not.
heresy [ ] n.
an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma
apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy
dogma<>heresy
Synonyms: dissent, dissidence, heterodoxy, misbelief, nonconformism, nonconformity,
schism, unorthodoxy
Sample: The Salem witch trials were a misguided attempt to extirpate superstition and
heresy.
heretical [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or
standards:UNORTHODOX
doctrine:heretical=course:errant
heretic:unconformity=apologist:defend
heretic:unconformity=generous:liberality { authority:superiority }
Synonyms: dissident, heterodox, nonconformist, schismatic, sectarian, unorthodox
Sample: She was punished by the Spanish Inquisition because she was a heretic.
hermit [ ] n.
one that retires from society and lives in solitude especially for religious
reasons:RECLUSE
vegetarian:meat=hermit:society
hermitage:secluded=landmark:conspicuous
Synonyms: RECLUSE, solitary
Sample: We thought the hermit was a miantrope because he shunned our society.
herpetologist [ ] n.
one that a branch of zoology dealing with reptiles and amphibians
salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist
hesitance [ ] n.
the quality or state of being hesitant:as a:INDECISION b:RELUCTANCE
239
impetuous:hesitate=irrepressible:servile
parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance
hesitation:reluctance=hubris:pride
alacrity<>dilatoriness/hesitance
impetuosity<>hesitance/vacillation
Sample: She hesitated to intrude on their conversation.
heterodox [ ] adj.
Not in agreement with accepted beliefs, especially in church doctrine or dogma
heterodox:nonconformity=authority:superiority
doctrine:heterodoxy=spontaneous:studied {adaptability:stable}
Sample: To those who upheld the belief that the earth did not move, Galileo's theory
that the earth circled the sun was disturbingly heterodox.
hidebound [ ] adj.
having an inflexible or ultraconservative character
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/
conservative:change/innovation/novelty
hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed
hidebound:conservative=manic:interested/excited {peeved:annoyed }
Synonyms: ILLIBERAL, bigoted, brassbound, intolerant, narrow, narrow-minded,
small-minded, unenlarged
hideous [ ] adj.
offensive to the senses and especially to sight:exceedingly ugly
pulchritudinous<>hideous
affinity<>aversion/hideousness
Synonyms: UGLY, ill-favored, ill-looking, unbeautiful, uncomely, unsightly
Sample: The horror film was about a hideous monster.
hie [ ] v.
to go quickly:HASTEN
hie<>dawdle
Synonyms: GO, fare, journey, pass, proceed, push on, repair, travel, wend
hierarchy [ ] n.
the classification of a group of people according to ability or to economic, social, or
professional standing
echelon:hierarchy=??
Sample: Their hierarchy of loyalties is first to oneself, next to kin, then to fellow tribe
members, and finally to compatriots.
hieroglyph [ ] n.
a character used in a system of hieroglyphic writing
decipher:hieroglyph=separate:component
Sample: Whereas the art critic Vasari saw the painting entitled the Mona Lisa as an
240
original and wonderful technical feat, the reproduction of a natural object, the aesthetes
saw it as a hieroglyph that required deciphering.
hike [ ] v.
to rise up; especially:to work upward out of place
backset<>hike
Sample: No matter how often he hiked through the mountains, David never failed to
be struck by the grandeur of the Sierra Nevada range.
hilarity [ ] n.
high spirits that may be carried to the point of boisterous conviviality or merriment
hilarious:laughter=contemptible:distain
Synonyms: MIRTH, glee, jocularity, jocundity, jollity, joviality, merriment
Sample: The hilarity is improper on this solemn day of mourning.
hint [ ] n.
a slight indication of the existence, approach, or nature of something:CLUE
nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion
Sample: The architects of New York's early skyscrapers, hinting here at a
twelfth-century cathedral, there at a fifteenth-century palace, sought to legitimize the
city's social strivings by evoking a history the city did not truly possess.
histrionic [ ] adj.
of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater
pedantic:scholar=histrionic:actor
Synonyms: DRAMATIC, dramaturgic, theatral, theatric, theatrical, thespian
Sample: He was proud of his histrionic ability and wanted to paly the role of Hamlet.
hive [ ] n.
a place swarming with activity
tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive
Sample: The stock exchange is a hive of activity.
hoard [ ] n./v.
to keep (as one's thoughts) to oneself
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opine
hoard:miser=shirk:malinger
lavish<>hoard
Synonyms: squirrel, stash
Sample: Plants store a hoard of water in their leaves, stems, or understock to provide
themselves with a form of insurance that will carry them through the inevitable drought
they must suffer in the wild.
hoary [ ] adj.
extremely old:ANCIENT
hoary:old=??
241
Synonyms: ANCIENT, aged, age-old, antediluvian, antique, Noachian, old, timeworn,
venerable
hoax [ ] n.
an act intended to deceive or trick
filibuster:delay=hoax:deceive
hoax:fraudulent=paragon:excellent
Synonyms: IMPOSTURE, fake, flimflam, fraud, gyp, humbug, phony, put-on, sell,
spoof
Sample: Embarrassed by the hoax, he reddened and left the room.
hodgepodge [ ] n.
a heterogeneous mixture:JUMBLE
hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:originality
items:hodgepodge=people:rabble
hodgepodge:??=interpreter:translate/illuminati(illuminator):instruct
Synonyms: MISCELLANY, gallimaufry, hash, hotchpotch, jumble, medley, mishmash,
patchwork, potpourri
Sample: His ideas are a hodgepodge of unproved theories.
homage [ ] n.
expression of high regard:RESPECT
counsel:advice=laud:homage
homage<>disrespect
Synonyms: honor, reverence, deference
Sample: In her speech she tried to pay homage to a great man.
homely [ ] adj.
Not attractive or good-looking
pulchritude<>homeliness
Sample: I would rather have a poor and comely wife than a rich and homely one.
homily [ ] n.
a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme
parable:story=homily:lecture
Sample: His speeches were always homilies, advising his listeners to repent and
reform.
homogenize [ ] v.
to blend (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture
stratify<>homogenize
Sample: Many educators try to put pupils of similar abilities in the same class because
they believe that his homogeneous grouping is advisable.
hone [ ] v. n.
242
to make more acute, intense, or effective:WHET
hone<>blunt
Sample: To make shaving easier, he honed his razor with great care.
honorarium [ ] n
a payment for a service (as making a speech) on which custom or propriety forbids a
amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful
Sample: The company paid the teacher an honorarium for the speech she gave to its
workers.
horn [ ] n.
a wind instrument used in a jazz band; especially:TRUMPET
horn:blow=harp:pluck
Sample: The habitat of the horned viper, a particularly venomous snake, is in sandy
regions like the Sahara or the Sinai peninsula.
hortative [ ] adj.
giving exhortation:ADVISORY
didactic:teach=hortatory:urge
hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve
Sample: The peroration was largely hortatory and brought the audience to its feet
clamoring for action at its close.
horticulture [ ] n.
the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants
tree:forestry=flower:horticulture
Sample: The city's botanical garden is a center of horticulture.
hovel [ ] n.
a small, wretched, and often dirty house:HUT
palatial:hovel=bucolic:city
Sample: He wondered how poor people could stand living in such a hovel.
hub [ ] n.
the central part of a circular object (as a wheel or propeller)
spoke:hub=radius:center
Sample: The spokes of the wheel diverge from the hub.
hubris [ ] n.
exaggerated pride or self-confidencehubristic
parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride
hesitation:reluctance=hubris:pride
Sample: Filled with hubris, Lear refused to heed his friends' warnings.
humanitarian [ ] n.
a person promoting human welfare and social reform:PHILANTHROPIST
Sample: It is difficult for humanity with its finite existence to grasp the infinite.
243
humble [ ] adj.
ranking low in a hierarchy or scale:INSIGNIFICANT, UNPRETENTIOUS
dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness
impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness
supercilious<>humble
bumptious<>humble
hauteur<>humility
panache<>humility
Synonyms: IGNOBLE, base, baseborn, low, lowborn, lowly, mean, plebeian,
unennobled, unwashed
Sample: Constantly fawning on his employer, humble Uriah Heap was a servile
creature.
humor [ ] v.
to soothe or content by indulgence
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle
Synonyms: BABY, cater (to), cocker, coddle, cosset, cotton, indulge, mollycoddle,
pamper, spoil
Sample: The humor of cartoonists Gary Trudeau often is satirical; though the
comments of the Doonesbury characters, Trudeau ridicules political corruption and
folly.
hurdle [ ] n.
to leap over especially while running (as in a sporting competition)
Synonyms: CLEAR, leap, negotiate, over, overleap, surmount, vault
hurricane [ ] n.
a tropical cyclone with winds of 74 miles (118 kilometers) per hour or greater that
occurs especially in the western Atlantic, that is usually accompanied by rain, thunder,
and lightning, and that sometimes moves into temperate latitudes
fire:inferno=storm:hurricane
rain:deluge=wind:hurricane
snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone
Sample: Titanic waves beat aginst the shore during the hurricane.
husbandry [ ] n.
the control or judicious use of resources:CONSERVATION
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
husband<>squander
husbandry<>prodigality
husbandry<>waste
Synonyms: ECONOMY, forehandedness, frugality, providence, prudence, thrift,
thriftiness
Sample: He accumulated his small fortune by diligence and husbandry.
244
husk [ ] n
a usually dry or membranous outer covering (as a pod or hull or one composed of bracts)
of various seeds and fruits; also:one of the constituent parts
corn:husk=??
seed:husk=orange:rind
Sample: You shuck the corn's husks before cooking it.
husky [ ] adj.
hoarse with or as if with emotion
husky<>delicate
Synonyms: HOARSE, croaking, croaky, gruff
Sample: He is a husky boy.
hybrid [ ] adj.
something heterogeneous in origin or composition:COMPOSITE
hybrid<>of unmixed extraction
Synonyms: bastard, cross, crossbred, crossbreed, half blood, half-breed, mongrel,
mule
Sample: The attempt to breed suitable varieties of jojoba by using hybridization to
reinforce favorable traits was finally abandoned in favor of a simpler and much faster
method:the domestication of flourishing wild strains.
hymn [ ] n.
a song of praise or joy
hymn:praise=elegy:sorrow
Synonyms: SONG, aria, descant, ditty, lay, lied
hypnotic [ ] adj.
tending to produce sleep:SOPORIFIC
hypnotic<>conscious
hypnotic<>stimulant
Synonyms: SOPORIFIC, narcotic, opiate, sleepy, somnifacient, somniferous, somnific,
somnolent, somnorific, soporiferous
Sample: The mother's voice had a hypnotic effect on her baby.
hyperbole [ ] n.
extravagant exaggeration
anger:tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole
malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole
Synonyms: EXAGGERATION, coloring, embellishment, embroidering, overstatement
Sample: Rhetoric often seems to triumph over reason in a heated debate, with both
sides engaging in hyperbole.
hypercritical [ ] a
245
meticulously or excessively critical
Synonyms: critical, faultfinding, captious, carping, censorious
Sample: You are hypercritical in your demands for perfection; we all make mistakes.
hypocritical [ ] adj.
characterized by hypocrisy; also:being a hypocrite
authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical
hypocritical<>ingenuous/honest
Synonyms: canting, pecksniffian, pharisaic, pharisaical, sanctimonious, self-righteous
Sample:I resent his hypocritical posing as a friend for I know he is interested only in his
own advancement.
ichthyologist [ ] n.
one that study a branch of zoology that deals with fishes
salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist
Sample: Jacques Cousteau's rpograms about sea life have advanced the cause of
ichthyology.
idiosyncratic [ ] adj.
a peculiarity of constitution or temperament:an individualizingcharacteristic or quality
Sample: One of his personal idiosyncrasies was his habit of rinsing all cutlery given
him in a restaurant.
idolatrize [ ] v.
admires intensely and often blindly
reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe
esteem:idolatrize=favor:bribe
Sample: James had idolized the professor so much for so long that even after lunching
with her several times he remained quite inhibited in her presence, and as a result, he
could not really be himself.
ignite [ ] v.
to set afire; also:KINDLE
ignite<>extinguish
Synonyms: LIGHT, enkindle, fire, inflame, kindle
Sample: When Desi crooned, "Baby, light my fire," literal-minded Lucy looked
around for some paper to ignite.
ignominy [ ] n.
deep personal humiliation and disgrace
ignominious<>lofty
ignominy<>glory, honor; esteem, respect
Synonyms: DISGRACE, discredit, disesteem, dishonor, disrepute, infamy, obloquy,
odium, opprobrium, shame
Sample: The country smarted under the ignominious defeat and dreamed of the day
246
when it would be victorious.
ignorant [ ] adj.
destitute of knowledge or education also lacking knowledge or comprehension of
the thing specified
Synonyms: benighted, empty-headed, illiterate, know-nothing, rude, uneducated,
uninstructed, unlettered, unschooled, untaught, untutored
Sample: I am totally ignorant of what happened at home while I was on vacation.
ignore [ ] v.
to reject (a bill of indictment) as ungrounded
scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore
subtle:ignore=salient:observe
erudite<>smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered
Synonyms: NEGLECT, blink (at or away), discount, disregard, fail, forget, omit,
overlook, overpass, slight
Sample: She would have liked to ignore the minutiae of daily living.
illiteracy [ ] n.
the quality or state of being illiterate; especially:inability to read or write
illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution
erudition<>illiteracy
illuminati [ ] n.
persons who are or who claim to be unusually enlightened
interpreter:translate=illuminati:instruct
hodgepodge:??=interpreter:translate/illuminati(illuminator):instruct
illumination [ ] n.
one of the decorative features used in the art of illuminating or in decorative lighting
frieze:building=illumination:manuscript
stylus:mark=lamp:illumination
squall:commotion=flash:illumination
therapeutic:hospital=illuminating:school
apron:protected=lamp:illuminate
obfuscate<>elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly
Sample: Historians such as Le Roy Ladurie have used the documents to extract case
histories which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups (these
attitudes includebut are not confined toattitudes toward crime and the law)and
have revealed how the authorities administered justice.
illusory [ ] adj.
based on or producing illusion:DECEPTIVE
maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory
nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy
illusion:perception=gaffe:judgment
Synonyms: FICTITIOUS, chimerical, fanciful, fantastic, fictional, fictive, imaginary,
247
suppositious, supposititious, unreal
Sample: The trick for Michael was to conjure for his son an illusory orderliness; only
alone at night, when the boy was asleep, could Michael acknowledge the chaos he kept
hidden from his son.
illustrate [ ] v.
to provide with visual features intended to explain or decorate
illustrate:pictures=particularize:details
Synonyms: CLARIFY, clear, clear up, elucidate, explain, illuminate
Sample: Numerous historical examples illustrate both the overriding influence that
scientists' prejudices have on their interpretation of data and the consequent impairment
of their intellectual objectivity.
imbibe [ ] v.
to absorb or take in as if by drinking
thirsty:imbibe=exhausted:rest
Sample: The dry soil imbibed the rain quickly.
imbroglio [ ] n.
a violently confused or bitterly complicated altercation:EMBROILMENT
Synonyms: QUARREL, altercation, bickering, dispute, embroilment, falling-out, miff,
row, spat, squabble
Sample: He was called in to settle the imbroglio but failed to bring harmony into the
situation.
imitation [ ] n.
the quality of an object in possessing some of the nature or attributes of a transcendent
idea
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame
paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard
exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference
Synonyms: ARTIFICIAL, dummy, ersatz, false, mock, sham, simulated, spurious,
substitute
Sample: Certain weeds that flourish among rice crops resist detection until maturity by
imitating the seedling stage in the rice plant's life cycle, thereby remaining
indistinguishable from the rice crop until the flowering stage.
immaculate [ ] adj.
having no stain or blemish:PURE
squalor<>immaculate
Synonyms: CHASTE, clean, decent, modest, pure, spotless, stainless, unblemished,
undefiled, unsullied
Sample: The West Point cadets were immaculate as they lined up for inspection.
248
immanent [ ] adj.
remaining or operating within a domain of reality or realm of discourse:INHERENT;
specifically:having existence or effect only within the mind or consciousness
immanent<>explicit
immanent<>extrinsic
immaterial [ ] adj.
of no substantial consequence:UNIMPORTANT
immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center
immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness
relevant<>immaterial
Synonyms: asomatous, bodiless, disbodied, discarnate, disembodied, incorporeal,
insubstantial, metaphysical, nonmaterial, nonphysical, spiritual, unbodied, unembodied,
unfleshly, unmaterial, unphysical, unsubstantial
Sample: That information is immaterial to solving the problem.
immemorial [ ] adj.
extending or existing since beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition
immemorial<>recent
Sample: Customs practiced by tribes have been handed down from time immemorial.
imminent [ ] adj.
ready to take place; especially:hanging threateningly over one's head
Synonyms: impending, proximate
Sample: Robins words were not without emotion:they retained their level tone only
by a careful equipoise between imminent extremes.
immune [ ] adj.
not susceptible or responsive; especially:having a high degree of resistance to a
disease
fertilize:grow=immunize:resist
overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune
soporific:sleep=vaccinating:immunity
vaccination:immune=overexposure:jaded
Sample: No computer system is immune to a virus, a particularly malicious program
that is designed to infect and electronically damage the disks on which data are stored.
immure [ ] v.
to enclose within or as if within walls b:IMPRISON
immure<>release
immure<>liberate
Synonyms: IMPRISON, bastille, confine, constrain, incarcerate, intern, jail, jug
Sample: For the two weeks before the examination, the student immureed himself in
his room and concentrated upon his studies.
immutable [ ] adj.
249
not capable of or susceptible to change
immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated
transitory:endure=immutable:change
immutable<>variable
Sample: Scientists are constantly seeking to discover the immutable laws of nature.
imp [ ] n.
a mischievous child:URCHIN
insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp
Synonyms: URCHIN, gamin, monkey
Sample: That girl is an imp, always up to mischief.
impair [ ] v.
to damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing in some material respect
Synonyms: injure, harm, hurt, damage, mar
Sample: Exposure to sustained noise has been claimed to impair blood pressure
regulation in human beings and, particularly, to increase hypertension, even though
some researchers have obtained inconclusive results that obscure the relationship.
impassive [ ] adj.
unsusceptible to or destitute of emotion
impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy
callous:impassive=dupe:duplicity
perfervid<>impassive
impassive<>emotional
impassive<>excitable
Synonyms: apathetic, dry, matter-of-fact, phlegmatic, stoic, stolid
Sample: Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's
personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code
with impassivity.
impeccable [ ] a
a: not capable of sinning or liable to sin b : free from fault or blame : FLAWLESS
blemish:impeccable=guile:artless
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse {impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir}
restive:calmness=impeccable:flaw
impeccable<>faulty
Synonyms: errorless, exquisite, faultless, flawless, immaculate, irreproachable
Sample: He was proud of his impeccable manners.
impecunious [ ] adj.
having very little or no money usually habitually:PENNILESS
250
foolish:discretion=impecunious:money
pelf:impecunious=experience:green
impecunious<>wealthy/prosperous/affluent
impecunious<>lavish/prosperous
Synonyms: POOR, destitute, dirt poor, impoverished, indigent, necessitous, needy,
penurious, poverty-stricken, unprosperous
Sample: Now that he was wealthy, he gladly contributed to funds to assist
impecunious and disbled persons.
impede [ ] v.
to interfere with or slow the progress of
blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede
abet<>thwart/impede
facilitate<>impeding
impede<>promote/foment
cultivate<>impede { decline }
nurture<>impede
encumber<>remove impediment
Synonyms: HINDER, bar, block, brake, dam, obstruct, overslaugh
Sample: Although nothing could be further from the truth, freight railroads have been
accused of impeding the nation's shift from oil to coal by charging exorbitant fees to
transport coal.
impend [ ] vi.
to be about to occur
remote<>impending <>
Synonyms: IMMINENT, proximate
Sample: Job failure means being fired from a job, being asked to resign, or leaving
voluntarily to protect yourself because you had very strong evidence that one of the first
two was impending.
impenetrable [ ] adj.
incapable of being penetrated or pierced or incapable of being
comprehended:INSCRUTABLE
pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable
juggernaut:unstoppable=enigma:impenetrable
impenetrable:subdue=??
porous<>impenetrable
Synonyms: IMPASSABLE, impermeable, imperviable, impervious, unpierceable
Sample: How could the murderer have gotten into the locked room? To Watson, the
mystery, like the room, was impenetrable.
impenitent [ ] adj.
251
not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses
rueful<>impenitent
Synonyms: REMORSELESS, regretless, uncontrite, unregretful, unremorseful,
unrepentant, unsorry
Sample: We could see by his brazen attitude that he was impenitent.
imperative [ ] adj.
expressive of a command, entreaty, or exhortation
question:interrogative=order:imperative
Synonyms: MASTERFUL, bossy, domineering, high-handed, imperial, imperious,
magisterial, overbearing, peremptory
Sample: Although strong legal remedies for nonpayment of child support are available,
the delay and expense associated with these remedies make it imperative to develop
other options.
imperial [ ] adj.
of, relating to, befitting, or suggestive of an empire or an emperor of superior or
unusual size or excellence
imperial:significance=grotesque:fantasy
imperial<>obedient
Sample: When hotel owner Leona Helmsley appeared in ads as Queen Leona standing
guard over the Palace Hotel, her critics mocked her imperial fancies.
imperious [ ] adj.
marked by arrogant assurance:DOMINEERING
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness
imperious:fawn:swagger:self depreciate
imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable
fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketch
imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger
imperious:grovel=??
elf:imperious=??
imperious<>humble
imperious<>servile/obeisant
deferential<>imperious
Synonyms: masterful, domineering, peremptory, imperative
Sample: His imperiousness indicated that he had long been accustomed to assuming
command.
impertinent [ ] adj.
given to or characterized by insolent rudeness
impertinent:propriety=keen:obtuseness
perturb:serenity=impertinent:propriety
impertinence<>respect/relevence
252
obeisant<>impertinent
Synonyms: officious, meddlesome, intrusive, obtrusive
Sample: I regard your remarks as impertinent and I resent them.
imperturbable [ ] adj.
marked by extreme calm, impassivity, and steadiness:SERENE
restive<>calm/imperturbable
ticklish<>imperturbable
testiness<>imperturbability
imperturbability<>volatility
Synonyms: cool, composed, collected, unruffled, nonchalant
Sample: Wellington remained imperturbable and in full command of the situation in
spite of the hyteria and panic all around him.
impervious [ ] adj.
not allowing entrance or passage:IMPENETRABLE also not capable of being
damaged or harmed
impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible
impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid
impervious:damaged=indefensible:excused
impervious:?=precarious:stable
translucent<>impervious of light
Synonyms: IMPASSABLE, impenetrable, impermeable, imperviable, unpierceable
Sample: You cannot change their habits for their minds are impervious to reasoning.
impetuous [ ] adj.
marked by impulsive vehemence or passion
impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness
impetuous:hesitate=irrepressible:servile
parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance
restive:calmness=impetuous:patience
impetuosity<>hesitance/vacillation
impetuous<>deliberate
Synonyms: PRECIPITATE, abrupt, hasty, headlong, hurried, precipitant, precipitous,
rushing, subitaneous, sudden
Sample: We tried to curb his impetuous behavior because we felt that in his haste he
might offend some people.
impiety [ ] n.
the quality or state of being impious:IRREVERENCE
impiety<>devoutness
Sample: We must regard your blasphemy as an act of impiety.
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implacable [ ] adj.
not placable:not capable of being appeased, significantly changed, or mitigated
immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated
implacable:compromise=honest:swindle
Synonyms: GRIM, ironfisted, merciless, mortal, relentless, ruthless, unappeasable,
unflinching, unrelenting, unyielding
Sample: Madame Defarge was the implacable enemy of the Evremonde family.
implement [ ] n.
CARRY OUT, ACCOMPLISH; especially:to give practical effect to and ensure of
actual fulfillment by concrete measures
Synonyms: instrument, tool, utensil
Sample: This new government is faced not only with managing its economy but also
with implementing new rural development programs to stem the flow of farm workers
to the city.
implicate [ ] v.
to involve as a consequence, corollary, or natural inference:IMPLY
Synonyms: INVOLVE, embroil, mire, tangle
Sample: Though feminist in its implications, Yvonne Rainer's 1974 film antedated the
filmmaker's active involvement in feminist politics.
implode [ ] v.
to collapse inward as if from external pressure; also:to become greatly reduced as if
from collapsing
collapse:implode=divide:sunder
Sample: The volcanic mountain seemed much smaller after it erupted and imploded.
imposing [ ] adj.
impressive in size, bearing, dignity, or grandeur
imposing<>modest
Synonyms: GRAND, august, baronial, grandiose, magnificent, majestic, noble,
princely, royal, stately
Sample: Imposing steep fines on employers for on-the-job injuries to workers could be
an effective incentive to creating a safer workplace, especially in the case of employers
with poor safety records.
impostor [ ] n.
one that assumes false identity or title for the purpose of deception
impostor:identity=usurper:authorization { barbarian:property }
Sample: The impostor had a false passport, but the customs department knew his real
name.
impotent [ ] a.
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not potent:lacking in power, strength, or vigor:HELPLESS
clout<>impotent
Synonyms: WEAK , boneless, emasculate, forceless, inadequate, ineffective,
ineffectual, invertebrate, slack-spined, spineless
Sample: Although he wished to break the nicotine habit, he found himself impotent in
resisisting the craving for a cigarette.
impromptu [ ] adj.
composed or uttered without previous preparation:EXTEMPORANEOUS
ad lib:impromptu=aside:divergent
Synonyms: EXTEMPORANEOUS, autoschediastic, extemporary, extempore,
improvised, offhand, spur-of-the-moment, unrehearsed, unstudied
Sample: Her listeners were amazed that such a thorough presentation could be made in
an impromptu speech.
improvident [ ] adj.
not provident:not foreseeing and providing for the future
Synonyms: thriftless, unthrift, unthrifty
Sample: He was constantly being warned to mend his improvident ways and begin to
"save for a rainy day."
improvised [ ] adj.
to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously
rite<>improvised act
Synonyms: EXTEMPORANEOUS, autoschediastic, extemporary, extempore,
impromptu, offhand, spur-of-the-moment, unrehearsed, unstudied
Sample: While scientists dismiss as fanciful the idea of sudden changes in a genetic
code (spontaneous mutation), it is possible that nature, like some master musician,
improvises on occasion, departing from the expected or predictable.
imprudent [ ] adj.
not prudent:lacking discretion
judicious<>imprudent
Sample: It is imprudent to exercise vigorously and become overheated when you
are unwell.
impudent [ ] adj.
marked by contemptuous or cocky boldness or disregard of others:INSOLENT
impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive
impudent<>deferential/respectful
impudent<>obeisant
impudent<>reverence/deference
Synonyms: UNWISE, ill-advised, ill-judged, impolitic, indiscreet, injudicious
255
Sample: I think your pert and impudent remarks call for an apology.
impugn [ ] v.
to assail by words or arguments:oppose or attack as false or lacking integrity
extol<>condemn/impugn/detract
impugn<>champion
impugn<>endorse
impugn<>vindicate
impugn<>uphold
Synonyms: DENY, contradict, contravene, cross, disaffirm, gainsay, negate, negative,
traverse
Sample: I cannot impugn your honesty without evidence.
impuissance [ ] n.
WEAKNESS, POWERLESSNESS
clout<>impuissance
Sample: The lame duck President was frustrated by his shift from enormous power to
relative impuissance.
impute [ ] adj.
to lay the responsibility or blame for often falsely or unjustly imputable:nettle
Synonyms: ASCRIBE, accredit, assign, attribute, charge, credit, lay, refer
Sample: If I wished to impute blame to the officers in charge of this program, I would
state my feelings definitely and immediately.
inadvertent [ ] adj.
not focusing the mind on a matter:INATTENTIVE
advertent<>inattentive
Synonyms: CARELESS, feckless, heedless, irreflective, thoughtless, uncaring,
unheeding, unrecking, unreflective, unthinking
Sample: Professional photographers generally regard inadvertent surrealism in a
photograph as a curse rather than a blessing; magazine photographers, in particular,
consider themselves fortunate to the extent that they can minimize its presence in their
photographs.
inalienable [ ] adj.
incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred
inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated
Sample: The Declaration of Independence mentions the inalienable rights that all of us
possess.
inane [ ] adj.
lacking significance, meaning, or point:SILLY
obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous {inane:clumsy}
inane<>expressive, meaningful, pregnant, significant, weighty
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inane<>substantiated
Synonyms: INSIPID, driveling, flat, innocuous, jejune, milk-and-water, namby-pamby,
sapless, vapid, wishy-washy
Sample: Such comments are inane because they do not help us solve our program.

List 15 inanimate --- intimate
inanimate [ ] adj.
not animated or lively:DULL
ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living
Synonyms: DEAD, asleep, cold, deceased, defunct, departed, exanimate, extinct, late,
lifeless
Sample: she was asked to identify the still and inanimate body.
inaugurate [ ] v.
to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies
inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king
inauguration:official=matriculation:student
cease<>inaugurate/commencement
Synonyms: begin, commence, start, initiate, usher in
Sample: The candidate promised that he would inaugurate a new nationwide health
care plan as soon as he was inaugurated as president.
incandescent [ ] adj.
strikingly bright, radiant, or clear
incandescent<>dull
Synonyms: BRIGHT, beaming, brilliant, effulgent, fulgent, lambent, lucent, luminous,
radiant, refulgent
Sample: If you leave on an incandescent light bulb, it quickly grows too hot to touch.
incarnate [ ] vt.
invested with bodily and especially human nature and form
incorporeal<>incarnate
Synonyms: EMBODY, exteriorize, externalize, manifest, materialize, objectify,
personalize, personify, personize, substantiate
Sample: Your attitude is so fiendish that you must be a devil incarnate.
incendiary [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or involving a deliberate burning of property
insurgent:rebel=incendiary:agitate
Synonyms: INFLAMMATORY
Sample: The fire spread in such an unusual manner that the fire department chiefs
257
were certain that it had been set by an incendiary.
incense [ ] v.
to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of
propitiate<>incense
Synonyms: ANGER, enrage, infuriate, ire, mad, madden, steam up, umbrage
Sample: The child's lies incensed his babysitter so much that she slapped him.
inception [ ] n
an act, process, or instance of beginning:COMMENCEMENT
inception:termination=matriculation:graduation
Synonyms: origin, source, root
Sample: She was involved with the project from its inception.
incessant [ ] adj.
continuing or following without interruption:UNCEASING
Synonyms: continual, continuous, constant, perpetual,perennial
Sample: The crickets kept up an incessant chirping that disturbed our attempts to fall
asleep.
inch [ ] v.
to move by small degrees:progress slowly
inch:move=drawl:speak
accrete:grow=inch:advance
accrete:growth=inch:advance
Sample: Fearing detection by the sentries on duty, the scout inched his way toward the
enemy camp with great stealth.
inchoate [ ] a
being only partly in existence or operation; especially:imperfectly formed or
formulated:FORMLESS
immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized
inchoate<>explicit
Synonyms: INCOHERENT, disconnected, discontinuous, disjointed, disordered,
incohesive, muddled, unconnected, uncontinuous, unorganized
Sample: Before the Creation, the world was an inchoate mass.
incinerate [ ] vi.
to cause to burn to ashes
singe:incinerate=erode:destruction
Sample: Huge bombs incinerated the enemy village.
incipient [ ] adj.
258
beginning to come into being or to become apparent
immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized
incipient:realized=tangible:indefinite { moribund:dead }
incipient<>full-blown/full realized
Synonyms: INITIAL, beginning, inceptive, initiative, initiatory, introductory, nascent
Sample: Within the next decade, sophisticated telescopes now orbiting the Earth will
determine whether the continents really are moving, forestalling the incipient rift among
geologists about the validity of the theory of continental drift.
incisive [ ] adj.
impressively direct and decisive (as in manner or presentation)
Synonyms: biting, clear-cut, crisp, cutting, ingoing, penetrating, trenchant
Sample: His incisive remarks made us see the fallacy in our plans.
incite [ ] v
to move to action:stir up:spur on:urge on
exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite
instigator:incite=bully:browbeat
incite<>pacify
incitant<>insensible
Synonyms: instigate, abet, foment
Sample: The demogogue incited the mob to take action into its own hands.
inclement [ ] a
lacking mildness:as severe in temper or action:UNMERCIFUL
inclemency:evade=??
draconian:inclemency=fret:vexation
inclement<>balmy
inclement<>mild
Synonyms: SEVERE, bitter, brutal, hard, harsh, intemperate, rigorous, rugged
Sample: I like to read a good book in inclement weather.
incogitant [ ] adj.
THOUGHTLESS, INCONSIDERATE
incogitant:thoughtful=restive:calm
incogitant:thoughtfulness=restive:calmness
Synonyms: RASH , brash, hasty, hotheaded, ill-advised, inconsiderate, mad-brained,
reckless, thoughtless, unadvised
incongruent [ ] adj.
not superposable so as to be coincident throughoutnot congruent
incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey
259
incongruent:conform=scatter:overlap
Synonyms: INCONSONANT , conflicting, disconsonant, discordant, discrepant,
dissonant, incompatible, incongruous, inconsistent, unmixable
Sample: There is something incongruous about the way the building of monasteries
proliferated in eighteenth-century Bavaria, while in the rest of the Western world
religious ardor was diminishing and church building was consequently declining.
inconsequential [ ] adj.
of no significance:UNIMPORTANT
apocalyptic:prophetic=inconsequential:illogical
crucial<>inconsequential
Synonyms: PETTY, inconsequent, inconsiderable, measly, paltry, picayune,
picayunish, small, trifling, trivial
Sample: While admitting that the risks incurred by use of the insecticide were not
inconsequential, the manufacturer's spokesperson argued that effective substitutes were
simply not available.
incontrovertible [ ] adj.
not open to question:INDISPUTABLE
incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{ravenous:satisfied} {intrepid:feared}
controvert<>substantiate
Synonyms: POSITIVE, certain, incontestable, indisputable, indubitable, uncontestable,
undeniable, undisputable, unequivocal, unquestionable
Sample: We must yield to the incontrovertible evidence that you have presented and
free your client.
incorrigible [ ] adj.
incapable of being corrected or amended UNALTERABLE, INVETERATE
incorrigible:amend=irradicable:remove
tractability<>incorrigibility
tractable<>incorrigible
Sample: Though Widow Douglass hoped to reform Huck, Miss Watson pronounced
him incorrigible and said he would come to no good end.
incriminate [ ] vt.
to charge with or show evidence or proof of involvement in a crime or fault
incrimination<>exoneration
exonerate<>incriminate
Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, inculpate, indict, tax
Sample: The witness's testimony against the racketeers incriminates some high public
officials as well.
inculcate [ ] vt.
to teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions
260
Synonyms: IMPLANT, infix, inseminate, instill
inculpate [ ] vt.
INCRIMINATE
exonerate<>inculpate
absolve<>inculpate
exculpate<>inculpate
Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, indict, tax
incursion [ ] n
a hostile entrance into a territory:RAID
incursion<>retreat
Synonyms: INVASION, foray, inroad, irruption, raid
Sample: The nightly incursions and hit-and-run raids of our neighbors across the
border tried the patience of the country to the point where we decided to retaliate in
force.
indefatigable [ ] adj.
incapable of being fatigued:UNTIRING
Synonyms: inexhaustible, tireless, unflagging, untiring, unweariable, unwearying,
weariless
Sample: He was indefatigable in his constant efforts to raise funds for the Red Cross.
indelible [ ] adj.
UNFORGETTABLE, MEMORABLE
indelible:forget=astounding:expect
indelibility<>erasability
Synonyms: ineffaceable, ineradicable, inerasable, inexpungible, inextirpable,
uneradicable, unerasable
Sample: Her intelligence makes an indelible impression on others.
indemnity [ ] n.
security against hurt, loss, or damage
mollification:soothe=indemnity:secure
Sample: The city will indemnify all home owners whose property is spoiled by this
project.
Synonyms: REPARATION, amends, compensation, indemnification, quittance,
recompense, redress, reprisal, restitution
indict [ ] vt.
to charge with a crime by the finding or presentment of a jury (as a grand jury) in due
form of law
indict:accused=??
261
Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, inculpate, tax
Sample: If the grand jury indicts the suspect, he will go to trial.
indifferent [ ] adj.
marked by a lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern for something:APATHETIC
embrace:affection=shrug:indifference
avid<>indifferent
fervor<>indifferent
zealot<>indifference
enraptured<>indifferent
Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, inculpate, tax
Sample: The philosopher claimed that a person who must consciously overcome his or
her own indifference before helping another is behaving more nobly than one whose
basic disposition allows such an act to be performed without deliberation.
indigenous [ ] adj
having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a
particular region or environment
exotic<>indigenous
indigenous<>nonnative
indigenous<>foreign
Synonyms: INNATE , congenital, connate, connatural, inborn, inherited, native,
natural, unacquired
Sample: Tobacco is one of the indigenous plants that the early explorers found in this
country.
indigent [ ] adj.
suffering from indigence:IMPOVERISHED
indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability
indigent<>affluent
Synonyms: POOR, destitute, dirt poor, impecunious, impoverished, necessitous, needy,
penniless, penurious, poverty-stricken
Sample: Neither the economists nor the political scientists have found a way to wipe
out the inequities of wealth and eliminate indigence from our society.
indispensability [ ] n.
absolutely necessary:ESSENTIAL
indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability
indispensable<>trivial
indoctrinate [ ] v
to instruct especially in fundamentals or rudiments:TEACH
stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate
262
Sample: The Marines indoctrinate new soldiers into the ways of military life.
indolent [ ] adj.
averse to activity, effort, or movement:habitually lazy
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{ impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir}
indolent:shirk=miserly:hoard
Synonyms: LAZY, drony, easygoing, faineant, slothful, slowgoing, work-shy
Sample: People should not be praised for their virtue if they lack the energy to be
wicked; in such cases, goodness is merely the effect of indolence.
inducement [ ] n
a motive or consideration that leads one to action or to additional or more effective
actions
inducement<>deterrent
Sample: After the quarrel, Tina said nothing could induce her to talk to Tony again.
indulgent [ ] adj.
indulging or characterized by indulgence; especially:LENIENT
abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate
glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self denial
indulge:adherent=slovenly:dapper
appetite:indulge=??
spartan<>sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious
draconian<>indulgent/mild
martinet<>indulgent person
indulgent<>ascetic
Synonyms: FORBEARING, charitable, clement, easy, lenient, merciful, tolerant
Sample: The indulgent parents spoil their children by giving in to their every whim.
indurate [ ] vt.
to make hard
indurate<>soften
Synonyms: HARDEN, cake, concrete, congeal, dry, set, solidify
ineffable [ ] adj.
incapable of being expressed in words:INDESCRIBABLE
ineffable:description=irradicable:obliterate
Synonyms: UNUTTERABLE, incommunicable, indefinable, indescribable,
inenarrable, inexpressible, undescribable, unexpressible, unspeakable, untellable
Sample: Such ineffable joy must be experienced; it cannot be described.
ineluctable [ ] adj
not to be avoided, changed, or resisted:INEVITABLE
263
impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid{untenable:defend}
serendipitous:effort=ineluctable:chance
Synonyms: INEVITABLE, certain, ineludible, inescapable, inevasible, necessary,
returnless, unavoidable, unescapable, unevadable
Sample: He felt that his fate was ineluctible and refused to make any attempt to
improve his lot.
inept [ ] adj.
generally incompetent:BUNGLING
finesse<>ineptitude
inept<>judicious
proficient<>inept
masterful<>inept
Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, halting, ham-handed, lumbering,
maladroit, unhandy, wooden
Sample: Inept as a carpenter, Ira was all thumbs.
inert [ ] adj.
deficient in active properties; especially:lacking a usual or anticipated chemical or
biological action
ephemeral:endure=inert:react {ineffectual:proceed}
persistence:vacillate=inertia:react
inertia<>activity
reactant<>inert material
inert<>active
inert<>dynamic
Synonyms: INACTIVE, asleep, idle, passive, quiet, sleepy
Sample: Our inertia in this matter may prove disastrous; we must move to aid our
allies immediately.
inevitable [ ] adj.
incapable of being avoided or evaded
ineluctable/inevitable:avoid=untenable:defend
Synonyms: certain, ineluctable, ineludible, inescapable, inevasible, necessary,
returnless, unavoidable, unescapable, unevadable
Sample: If the state governments latest budget problems were anomalous, it would
not be useful to employ them as illuminating examples in the effort to avoid the
inevitable effects of shortsighted fiscal planning in the future.
inexorable [ ] adj.
not to be persuaded or moved by entreaty:RELENTLESS
inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest
inexorable<>relenting
Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE , adamant, dogged, obdurate, relentless, rigid,
264
single-minded, unbending, uncompromising, unyielding
Sample: After listening to the pleas for clemency, the judge was inexorable and gave
the convicted man the maximum punishment allowed by law.
infamy [ ] n.
evil reputation brought about by something grossly criminal, shocking, or brutal
infamy<>good repute
Synonyms: DISGRACE, discredit, disesteem, dishonor, disrepute, ignominy, obloquy,
odium, opprobrium, shame
Sample: Jesse James was an infamous outlaw.
infatuate [ ] vt.
to cause to be foolish:deprive of sound judgment
sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation
odium<>infatuation
Synonyms: INFATUATED, besotted, dotty, enamored
Sample: He was infatuated with (or) by a model one week, an artist the next.
infer [ ] vt.
GUESS, SURMISE
tacit:infer=encoded:decode
Synonyms: collect, conclude, deduce, deduct, derive, dope out, draw, gather, judge,
make
Sample: We must be particularly cautious when we infer that a person is guilty on the
basis of circumstantial evidence.
inferno [ ] n
a place or a state that resembles or suggests hell
fire:inferno=storm:hurricane
Synonyms: HELL, abyss, blazes, Gehenna, hades, netherworld, perdition, pit, Sheol,
Tophet
Sample: They could think of no way to hinder his infernal scheme.
infiltrate [ ] v.
to pass (troops, for example) surreptitiously into enemy-held territory
infiltrate:enter=conspire:plan
stalk:follow=infiltrate:enter
Synonyms: INSINUATE, edge in, foist, work in, worm
Sample: In order to infiltrate enemy lines at night without being seen, the scouts
darkened their faces and wore black coveralls.
infinite [ ] adj.
265
immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive:INEXHAUSTIBLE
infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap
unique:precedent=infinite:end
Synonyms: eternal, illimitable, perdurable, sempiternal, supertemporal
Sample: In the nineteenth century, novelists and unsympathetic travelers portrayed the
American West as a land of unremitting adversity, whereas promoters and idealists
created a compelling image of a land of infinite promise.
infirm [ ] adj.
of poor or deteriorated vitality; especially:feeble from age
hale<>infirm
Synonyms: WEAK, decrepit, feeble, flimsy, fragile, frail, unsound, unsubstantial,
weakly
Sample: Her greatest infirmity was lack of willpower.
inflame [ ] v.
to excite to excessive or uncontrollable action or feeling
assuage<>inflame
subdue<>inflame
Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, burn (up), gall, get, grate, provoke, put out, rile,
roil
Sample: In response to the follies of today's commercial and political worlds, the
author does not express inflamed indignation, but rather affects the detachment and
smooth aphoristic prose of an eighteenth-century wit.
infelicitous [ ] adj.
not appropriate in application or expression
happy<>infelicitous
Synonyms: awkward, graceless, ill-chosen, inept, unfortunate, unhappy
influx [ ] n.
a coming in
exodus<>influx
Synonyms: inflow, influxion, inpour, inpouring, inrush
Sample: The influx of refugees into the country has taxed the relief agencies severely.
infuse [ ] vt.
INSPIRE, ANIMATE
inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove
infuse<>drain away/refuse/extract
Synonyms: imbue, ingrain, inoculate, invest, leaven, steep, suffuse
Sample: Unlike other creatures, who are shaped largely by their immediate
266
environment, human beings are products of a culture accumulated over centuries, yet
one that is constantly being transformed by massive infusions of new information from
everywhere.
infuriate [ ] vt.
To make furious; enrage
infuriate:rage=commend:esteem {scrounge:possession}
infuriate:rage=nonplus:perplexity
Synonyms: ANGER, enrage, incense, ire, mad, madden, steam up, umbrage
Sample: Nothing infuriated Tom more than Aunt Polly's ability to divine when he was
not telling the truth.
ingenious [ ] adj.
marked by originality, resourcefulness, and cleverness in conception or execution
ingenious<>prosaic { spontaneous}
Synonyms: CLEVER, adroit, canny, cunning, dexterous, slim, sly
Sample: Although Simpson was ingenious at contriving to appear innovative and
spontaneous, beneath the ruse he remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to
problem-solving.
ingenuous [ ] adj
showing innocent or childlike simplicity and candidness
impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub
ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive
pernicious:injure=disingenuous:mislead
ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness
discompose:placid=fabricate:ingenuous
disingenuous:sincere=??
hypercritical<>ingenuous/honest
ingenuous<>cunning
sly<>ingenuous
Synonyms: NATURAL, artless, naive, simple, unaffected, unartful, unartificial,
unschooled, unsophisticated, unstudied
Sample: The senators attempt to convince the public that he is not interested in
running for a second term is disingenuous given the extremely public fund-raising
activities of his campaign committee.
ingrained [ ] adj.
to work indelibly into the natural texture or mental or moral constitution
ingrained<>easily to change
Synonyms: INHERENT, built-in, congenital, constitutional, deep-seated, inborn,
inbred, indwelling, innate, intrinsic
Sample: Try as they would, the missionaries were unable to uproot the ingrained
267
superstitions of the natives.
ingratiating [ ] adj.
capable of winning favor:PLEASING
ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive
Synonyms: deferential, disarming, ingratiatory, insinuating, insinuative, saccharine,
silken, silky
Sample: He tried to ingratiate himself into her parents' good graces.
inherent [ ] adj.
involved in the constitution or essential character of something:belonging by nature or
habit:INTRINSIC
extrinsic<>inherent
Synonyms: born, built-in, congenital, connate, constitutional, deep-seated, elemental,
essential, inborn, inbred, indwelling, ingenerate, ingrained, innate, intimate, intrinsic
Sample: Although frequent air travelers remain unconvinced, researchers have found
that, paradoxically, the temporal disorientation inherent in jet lag also may yield some
mental health benefits.
inimical [ ] adj
a:having the disposition of an enemy:HOSTILE b:reflecting or indicating
hostility:UNFRIENDLY
inimical<>friendly/amiable/amicable
amenable<>inimical
Synonyms: HOSTILE, ill, inimicable, unfriendly
Sample: She felt that they were inimical and were hoping for her downfall.
inimitable [ ] adj.
not capable of being imitated:MATCHLESS
indubitable:question=inimitable:copy
inimitable<>commonplace/ordinary
Sample: We admire Auden for his inimitable use of language; he is one of a kind.
iniquity [ ] n.
gross injustice:WICKEDNESS
iniquity<>rectitude/disinterestedness
Synonyms: EVIL, crime, diablerie, sin, tort, wrong, wrongdoing
Sample: I cannot approve of the iniquitous methods you used to gain your present
position.
initial [ ] adj.
placed at the beginning:FIRST
eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated
initial:realized=tangible:indefinite { moribund:dead }
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initial<>follow
initiate<>follow up
inveterate<>uninitiated {youthful}
Synonyms: beginning, inceptive, incipient, initiative, initiatory, introductory, nascent
Sample: If those large publishers that respond solely to popular literary trends
continue to dominate the publishing market, the initial publication of new writers will
depend on the writers' willingness to cater to popular tastes.
inkling [ ] n.
a slight knowledge or vague notion
inkling:knowledge=modicum:quantity
Synonyms: HINT, clue, cue, indication, intimation, notion, suggestion, telltale, wind
Sample: Before sprinkling the dried herbs into the stew, Michael first pulverized them
into a fine powder.
innocent [ ] n.
free from guilt or sin especially through lack of knowledge of evil:BLAMELESS
culpable<>innocent
Synonyms: GOOD, blameless, exemplary, guiltless, inculpable, irreproachable, pure,
righteous, unblam-able, virtuous
Sample: Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and
criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they
offered the audience a world devoid of neutrality..
innocuous [ ] adj
not likely to give offense or to arouse strong feelings or hostility:INOFFENSIVE,
INSIPID
placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous=venom:toxious
noxious<>wholesome/sanitary/innocuous
innocuous<>injurious
Synonyms: HARMLESS, innocent, innoxious, inobnoxious, inoffensive, unoffending,
unoffensive
Sample: Let him drink it; it is innocuous and will have no ill effect.
innovation [ ] n.
the introduction of something new
contumaciou:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty
Synonyms: CHANGE, mutation, novelty, permutation, sport, vicissitude
Sample: Although Simpson was ingenious at contriving to appear innovative and
spontaneous, beneath the ruse he remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to
problem-solving.
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inquiry [ ] n.
examination into facts or principles:RESEARCH
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory
prying:inquisitive=garish:colorful
painful:agonizing=inquisitive:curious
Synonyms: delving, inquest, inquisition, investigation, probe, probing, quest, research
Sample: Superficial differences between the special problems and techniques of the
physical sciences and those of the biological sciences are sometimes cited as evidence
for the autonomy of biology and for the claim that the methods of physics are therefore
not adequate to biological inquiry.
insatiable [ ] adj.
incapable of being satisfied:QUENCHLESS
insatiate:slake=??
Sample: That dealers patient enough to nurture a young modern painter's career rather
than plunder it exist is not impossible, but the public's insatiable appetite for modern art
makes such dealers less and less likely.
insipid [ ] adj.
lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate, or challenge:DULL, FLAT
piquant<>insipid
Synonyms: ARID, bromidic, dry, dryasdust, dull, dusty, tedious, uninteresting,
weariful, wearisome
Sample: Flat prose and flat ginger ale are equally insipid:both lack sparkle.
insolent [ ] adj.
exhibiting boldness or effrontery:IMPUDENT
perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration
insolent<>polite/courteous {elegant}
Synonyms: UNPALATABLE, distasteful, flat, flavorless, ill-flavored, savorless,
tasteless, unappetizing, unsavory
Sample: How dare you treat me so rudely! The manager will hear of you insolence.
insouciant [ ] adj.
lighthearted unconcern:NONCHALANCE
tenacious:yield=insouciant:worry
Synonyms: HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, carefree, free-minded, lighthearted, lightsome
Sample: Your insouciant attitude at such a critical moment indicates that you do not
understand the gravity of the situation.
inspired [ ] adj.
outstanding or brilliant in a way or to a degree suggestive of divine inspiration
inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove
Synonyms: ELATE, commove, excite, exhilarate, set up, spirit (up), stimulate
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Sample: Although the young violinist's steady performance, with the orchestra
demonstrated his technical competence. his uninspired style and lack of interpretive
maturity labeled him as a novice musician rather than as a truly accomplished
performer.
instate [ ] vt.
to set or establish in a rank or office:INSTALL
instate<>oust
Synonyms: INITIATE, inaugurate, induct, install, invest
Sample: A police officer who was asked to leave the police force for illegal behavior
was reinstated when he was found not guilty.
instigate [ ] vt.
to goad or urge forward:PROVOKE
instigator:incite=bully:browbeat
quell<>foment/instigate/rouse
Synonyms: INCITE, abet, foment, provoke, raise, set, set on, stir (up), whip (up)
Sample: I am afraid that this statement will instigate a revolt.
instill [ ] v.
to impart gradually
instill<>drain away
instill<>remove
Synonyms: IMPLANT, inculcate, infix, inseminate
Sample: Her athletic parents instilled the girl with a love of baseball.
institute [ ] n. vt.
to originate and get established:ORGANIZE
rescind<>institute
abrogate<>embrace/institute/uphold
effacing<>institute
Synonyms: FOUND, constitute, create, establish, organize, set up, start
Sample: His program was reactionary since it sought to abolish many of the social
reforms instituted by the previous administration.
insubordinate [ ] adj
disobedient to authority
tractable<>insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate
Synonyms: contumacious, factious, insurgent, mutinous, rebellious, seditious
Sample: By idiosyncratically refusing to dismiss an insubordinate member of his staff,
the manager not only contravened established policy, but he also jeopardized his
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heretofore good chances for promotion.
insular [ ] adj.
characteristic of an isolated people; especially:being, having, or reflecting a narrow
provincial viewpoint
insular<>cosmopolitan
Synonyms: local, parochial, provincial, sectarian, small-town
Sample: The insularity of the islanders manifested itself in their suspicion of
anyuthing foreign.
insulate [ ] v.
to place in a detached situation:ISOLATE; especially:to separate from conducting
bodies by means of nonconductors so as to prevent transfer of electricity, heat, or sound
insularity<>cosmopolitanism
insulate<>expose
Synonyms: ISOLATE, close off, cut off, enisle, island, segregate, separate, sequester
Sample: Some city parents insulate their children by sending them to private schools.
insurgent [ ] adj.
a person who revolts against civil authority or an established government; especially:a
rebel not recognized as a belligerent
parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent
insurgent:rebel=incendiary:agitate
Synonyms: ISOLATE, close off, cut off, enisle, island, segregate, separate, sequester
Sample: We will not discuss reforms until the insurgent troops have returned to their
homes.
intangible [ ] adj.
not tangible:IMPALPABLE
impracticable:effected=intangible:known {indestructible:restored}
corporeal<>intangible
Synonyms: IMPERCEPTIBLE, impalpable, imponderable, inappreciable,
indiscernible, insensible, invisible, unapparent, unappreciable, unobservable
Sample: Though the financial benefits of his Oxford post were meager, Lewis was
drawn to it by its intangible rewards:prestige, intellectual freedom, the fellowship of his
peers.
integral [ ] adj.
essential to completeness:CONSTITUENT
integral<>superfluous
integral<>redundant
Synonyms: WHOLE, choate, complete, entire, full, perfect
Sample: Physical education is an integral part of our curriculum; a sound mind and a
272
sound body are complementary.
integrity [ ] n.
the quality or state of being complete or undivided:COMPLETENESS
ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity
genuine:authenticity=entire:integrity
taint<>integrity/wholesomeness
Synonyms: HONESTY, honestness, honor, honorableness, incorruption
Sample: In some cultures the essence of magic is its traditional integrity; it can be
efficient only if it has been transmitted without loss from primeval times to the present
practitioner.
intelligible [ ] adj.
capable of being understood or comprehended
correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible
Synonyms: UNDERSTANDABLE, apprehensible, comprehendible, comprehensible,
fathomable, graspable, knowable, lucid, luminous
Sample: There was loud noise from the burning building, but the firefighters' shouts
were still intelligible.
intemperate [ ] adj.
not temperate especially:given to excessive use of intoxicating liquors
equable<>intemperate
intemperate<>constrained
Synonyms: EXCESSIVE, immoderate, inordinate, overindulgent, unrestrained,
untempered
Sample: Alcoholics are often sorry about their intemperate habits.
intensify [ ] vi.
to make intense or more intensive:STRENGTHEN
moderate:intensity=extenuate:seriousness
abate:intensity=taper:width
alleviate:intensity=abate:tax
abate:intensity=taper:width
abate<>intensify/promote
assuage<>intensify
attenuate<>intensify
Synonyms: aggravate, deepen, enhance, heighten, intensate, magnify, mount, redouble,
rise, rouse
Sample: The noise from the party intensified as the clock struck midnight.
inter [ ] vt.
to deposit (a dead body) in the earth or in a tomb
inter:burial=obliterate:removal
Sample: My friend died Friday and was interred yesterday.
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intercede [ ] vi.
to intervene between parties with a view to reconciling differences:MEDIATE
intercessor:mediate=translator:interpret/augur:prediction
Synonyms: INTERPOSE, interfere, intermediate, intervene, mediate, step in
Sample: You are telling lies about my sister; I must intercede on her behalf.
interdict [ ] v.
to forbid in a usually formal or authoritative manner
interdict<>authorize {inaugurate}
Synonyms: FORBID, ban, enjoin, inhibit, outlaw, prohibit, taboo
Sample: Civilized nations must interdict the use of nuclear weapons if we expect out
society to live.
interim [ ] n. adj.
an intervening time:INTERVAL
interim<>permanent
respite:labor=interim:concert {mediate:confliction}
Synonyms: TEMPORARY, acting, ad interim, pro tem, pro tempore, supply
Sample: The company will not consider our proposal until next week; in the interim,
let us proceed as we have in the past.
interlock [ ] adj.
to become locked together or interconnected
interlocking<>independent
Sample: The children interlocked arms and crossed the street as a group.
interlope [ ] v.
one that intrudes in a place or sphere of activity
Synonyms: MEDDLE, busybody, butt in, fool, horn in, interfere, intermeddle, monkey
(with), tamper (with)
Sample: The merchant thought of his competitors as interlopers who were stealing
away his trade.
interminable [ ] adj.
having or seeming to have no end; especially:wearisomely protracted
countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration
innumerable:number=interminable:duration {unsubstantiated:conclusion}
Sample: Although his speech lasted for only twenty minutes, it seemed interminable to
his bored audience.
intermittent [ ] adj.
coming and going at intervals:not continuous
intermittent<>constant
Synonyms: alternate, isochronal, isochronous, periodic, periodical, recurrent, recurring
274
Sample: Our picnic was marred by intermittent rains.
interrogate [ ] vt.
to question formally and systematically:probe
confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory
question:interrogative=order:imperative
Synonyms: ASK, catechize, examine, inquire, query, question, quiz
Sample: Knowing that the Nazis would interrogate him about his background, the
secret agent invented a cover story that would help him meet their quesions.
intervene [ ] vi.
to interfere usually by force or threat of force in another nation's internal affairs
especially to compel or prevent an action
Synonyms: INTERPOSE, intercede, interfere, intermediate, mediate, step in
Sample: Although supernovas are among the most luminous of cosmic events, these
stellar explosions are often hard to detect, either because they are enormously far away
or because they are dimmed by intervening dust and gas clouds.
intimate [ ] adj. n.
a friend or confidant marked by very close association, contact, or familiarity
clique:intimates=flock:sheep
obsessed:attracted=intimate:close
engrossed:absorbed=intimate:close
Synonyms: FRIEND, acquaintance, amigo, cater-cousin, confidant, familiar, mate
Sample: Even those siblings whose childhood was dominated by familial feuding and
intense rivalry for their parents' affection can nevertheless develop congenial and even
intimate relationships with each other in their adult lives.
intimate [ ] vt.
to make known especially publicly or formally:ANNOUNCE
intimate:communicate=allude:refer
Synonyms: SUGGEST, connote, hint, imply, insinuate
Sample: She intimated rather than stated her preferences.

List 16 intimidate --- lectern
intimidate [ ] vt.
to make timid or fearful:FRIGHTEN; especially:to compel or deter by or as if by
threats
sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation
dauntless:intimidate=irrepressible:restrain
bully:intimidate=stupid:gullibility
intimidate:trepidation=??
sabotage:subvertness=bull:intimidation { dupe:duplicity }
275
cowardice:intimidate=perplexed:obfuscate
cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize
Synonyms: bludgeon, bluster, browbeat, bulldoze, bully, bullyrag, cow, dragoon,
hector, strong-arm, terrorize
Sample: At first, I found her gravity rather intimidating; but, as I saw more of her, I
found that laughter was very near the surface.
intransigent [ ] adj
refusing to compromise or to abandon an extreme position or
attitude:UNCOMPROMISING
firm:intransigent=concerned:obsessed
intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend
intransigent<>open to compromise
tractable<>insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate
pliant<>intransigence/intractable
Synonyms: OBSTINATE, incompliant, intractable, pertinacious, self-willed, tough,
stubborn, willful, unpliable, unyielding
Sample: That his intransigence in making decisions brooked no open disagreement
from any quarter was well known; thus, clever subordinates learned the art of intimating
their opinions in casual remarks.
intrepid [ ] adj.
characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and endurance
genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract
timorous<>intrepid
Synonyms: BRAVE, audacious, bold, courageous, dauntless, fearless, unafraid,
undaunted, valiant, valorous
Sample: For his intrepid conduct in battle, he was promoted.
intricacy [ ] n.
the quality or state of being intricate
chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy={tapestry:intricacy }
chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy
Sample:One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to reconstruct the intricacies of
complex ancient societies from meager and often equivocal physical evidence.
intrigue [ ] vt.
to arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of
interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile
pall<>interest/intrigue
Sample: Perhaps because scientists have been so intrigued by dogs superior senses of
smell and hearing, researchers have long underestimated their eyesight, assuming that
276
they inhabit a drab, black-and-white world, devoid of color.
intrinsic [ ] adj.
belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing
Synonyms: INHERENT, built-in, congenital, connate, constitutional, deep-seated,
elemental, essential, indwelling, innate
Sample: The pressure of populating on available resources is the key to understanding
history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no cognizance of demographic
facts is intrinsically flawed.
intuition [ ] n.
The act or faculty of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes;
immediate cognition.
extraneous<>intuitive
Sample: She claimed to know the truth by intuition.
inure [ ] vt.
to accustom to accept something undesirable
inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency
Synonyms: ACCUSTOM, familiarize, habituate, use, wont
Sample: Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's
personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code
with impassivity.
invective [ ] n.
of, relating to, or characterized by insult or abuse
exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit
polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive
invective<>flatter
Synonyms: ABUSIVE, contumelious, opprobrious, scurrile, scurrilous, truculent,
vituperative, vituperatory, vituperous
Sample: He had expected criticism but not the invective that greeted his proposal.
inveigh [ ] vi.
to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently:RAIL
inveigh<>verbally provide support
Synonyms: OBJECT, except, expostulate, kick, protest, remonstrate
Sample: He inveighed against the demagoguery of the previous speaker and urged that
the audience reject his philosophy as dangerous.
inveigle [ ] v.
to win over by wiles:ENTICE
plot:plan=inveigle:interest
inveigle<>request directly
Synonyms: LURE, allure, bait, decoy, entice, entrap, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll
277
Sample: She was inveigled into joining the club after an initial reluctance.
inventory [ ] n.
an itemized list of current assets:as a catalog of the property of an individual or estate
census:population=inventory:stock
inventory:merchandise=manifest:cargo
Sample: We must wait until we deplete our present inventory before we order
replacements.
investigate [ ] v.
to make a systematic examination; especially:to conduct an official inquiry
cavil:criticize=probe:investigate
Synonyms: EXPLORE, delve (into), dig (into), go (into), inquire (into), look (into),
probe, prospect, sift
Sample: To test the efficacy of borrowing from one field of study to enrich another,
simply investigate the extent to which terms from the one may, without forcing, be
utilized by the other.
inveterate [ ] adj.
firmly established by long persistence
inveterate<>uninitiated {youthful}
inveterate<>one-time { casual }
Synonyms: bred-in-the-bone, confirmed, deep-dyed, deep-rooted, deep-seated,
dyed-in-the-wool, entrenched, hard-shell, irradicable, settled, sworn
Sample: What is most important to the monkeys in the sanctuary is that they are a
group; this is so because primates are inveterately social and build their lives around
each other.
invidious [ ] adj
tending to cause discontent, animosity, or envy
invidious<>beneficial
Synonyms: LIBELOUS, calumnious, defamatory, detracting, detractive, detractory,
maligning, scandalous, slanderous, vilifying
Sample: We disregarded her invidious remarks because we realized how jealous she
was.
invigorate [ ] v.
to give life and energy to:ANIMATE; also:STIMULATE
conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate
tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden
debilitate<>invigorate{enervate<>invigorate/ enfeeble<>invigorate}
demoralize <>invigorate { ameliorate }
emaciate<>invigorate
sap<>invigorate
278
Synonyms: STRENGTHEN, energize, fortify, reinforce
Sample: The tonic water invigorated her, contrary to the enervating effect of the
alcohol.
invincible [ ] adj.
Incapable of being overcome or defeated; unconquerable.
invincible:conquer=negligible:perceive
Synonyms: impregnable, inconquerable, indomitable, inexpugnable, invulnerable,
unassailable, unbeatable, unconquerable, undefeatable
Sample: Superman is invincible.
inviolate [ ] adj.
not violated or profaned; especially:PURE
pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable
penetrate:impermeable=profane:inviolable
inviolable<>profane/impure
Synonyms: SACRED, inviolable, sacrosanct
Sample: My garden is inviolate; children and dogs must stay out of it.
invoice [ ] n.
a consignment of merchandise
consignment:invoice=??
Synonyms: BILL, account, reckoning, score, statement, tab
Sample: Our company sends invoices to customers after they order from us.
invoke [ ] vt.
to put into effect or operation:IMPLEMENT
invoke<>suspend
Synonyms: BEG, appeal, beseech, crave, entreat, implore, importune, plead, pray,
supplicate
Sample: She invoked her advisor's aid in filling out her financial aid forms.
invulnerable [ ] adj.
incapable of being wounded, injured, or harmed
euphemism:offend=invulnerable:injure
untenable:defense=invulnerable:injury
Synonyms: INVINCIBLE, impregnable, inconquerable, indomitable, inexpugnable,
unassailable, unbeatable, unconquerable, undefeatable
Sample: Achilles was invulnerable except in his heel.
irascible [ ] adj.
marked by hot temper and easily provoked anger
279
irascible:placate=insensate:conscious
affable<>irascible
Synonyms: choleric, cranky, cross, hot-tempered, ireful, passionate, peppery,
quick-tempered, ratty, temperish, testy, tetchy, touchy
Sample: Her irascible temper frightened me.
irate [ ] adj.
arising from anger
gush:effusive=rage:irate
Synonyms: ANGRY, choleric, ireful, mad, waxy, wrathful, wrathy, wroth, wrothful
Sample: When John's mother found out that he had overthrown his checking account
for the third month in a row, she was so irate that she could scarcely speak to him.
iridescence [ ] n.
a lustrous rainbowlike play of color caused by differential refraction of light waves (as
from an oil slick, soap bubble, or fish scales) that tends to change as the angle of view
changes
iridescent<>monochromatic
Sample: She admired the iridescent hues of the oil that floated on the surface of the
water.
irk [ ] v
to make weary, irritated, or bored
irk<>make someone pleased
Synonyms: ANNOY, abrade, bother, exercise, fret, gall, provoke, ruffle, vex
Sample: He found working on the assembly line irksome because of the monotony of
the operation he had to perform.
ironclad [ ] adj.
so firm or secure as to be unbreakable:as a:BINDING
jammed:full=ironclad:firm
Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE, constant, fixed, immovable, immutable, inalterable,
invariable, unalterable, unchangeable, unmodifiable
Sample: We wanted an ironclad agreement, in writing, before we bought the house.
irony [ ] n.
a pretense of ignorance and of willingness to learn from another assumed in order to
make the other's false conceptions conspicuous by adroit questioning
Sample: Copyright and patent laws attempt to encourage innovation by ensuring that
inventors are paid for creative, so it would be ironic if expanded protection under these
laws discouraged entrepreneurial innovation by increasing fears of lawsuits.
irradicable [ ] adj.
280
impossible to eradicate:DEEP-ROOTED
ineffable:description=irradicable:obliterate
incorrigible:amend=irradicable:remove
Synonyms: INVETERATE, confirmed, deep-dyed, deep-rooted, deep-seated,
dyed-in-the-wool, entrenched, hard-shell, settled, sworn
irreducible [ ] adj.
impossible to transform into or restore to a desired or simpler condition
factorable<>irreducible
irrelevant [ ] adj.
not relevant:INAPPLICABLE
apropos<>irrelevant { straight, uniform, symmetrical }
Synonyms: extraneous, foreign, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite,
irrelative
Sample: Because modern scientists find the ancient Greek view of the cosmos
outdated and irrelevant, they now perceive it as only of historical interest.
irresolute [ ] adj.
uncertain how to act or proceed:VACILLATING
pertinacious<>irresolute
Synonyms: VACILLATING, faltering, halting, hesitant, shilly-shallying, tentative,
uncertain, vacillatory, wiggle-waggle, wobbly
Sample: She had no respect for him because he seemed weak-willed and irresolute.
irreverent [ ] adj.
lacking proper respect or seriousness; also:SATIRIC
awe<>irreverence
Synonyms: IMPIOUS, irreverential, profane, ungodly, unhallowed, unholy
Sample: The worshippers resented her irreverent remarks about their faith.
irritate [ ] n.
to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in:ANNOY
antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation
haunt:familiar/similarity=harass:irritating
balm<>irritant
salve<>irritant
Synonyms: aggravate, burn (up), exasperate, gall, get, grate, huff, inflame, nettle,
peeve, pique, provoke, put out, rile, roil
Sample: Although Tom was aware that it would be impolitic to display annoyance
publicly at the sales conference, he could not hide his irritation with the client's
unreasonable demands.
issue [ ] n.
a matter that is in dispute between two or more parties
281
debate:issue=bargain:price
repartee:retort=debate:issue {advisement:product }
stanza:line=volume:issue
Sample: Although normally diffident, Alison felt so strongly about the issue that she
put aside her reserve and spoke up at the committee meeting.
issue [ ] vt.
the act of publishing or officially giving out or making available
issue<>withdraw
Synonyms: SPRING, arise, birth, derive (from), emanate, flow, originate, proceed, rise,
stem
Sample: Between 1941 and 1945, the White House issued news about the war nearly
every day.
isthmus [ ] n
a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
isthmus:land=strait:water
Sample: In a magnificent feat of engineering, Goethals and his men cut through the
isthmus of Panama in constructing the Panama Canal.
jabber [ ] v.
to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly
jabber<>speak slowly
Synonyms: GIBBER, babble, chatter, gabble
Sample: Some people jabber about nothing.
jaded [ ] adj
fatigued by overwork:EXHAUSTED
overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune
jaded<>keen
Synonyms: TIRED ,clapped-out, fatigued, wearied, weary, worn, worn-down,
worn-out
Sample: He looked for exotic foods to stimulate his jaded appetite.
jam [ ] adj.
fatigued by overwork:EXHAUSTED
jammed:full=ironclad:firm
Synonyms: PRESS, bear, crowd, crush, push, squab, squash, squeeze, squish, squush
Sample: Throngs of shoppers jammed the aisles.
jape [ ] n/v.
to make mocking fun of
282
revere<>jape at
Synonyms: JOKE, crack, drollery, gag, jest, quip, waggery, wisecrack, witticism
jar [ ] vi.
to make a harsh or discordant sound
malodorous:smell=cacophony/jarring:sound
melodious<>jarring
Sample: She moved her chair backwards, and it jarred against the wall.
jargon [ ] n.
The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group.
vernacular:place=jargon:profession
Synonyms: DIALECT , argot, cant, lingo, patois, patter, slang, vernacular
Sample: The First World War began in a context of jargon and verbal delicacy and
continued in a cloud of euphemism as impenetrable as language and literature, skillfully
used, could make it.
jaundice [ ] n.
a state or attitude characterized by satiety, distaste, or hostility
jaundice<>dispose favorably
jaundiced<>unprejudiced/candid
Sample: She gazed at the painting with jaundiced eyes; she knew it was better than
hers.
jaunty [ ] adj
sprightly in manner or appearance:LIVELY
staid<>jaunty Sample:In Singing in the Rain, Gene Kelly sang and danced his way
throughtthe lighthearted title number in a properly jaunty style.
jazz [ ] n.
American music developed especially from ragtime and blues and characterized by
propulsive syncopated rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, varying degrees of
improvisation, and often deliberate distortions of pitch and timbre
portrait:painting=jazz:music
jealous [ ] adj.
having to do with or arising from feelings of envy, apprehension, or bitterness
attentive:meddlesome=envious:jealous
Sample: We disregarded her invidious remarks because we realized how jealous she
was.
jejune [ ] adj.
devoid of significance or interest:DULL
labyrinthine:simplicity=jejune:interest
jejune<>thought provoking
Synonyms: JOKE, crack, drollery, gag, jape, quip, waggery, wisecrack, witticism, yak
jest [ ] n. v.
283
an utterance (as a jeer or quip) intended to be taken as mockery or humor
jest<>solemnity
jest<>solemn utterance
Synonyms: JOKE, crack, drollery, gag, jape, quip, waggery, wisecrack, witticis
Sample: I said you look terrible in jest; actually, you look very pretty.
jettison [ ] n.
to get rid of as superfluous or encumbering:DISCARD
jettison<>retain
Synonyms: DISCARD, abdicate, cashier, cast, junk, reject, scrap, shed, slough, throw
away
Sample: In order to enable the ship to ride safely through the storm, the captain had to
jettison much of his cargo.
jibe [ ] vi.
to be in accord:AGREE
jibe<>conflict
Synonyms: AGREE, accord, conform, correspond, dovetail, fit (in), go, harmonize,
square, tally
Sample: What he says happened does not jibe with what others say.
jingoist [ ] n.
extreme chauvinism or nationalism marked especially by a belligerent foreign policy
nepotism:kinship=jingoist:nationality
dove<>warmonger/jingoist
Sample: We must be careful to prevent a spirit of jingoism from spreading at this time.
jitter [ ] vi.
to be nervous or act in a nervous way
jittery<>resolute
Sample: He has the jitters about going to a job interview.
jocund [ ] adj.
marked by or suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness
jocund<>dreary
jocund<>morose
dour<>jocund
jocund<>serious
Synonyms: MERRY, blithe, blithesome, festive, gay, gleeful, jolly, jovial, lighthearted,
mirthful
Sample: Santa Claus is always vivacious and jocund.
jog [ ] n.
a movement, pace, or instance of jogging (as for exercise)
284
jog:exercise=barter:trade
Sample: I go for a jog every evening.
joke [ ] n.
something said or done to provoke laughter; especially:a brief oral narrative with a
climactic humorous twist
joke:punch line=plot:denouement
Sample: When the firm's president married the director of financial planning, the
office joke was that it wasn't a marriage, it was a merger.
jolt [ ] vi.
to cause to move with a sudden jerky motion
jolt:move=check:stop
Synonyms: SHOCK, startle
Sample: If you stick s.t. into an electrical socket, you will get a jolt.
jot [ ] vt.
to write briefly or hurriedly:set down in the form of a note
nip:eat=jot:write
Synonyms: PARTICLE, atom, bit, grain, iota, minim, modicum, speck, tittle, whit
Sample: I jotted down her name and telephone number.
jovial [ ] adj.
markedly good-humored especially as evidenced by jollity and conviviality
jovial<>mournful
saturnine<>jovial
maudlin<>jovial
jovial<>morose
jovial<>drab
joviality<>moroseness
Synonyms: MERRY, blithe, blithesome, festive, gay, gleeful, jocund, jolly,
lighthearted, mirthful
Sample: A frown seemed out of place on his invariably jovial face.
jubilant [ ] adj.
EXULTANT
dolorous<>jubilant
Synonyms: EXULTANT, cock-a-hoop, cock-a-whoop, exulting, triumphal, triumphant
Sample: There was great jubilitation when the armistice was announced.
judicious [ ] adj.
having, exercising, or characterized by sound judgment:DISCREET
miser:stingy=sage:judicious
daft<>judicious
285
politic<>injudicious { officious }
judicious<>imprudent
Synonyms: WISE, judgmatic, prudent, sage, sane, sapient, sensible
Sample: At a key moment in his life, he made a judicious investment that was the
foundation of his later wealth.
juggernaut [ ] n.
a massive inexorable force, campaign, movement, or object that crushes whatever is in
its path
juggernaut:unstoppable=enigma:impenetrable
juggernaut:unstoppable=extemporization:spontaneous {boast:dishonest}
siren:unresist=juggernaut:unstop
Sample: Nothing could survive in the path of the juggernaut.
jumble [ ] vi.
to mix into a confused or disordered mass
mixture:jumble=??
Synonyms: CONFUSE, foul up, mix up, muddle, snarl up, tumble
Sample: He does not understand; he has the instructions all jumbled up.
justify [ ] vt.
to prove or show to be just, right, or reasonable
justify<>argue against
Synonyms: MAINTAIN, argue, assert, claim, contend, defend, vindicate, warrant
Sample: The law justifies killing s.o. to defend oneself.
juxtapose [ ] vt.
to place side by side
Sample: Comparison will be easier if you juxtapose the two objects.
kangaroo [ ] n.
any of various herbivorous leaping marsupial mammals (family Macropodidae) of
Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands with a small head, large ears, long
powerful hind legs, a long thick tail used as a support and in balancing, and rather small
forelegs not used in progression
kangaroo:marsupial=squirrel:rodent
Sample: Baby kangaroos live in a pocket or pouch on their mothers' stomachs.
ken [ ] n.
the range of vision
earshot:hear=ken:see
Synonyms: horizon, purview, range, reach
Sample: I cannot answer your question since this matter is beyond my ken.
286
kindle [ ] vt.
to stir up:AROUSE
extinguish<>kindle
ignite<>extinguish
extinguish<>rekindle
Synonyms: STIR, arouse, awaken, bestir, challenge, rally, rouse, wake, waken, whet
Sample: Neither the ideas of philosophers nor the practices of ordinary people can, by
themselves, transform reality; what in fact changes reality and kindles revolution is the
interplay of the two.
kindred [ ] adj.
of a similar nature or character:LIKE
kindred<>dissimilar
Synonyms: RELATED, affiliated, agnate, akin, allied, cognate, connate, connatural,
consanguine, incident
Sample: Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn were two kindred spirits.
kink [ ] n.
a short tight twist or curl caused by a doubling or winding of something upon itself
Sample: My project is almost done, but it still has some kinks in it.
knack [ ] n.
a clever trick or stratagem
knack<>foolish
Synonyms: ABILITY, command, expertise, expertism, expertness, know-how,
mastership, mastery, skill
Sample: He has a knack for getting the baby back to sleep; when he holds the baby,
she stops crying and falls asleep.
knave [ ] n.
a tricky deceitful fellow
sage:judgement=knave:deceive
Synonyms: VILLIAN, blackguard, heel, lowlife, miscreant, rascal, rogue, scoundrel
knead [ ] vt.
to work and press into a mass with or as if with the hands
knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable
Sample: Her hands grew strong from kneading bread.
knit [ ] v.
to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles
ravel<>knit
Sample: Whenever David worries, his brow knits in a frown.
knotty [ ] adj.
287
marked by or full of knots; especially:so full of difficulties and complications as to be
likely to defy solution
knotty<>easy
knotty<>simple
Synonyms: COMPLEX, Byzantine, complicated, daedal, elaborate, gordian, intricate,
involved, labyrinthine, sophisticated
Sample: What to Watson had been a knotty problem to Sherlock Holmes was
simplicity itself.
kudos [ ] n.
fame and renown resulting from an act or achievement:PRESTIGE
kudos<>disparage
Synonyms: HONOR, accolade, award, badge, bays, decoration, distinction, laurels
Sample: The singer complacently received kudos on his performance from his
entourage.
labile [ ] adj.
readily or continually undergoing chemical, physical, or biological change or
breakdown:UNSTABLE
labile<>stable
Sample: Because the hormonal changes they undergo affect their spirits, adolescents
may become emotionally labile and experience sudden shifts of mood.
labored [ ] adj.
lacking ease of expression
glib<>labored
Synonyms: HARD, arduous, difficult, effortful, heavy, laborious, operose, strenuous,
toilsome, uphill
Sample: After she climbed the stairs, her breathing was labored.
labyrinth [ ] n.
something extremely complex or tortuous in structure, arrangement, or
character:INTRICACY, PERPLEXITY
labyrinthine:simplicity=jejune:interest
threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness
ribald:seemly=labyrinthine:direct
Synonyms: MAZE, jungle, knot, mesh, mizmaze, morass, skein, snarl, tangle, web
Sample: Tom and Becky were lost in the labyrinth of secret caves.
laconic [ ] adj.
using or involving the use of a minimum of words:concise to the point of seeming rude
or mysterious
audacious:trepidation=laconic:volubility
laconic<>loquacious/voluble
288
laconism<>verbosity
voluble<>taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent
Synonyms: CONCISE, breviloquent, brief, compendiary, compendious, curt, short,
short and sweet, succinct, terse
Sample: For someone as laconic as she, who preferred to speak only when absolutely
necessary, his relentless chatter was completely maddening.
lambaste [ ] vt.
to attack verbally:CENSURE
Synonyms: BEAT, baste, drub, hammer, paste, pelt, pound, pummel, thrash, wallop
Sample: It was painful to watch the champion lambaste his opponent, tearing into him
mercilessly.
lamentable [ ] adj.
expressing grief:MOURNFUL
lamentable:pity=responsible:censure
celebration:lamentful=slight:show respect
Synonyms: MELANCHOLY, doleful, dolesome, dolorous, lugubrious, mournful,
plaintive, rueful, sorrowful, woeful
Sample: Even advocates of the war lamented the loss of so many lives in combat.
lampoon [ ] n
a harsh satire usually directed against an individual
panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize
satire:lampoon=diligence:effort
paean<>harshly lampoon
Sample: The magazine's lampoon of the rock star was very funny.
landfill [ ] n.
a system of trash and garbage disposal in which the waste is buried between layers of
earth to build up low-lying land
cistern:liquids=landfill:refuse
Sample: The landfills in many big cities are already full.
landlord [ ] n.
the owner of property (as land, houses, or apartments) that is leased or rented to another
Sample: The landlord of our apartment building is a huge real estate company.
landslide [ ] n.
the usually rapid downward movement of a mass of rock, earth, or artificial fill on a
slope; also:the mass that moves down
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide
Sample: A landslide blocked the coastal road.
289
languid [ ] adj.
drooping or flagging from or as if from exhaustion:WEAK
desultory:plan=languid:energy
languid<>energetic
vivacious<>languid
vehement<>languid
Synonyms: die-away, enervated, lackadaisical, languishing, languorous, limp, listless,
spiritless
Sample: Her siege of illness left her languid and pallid.
languish [ ] v
to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated
languish<>thrive
Synonyms: FAIL, decline, deteriorate, fade, flag, weaken
Sample: In stories, lovelorn damsels used to languish and pine away.
languor [ ] n.
listless indolence or inertia
languor<>thrive
Synonyms: LETHARGY, coma, dullness, hebetude, lassitude, sleep, slumber, stupor,
torpidity, torpor
Sample: His friends tried to overcome the languor into which he had fallen by taking
him to parties and to the theater.
lank [ ] adj.
not well filled out:SLENDER, THIN
lank<>stalwart
Synonyms: LEAN, angular, bony, gaunt, lanky, rawboned, scraggy, scrawny, skinny,
spare
Sample: Lank, gaunt, Abraham Lincoln was a striking figure.
lapse [ ] n.
a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention
lapse:error=misbehavior:criminality
misdemeanor:crime=lapse:error
Synonyms: ERROR , blooper, blunder, boner, bull, bungle, fluff, mistake, slip, trip
Sample: It was a lapse on his part when he forgot to pay the rent.
larder [ ] n.
a place where food is stored:PANTRY
larder:food=wardrobe:clothes
larder:provisions=vault:valuables
290
largesse [ ] n
liberal giving (as of money) to or as if to an inferior; also:something so given
largesse<>parsimony
largesse<>penurious
Synonyms: GIFT, benevolence, boon, favor, present
Sample: Famous among job seekers for its largesse, the company, quite apart from
generous salaries, bestowed on its executives annual bonuses and such perquisites as
low-interest home mortgages and company cars.
lariat [ ] n.
a long light rope (as of hemp or leather) used with a running noose to catch livestock or
with or without the noose to tether grazing animals:LASSO
lariat:wrangler=crook:shepherd
Sample: Cowboys carry lariats on their saddles.
lash [ ] v.
to bind with or as if with a line
lash<>unbind
Synonyms: RUSH, boil, bolt, charge, chase, dash, fling, race, shoot, tear
Sample: Sailors lashed down boxes with strong ropes before the storm.
lassitude [ ] n
a condition of weariness or debility:FATIGUE
arrogance:defer=lassitude:stir
lassitude<>vim/animation
lassitude<>verve
Synonyms: FATIGUE, exhaustion, tiredness, weariness
Sample: The hot, tropical weather created a feeling of lassitude and encouraged
drowsiness.
latent [ ] adj.
present and capable of becoming though not now visible, obvious, or active
latent<>menifest
Synonyms: abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent, quiescent
Sample: Her latent talent was discovered by accident.
lathe [ ] n.
a machine in which work is rotated about a horizontal axis and shaped by a fixed tool
lathe:shape=clasp:fasten
Synonyms: abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent, quiescent
Sample: He makes machine parts on a <n.> lathe.
291
latitude [ ] n.
Freedom from normal restraints, limitations, or regulations.
latitude<>strict limitation
latitude<>tightly restrained
Sample: Even though in today's Soviet Union the leaders of the Muslim clergy have
been accorded power and privileges, the Muslim laity and the rank-and-file clergy still
have little latitude to practice their religion.
laudatory [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or expressing praise
consel:advice=laud:homage
execrable<>commendable/laudable
pejorative<>laudatory
Synonyms: EULOGISTIC, encomiastic, laudative, panegyrical, praiseful
Sample: The critics' laudatory comments helped to make her a star.
lavish [ ] adj.
expended or produced in abundance
excoriate<>extol/praise lavishly
lavish<>mean
lavish<>stint
penurious<>lavish
impecunious<>lavish/prosperous
lavish<>economical
lavish<>hoard
lavish<>austere
Synonyms: PROFUSE, exuberant, lush, luxuriant, opulent, prodigal, profusive, riotous
Sample: In most Native American cultures, an article used in prayer or ritual is made
with extraordinary attention to and richness of detail:it is decorated more lavishly than a
similar article intended for everyday use.
leaven [ ] vt.
to raise (as bread) with a leaven
distill:purity=leaven:volume
Sample: As bread dough is leavened, it puffs up, expanding in volume.
lectern [ ] n.
a stand used to support a book in a convenient position for a standing reader;
especially:one from which scripture lessons are read in a church service
Sample: The chaplain delivered his sermon from a hastily improvised lectern.

List 17 leer --- mediate
leer [ ] vi.
to cast a sidelong glance
stare:leer=peruse:smattering
292
leery [ ] adj.
Suspicious or distrustful; wary
leery<>showing no doubt
Sample: Don't eat sushi at this restaurant; I'm a bit leery about how fresh it is.
legacy [ ] n
something transmitted by or received from an ancestor or predecessor or from the past
legacy:predecessor=gift:donor
Sample: The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being
to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential.
legend [ ] n.
an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart
glossary:text=legend:map
legendary<>obscure
Sample: The legend at the bottom of the map made it clear which symbols stood for
rest areas along the highway and which stood for public camp sites.
legible [ ] adj.
capable of being read or deciphered:PLAIN
legible:decipher=??
Sample: The photocopy is faint but legible.
legion [ ] n.
MANY, NUMEROUS
legion<>lack in number
Synonyms: MANY, multifarious, multitudinal, multitudinous, numerous, populous,
sundry, various, voluminous
Sample: Legions of people filled the streets to celebrate independence.
lenient [ ] adj.
exerting a soothing or easing influence:relieving pain or stress
martinet :leniency=dabbler :dedication
Synonyms: GENTLE, balmy, bland, faint, mild, smooth, soft
Sample: Considering the gravity of the offense, we were surprised by the leniency of
the sentence.
lethal [ ] adj.
gravely damaging or destructive:DEVASTATING
disagreeable:hateful=harmful:lethal
Synonyms: DEADLY, deathly, fatal, mortal, mortiferous, pestilent, pestilential
Sample: It is unwise to leave lethal weapons where children may find them.
293
lethargy [ ] n.
the quality or state of being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent
lethargic:energy=??
Synonyms: coma, dullness, hebetude, languor, lassitude, sleep, slumber, stupor,
torpidity, torpidness, torpor
Sample: The stuffy room made her lethargic; she felt as if she was about to nod off.
levee [ ] n.
an embankment for preventing flooding
levee:river=cordon:crowd
rampart:invasion=levee:flood
padding:damage=levee:flooding
Synonyms: WHARF, berth, dock, jetty, pier, quay, slip
Sample: As the river rose and threatened to overflow the levee, emergency workers
rushed to reinforce the walls with sandbags.
levelheaded [ ] adj.
having sound judgment:SENSIBLE
levelheaded<>foolish
Sample: She is a levelheaded girl and won't do anything foolish.
leverage [ ] n.
positional advantage; power to act effectively:
leverage:advantage=??
Sample: Unions have the leverage of a strike in negotiations with management.
levity [ ] n.
excessive or unseemly frivolity
sullen:levity=??
Synonyms: LIGHTNESS, flightiness, flippancy, frivolity, light-mindedness, volatility
Sample: Stop giggling abd wriggling around in the pew; such levity is improper in
church.
lexicographer [ ] n.
an author or editor of a dictionary
cartographer:map=weaver:cloth=lexicographer:dictionary
Sample: Although the meanings of words may necessarily be liable to change, it does
not follow that the lexicographer is therefore unable to render spelling, in a great
measure, constant . (9510)
liability [ ] n.
something for which one is liable; especially:pecuniary obligation
exempt:liability=pardon:penalty
asset<>liability
Synonyms: DEBT, arrear(s), arrearage, due, indebtedness
294
Sample: Her lack of an extensive vocabulary was a liability that she was able to
overcome.
liaison [ ] n.
a close bond or connection:INTERRELATIONSHIP
Synonyms: AMOUR, affair, intrigue
Sample: As the liason, he had to avoid offending the leaders of the two armies.
liberal [ ] adj.
marked by generosity:OPENHANDED
heretic:unconformity=generous:liberality { authority:superiority }
nefarious:wickedness=generous:liberality
parsimonious:liberal=obtuse:keen
liberal<>parsimonious
liberalist<>enfetterist
Synonyms: bounteous, bountiful, free, freehanded, generous, handsome, munificent,
openhanded, unsparing
Sample: Despite claims that his philosophy can be traced to a single source, the
philosophy in fact draws liberally on several traditions and methodologies and so could
justifiably be termed eclectic.
libertine [ ] n.
a person who is unrestrained by convention or morality; specifically:one leading a
dissolute life
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag
emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandious}
Synonyms: LICENTIOUS, fast, incontinent, lascivious, lecherous, lewd, libidinous,
lustful, salacious, satyric
Sample: Although she was aware of his reputation as a libertine, she felt she could
reform him and help him break his dissolute way of life.
liberty [ ] n.
an action going beyond normal limits:as a:a breach of etiquette or
propriety:FAMILIARITY
emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandious}
management<>unfettered liberty
Synonyms: FREEDOM, license
Sample: Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.
libretto [ ] n
the text of a work (as an opera) for the musical theater
libretto:opera=lyrics:song
295
Sample: The composer of an opera's music is remembered more frequently than the
author of its libretto.
licentious [ ] adj.
lacking legal or moral restraints; especially:disregarding sexual restraints
caviler:carping=libertine:licentious
voluble:verbosity=licentious:dissoluteness
licentiousness<>moral restrain
Synonyms: ABANDONED, dissolute, profligate, reprobate, self-abandoned,
unprincipled
Sample: The licentious monarch helped bring about his country's downfall.
lien [ ] n
a charge upon real or personal property for the satisfaction of some debt or duty
ordinarily arising by operation of law
lien:claim=subpoena:command
Sample: There was a delay before Ralph could take possession of his late uncle's home;
apparently, another claimant had a lien upon the estate.
liken [ ] vt.
COMPARE
liken:similarity=discriminate:difference
Sample: She admired her father so much that she likened him to a saint.
limber [ ] adj.
capable of being shaped:FLEXIBLE
limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty
Synonyms: SUPPLE, lissome, lithe, lithesome
Sample: Hours of ballet classes kept him limber.
limerick [ ] n.
a light or humorous verse form of 5 chiefly anapestic verses of which lines 1, 2, and 5
are of 3 feet and lines 3 and 4 are of 2 feet with a rhyme scheme of aabba
farce:performance=limerick:poem
limerick:poem=lampoon:satire
Sample: He writes and recites limericks for fun.
limousine [ ] n.
a large luxurious often chauffeur-driven sedan that sometimes has a glass partition
separating the driver's seat from the passenger compartment
mansion:residence=limousine:automobile
Sample: The movie star arrived at the theater in a chauffeured limousine.
limp [ ] v. adj.
lacking firm texture, substance, or structure
296
limp<>firm
Synonyms: STUMBLE, muddle, shuffle
Sample: The flowers are limp from lack of water.
limpid [ ] adj.
marked by transparency:PELLUCID
limpid<>murky
limpid<>unclear
murky<>clear/pellucid/limpid
Synonyms: TRANSPARENT, clear, pellucid, see-through, translucent
Sample: A limpid stream ran through his property.
linen [ ] n.
cloth made of flax and noted for its strength, coolness, and luster
clay:porcelain=flax:linen :=:()
flannel:cloth=linen:fabric :=:()
Sample: You can buy towels in the linen department of this store.
linoleum [ ] n.
a floor covering made by laying on a burlap or canvas backing a mixture of
solidified linseed oil with gums, cork dust or wood flour or both, and usually pigments
varnish:wood=wax:linoleum
Sample: We have linoleum on our kitchen floor.
lint [ ] n.
fuzz consisting especially of fine ravelings and short fibers of yarn and fabric
lint:covering=tarpaulin:garment
Sample: She tried to brush the lint from her jacket.
lissome [ ] adj.
NIMBLE
lissome:lithe=??
lissome<>ungainly
lissome<>solid
Synonyms: SUPPLE, limber, lithe, lithesome
list [ ] n.
a deviation from the vertical:TILT; also:the extent of such a deviation
list<>upright
Synonyms: SLANT, cant, heel, incline, lean, recline, slope, tilt, tip
Sample: The ship listed during the storm.
listless [ ] adj.
297
characterized by lack of interest, energy, or spirit:LANGUID
Synonyms: LANGUID, die-away, enervated, lackadaisical, languishing, languorous,
limp, spiritless
Sample: We had expected him to be full of enthusiasm and were surprised by his
listless attitude.
lithe [ ] adj.
characterized by easy flexibility and grace
lissome:lithe=??
lithe<>awkward
Synonyms: SUPPLE, limber, lissome, lithesome
Sample: Her figure was lithe and willowy.
loath [ ] adj.
unwilling to do something contrary to one's ways of thinking:RELUCTANT
castigation:reproof=loathing:dislike
loath<>eager
Synonyms: DISINCLINED, afraid, averse, backward, hesitant, indisposed, reluctant,
uneager, unwilling, unwishful
Sample: They were both loath for him to go.
loathe [ ] vt.
To dislike (someone or something) greatly; abhor.
dislike:loathing=pleasure:bliss
loathe<>amusing
Sample: We loathed the wicked villain.
lode [ ] n.
an ore deposit
shale:lode=well:aquifer
Sample: If this lode that we have discovered extends for any distance, we have found a
fortune.
lofty [ ] adj.
elevated in status:SUPERIOR
ignominious<>lofty
lofty<>mean
lofty<>cast down
Synonyms: GENEROUS, benevolent, big, chivalrous, considerate, greathearted,
magnanimous
Sample: They used to tease him about his lofty ambitions.
loll [ ] vi.
to act or move in a lax, lazy, or indolent manner:LOUNGE
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loll<>move vigorously
Synonyms: IDLE, bum, dawdle, diddle, laze, lazy, loaf, loiter, lounge
Sample: They lolled around in their chairs watching television.
loophole [ ] n.
a similar opening to admit light and air or to permit observation
airtight:loophole=??
Sample: There is a loophole in the new tax law that allows the rich to escape paying
higher taxes.
lopsided [ ] adj.
lacking in balance, symmetry, or proportion:disproportionately heavy on one side
even handed<>lopsided
Synonyms: asymmetric, difform, disproportional, disproportionate, irregular,
nonsymmetrical, off-balance, overbalanced, proportionless, unbalanced, unequal,
uneven, unproportionate, unsymmetrical
Sample: Our team had a lopsided victory of 10 to 0 over our opponent.
loquacious [ ] adj.
given to fluent or excessive talk:GARRULOUS
flatter:praise=loquacious:talkative
loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly
loquacious:talkative=rash:adventurous
loquacious:talkative=cloying:sweet
loquacious:word=profligate:money
laconic<>loquacious
loquacious<>taciturn
reticent<>loquacious
Synonyms: TALKATIVE, babblative, chatty, gabby, garrulous, loose-lipped,
loose-tongued, multiloquent, multiloquious, talky
Sample: She is very loquacious and can speak on the telephone for hours.
lottery [ ] n.
a drawing of lots in which prizes are distributed to the winners among persons buying a
chance
lottery:raffle=ticket:admission
Sample: Nothing excites Esther; even when she won the state lottery, she still
preserved her air of bovine calm.
lounge [ ] v. n.
to act or move idly or lazily:LOAF
Synonyms: IDLE, bum, dawdle, goldbrick, laze, lazy, loaf, loiter, loll
Sample: We lounged on the beach.
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loutish [ ] adj.
resembling or befitting a lout
genteel<>loutish
Synonyms: BOORISH, churlish, cloddish, clodhopping, clownish, ill-bred, lowbred,
uncivilized, uncultured, unrefined
Sample: The delivery boy is an awkward lout.
loyal [ ] n.
unswerving in allegiance:as faithful in allegiance to one's lawful sovereign or
government
exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty
snub:disdain=double cross:disloyalty
Synonyms: FAITHFUL, allegiant, ardent, constant, resolute, steadfast, true
Sample: Many of her followers remain loyal to her, and even those who have rejected
her leadership are unconvinced of the wisdom of replacing her during the current
turmoil.
lubricate [ ] vt.
to make smooth or slippery
oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect
Synonyms: BRIBE, buy, buy off, fix, have, sop, square, tamper (with)
Sample: Oils lubricate moving parts of engines and other machines.
lucid [ ] adj.
clear to the understanding:INTELLIGIBLE
manifest/lucid:perceive=transparent:understand
prominent:notice=lucid:understand
obfuscate<>lucid
Synonyms: UNDERSTANDABLE, apprehensible, comprehendible, comprehensible,
fathomable, graspable, intelligible, knowable, luminous
Sample: Although just barely adequate as a writer of lucid prose, Jones was an
extremely capable editor who worked superbly with other writers in helping them
improve the clarity of their writing.
ludicrous [ ] adj.
meriting derisive laughter or scorn as absurdly inept, false, or foolish
ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag
Synonyms: LAUGHABLE, comic, comical, droll, farcical, funny, gelastic, ridiculous,
risible
Sample: Although his attempts to appear psychotic were so clumsy as to be almost
ludicrous, there is evidence that Ezra Pound was able to avoid standing trial for treason
merely by faking symptoms of mental illness.
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lug [ ] vt.vi.
to carry laboriously
lug:carry=trudge:walk
Sample: I lugged two heavy suitcases to the train station.
lugubrious [ ] adj.
MOURNFUL; especially:exaggeratedly or affectedly mournful
facetious<>lugubrious
Synonyms: MELANCHOLY, doleful, dolesome, dolorous, lamentable, mournful,
plaintive, rueful, sorrowful, woeful
Sample: The lugabrious howling of the dogs added to our sadness.
lull [ ] vt.
to cause to sleep or rest:SOOTHE
galvanize<>lull
startle<>lull
lull<>revive
lull<>hectic period
Synonyms: CALM, allay, balm, becalm, compose, quiet, settle, soothe, still,
tranquilize
Sample: Not wanting to get wet, they waited under the awning for a lull in the rain.
lullaby [ ] n.
a soothing refrain; specifically:a song to quiet children or lull them to sleep
lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse
Sample: She sang sweet lullabies to her baby at bedtime.
lumen [ ] n.
a unit of luminous flux equal to the light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point
source of one candle intensity
decibel:sound=volt:electricity=watt:power=lumen:light
Sample: In buying light bulbs, she checked not only their power, as measured in watts,
but their brightness, as measured in lumens.
luminary [ ] n.
a person of prominence or brilliant achievement
master:experience=luminary:eminence
maven:experience=luminary:eminence
Synonyms: CELEBRITY, big name, name, notability, notable, somebody
Sample: A leading light of the American stage, Ethel Barrymore was a theatrical
luminary whose name lives on.
lurk [ ] vi.
to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose
lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate=abscond:depart
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lurk:concealment=purloin:appropriation
lurk:concealment=espouse:marriage
Synonyms: SNEAK, creep, gumshoe, pussyfoot, skulk, slide, slink, slip, steal
Sample: "Who knows what evils lurk in the hearts of men? The shadow knows."
lush [ ] adj.
growing vigorously especially with luxuriant foliage
sere<>lush/damp
Synonyms: PROFUSE, exuberant, lavish, luxuriant, opulent, prodigal, profusive,
riotous
Sample: The garden is lush with new spring growth.
lustrous [ ] adj.
reflecting light evenly and efficiently without glitter or sparkle
numb:insensible=burnish:lustrous
Synonyms: burnished, gleaming, glistening, glossy, polished, sheeny, shining, shiny
Sample: Her large and lustrous eyes gave a touch of beauty to an otherwise drab face.
luxurious [ ] adj.
marked by or given to self-indulgence
spartan<>sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious
luxuriant<>spartan
Synonyms: SENSUOUS, epicurean, luscious, lush, sensual, sensualistic, voluptuous
Sample: Their house is full of luxurious furniture.
lyric [ ] n.
the words of a song
libretto:opera=lyrics:song libretto:the text of a work (as an opera) for the musical
theater
pleasurable:paradisical=melodious:lyrical
ballad:song=lyric:poem=comedian:actor
Sample: The natures of social history and lyric poetry are antithetical, social history
always recounting the evanescent and lyric poetry speaking for unchanging human
nature, that timeless essence beyond fashion and economics.
maelstrom [ ] n
a powerful often violent whirlpool sucking in objects within a given radius
maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory
Synonyms: EDDY, vortex, whirl, whirlpool
Sample: The canoe was tossed about in the maelstrom.
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magnificent [ ] adj.
Grand or noble in thought or deed; exalted.
magnificent<>base
Synonyms: GRAND, august, grandiose, imposing, lordly, magnific, majestic, noble,
princely, stately
Sample: In a magnificent feat of engineering, Goethals and his men cut through the
isthmus of Panama in constructing the Panama Canal.
maladroit [ ] n.
lacking adroitness:INEPT
complaisance:intractable=adeptness:maladroit
maladroit:deft=voluble:terse
maladroit:skill=glib:profundity
deft<>maladroit
Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, halting, ham-handed,
heavy-handed, inept, lumbering, unhandy
Sample: In his usual maladroit way, he managed to upset the cart and spill the food.
malcontent [ ] adj.
dissatisfied with the existing state of affairs:DISCONTENTED
dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain
daredevil:???=malcontent:dissatisfaction
sycophant:fawn=malcontent:complaint
Synonyms: GROUCH, complainer, crank, faultfinder, griper, growler, grumbler,
kicker, sorehead
Sample: He was one of the few malcontents in the Congress; he constantly voiced his
objections to the Presidential program.
malicious [ ] adj.
given to, marked by, or arising from malice
malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole
malicious:ill will=diligent:effort
expansive<>malicious
Synonyms: bitchy, catty, despiteful, evil, hateful, malevolent, malign, malignant, nasty,
rancorous, spiteful, spitish, vicious, wicked
Sample: No computer system is immune to a virus, a particularly malicious program
that is designed to infect and electronically damage the disks on which data are stored.
malign [ ] adj.
having or showing intense often vicious ill will:MALEVOLENT
malign:ill will=diligent:effort
extol<>malign
Synonyms: MALICIOUS, despiteful, evil, hateful, malevolent, malignant, rancorous,
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spiteful, vicious, wicked
Sample: Because of her hatred of the family, she maligns all who are friendly to them.
malinger [ ] v
to pretend incapacity (as illness) so as to avoid duty or work
parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk
hoard:miser=shirk:malinger
malinger:duty=camoflage/disemble:detection
Sample: The captain ordered the sergeant to punish all malingerers and force them to
work.
malleable [ ] adj.
capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces or influences
friable:crumble=malleable:alter
knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable
malleable:shape=irresolute:opinion
malleable<>hard to shape
Synonyms: PLASTIC, adaptable, ductile, moldable, pliable, pliant, supple
Sample: Gold is a malleable metal.
malodor [ ] n.
an offensive odor
cacophony:sound=malodor:scent
malodorous:smell=cacophony/jarring:sound
Sample: The component heap was most malodorous in summer.
mandatory [ ] adj.
containing or constituting a command:OBLIGATORY
mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain
discretionary<>mandatory
Synonyms: compulsatory, compulsory, imperative, imperious, obligatory, required
Sample: Whereas the Elizabethans struggled with the transition from medieval
corporate experience to modern individualism, we confront an electronic technology
that seems likely to reverse the trend, rendering individualism obsolete and
interdependence mandatory.
mangle [ ] vt.
to spoil, injure, or make incoherent especially through ineptitude
mangle<>praise extravagantly
Synonyms: BATTER , maul
Sample: The hospital could not take care of all who had been mangled or maimed in
the railroad accident.
mangy [ ] adj
304
having many worn or bare spots:SEEDY, SHABBY
mangy<>decorous
Synonyms: SHABBY, decrepit, down-at-heel, moth-eaten, scruffy, seedy, sleazy,
squalid, tagrag, tattered
Sample: We finally thew out the mangy rug that the dog had destroyed.
mania [ ] n.
excessive or unreasonable enthusiasm
enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia
hidebound:conservative=manic:interested/excited {peeved:annoyed }
Sample: His maniacal laughter frightened us.
manifest [ ] n.
a list of passengers or an invoice of cargo for a vehicle (as a ship or plane)
census:population=inventory:stock
inventory:merchandise=manifest:cargo
repertoire:performance=manifest:cargo=agenda:meeting
Sample: A clerk checked off the items on the manifest that she had received.
manifest [ ] adj.
easily understood or recognized by the mind:OBVIOUS
manifest/lucid:perceive=transparent:understand
palatable:savory=discernible:manifest
manifest:perceive=brittle:break
audible:stentorian=discernible:manifest
latent<>menifest
occult<>manifest
Synonyms: CLEAR, apparent, distinct, evident, obvious, palpable, patent, plain,
straightforward, unambiguous
Sample: His evil intentions were manifest and yet we could not stop him.
manipulate [ ] vt.
to control or play upon by artful, unfair, or insidious means especially to one's own
advantage
dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee }
manipulate<>guileless
Synonyms: beguile, exploit, finesse, jockey, maneuver, play
Sample: Under ethical guidelines recently adopted by the National Institutes of Health,
human genes are to be manipulated only to correct diseases for which alternative
treatments are unsatisfactory.
mansion [ ] n.
a large imposing residence
mansion:residence=limousine:automobile
Sample: During his checkered career he had lived in palatial mansions and in dreary
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boardinghouses.
manumit [ ] v.
to release from slavery
manumit<>enslave
detain<>manumit
Synonyms: FREE, discharge, emancipate, liberate, loose, loosen, release, unbind,
unchain, unshackle
Sample: Enlightened slave owners were willing to manumit their slaves and thus put
an end to the evil slavery in the country.
manuscript [ ] n.
a written or typewritten composition or document as distinguished from a printed copy;
also:a document submitted for publication
archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon
Sample: With the help of her editor, she was able to prune her manuscript into
publishable form.
mar [ ] v.
To impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil
burnish:dull=mar:flawless
mar<>enhance
Sample: This final essay, its prevailing kindliness marred by occasional flashes of
savage irony, bespeaks the dichotomous character of the author.
marsh [ ] n.
a tract of soft wet land usually characterized by monocotyledons (as grasses or cattails)
marsh:sodden=desert:arid
marshy<>arid
Synonyms: SWAMP, baygall, bog, fen, marshland, mire, morass, quag, quagmire,
swampland
Sample: Marshes have ponds where ducks and geese build nests and feed.
marsupial [ ] nadj
any of an order (Marsupialia) of mammals comprising kangaroos, wombats, bandicoots,
opossums, and related animals that do not develop a true placenta and that usually have
a pouch on the abdomen of the female which covers the teats and serves to carry the
young
kangaroo:marsupial=squirrel:rodent
Sample: The most common marsupial in North America is the opposum.
martinet [ ] n.
a strict disciplinarian
martinet:discipline=pedant:learning { gourmet:food}
stickler:exacting=martinet:discipline
martinet :leniency=dabbler :dedication
306
martinet<>indulgent person
Sample: The commanding officer was a martinet who observed each regulation to the
utter.
marvel [ ] n. v.
something that causes wonder or astonishment
marvel<>mean
pedestrian<>marvelous
Synonyms: WONDER, miracle, phenomenon, portent, prodigy, sensation, stunner
Sample: Winsor McCay, the cartoonist, could draw with incredible virtuosity:his
comic strip about Little Nemo was characterized by marvelous draftsmanship and
sequencing.
masquerade [ ] n. v.
to assume the appearance of something one is not
dissemble:information=masquerade:feeling
Sample: He masquerades as a big businessman, but he really isn't one.
masticate [ ] vt.vi.
to grind or crush (food) with or as if with the teeth in preparation for
swallowing:CHEW
lung:respire=tooth:masticate {eye:envision,ear:resonate}
Synonyms: CHEW, champ, chomp, chumble, chump, crunch, munch, ruminate,
scrunch
Sample: We must masticate our food carefully and slowly in order to avoid digestive
disorders.
matriculate [ ] vt.
to enroll as a member of a body and especially of a college or university
inauguration:official=matriculation:student
inception:termination=matriculation:graduation
commencement<>matriculation
Sample: She matriculated into the state university last fall.
mattress [ ] n.
a fabric case filled with resilient material (as cotton, hair, feathers, foam rubber, or an
arrangement of coiled springs) used either alone as a bed or on a bedstead
tablecloth:table=sheet:mattress
Sample: I like a firm mattress to support my back.
maudlin [ ] adj.
weakly and effusively sentimental
mawkish/maudlin:sentiment=pedantic:scholarship
maudlin:sentimental=obsequious:deferential
maudlin:sentimental=peeved:annoyed
maudlin<>jovial
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Synonyms: SENTIMENTAL, bathetic, lovey-dovey, mawkish, mushy, romantic,
slushy, sticky, tear-jerking
Sample: I do not like such maudlin pictures. I call them tearjerkers.
maven [ ] n.
one who is experienced or knowledgeable:EXPERT
maven:experience=luminary:eminence=augur:prediction
Synonyms: EXPERT, adept, authority, master, past master, professional, proficient,
virtuoso
Sample: He is a computer maven.
maverick [ ] n.
an independent individual who does not go along with a group or party
dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group
maverick<>follower
maverick<>conform to tradition
Sample: With its maverick approach to the subject, Shere Hite's book has been more
widely debated than most; the media throughout the country have brought the author's
controversial opinions to the public's attention.
mawkish [ ] adj.
sickly or puerilely sentimental m
mawkish/maudlin:sentiment=pedantic:scholarship
mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy
mawkish:sentimental=gullible:trust
mawkish<>unsentimental
Synonyms: SENTIMENTAL, bathetic, lovey-dovey, maudlin, mushy, romantic, slushy,
sticky, tear-jerking
Sample: Your mawkish sighs fill me with disgust.
meager [ ] adj.
deficient in quality or quantity
amplitude<>meagerness
Synonyms: exiguous, poor, scant, scanty, scrimp, scrimpy, skimp, skimpy, spare,
sparse
Sample: The powers and satisfactions of primeval people, though few and meager,
were commensurate with their few and simple desires.
mean [ ] adj.
PENURIOUS, STINGY
mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance
lavish<>mean
mean<>noble
Sample: During dry periods, poor farmers can lead a mean existence.
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measly [ ] adj.
contemptibly small
measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly
measly<>grand
Synonyms: PETTY, niggling, paltry, pettifogging, picayune, picayunish, piddling,
puny, trifling, trivial
Sample: Although the incidence of cases of measles has declined, researchers fear that
eradication of the disease, once believed to be imminent, may not come soon.
measured [ ] adj.
marked by due proportion
measured<>inappropriate
mechanical [ ] adj.
Performed or performing in an impersonal or machinelike manner; automatic
mechanical<>emotional
Sample: Although hampered by optical and mechanical flaws, the orbiting Hubble
space telescope has relayed extraordinary images of distant sidereal bodies.
meddle [ ] vi.
to interest oneself in what is not one's concern:interfere without right or propriety
officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel
meddlesome:pry=contentious:argue
attentive:meddlesome=envious:jealous
Synonyms: busybody, butt in, fool, horn in, interfere, interlope, intermeddle, mess
around, monkey (with), tamper (with)
Sample: He felt his marriage was suffering because of his meddlesome mother-in-law.
media [ ] n.
a nutrient system for the artificial cultivation of cells or organisms and especially
bacteria
plantation:tobacco=media:bacteria
mediate [ ] vt.
to interpose between parties in order to reconcile them
intercessor:mediate=translator:interpret/augur:prediction
mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction
Synonyms: INTERPOSE, intercede, interfere, intermediate, intervene, step in

List 18 mediocre --- needy
mediocre [ ] adj.
of moderate or low quality, value, ability, or performance:ORDINARY, SO-SO
virtuosity<>mediocrity
Synonyms: MEDIUM, average, fair, fairish, indifferent, intermediate, mean, middling,
moderate, so-so
Sample: Broadway audiences have become inured to mediocrity and so desperate to
309
be pleased as to make their ready ovations meaningless as an indicator of the quality of
the production before them.
meditate [ ] vi.
to engage in contemplation or reflection
Synonyms: PONDER, deliberate, mull (over), muse, revolve, roll, ruminate, turn over
Sample: She reached her decision only after much meditation.
medley [ ] n.
a musical composition made up of a series of songs or short pieces
montage:images=medley:songs
Sample: The band played a medley of Gershwin tunes.
meet [ ] adj. v.
precisely adapted to a particular situation, need, or circumstance:very proper
meet<>inappropriate/unsuitable
meet<>unfit {disjointed}
meliorism [ ] n.
The belief that society has an innate tendency toward improvement and that this
tendency may be furthered through conscious human effort.
meliorism:progress=egalitarian:equity
mellifluous [ ] adj
having a smooth rich flow
mellifluous:music=ambrosial:food
mellifluous:sound=savory:taste
Synonyms: golden, honeyed, Hyblaean, liquid, mellifluent, mellow
Sample: The combination of elegance and earthiness in Edmund's speech can be
starting, especially when he slyly slips in some juicy vulgarity amid the mellifluous
circumlocutions of a gentleman of the old school.
melody [ ] n.
a sweet or agreeable succession or arrangement of sounds:TUNEFULNESS
melody:song=??
pleasurable:paradisical=melodious:lyrical
cacophony:melody=genteel:churl
melodious<>jarring
Sample: The soprano sang the melody while the tenor sang in harmony with her.
membrane [ ] n
a thin soft pliable sheet or layer especially of animal or plant origin
pore:membrane=door:room
cell:membrane=seed:hull
Sample: A ganglionic cyst is a fluid-filled tumor (generally benign) that develops near
a joint membrane or tendon sheath, and that bulges beneath the skin, forming a
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protuberance.
menace [ ] vt.vi.
to make a show of intention to harm
odious:disgust=menacing:fear
odious:repugnance=menacing:fear {immovable:stability}
Synonyms: ENDANGER, compromise, hazard, imperil, jeopard, jeopardize, jeopardy,
peril, risk
Sample: That nasty dog is a menace to the children in the neighborhood.
mend [ ] vt.
to put into good shape or working order again:patch up:REPAIR
rend<>unite/mend
Sample: The conflict over abortion threatens to split our nation, creating a rent in the
social fabric that will be difficult to mend.
mendacious [ ] adj
given to or characterized by deception or falsehood or divergence from absolutetruth
ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth
mendacious<>honest
veracious<>mendacious
mendacity<>veracity
mendacity<>honesty
mendacity<>candor
Synonyms: DISHONEST, deceitful, knavish, lying, roguish, shifty, unhonest,
untruthful
Sample: He was pathological liar, and his friends learned to discount his mendacious
stories.
mentor [ ] n.
a trusted counselor or guide:TUTOR, COACH
mentor:guidance=oracle:prophecy
Sample: During this very trying period, she could not have had a better mentor, for the
teacher was sympathetic and understanding.
mercenary [ ] adjn.
one that serves merely for wages; especially:a soldier hired into foreign service
mercenary:money=vindictive:revenge
mercenary:soldier=hack:writer
Sample: "I'm not in this war because I get my kicks waving flags," said the mercenary
soldier. "I'm in it for the dough."
mercurial [ ] adj
characterized by rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood
mercurial:mood=whimsical:behavior
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profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed
scurrilous:propriety=mercurial:constancy
Synonyms: INCONSTANT, capricious, changeable, fickle, lubricious, temperamental,
ticklish, unstable, variable, volatile
Sample: The childrens mercurial natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered
dispositions of their parents. (9504)
merited [ ] adj.
deserved, be worthy of or entitled or liable to
castigation:eproof=denunciation:denial/lorification:merit
condign<>undeserved/unmerited
gratuitous<>merited
merited<>unsuitable
Sample: That business proposal merits careful consideration.
mesh [ ] vt.
to cause (as gears) to engage
disengage<>mesh
Synonyms: ENGAGE, intermesh
Sample: Though science is often imagined as a disinterested exploration of external
reality, scientists are no different from anyone else:they are passionate human beings
enmeshed in a web of personal and social circumstances.
mesmerism [ ] n.
hypnotic induction held to involve animal magnetism; broadly:HYPNOTISM
zeal:dedication=mesmerism:interest
exhaustive:careful=mesmerized:interesting
Sample: The incessant drone seemed to mesmerize him and place him in a trance.
messy [ ] adj.
marked by confusion, disorder, or dirt:UNTIDY
Sample: Her room is always messy with magazines and clothes everywhere.
metaphor [ ] n.
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea
is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them (as in
drowning in money); broadly:figurative language
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense=obfuscation:clarity { metaphor:description }
metaphor:description
euphemism:offense=ambiguity:comprehesion{metaphor:description }
Sample: Ironically, the proper use of figurative language must be based on the
denotative meaning of the words, because it is the failure to recognize this literal
meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their attendant incongruity.
meteoric [ ] adj.
312
resembling a meteor in speed or in sudden and temporary brilliance
fleeting:pass=meteoric:rise
meteoric:constancy=archaic:currency
meteoric<>plodding
Sample: We all wondered at his meteoric rise to fame.
meteorology [ ] n.
a science that deals with the atmosphere and its phenomena and especially with weather
and weather forecasting
demography:population=meteorology:weather
Sample: Meteorology includes the study of weather.
meticulous [ ] adj
marked by extreme or excessive care in the consideration or treatment of details
firmness:obdurate=carefulness:meticulous
fluent:glib=humorous:wry { meticulous:finicky }
meticulous<>carelessness
Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, fussy, heedful, painstaking,
punctilious, punctual, scrupulous
Sample: He was meticulous in checking his accounts and never made mistakes.
metrical [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or composed in meter
scan:metrical=parse:grammatical
Sample: Iambic pentameter is a metric pattern in much of Shakespeare's poetry.
miff [ ] n. vt.
a trivial quarrel
Synonyms: OFFENSE, dudgeon, huff, pique, resentment, umbrage
Sample: He was miffed that his girlfriend did not show up for a date.
migratory [ ] adj.
WANDERING, ROVING
migratory<>sedentary
Synonyms: migrant, migrative, migratorial, mobile, transmigratory
Sample: The return of the migratory birds to the northern sections of this country is a
harbinger of spring.
mill [ ] n.
a building provided with machinery for grinding grain into flour
refinery:petroleum=mill:grain
Sample: She puts beef through a mill to make hamburger meat.
mime [ ] vt.vi.
313
to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words
parody:style=mime:gesture
charade:word=mime:story
Sample: The children laughed when he mimed being inside a room with no door.
minaret [ ] n.
a tall slender tower of a mosque having one or more balconies from which the summons
to prayer is cried by the muezzin
spire:church=minaret:mosque
minatory [ ] adj
having a menacing quality:THREATENING
minatory<>non threatening
Sample: Jabbing a minatory forefinger at Dorothy, the Wicked Witch cried, "I'll get
you, and your little dog, too!"
mince [ ] vi.
to walk with short steps in a prim affected manner
sip:drink=mince:walk
quaff:sip=stride:mince
Sample: Yum-Yum walked across the stage with mincing steps.
mingle [ ] vt.vi.
to bring or mix together or with something else usually without fundamental loss of
identity:INTERMIX
mingle<>separate
sequester<>permit to mingle
Sample: A good salesperson in usually an extrovert, who likes to mingle with people.
minion [ ] n.
a servile dependent, follower, or underling
minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner
mint [ ] vt.
to make (as coins) out of metal:COIN
strike:medal=mint:coin
Sample: The US government mints pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters.
mint [ ] n.
a vast sum or amount
mint<>modicum
minuscule [ ] adj. n.
very small
small:minuscule=moist:saturated
minuscule:letter=minnow:fish
minuscule<>lengthy document
Sample: Why should I involve myself with a project with so minuscule a chance for
success?
314
minutia [ ] n.
a minute or minor detail
minutia<>essential point/vital feature
minutia<>lengthy account
Synonyms: TRIVIA, small beer, small change, small potato(es), triviality
Sample: She would have liked to ignore the minutiae of daily living.
miracle [ ] n.
an extremely outstanding or unusual event, thing, or accomplishment
prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence
ordinary<>miraculous
Synonyms: WONDER, marvel, phenomenon, portent, prodigy, sensation, stunner
Sample: All the passengers in a sinking boat drowned except one who was saved by a
miracle.
mirage [ ] n
something illusory and unattainable
maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory
Sample: The lost prospector was fooled by a mirage in the desert.
mire [ ] vt.
to cause to stick fast in or as if in mire
mire<>extricate
Sample: Their rear wheels became mired in mud.
mirth [ ] n
gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter
mirth:laughter=approval:applause
Sample: Sober Malvolio found Sir Toby's mirth improper.
misanthrope [ ] n.
a person who hates or distrusts mankind
misanthrope:humane=ascetic:voluptuary
Sample: We thought the hermit was a miantrope because he shunned our society.
misbehave [ ] vt.vi.
To behave (oneself) in an inappropriate way, to behave badly
castigation:disapproval=misbehave:crime
lapse:error=misbehavior:criminality
reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn
Sample: When her son misbehaves, she yells at him instead of telling him why his
actions are wrong.
mischievous [ ] adj.
315
able or tending to cause annoyance, trouble, or minor injury
insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp
tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous
rapscallion:mischievous=sluggard:lazy {cavalier:arrogant}
Synonyms: NAUGHTY, bad, ill-behaved, misbehaving, paw
Sample: She always tried to entice her baby brother into mischief.
miscreant [ ] n.
one who behaves criminally or viciously
miscreant:criminal=visionary:delusion
miscreant<>law-abiding individual
miscreant<>saint
Synonyms: VILLAIN , blackguard, heel, knave, lowlife, rascal, rogue, scoundrel
Sample: His kindness to the miscreant amazed all of us who had expected to hear
severe punishment pronounced.
misdemeanor [ ] n.
a crime less serious than a felony
crime:misdemeanor=commitment:decision
misdemeanor:crime=lapse:error
Sample: The culprit pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor rather than face trial for a felony.
miser [ ] n.
a mean grasping person; especially:one who is extremely stingy with money
miser:munificent=zealot:blas
miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent
spendthrift<>miser
Sample: Her frugality should not be confused with miserliness; as long as I have
known her, she has always been willing to assist those who are in need.
misfortune [ ] n.
a distressing or unfortunate incident or event
boon<>misfortune
Synonyms: adversity, contretemps, mischance, mishap, tragedy
Sample: People frequently denigrate books about recent catastrophes as morally
despicable attempts to profit, from misfortune, but in my view our desire for such books,
together with the venerable tradition to which they belong, legitimizes them.
misgiving [ ] n.
a feeling of doubt or suspicion especially concerning a future event
misgiving<>certainty
compunction<>absence of misgiving/{ animosity }
Synonyms: APPREHENSION, apprehensiveness, foreboding, premonition, prenotion,
316
presage, presentiment
Sample: Hamlet described his misgivings to Horatio but decided to fence with Laertes
despite his foreboding of evil.
mishap [ ] n.
an unfortunate accident
catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment
mishap:accident=peccadillo:offence
oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic
Synonyms: MISFORTUNE, adversity, contretemps, mischance, tragedy
Sample: With a little care you could have avoided this mishap.
misnomer [ ] n.
a name wrongly or unsuitably applied to a person or an object
Sample: His tyrannical conduct proved to all that his nickname, King Eric the Just,
was a misnomer.
misrepresent [ ] vt.
to give a false or misleading representation of usually with an intent to deceive or be
unfair
tamper:adjust=misrepresent:communicate
Sample: He misrepresented the job as working in an office when it is actually an
outside sales position.
mite [ ] n.
any of numerous small acarid arachnids that often infest animals, plants, and stored
foods and include important disease vectors
mite:creature=speck:amount
Sample: Gnats are annoying mites that sing.
mitigate [ ] v.
to make less severe or painful:ALLEVIATE
mitigate:severe=qualify:general
mitigate<>exacerbate
Synonyms: RELIEVE, allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, lighten, mollify
Sample: Nothing he did could mitigate her wrath; she was unforgiving.
mnemonics [ ] n.
a technique of improving the memory
regiment:health=mnemonics:memory
mnemonics:remember=staff:walk
Sample: He used mnemonic tricks to master new words.
morbid [ ] adj.
abnormally susceptible to or characterized by gloomy or unwholesome feelings
317
morbid<>wholesome
morbid<>hale
Synonyms: morose, sick, sickly
Sample: These morbid speculations are dangerous; we must lighten our spirits by
emphasizing more pleasant matters.
mobility [ ] n.
capable of moving or being moved:MOVABLE
splint:mobility=ballast:instability=purchase:slippery
splint:immobilize=duct:convey
Sample: The hierarchy of medical occupations is in many ways a caste system; its
strata remain intact and the practitioners in them have very little vertical mobility.
mockery [ ] n.
a subject of laughter, derision, or sport
diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery
Synonyms: burlesque, caricature, farce, mock, sham, travesty
Sample: His trial was a mockery of justice; everyone knew he was guilty, yet he was
found innocent.
moderate [ ] vt.
to lessen the intensity or extremeness of
exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty
moderate:intensify=extenuate:seriousness
Sample: The hurricane's high winds moderated as it reached the shore.
modicum [ ] n.
a small portion:a limited quantity
inkling:knowledge=modicum:quantity
modicum<>large amount
Synonyms: PARTICLE, atom, grain, iota, jot, minim, molecule, ounce, scrap, whit
Sample: Although his story is based on a modicum of truth, most of the events he
describes are fictitious.
molar [ ] n.
A tooth with a broad crown used to grind food, located behind the premolars.
rib:bone=molar:tooth
Sample: The dentist took a bad molar out of my mouth.
molding [ ] n.
a decorative plane or curved strip used for ornamentation or finishing
hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet
mollify [ ] v.
to soothe in temper or disposition:APPEASE
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mollification:soothe=indemnity:secure
mollify:anger=hearted:dejection
mollify<>rouse
vex<>mollify
discommode<>convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify
mollify<>antagonize/ire
pique<>mollify
discomfit<>mollify
mollify<>exasperate
bait<>mollify
disaffect<>mollify
mollify<>nettle
mollify<>rankle
Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, conciliate, placate, propitiate, sweeten
Sample: A customer was unhappy, and the store manager mollified her by returning
her money.
mollycoddle [ ] vt.
a pampered or effeminate man or boy
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle
mollycoddle<>treat harshly
Sample: Don't mollycoddle the boy, Maud! You'll spoil him.
molt [ ] n.
the act or process of sheding hair, feathers, shell, horns, or an outer layer periodically;
specifically:ECDYSIS
fledging<>molt
Sample: The male robin molted in the spring.
momentous [ ] adj.
IMPORTANT, CONSEQUENTIAL
atrocious:bad=momentous:important
Synonyms: IMPORTANT, big, consequential, considerable, material, meaningful,
significant, substantial, weighty
Sample: The failure of many psychotherapists to utilize the results of pioneering
research could be due in part to the specialized nature of such findings:even momentous
findings may not be useful.
momentum [ ] n.
a property of a moving body that the body has by virtue of its mass and motion and that
is equal to the product of the body's mass and velocity
oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter
Sample: The car lost momentum as it tried to ascend the steep hill.
monochromatic [ ] adj.
having or consisting of one color or hue
319
iridescent<>monochromatic
chromatic<>colorless
Sample: Most people who are color blind actually can distinguish several colors; some,
however, have a truly monochromatic view of a world all in shades of gray.
monocle [ ] n.
an eyeglass for one eye
monocle:eye=??
monopolize [ ] vt.
to get a monopoly of:assume complete possession or control of
Sample: The people grumbled at his exorbitant prices but paid them because he had a
monopoly.
monotone [ ] adj.
having the property either of never increasing or of never decreasing as the values of the
independent variable or the subscripts of the terms increase:MONOTONIC
vociferous<>reticent/monotone
monotonous<>piebald
Synonyms: DULL, banausic, blah, dreary, humdrum, monotonous, pedestrian, poky,
stodgy
Sample: The speaker's monotone bored the audience and many people fell asleep.
montage [ ] n.
the production of a rapid succession of images in a motion picture to illustrate an
association of ideas
montage:images=medley:songs
zigzag:turns=montage:images
Sample: The movie was a montage of scenes of life in New York City.
morass [ ] n.
something that traps, confuses, or impedes
morass:irritating=??
Sample: Congress turned into a legislative morass where nothing could become law.
moratorium [ ] n.
a suspension of an ongoing or planned activity
reprieve:punishment=moratorium:activity
fast:eat=moratorium:act
moratorium:activity=respite:labor
tourniquet:bleeding=moratorium:activity
Sample: If we declare a moratorium and delay collection of debts for six months, I am
sure the farmers will be able to meet their bills.
mordant [ ] adj.
biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style:INCISIVE
mordant<>genial
Synonyms: CAUSTIC, mordacious, salty, scathing, trenchant
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Sample: Actors feared the critic's mordant pen.
moribund [ ] adj
being in the state of dying:approaching death
initial:realized=tangible:indefinite { moribund:dead }
moribund<>beginning
moribund<>nascent
Sample: The doctors called the family to the bedside of the moribund patient.
morose [ ] adj
having a sullen and gloomy disposition
morose<>cheerful
sanguine<>morose
jovial<>morose
jocund<><>morose
rejoice<>morose
Synonyms: SULLEN, crabbed, dour, gloomy, glum, saturnine, sulky, surly, ugly
Sample: When we first meet Hamlet, we find him morose and depressed.
mortar [ ] n.
a strong vessel in which material is pounded or rubbed with a pestle
hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar
mosque [ ] n.
a building used for public worship by Muslims
spire:church=minaret:mosque
Sample: Muslims pray in the mosques five times a day.
mosquito [ ] n.
any of a family (Culicidae) of dipteran flies with females that have a set of slender
organs in the proboscis adapted to puncture the skin of animals and to suck their blood
and that are in some cases vectors of serious diseases
mosquito:netting=impurity:filter
Sample: myriads of mosquitoes from the swamps invaded our village every twilight.
motile [ ] adj.
exhibiting or capable of movement
motility<>stasis
Sample: Certain organisms exhibit remarkable motility; motile spores, for example,
may travel for miles before coming to rest.
motivate [ ] v.
to provide with a motive:IMPEL
exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir
exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit
fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist
321
Synonyms: PROVOKE, excite, galvanize, innervate, innerve, move, pique, quicken,
rouse, stimulate
Sample: A desire to go to medical school motivates her to study hard every day.
motley [ ] adj.
variegated in color, composed of diverse often incongruous elements
motley<>colorless
motley<>unique
motley<>unvaried
Synonyms: VARIEGATED, dappled, discolor, multicolor, multicolored, multihued,
parti-colored, varicolored, versicolor, versicolored
Sample: As described by Chaucer, the cavalcade of Canterbury pilgrims was motley
group.
mottle [ ] vt.
to mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
striated:groove=mottled/dappled:spot
mottle<>blanch
mottled<>homogenious/solidary
Sample: When he blushed, his face took on a mottled hue.
mournful [ ] adj.
causing sorrow or melancholy:GLOOMY
jovial<>mournful
revelry<>mournfulness
Sample: The hilarity is improper on this solemn day of mourning.
movement [ ] n.
a distinct structural unit or division having its own key, rhythmic structure, and themes
and forming part of an extended musical composition
stanza:poem=movement:orchestra
Sample: Though Gray and Burns share many traits with the Romantic poets who
followed them, most critics consider them precursors of the Romantic Movement, not
true Romantics.
muddy [ ] adj.
lacking in clarity or brightness:CLOUDY, DULL
muddy<>clarity
Sample: Her writing is muddy and difficult to understand.
muffle [ ] vt.
to wrap or pad with something to dull the sound
plangent<>muffled
resonant<>muffled
Sample: We woke to the clarion to muffle its striking.
322
mulish [ ] adj.
unreasonably and inflexibly obstinate
despicable:value=mulish:flexible
flexible<>mulish
pliant<>mulish
Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, perverse, pigheaded, refractory,
self-willed, stiff-necked, stubborn, wrongheaded
mumble [ ] vt.vi.
to utter with a low inarticulate voice
enunciate<>mumble
Sample: After the automobile accident, the victim had periods of aphasia when he
could not speak at all or could only mumble incoherently.
mundane [ ] adj.
characterized by the practical, transitory, and ordinary:COMMONPLACE
mundane<>extraordinary
Synonyms: EARTHLY, earthy, sublunary, tellurian, telluric, terrene, terrestrial,
uncelestial, worldly
Sample: He was concerned only with mundane matters, especially the daily stock
market quotations.
municipality [ ] n.
a primarily urban political unit having corporate status and usually powers of
self-government
Sample: The investigation into municipal corruption turned up new instances of
skulduggery daily.
munificent [ ] adj.
characterized by great liberality or generosity
miser:munificent=zealot:blase
Sample: The munificent gift was presented to the bride by her rich uncle.
mural [ ] adj. n.
a mural work of art (as a painting)
petrography:rock=mural:wall
Sample: Two huge murals were painted by Marc Chagall on the walls of the opera
house.
murky [ ] adj.
characterized by a heavy dimness or obscurity caused by or like that caused by
overhanging fog or smoke
limpid<>murky
murky<>clear
pellucid<>murky
Sample: She left a trace of musky perfume behind her.
323
murmur [ ] n.
a low indistinct but often continuous sound
croon:sing=murmur:speak
Sample: The crowd murmured angrily and indicated that they did not care to listen to
the speaker who was approaching the rostrum.
mute [ ] vt.
to muffle, reduce, or eliminate the sound of
mute<>amplify
Sample: One theory about intelligence sees language as the logical structure
underlying thinking and insists that since animals are mute, they must be mindless as
well.(9504)
myopic [ ] adj.
a lack of foresight or discernment:a narrow view of something
myopic<>discerning
myopia<>prescience
Sample: In thinking only of your present needs and ignoring the future, you are being
rather myopic.
myriad [ ] adj.
having innumerable aspects or elements
countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration
myriad<>few/scarce
myriad<>scanty
Sample: myriads of mosquitoes from the swamps invaded our village every twilight.
nadir [ ] n.
the lowest point
nadir<>summit
nadir<>acme
Sample: Although few people realized it, the Dow-Jones averages had reached their
nadir and would soon begin an upward surge.
nag [ ] v.
to irritate by constant scolding or urging
tonic<>draining { nagging }
Sample: She's always nagging her son to get a haircut.
naive [ ] adj.
deficient in worldly wisdom or informed judgment; especially:CREDULOUS
guile:naif=tardy:prompt
worldly<>naive
Sample: We realized that John was still young and impressionable, but were
nevertheless surprised at his naivety.
narcissism [ ] n.
love of or sexual desire for one's own body
324
narcissist:self absorbed=sycophant:obsequious
narcissism:love=guilt:blame
nascent [ ] adj.
coming or having recently come into existence
moribund<>nascent
Sample: If we could identify these revolutionary movements in their nascent state, we
would be able to eliminate serious trouble in later years.
natty [ ] adj.
trimly neat and tidy:SMART
slovenly<>natty
Sample: Priding himself on being a natty dresser, the gangster Bugsy Siegel collected
a wardrobe of imported suits and ties.
nauseate [ ] v.
to feel disgust
vertigo:nauseate=??
Sample: The foul smells began to nauseate him.
naysayer [ ] n.
one who denies, refuses, opposes, or is skeptical or cynical about something
concur<>naysay <>
nebulous [ ] adj.
INDISTINCT, VAGUE
nebulous<>distinct
nebulous<>clear cut ?
nebulous<>unambiguous ?
Sample: She had only a nebulous memory of her grandmother's face.
needy [ ] adj.
being in want:POVERTY-STRICKEN
affluent<>needy
Sample: As he grew older, he became famous as a philanthropist and benefactor of the
needy.

List 19 nefarious --- palatable
nefarious [ ] adj
flagrantly wicked or impious:EVIL
nefarious:wickedness=generous:liberality
nefarious<>above reproach/virtuous
nefarious<>exemplary
Synonyms: VICIOUS, corrupt, degenerate, flagitious, infamous, miscreant, perverse,
putrid, rotten, villainous
Sample: Uriah Heep disguised his nefarious actions by unctuous protestations of his
325
"umility".
negotiate [ ] vi.
to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter
clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations
negotiator:aggrement=??
tenacious<>negotiable
Sample: Despite an agreement between labor and management to keep the print and
electronic media apprised of developments, the details of the negotiations were withheld
from all but a few journalists from the major metropolitan newspapers.
neophyte [ ] n
a new convert:PROSELYTE
inexperience:neophyte=irresponsibility:wastrel
Synonyms: NOVICE, apprentice, beginner, colt, freshman, newcomer, novitiate,
rookie, tenderfoot, tyro
Sample: This monuntain slope contains slides that will challenge esperts as well as
neophytes.
nepotism [ ] n
favoritism (as in appointment to a job) based on kinship
nepotism:relative=cronyism:friend
neptism:relative=cronyism:intimate
nepotism:kinship=jingoist:nationality
Sample: John left his position with the company because he felt that advancement was
based on nepotism rather than ability.
nerve [ ] vt. n.
to give strength or courage to:supply with physical or moral force
appall<>embolden/nerve
nervy<>diffident
Sample: He was aghast at the nerve of the speaker who had insulted his host.
nettle [ ] n. v.
to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger
imputable:nettle=??:??
conciliate<>nettle
mollify<>nettle
Synonyms: IRRITATE, exasperate, get, huff, peeve, pique, provoke, put out, rile, roil
Sample: Do not let him nettle you with his sarcastic remarks.
neutralize [ ] v.
to counteract the activity or effect of:make ineffective
neutralize:effectiveness=??
Synonyms: annul, cancel (out), counteract, countercheck, frustrate, negate, negative,
326
redress
Sample: Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and
criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they
offered the audience a world devoid of neutrality.
nibble [ ] v.
to eat or chew in small bits
quaff:sip=gobble:nibble
swill:sip=gobble:nibble
nip [ ] v.
to take liquor in nips:TIPPLE
nip:eat=jot:write
Sample: When the plant begins to ramify, it is advisable to nip off most of the new
branches.
nitpicking [ ] adj.
minute and usually unjustified criticism
fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky
nitpick:criticize=cavil:object
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil
Sample: Instead of helping us write the report, he just kept nitpicking.
nocturnal [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or occurring in the night
diurnal<>nocturnal
nocturnal<>happen during daytime
Sample: Mr. Jones obtained a watchdog to prevent the nocturnal raids on his chicken
coops.
noisome [ ] adj.
offensive to the senses and especially to the sense of smell
noisome<>appealing
noisome<>beneficial/pleasant/healthy
Synonyms: UNWHOLESOME, insalubrious, insalutary, noxious, sickly, unhealthful,
unhealthy, unsalutary
Sample: I never could stand the noisome atmosphere surrounding the slaughter
houses.
nomad [ ] n.
a member of a people who have no fixed residence but move from place to place usually
seasonally and within a well-defined territory
nomad:domicile=freelancer:employer
Sample: Several nomadic tribes of Indians would hunt in this area each year.
nominal [ ] adj.
TRIFLING, INSIGNIFICANT
nominal:significance=disjunctive:unity
327
Sample: He offered to drive her to the airport for only a nominal fee.
nonchalant [ ] adj.
having an air of easy unconcern or indifference
anonymous:identify=nonchalant:excite
Sample: Few people could understand how he could listen to the news of the tragedy
with such nonchalance; the mahority regarded him as callous and unsympathetic.
nondescript [ ] adj.
lacking distinctive or interesting qualities:DULL, DRAB
nondescript<>conspicuous
nondescript<>remarkable/striking
Sample: The private detective was a short, nondescript fellow with no ourstanding
features, the sort of person one would never notice in a crowd.
nonentity [ ] n.
a person of little consequence or significance
dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence
Sample: Don't dismiss John as a nonentity; in his quiet way, he's very important to the
firm.
nonflammable [ ] adj.
not flammable; specifically:not easily ignited and not burning rapidly if ignited
impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible
Sample: he furniture is covered with nonflammable material.
nonplus [ ] n.
a state of bafflement or perplexity:QUANDARY
infuriate:rage=nonplus:perplexity
Synonyms: beat, buffalo, get, stick, stump
Sample: Jack's uncharacteristic rudeness nonplussed Jill, leaving her uncertain how to
react.
nonsense [ ] n.
words or language having no meaning or conveying no intelligible ideas
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast
Sample: That company demands that we pay a bill that we've already paid. Why do we
have to put up with that nonsense?
notch [ ] vt.
to cut or make a notch in
serrated<>without notches/smooth
Sample: He cut a notch on the pole to tie a rope around it.
novelty [ ] n.
something new or unusual
threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness
328
ballad:stanza=novel:chapter
banal<>novel
timeworn<>novel
Synonyms: CHANGE, innovation, mutation, permutation, sport, vicissitude
Sample: One such novel idea is that of inserting into the chromosomes of plants
discrete genes that are not a part of the plants natural constitution:specificallythe idea
of inserting into nonleguminous plants the genesif they can be identified and
isolatedthat fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Hence
the intensified research on legumes.
noxious [ ] adj.
physically harmful or destructive to living beings
noxious<>beneficial
noxious<>salubrious
Sample: We must trace the source of these noxious gases before they asphyxiate us.
nuance [ ] n.
a subtle distinction or variation
nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion
nuance<>patent difference
nuance<>lack of subtlety
Sample: The unskilled eye of the layperson has difficulty in dicerning the nuances of
color in the paintings.
nucleate [ ] v.
to form into a nucleus:CLUSTER
nucleate<>disseminate
nudge [ ] n.v.
to touch or push gently; especially:to seek the attention of by a push of the elbow
doze:sleep=nudge:prod
nudge:push=??
butt:head=nudge:elbow
nurture [ ] vt.
to supply with nourishment EDUCATE
nurture<>withhold sustenance from
nurture<>impede
nurture<>stunt
disregard<>nurture
Sample: While nurturing parents can compensate for adversity, cold or inconsistent
parents may exacerbate it.
oafish [ ] adj.
a stupid person:BOOB
Sample: He called the unfortunate waiter a clumsy oaf.
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oasis [ ] n
a fertile or green area in an arid region (as a desert)
glade:wood=oasis:desert=archipelago:ocean
Sample: When we reached the oasis, we were able to slake our thirst.
obdurate [ ] adj.
resistant to persuasion or softening influences
firmness:obdurate=carefulness:meticulous
energetic:frenetic (frenzied)=firm:obdurate
penitent:obdurate=skeptic:credulous
obdurate:move=??
toward<>obdurate
Synonyms: UNFEELING, callous, coldhearted, hard-boiled, hardhearted, heartless,
stonyhearted, uncompassionate, unemotional, unsympathetic
Sample: He was obdurate in his refusal to listen to our complaints.
obeisance [ ] n.
a movement of the body made in token of respect or submission:BOW
obeisant:esteem=embrace:affection
imperious<>servile/obeisant
impudent<>obeisant
Synonyms: HONOR, deference, homage, reverence
Sample: She made an obeisance as the king and queen entered the room.
obfuscate [ ] v.
to make obscure
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense=obfuscation:clarity { metaphor:description }
:metaphor:description
headstrong:willfulness=obfuscate:confusing
rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite}
cowardice:intimidate=perplexed:obfuscate
obfuscate<>elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly
obfuscate<>clarify
obfuscate<>lucid
Synonyms: OBSCURE, adumbrate, becloud, befog, darken, dim, gloom, murk,
overcast, shadow
Sample: Do not obfuscate the issues by dragging in irrelevant arguments.
obedient [ ] adj.
submissive to the restraint or command of authority:willing to obey
contumacious<>obedient
imperial<>obedient
Sample: Good children are obedient to their parents.
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obeisance [ ] n.
a movement of the body made in token of respect or submission:BOW
obeisant<>impertinent
imperious<>servile/obeisant
Synonyms: HONOR, deference, homage, reverence
Sample: She made an obeisance as the king and queen entered the room.
obituary [ ] n.
a notice of a person's death usually with a short biographical account
roster:staff=obituary:death
Sample: I first learned of her death when I read the obituary in the newspaper.
obligatory [ ] adj.
binding in law or conscience
elected:obliged=??
discretionary<>obligatory
selective/elective<>obligatory
Sample: Today water is more ubiquitous in landscape architecture than ever before,
because technological advances have made it easy, in some instances even obligatory to
install water features in public places.
oblige [ ] vt.
to do a favor for
discommode<>oblige
Synonyms: accommodate, convenience, favor
Sample: Having no sense of moral obligation, Shipler was as little subject to the
reproaches of conscience after he acted as he was motivated by its prompting before he
acted.
obliging [ ] adj.
willing to do favors:ACCOMMODATING
visionary:idealistic=officious:obliging
Synonyms: AMIABLE 1, complaisant, easy, good-humored, good-natured,
good-tempered, lenient, mild
Sample: The debonair youth was liked by all who met him, because of his cheerful
and obliging manner.
oblique [ ] adj.
not straightforward:INDIRECT; also:OBSCURE
oblique<>direct
Synonyms: INCLINED, inclining, leaning, pitched, pitching, sloped, sloping, tilted,
tilting, tipped
Sample: I can defend myself against direct accusations; innuendos and oblique attacks
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on my character are what trouble me.
obliterate [ ] v.
to remove from existence:destroy utterly all trace, indication, or significance of
inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove
inter:burial=obliterate:remova=accomodate:supply=convey:condudct
obliterate:remove=saturated:wet
ineffable:description=irradicable:obliterate
inexpurgate<>obliterate
Synonyms: ERASE, black (out), blot out, cancel, delete, efface, expunge, wipe (out), x
(out)
Sample: The tidal wave obliterated several island villages.
oblivious [ ] adj.
lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention
erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect
oblivious:attentive=??
cognizant<>oblivious
oblivious<>vigilant
oblivious<>mindful
vigilant<>oblivious
Synonyms: IGNORANT, incognizant, inconversant, unacquainted, unaware,
unfamiliar, uninformed, uninstructed, unknowing, unwitting
Sample: In spite of lackluster reviews in the press, the production of her play was
rescued from almost certain oblivion by enthusiastic audiences whose acumen was
greater than that of the critics.
obloquy [ ] n.
Abusively detractive language or utterance; calumny
adulation<>obloquy
Synonyms: ABUSE, billingsgate, contumely, invective, scurrility, vituperation
Sample: I resent the obloquy that you are casting upon my reputation.
obscure [ ] adj.
not clearly seen or easily distinguished:FAINT
comprehend:obscure=??
celebrity<>obscurity
explicit<>obscure
legendary<>obscure
certitude<>obscurity
Synonyms: ambiguous, amphibological, double-edged, double-faced, dusky, equivocal,
murky, nubilous, opaque, sibylline, tenebrous, uncertain, unclear, unexplicit,
unintelligible, vague
Sample: In the British theater young people under thirty-five have not had much
332
trouble getting recognition onstage, but offstage-in the ranks of playwrights, directors,
designers, administrators -- they have mostly been relegated to relative obscurity.
obsequious [ ] adj.
marked by or exhibiting a fawning attentiveness
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious=narcissist:self absorbed
obsequious:attentiveness=??
obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield
obsequious:servile=belligerent:assertive
maudlin:sentimental=obsequious:deferential
sycophantic:obsequious=rebellious:resurgent
obsequious:attentiveness=parsimonious:frugality
supercilious<>obsequious
Sample: Helen valued people who behaved as if they respected themselves; nothing
irritated her more than an excessively obsequious waiter or a fawning salesclerk.
observatory [ ] n.
a building or place given over to or equipped for observation of natural phenomena (as
in astronomy);
conservatory:music=seminary:theology=observatory:astronomy
Sample: The observatory is located on a mountain top.
obsess [ ] vt.
to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of
agonized:distress=obsessed:concern
firm:intransigent=concerned:obsessed
obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous
obsessed:attracted=intimate:close
Sample: Because the painter Albert Pinkham Ryder was obsessed with his quest for
perfection, he was rarely satisfied with a painting, creating endless variations of a scene
on one canvas, one on top of another.
obsolete [ ] adj.
of a kind or style no longer current
Synonyms: dead, disused, extinct, outmoded, outworn, superseded
Sample: Doors were closing on our past, and soon the values we had lived by would
become so obsolete that we would seem to people of the new age as quaint as travelers
from an ancient land.
obstacle [ ] n.
something that impedes progress or achievement
blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede
Synonyms: bar, Chinese wall, crimp, hamper, hurdle, impediment, mountain,
obstruction, rub, snag, stumbling block, traverse
Sample: The sea was not an obstacle to the diffusion of the windmill; on the contrary,
333
while the concept of the new invention passed quickly from seaport to seaport, it made
little headway inland.
obstinate [ ] adj
adj. perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course in spite of reason, arguments,
or persuasion
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend
unflappable:upset=obstinate:persuade
firmness:obstinacy=supple:spineless/thin:emaciated
Synonyms: bullheaded, closed-minded, deaf, hardheaded, headstrong, incompliant,
intractable, intransigent, muleheaded, muley, mulish, pertinacious, perverse,
pervicacious, pigheaded, refractory, self-willed, stiff, stiff-necked, stubborn, tough,
unpliable, unpliant, unyielding, willful, wrongheaded
Sample: We tried to persuade him to give up smoking, but he was obstinate and
refused to change.
obstreperous [ ] adj
marked by unruly or aggressive noisiness:CLAMOROUS
Synonyms: VOCIFEROUS, blatant, boisterous, clamorous, loudmouthed, multivocal,
openmouthed, strident, vociferantSample:The crowd became obstreperous and shouted
their disapproval of the proposals made by the speaker.
obstruct [ ] v.
to hinder from passage, action, or operation
obstruct<>facilitate
occluded<>unobstructed
obstructed<>unocclude
abet<>obstruct
Synonyms: HINDER, bar, block, brake, dam, impede, overslaugh
Sample: One political party obstructed the passage of laws proposed by another.
obtuse [ ] adj.
lacking sharpness or quickness of sensibility or intellect
restive:calmness=keen:obtuse
parsimonious:liberal=obtuse:keen
impertinent:propriety=keen:obtuseness
obtuse<>insightful
Synonyms: DULL, blunt
Sample: Because he was so obtuse, he could not follow the teacher's reasoning and
asked foolish questions.
obviate [ ] vt.
to anticipate and prevent (as a situation) or make unnecessary (as an action)
emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary
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obviate:unnecessary=reduce:smaller
Synonyms: PREVENT, avert, deter, forestall, forfend, preclude, rule out, stave off,
ward
Sample: One virus strain that may help gene therapists cure genetic brain diseases can
enter the peripheral nervous system and travel to the brain, obviating the need to inject
the therapeutic virus directly into the brain.
occlude [ ] vt.
to close up or block off:OBSTRUCT
occluded<>unobstructed
obstructed<>unocclude
Synonyms: FILL, block, choke, clog, close, congest, obstruct, plug, stop, stopper
Sample: A blood clot occluded an artery to the heart.
occult [ ] adj.
not easily apprehended or understood:ABSTRUSE, MYSTERIOUS
occult<>bare/patent/readily fathomable
occult<>manifest
Synonyms: RECONDITE, abstruse, acroamatic, deep, esoteric, heavy, hermetic,
orphic, profound, secret
Sample: The occult rites of the organization were revealed only to members.
occurrence [ ] n.
something that occurs
prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence
Synonyms: circumstance, episode, event, go, happening, incident, occasion, thing
Sample: The occurrence of crime in this city is on the rise.
ode [ ] n.
a lyric poem usually marked by exaltation of feeling and style, varying length of line,
and complexity of stanza forms
chord:tone=ode:poem
ode:poetry=spoof:parody spoof:A gentle satirical imitation; a light parody.
Sample: Many countries have odes that praise the bravery of their heroes of long ago.
odious [ ] adj.
exciting or deserving hatred or repugnance
blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting
grating:sound=acrid:odor
odious:disgust=menacing:fear
odious:repugnance=menacing:fear {immovable:stability}
hankering<>odium
odium<>infatuation
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odium<>esteem
Synonyms: HATEFUL, abhorrent, abominable, detestable, hateable, horrid
Sample: I find the task of punishing you most odious.
offbeat [ ] adj.
eccentric, unconventional
offbeat<>conventional
offbeat<>bathetic
offbeat<>hackneyed
Synonyms: ECCENTRIC, UNCONVENTIONAL
Sample: That writer has an offbeat style of using very short sentences.
offend [ ] v.
to cause dislike, anger, or vexation
deferential:offend=scornful:respect
equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity
euphemistic:offend=invulnerable:injure
euphemism:offensive=aphorism:prolix
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense
intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend
politic:offend=aloof:associate
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend
pliant:influence=ticklish:offend
remonstrance:offend=syllogism:disprove
peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture
mishap:accident=peccadillo:offence
euphemism:offense=ambiguity:comprehesion{metaphor:description }
Synonyms: VIOLATE, breach, break, contravene, infract, infringe, transgress
Sample: Expecting to be treated with due propriety by her costs, Great-Aunt Maud
was offended by their offhand manner.
offhand [ ] adj.
without premeditation or preparation:EXTEMPORE
offhand<>premeditated
Synonyms: EXTEMPORANEOUS, autoschediastic, extemporary, extempore,
impromptu, improvised, spur-of-the-moment, unrehearsed, unstudied
Sample: The teacher made some offhand remarks after class.
officious [ ] adj
volunteering one's services where they are neither asked nor needed:MEDDLESOME
attentive:officious=refined:snobbish {absorbed:engrossed }
officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel
visionary:idealistic=officious:obliging
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officious:attentive=parsimony:frugal
politic<>injudicious {officious}
Synonyms: IMPERTINENT, busy, intrusive, meddlesome, obtrusive, polypragmatic
Sample: After her long flight, Jill just wanted to nap, but the officious bellboy was
intent on showing her all the special features of the deluxe suite.
offish [ ] adj.
somewhat cold and reserved:STANDOFFISH
offish<>sociable
Synonyms: UNSOCIABLE, aloof, distant, insociable, reserved, solitary, standoffish,
unapproachable, unbending, withdrawn
ominous [ ] adj.
being or exhibiting an omen:PORTENTOUS; especially:foreboding or foreshowing
evil:INAUSPICIOUS
auspicious<>ominous
Synonyms: apocalyptic, baleful, baneful, dire, direful, doomful, fateful, ill-boding,
ill-omened, inauspicious, threatening, unlucky, unpropitious
omniscient [ ] adj.
having infinite awareness, understanding, and insight
vacuous<>omniscient
Sample: I do not pretend to be omniscient, but I am positive about this fact.
opaque [ ] adj.
exhibiting opacity:blocking the passage of radiant energy and especially light
slack:tension=opaque:translucence
opacity:light=impermeability:fluid
opacity<>transparency
diaphanous<>opaque
clarity<>opaque
Synonyms: OBSCURE, ambiguous, amphibological, equivocal, nubilous, tenebrous,
uncertain, unclear, unintelligible, vague
Sample: The opaque window kept the sunlight out of the room.
opera [ ] n.
a drama set to music and made up of vocal pieces with orchestral accompaniment and
orchestral overtures and interludes; specifically:GRAND OPERA
libretto:opera=lyrics:song libretto:the text of a work (as an opera) for the musical
theater
Sample: Tristan and Lsolde drink a love potion in the first act of the opera.
opine [ ] vt.vi.
to express opinions
337
augur:predict=pundit:opine
recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine
opportune [ ] adj.
suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence
opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience
opportune<>inconvenient
Synonyms: TIMELY, auspicious, favorable, propitious, prosperous, seasonable,
timeous, well-timed
Sample: The diplomat, selected for her demonstrated patience and skill in conducting
such delicate negotiations, declined to make a decision during the talks because any
sudden commitment at that time would have been inopportune .
oppose [ ] vt.
to place over against something so as to provide resistance, counterbalance, or contrast
oppose:thwart=treat:cure
capitulate<>oppose
Synonyms: counter, match, pit, play (off), vie
Sample: He was a practical man, opposed to theory
oppression [ ] n.
unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power
oppression:disagreement=??
Sample: When an oppressed group revolts against a society, one must look for the
underlying forces that led to the group's alienation from that society.
opprobrious [ ] adj.
expressive of opprobrium:SCURRILOUS
opprobrious:blameless=??
opprobrious<>irreproachable
Synonyms: ABUSIVE, contumelious, invective, scurrile, scurrilous, truculent,
vituperative, vituperatory, vituperous
Sample: He refused to defend himself against the slander and opprobrium hurled
against him by the newspapers; he preferred to rely on his record.
optimization [ ] n.
an act, process, or methodology of making something (as a design, system, or decision)
as fully perfect, functional, or effective as possible;
optimization:improve=??
opulent [ ] adj
amply or plentifully provided or fashioned often to the point of ostentation
Synonyms: LUXURIOUS, Capuan, deluxe, luscious, lush, luxuriant, palatial, plush,
sumptuous, upholstered
Sample: The king of France lived in opulence in his palace.
338
oracle [ ] n.
a person (as a priestess of ancient Greece) through whom a deity is believed to speak
mentor:guidance=oracle:prophecy
Synonyms: REVELATION, apocalypse, prophecy, vision
Sample: The ancient Greeks tried to learn the future from oracles.
oration [ ] n.
an elaborate discourse delivered in a formal and dignified manner
Sample: The priest gave an oration on the value of not drinking alcohol.
orchestra [ ] n.
a group of musicians including especially string players organized to perform ensemble
music
orchestra:musician=pack:wolf
pilot:ship=conductor:orchestra
Synonyms: band, philharmonic, symphony
Sample: Although the young violinist's steady performance, with the orchestra
demonstrated his technical competence. his uninspired style and lack of interpretive
maturity labeled him as a novice musician rather than as a truly accomplished
performer.
original [ ] adj.
not secondary, derivative, or imitative
babble:sense=parrot:originality
banality<>original
commonplace<>original
pastiche<>original work
trite<>fresh/original
Synonyms: INVENTIVE, creative, demiurgic, deviceful, ingenious, innovational,
innovative, innovatory, originative
Sample: Although the mental process that creates a fresh and original poem or drama
is doubtless analogous to that which originates and elaborates scientific discoveries,
there is clearly a discernible difference between the creators.
ornithology [ ] n.
a branch of zoology dealing with birds
ornithology:eagle=astronomy:planet
orthodoxy [ ] n.
the quality or state of being conforming to established doctrine especially in religion
religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy
dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group
Sample: Although some of her fellow scientists decried the unorthodox laboratory
methodology that others found innovative, unanimous praise greeted her experimental
results:at once pioneering and unexceptionable.
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oscillate [ ] vt.
to swing backward and forward like a pendulum
oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter
Synonyms: SWING, pendulate, sway
Sample: On an oscilloscope, you can see an electrical current oscillate up and down.
ossify [ ] v
to become hardened or conventional and opposed to change
depreciation:value=ossification:flexibility
Sample: Inspired interim responses to hitherto unknown problems, New Deal
economic stratagems became ossified as a result of bureaucratization, their flexibility
and adaptability destroyed by their transformation into rigid policies.
ostentatious [ ] adj.
marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious display
Synonyms: SHOWY, chichi, flamboyant, orchidaceous, peacockish, peacocky,
pretentious, splashy, swank
Sample: Trump's latest casino in Atlantic City is the most ostentatious gambling place
in the East:it easily outglitters its competitors.
ostracism [ ] n.
exclusion by general consent from common privileges or social acceptance
pariah:ostracize=prisoner:confine
ostracize<>take in
ostracize<>welcome
ostracize<>include/embrace
Synonyms: EXILE, banishment, deportation, displacement, expulsion, relegation
Sample: As soon as the newspapers carried the story of his connection with the
criminals, his friends began to ostracize him.
oust [ ] vt.
to remove from or dispossess of property or position by legal action, by force, or by the
compulsion of necessity
instate<>oust
Synonyms: DEPRIVE, bereave, disinherit, dispossess, divest, lose, rob
Sample: The world wondered if Aquino would be able to oust Marcos from office.
outgoing [ ] adj.
openly friendly and responsive:EXTROVERTED
extrovert:outgoing=perfectionist:exacting
Synonyms: DEMONSTRATIVE, expansive, unconstrained, unreserved, unrestrained
Sample: Rebuffed by his colleagues, the initially outgoing young researcher became
340
increasingly withdrawn.
outmaneuver [ ] v.
to maneuver with better effect than; outwit
outmaneuver<>yield
Synonyms: OUTWIT, outfox, outgeneral, outjockey, outreach, outslick, outsmart,
outthink, overreach, undo
Sample: The soccer player outmaneuvered her opponents and scored a goal.
outmoded [ ] adj.
no longer acceptable, current, or usable
Synonyms: OBSOLETE, dead, disused, extinct, outworn, superseded
Sample: Unconcerned about keeping in style, Lenore was perfectly happy to wear
outmoded clothes as long as they were clean and unfrayed.
outwit [ ] vt.
to get the better of by superior cleverness:OUTSMART
taunt:provoke=plot:outwit
Synonyms: have, outfox, outgeneral, outjockey, outmaneuver, outreach, outslick,
outsmart, outthink, overreach, undo
Sample: By disguising himself as an old woman, Holmes was able to outwit his
pursuers and escape capture.
overbearing [ ] adj.
harshly and haughtily arrogant
unassuming<>overbearing
Synonyms: PROUD, arrogant, cavalier, disdainful, haughty, high-and-mighty, insolent,
lordly, supercilious, superior
Sample: Certain of her own importance and of the unimportance of everyone else,
Lady Bracknell was intolerably overbearing in manner.
overdose [ ] n.
too great a dose (as of a therapeutic agent)
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention
Sample: He took an overdose and was in the hospital for weeks.
overexposure [ ] adj.
to expose excessively; especially:to expose (as film) to excessive radiation (as light)
overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune
overlap [ ] vt.
to occupy the same area in part:lap over
infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap
Synonyms: imbricate, lap, overlie, override, ride, shingle
Sample: Many welfare reformers would substitute a single, federally financed income
341
support system for the existing welter of overlapping programs.
oversee [ ] v.
INSPECT, EXAMINE
dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee }
Synonyms: SUPERVISE, boss, chaperon, overlook, quarterback, superintend, survey
Sample: She oversees both the research and the manufacturing departments.
overt [ ] adj
open to view:MANIFEST
clandestine:secretly=overt:openly
shadowy<>overt
Sample: According to the United States Constitution, a person must commit an overt
act before he may be tried for treason.
overture [ ] n.
something introductory:PRELUDE
veto:prohibitive=overture:introductory
overture/ preamble:introduction=caveat:warning/cautionary
overture:symphony=preface:book
coda<>overture
Synonyms: INTRODUCTION, exordium, foreword, preamble, preface, prelude,
prelusion, proem, prolegomenon, prologue
Sample: Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture concludes with a thunderous fusilade of cannon
fire.
overwhelm [ ] vt.
to make helpless, as with greater force or deep emotion; overcome; crush; overpower
usurp:take=trespass:enter {overwhelm:defeat}
Synonyms: DELUGE, drown, engulf, flood, inundate, overflow, submerge, swamp,
whelm
Sample: The notion that cultural and biological influences equally determine
cross-cultural diversity is discredited by the fact that, in countless aspects of human
existence, it is cultural programming that overwhelmingly accounts for cross-population
variance.
overwrought [ ] adj.
extremely excited:AGITATED
Sample: When Kate heard the news of the sudden tragedy, she became too
overwrought to work and had to leave the office early.
oxymoron [ ] n.
a combination of contradictory or incongruous words
apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox
equivocation:ambiguous=oxymoron:incongruous
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oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic
pachyderm [ ] n.
any of various nonruminant hoofed mammals (as an elephant, a rhinoceros, or a pig)
most of which have a thick skin
pachyderm:animal=ant:insect
Sample: The elephant is probably the best-known pachyderm.
pacify [ ] vt.
to allay the anger or agitation of:SOOTHE
solace:grief=pacification:anger
rankle<>pacify
tantrum<>pacify
vex<>pacify/appease/soothe
discompose<>pacificate
pacific<>truculent
incite<>pacify
Synonyms: SOOTHE, pacify, appease, ease, mollify
Sample: Dentists criticize the practice of giving fussy children sweets to pacify them.
pack [ ] n.
a group of often predatory animals of the same kind
orchestra:musician=pack:wolf
Synonyms: MUCH, barrel, great deal, heap, lot, lump, multiplicity, peck, pile
Sample: I thought I was talking to a mature audience; instead, I find myself addressing
a pack of dolts.
pact [ ] n.
COMPACT; especially:an international treaty
Synonyms: CONTRACT, agreement, bargain, bond, compact, convention, covenant,
transaction
Sample: The consensus indicates that we are opposed to entering into this pact.
padding [ ] n.
material with which something is padded
padding:damage=disguise:recognition
padding:damage=levee:flooding
Synonyms: EMBROIDER, embellish, exaggerate, fudge, magnify, overcharge,
overdraw, overpaint, overstate, stretch
Sample: Thick padding in that chair makes it very comfortable.
paean [ ] n.
a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph; broadly
paean:song=elegy:poem
paean<>harshly lampoon
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Synonyms: ENCOMIUM, TRIBUTE
Sample: paeans celebrating the victory filled the air.
painstaking [ ] adj.
taking pains:expending, showing, or involving diligent care and effort
cursory<>painstakingly thorough
slipshod<>painstaking
Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, fussy, heedful, meticulous,
punctilious, punctual, scrupulous
Sample: The new high-frequency word list is the result of painstaking efforts on the
part of our research staff.
palatable [ ] adj
agreeable to the palate or taste
palatable:savory=discernible:manifest
Synonyms: aperitive, appetizing, flavorsome, good-tasting, mouth-watering, relishing,
sapid, saporous, savorous, savorsome, savory, tasteful, tasty, toothsome, toothy
Sample: Animals that have tasted unpalatable plants tend to recognize them afterward
on the basis of their most conspicuous features, such as their flowers.
List 20 palatial --- petition
palatial [ ] adj
of, relating to, or being a palace
hovel:palatial=city:bucolic
palatial:hovel=bucolic:city
Synonyms: LUXURIOUS, Capuan, deluxe, luscious, lush, luxuriant, opulent, plush,
sumptuous, upholstered
Sample: He proudly showed us through his palatial home.
palette [ ] n.
a particular range, quality, or use of color
palette:color=repertoire:play
Sample: At the present time, art supply stores are selling a paper palette that may be
discarded after use.
pall [ ] v
to lose in interest or attraction
pall<>interest/intrigue
Synonyms: BORE, ennui, tire, weary
Sample: The study of word lists can eventually pall and put one to sleep.
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palliate [ ] v.
to reduce the violence of (a disease)
pain:analgesic=symptom:palliative
palliate:anger=enfeeble:vigor
caustic<>palliating/genial
palliate<>exacerbate
palliate<>worsen
Synonyms: blanch (over), extenuate, gloss (over), gloze (over), prettify, sugarcoat,
varnish, veneer, white, whiten, whitewash
Sample: If we cannot cure this disease at present, we can, at least try to palliate the
symptoms.
pallid [ ] adj
Having an abnormally pale or wan complexion
rubicund<>pallid
Synonyms: PALE, ashen, ashy, blanched, colorless, complexionless, doughy, lurid,
wan, waxen
Sample: Her complexion was pallid when she was ill.
palmy [ ] adj.
marked by prosperity
palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity
Synonyms: FLOURISHING, prosperous
Sample: Because his occupation required that he work at night and sleep during the
day, he had an exceptionally pallid complexion.
palpable [ ] adj.
easily perceived by the senses; audible, recognizable, perceptible, noticeable, etc.
explicate<>palpable
palpable<>subtle
impalpable<>clear
Synonyms: PERCEPTIBLE, appreciable, detectable, discernible, observable, sensible,
tangible
Sample: I cannot understand how you could overlook such a palpable blunder.
palter [ ] vi.
to act insincerely or deceitfully
palter:candor=diehard:budge
palter<>candor

Synonyms: LIE, equivocate, falsify, fib, prevaricate
paltry [ ] adj.
practically worthless; trifling; insignificant; contemptible; petty
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paltry:significance=??
paltry<>significant/important
Synonyms: PETTY , measly, Mickey Mouse, picayune, picayunish, piddling, puny,
trifling, trivial, unconsequential
Sample: This is a paltry sum to pay for such a masterpiece.
pan [ ] vt.
to criticize unfavorably, as in reviewing
barb:caustic=pan:harsh
rave<>pan
eulogize<>pan
Sample: Hoping for a rave review of his new show, the playwright was miserable
when the critics panned it unanimously.
panache [ ] n.
dash or flamboyance in style and action
panache<>humility
panache<>unremarkable behavior
Synonyms: catholicon, cure-all, elixir, nostrum
Sample: Many performers imitate Noel Coward, but few have his panache and sense
of style.
pandemonium [ ] n.
Wild uproar or noise
pandemonium<>serene
Synonyms: DIN, babel, clamor, hubbub, hullabaloo, jangle, racket, tintamarre, tumult,
uproar
Sample: When the ships collided in the harbor, pandemonium broke out among the
passengers.
pander [ ] v.
to act as a pander; especially:to provide gratification for others' desires
Synonyms: PIMP, bully, fancy man, macquereau
Sample: The reviewer accused the makers of Lethal Weapon of pandering to the
masses' taste of violence.
panegyric [ ] n
a eulogistic oration or writing; also:formal or elaborate praise
panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize
panegyric:praise:valediction:farewell
panegyric<>anathema
panegyric<>denunciation
panegyric<>condemnation
Synonyms: ENCOMIUM, citation, eulogy, salutation, tribute
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Sample: The modest hero blushed to hear the speakers delivering panegyrics about his
valorous act.
panoramic [ ] n.
an unobstructed or complete view of an area in every direction
panoramic<>narrow
Synonyms: spectacle, prospect
Sample: On a clear day, from the top of the World Trade Center you can get a
panoramic view of New York City and neighboring stretches of New Jersey and Long
Island.
pantechnicon [ ] n.
a furniture van
pantechnicon:furniture=??
pantry [ ] n.
a room (as in a hotel or hospital) for preparation of foods on order
pantry:food=armory:weapons
pantry:food=closet (wardrobe):clothes
Synonyms: LARDER, buttery
Sample: Looking in the pantry, we admired the plenitude of fruits and pickles we
had preserved during the summer.
parable [ ] n
EXAMPLE; specifically:a usually short fictitious story that illustrates a moral attitude
or a religious principle
parable:story=homily:lecture
Synonyms: ALLEGORY, apologue, fable, myth
Sample: Let us apply to our own conduct the lesson that this parable teaches.
paradigm [ ] n.
EXAMPLE, PATTERN; especially:an outstandingly clear or typical example or
archetype
paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard
corrective:amends=paradigm:exemplify
Synonyms: MODEL, archetype, beau ideal, ensample, example, exemplar, ideal,
mirror, pattern, standard
Sample: Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a
paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioal psychology.
paradise [ ] n.
a place or state of bliss, felicity, or delight
pleasurable:paradisical=melodious:lyrical
Synonyms: UTOPIA, arcadia, Cockaigne, fairyland, heaven, lubberland, promised
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land, wonderland
Sample: Parts of California seem like paradise to me.
paradox [ ] n.
a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is
perhaps true
apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox
:apophasis
paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise
paradoxical<>common
Sample: The paradox of her career was her achievement of her greatest intellectual
authority at the very moment when she was bereft of a compelling subject.
paragon [ ] n.
a model of excellence or perfection
paragon:admire=pariah:contempt
corrected:amend=paragon:exemplary
paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard
hoax:fraudulent=paragon:excellent
travesty<>paragon
Synonyms: ideal, jewel, nonesuch, nonpareil, phoenix
Sample: The class disliked him because the teacher was always pointing him out as a
paragon of virtue.
parallel [ ] adj.
extending in the same direction, everywhere equidistant, and not meeting
Synonyms: LIKE, agnate, akin, alike, analogous, comparable, consonant,
corresponding, similar, uniform
Sample: Foucault's rejection of the concept of continuity in Western thought, though
radical, was not unique; he had counterparts in the United States who, without
knowledge of his work, developed parallel ideas.
paramount [ ] adj.
superior to all others
painful:agonizing=important:paramount
Synonyms: DOMINANT, ascendant, master, overbearing, predominant, predominate,
preponderant, prevalent, regnant, sovereign
Sample: Proper nutrition and hygiene are of paramount importance in adolescent
development and growth.
paranoia [ ] n.
a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational
suspiciousness and distrustfulness of others
enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia
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Sample: Suffering from paranois, he claimed everyone was out to get him; ironically,
his claim was accurate; even paranoids have enemies.
paraphrase [ ] vt.
to make a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form
paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise
Synonyms: rephrase, restate, reword, translate (into)
Sample: In 250 words or less, paraphrase this article.
parch [ ] vi
to dry or shrivel with cold
steep<>parch
Sample: The parched desert landscape seemed hostile to life.
pariah [ ] n.
a member of a low caste of southern India
paragon:admire=pariah:contempt
pariah:ostracize=prisoner:confine {traitor:execute}
Synonyms: OUTCAST, castaway, derelict, Ishmael, Ishmaelite, leper, offscouring,
untouchable
Sample: I am not a pariah to be shunned and ostracized.
parity [ ] n.
the quality or state of being equal or equivalent
parity<>inequality
parity<>incommensurateness
Synonyms: EQUIVALENCE, adequation, equality, equatability, equivalency, par,
sameness
Sample: I find your analogy inaccurate because I do not see the parity between the two
illustrations.
parlance [ ] n.
manner or mode of speech
gait:walk=parlance:speak
Synonyms: WORDING, diction, phrase, phraseology, phrasing, verbalism, verbiage,
wordage
Sample: All this legal parlance confuses me; I need an interpreter.
parochial [ ] vadj.
restricted to a small area or scope; narrow; limited; provincial
Synonyms: INSULAR, local, provincial, sectarian, small-town
Sample: Although Jane Austen writes novels set in small rural communities, her
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concerns are universal, not parochial.
parody [ ] n
a literary or musical work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for
comic effect or in ridicule; a poor or weak imitation
parody:style=mime:gesture
ode:poetry=spoof:parody
nicety:distinction=spoof:parody :spoof:A gentle satirical imitation; a light parody.
Synonyms: MIMIC, ape, burlesque, imitate, mock, take off, travesty
Sample: We enjoyed the clever parodies of popular songs that the chorus sang.
paroxysm [ ] n.
a sudden violent emotion or action:OUTBURST
paroxysm:sudden=ruse:deceived
Sample: When he heared of his son's misdeeds, he was seized by a paroxysm of rage.
parquetry [ ] n.
inlaid woodwork in geometric forms, usually of contrasting woods, used esp. in flooring
fresco:wall=parquetry:floor
Sample: In laying the floor, the carpenters combined redwood and oak in an elegant
parquet.
parrot [ ] n.
to repeat by rote
babble:sense=parrot=originality
Synonyms: copyist
Sample: The little boy parrots everything that his parents say.
parry [ ] v.
to evade especially by an adroit answer
duty:shirk=question:parry
parry:question=shirk:duty
Synonyms: DODGE, duck, fence, shirk, sidestep
Sample: He was content to wage a defensive battle and tried to parry his opponent's
thrusts.
parse [ ] n./v.
to resolve (as a sentence) into component parts of speech and describe them
grammatically
scan:metrical=parse:grammatical
:scan:to analyze (verse) in terms of its rhythmic components, as by counting
accents and syllables and marking the metrical feet
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specimen:dissect=sentence:parse
parsimony [ ] n.
a tendency to be over-careful in spending; unreasonable economy; stinginess
craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift
curt:words=parsimonious:resource
miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal
parsimonious:save=prodigal:spend
parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk
parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent
parsimony:frugal=hubris:proud
tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous
parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance
parsimonious:liberal=obtuse:keen
obsequious:attentiveness=parsimonious:frugality
officious:attentive=parsimony:frugal
largesse<>parsimony
liberal<>parsimonious
parsimonious<>wasteful
profligate<>parsimonious
parsimonious<>prodigal
parsimonious<>generous
Synonyms: STINGY, cheeseparing, close, closefisted, miserly, niggardly,
penny-pinching, penurious, tight, tightfisted
Sample: His parsimonious nature did not permit him to enjoy any luxuries.
partial [ ] adj.
inclined to favor one party more than the other:BIASED
dispassionate<>partial
Synonyms: BIASED, colored, jaundiced, one-sided, partisan, prejudiced, prepossessed,
tendentious, unindifferent, warped
Sample: Although the revelation that one of the contestants was a friend left the judge
open to charges of lack of disinterestedness, the judge remained adamant in her
assertion that acquaintance did not necessarily imply partiality.
particularize [ ] vt.vi.
to state in detail
illustrate:pictures=particularize:details )
Synonyms: SPECIFY, detail, specificate, specificize, stipulate
Sample: I can tell you briefly what happened, but I'll save the particulars for later.
partisan [ ] n.
a firm adherent to a party, faction, cause, or person; especially:one exhibiting blind,
prejudiced, and unreasoning allegiance
authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans
patriot:country=partisan:course
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partisan:bias=??
Synonyms: FOLLOWER, adherent, cohort, disciple, henchman, satellite, sectary,
sectator, supporter
Sample: Given the failure of independent laboratories to replicate the results of Dr.
Johnson's experiment, only the most partisan supporters of her hypothesis would be
foolish enough to claim that it had been adequately verified.
passionate [ ] adj.
capable of, affected by, or expressing intense feeling
Synonyms: IRASCIBLE, choleric, hot-tempered, peppery, quick-tempered, ratty,
temperish, testy, tetchy, touchy
Sample: Though science is often imagined as a disinterested exploration of external
reality, scientists are no different from anyone else:they are passionate human beings
enmeshed in a web of personal and social circumstances.
pastiche [ ] n.
a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous work;
pastiche<>original work
Synonyms: MISCELLANY, assortment, gallimaufry, hodgepodge, hotchpotch, medley,
mishmash, omnium-gatherum, pasticcio
Sample: We cannot even say that her music is a pastiche of this or that composer; it is
rather, reminiscent of many musicians.
patent [ ] adj.
readily visible or intelligible:OBVIOUS
abstruse<>accessible/patent
nuance<>patent difference
occult<>bare/patent
patent<>not evident
recondite<>patent
Synonyms: CLEAR, apparent, distinct, evident, manifest, obvious, palpable, plain,
straightforward, unequivocal
Sample: It was patent to everyone that the witness spoke the truth.
pathology [ ] n.
something abnormal,deviation from propriety or from an assumed normal state of
something nonliving or nonmaterial
pathological<>normal
Sample: As we study the pathological aspects of this disease, we must not overlook
the psychological elements.
patina [ ] n.
a superficial covering or exterior
Sample: Judging by the patina on this bronze statue, we can conclude that this is the
352
work of a medieval artist.
patrician [ ] n.
a person of high birth:ARISTOCRAT
base<>patrician
Synonyms: GENTLEMAN, aristocrat, blue blood
Sample: We greatly admired her well-bred, patrician elegance
patriot [ ] n.
one who loves his or her country and supports its authority and interests
patriot:country=partisan:course )
Sample: Knowing the importance of appearing resolute, the patriots sought to present
a monolithic front.
patronize [ ] vt.
to be kind or helpful to, but in a haughty or snobbish way, as if dealing with an inferior
condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn
patronize:condescension=deride:mockery
patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed
patron:support=apologist:defend
Sample: Experts in a field sometimes appear to patronize people who are less
knowledgeable of the subject.
paucity [ ] n.
smallness of number:FEWNESS
paucity<>slew
profusion<>paucity
Synonyms: SCARCITY, insufficience, insufficiency, poverty, scant, scarceness
Sample: They closed the restaurant because the paucity of customers made it
uneconomical to operate.
paunchy [ ] adj.
having an enlarged, swollen, or protruding abdomen
svelte<>paunchy and awkward
pauper [ ] n.
a person destitute of means except such as are derived from charity; specifically:one
who receives aid from funds designated for the poor
Sample: Though Widow Brown was living on a reduced income, she was by no means
a pauper.
pebble [ ] n.
a small usually rounded stone especially when worn by the action of water
droplet:deluge=pebble:landslid
Sample: We threw pebbles into the ocean.
peccadillo [ ] n
353
a slight offense {gaffe n.}
glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense
peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation )
peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture
mishap:accident=peccadillo:offence
Sample: If we examine these escapades carefully, we will realize that they are mere
peccadilloes rather than major crimes.
peck [ ] n.
a : to strike, pierce, or pick up something with or as if with the bill
peck:kiss=glance:look { peep:sound}
Sample: Both the crocodile bird and the crocodile derive benefit from their symbiosis;
pecking away at food particles embedded in the crocodile's teeth, the bird derives
nourishment; the crocodile, meanwhile, derives proper dental hygiene.
pedagogue [ ] n.
TEACHER, SCHOOLMASTER; especially:a dull, formal, or pedantic teacher
stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate )
pedagogue:instruct=??
Sample: He could never be a stuffy pedagogue; his classes were always lively and
filled with humor.
pedant [ ] n.
one who makes a show of knowledge
martinet:discipline=pedant:learning
mawkish/maudlin:sentiment=pedantic:scholarship
scholarly:pedantic=modest:prudish
moralistic:principled=pedantic:learned
insightful:pedant=??
pedantic:scholar=histrionic:actor
pedant:learning=hack:writing
Sample: Her insistence that the book be memorized marked the teacher as a pedant
rather than a scholar.
pedestrian [ ] adj
COMMONPLACE, UNIMAGINATIVE
pedestrian<>imaginative
pedestrian<>uncommon
pedestrian<>marvelous
pedestrian<>inspired
Synonyms: DULL, banausic, blah, dreary, humdrum, monotone, monotonous,
plodding, stodgy
Sample: Unintentionally boring, he wrote page after page of pedestrian prose.
peep [ ] n.
354
to utter the slightest sound
{peck:kiss=peep:sound}
Synonyms: CHIRP, cheep, chip, chipper, chirrup, chitter, tweedle, tweet, twitter
Sample: he school principal took a peep at the class through the window.
peerless [ ] adj.
MATCHLESS, INCOMPARABLE
peerless<>equality
Synonyms: ALONE, matchless, only, unequaled, unique, unmatched, unparagoned,
unparalleled, unrivaled
Sample: he singer gave a peerless performance in the opera.
peeve [ ] v.
to make peevish or resentful:ANNOY
mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy
hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed
maudlin:sentimental=peeved:annoyed
patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed
placate<>peeve
Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, exasperate, get, nettle, pique, provoke, put out, rile,
roil
Sample: People who chew gum and talk at the same time peeve me.
pejorative [ ] adj
having negative connotations; especially:tending to disparage or
belittle:DEPRECIATORY
pejorative<>laudatory
Synonyms: DEROGATORY, depreciative, depreciatory, detracting, disadvantageous,
disparaging, dyslogistic, slighting, uncomplimentary
Sample: Instead of criticizing Clinton's policies, the Republicans made pejorative
remarks about his character.
pelf [ ] n.
Wealth or riches, especially when dishonestly acquired
pelf:impecunious=experience:green
pellucid [ ] adj
easy to understand
venial:excuse=pellucid:understand
pellucid<>murky
murky<>clear/pellucid/limpid
Synonyms: TRANSPARENT, clear, limpid, see-through, translucent
355
Sample: After reading these stodgy philosophers, I find his pellucid style very
enjoyable.
pen [ ] n.
a female swan
sheep:ewe=swan:pen :ewe:the female of the sheep
penalty [ ] n.
the suffering in person, rights, or property that is annexed by law or judicial decision to
the commission of a crime or public offense
exempt:liability=ardon:penalty
Sample: Human nature and long distances have made exceeding the speed limit a
cherished tradition in the state, so the legislators surprised no one when, acceding to
public practice, they rejected increased penalties for speeding.
penchant [ ] n.
a strong and continued inclination; broadly:LIKING
penchant<>aversion
penchant<>dislike
Synonyms: LEANING, bent, disposition, inclination, inclining, predilection,
predisposition, proclivity, propensity, tendency
Sample: The current penchant for touting a product by denigrating a rival, named in
the advertisement by brand name, seems somewhat foolhardy:suppose the consumer
remembers only the rival's name?
penetrate [ ] vt
to enter by overcoming resistance:PIERCE
impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid
knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable
penetrate:impermeable=change:immutable
penetrate:impermeable=profane:inviolable
Sample: In order to maintain its power, the government developed a system of
espionage that penetrated every hosehold.
penitent [ ] adj.
feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or
offenses:REPENTANT
penitent:contrition=??
penitent:obdurate=skeptic:credulous
impenitent<>contrite
Synonyms: REMORSEFUL, apologetic, attritional, compunctious, contrite,
penitential, regretful, repentant, sorry
Sample: When he realized the enormity of his crime, he became remorseful and
penitent.
pensive [ ] adj.
356
musingly or dreamily thoughtful
museful:ruminative=lamentable:pensive
Synonyms: THOUGHTFUL, cogitative, contemplative, meditative, pondering,
reflecting, reflective, ruminative, speculative, thinking
Sample: The pensive youth gazed at the painting for a long time and then sighed.
penury [ ] n.
a cramping and oppressive lack of resources (as money); especially:severe poverty
incognizance:knowledgeable=penury:wealthy
penury<>affluence
penurious<>lavish
largesse<>penurious
Sample: When his pension fund failed, George feared he would end his days in
penury.
perceptible [ ] adj.
capable of being perceived especially by the senses
relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious
delusion:?=hallucination:perception {mirage:imagination}
appreciable<>imperceptible
Synonyms: appreciable, detectable, discernible, observable, palpable, sensible,
tangible
Sample: Even though political editorializing was not forbidden under the new regime,
journalists still experienced discreet, though perceptible, governmental pressure to limit
dissent.
peremptory [ ] adj.
characterized by often imperious or arrogant self-assurance
parsimonious:spend=peremptory:fawn
peremptory<>open to challenge
Sample: From Jack's peremptory knock on the door, Jill could tell he would not give
up until she let him in.
perfervid [ ] adj.
marked by overwrought or exaggerated emotion:excessively fervent
perfervid<>impassive
Synonyms: IMPASSIONED, ardent, blazing, burning, fervent, fiery, flaming, glowing,
hot-blooded, passionate
perfidy [ ] n.
the quality or state of being faithless or disloyal:TREACHERY
exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty
perfidious<>faithful/loyal
perfidy<>trustworthy
Sample: When Caesar realized that Brutus had betrayed him, he reproached his
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perfidious friend.
perforate [ ] v.
to make a hole through; especially:to make a line of holes in to facilitate separation
perforate:hole=pleat:fold
Synonyms: bore, drill, prick, punch, puncture
Sample: Before you can open the aspirin bottle, you must first perforate the plastic
safety seal that covers the cap.
perfunctorily [ ] adv.
lacking in interest or enthusiasm
perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration (
Sample: The auditor's perfunctory inspection of the books overlooked many errors.
perimeter [ ] n.
the boundary of a closed plane figure
country:border=circle:perimeter
Sample: To find the perimeter of any quadrilateral, we add the lengths of the four
sides.
peripatetic [ ] adj.
moving or traveling from place to place:ITINERANT
peripatetic<>rooted
peripatetic<>sedentary
Synonyms: ITINERANT, ambulant, itinerate, nomadic, perambulant, roving,
vagabond, vagrant, wandering, wayfaring
Sample: The peripatetic school of philosophy derives its name from the fact that
Aristotle walked with his pupils while discussing philosophy with them.
peripheral [ ] adj.
of, relating to, involving, or forming a periphery or surface part
immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center
crux<>peripheral element
periphery<>center
peripheral<>in essence
periphery<>core
periphery<>important part/central area
Sample: One virus strain that may help gene therapists cure genetic brain diseases can
enter the peripheral nervous system and travel to the brain, obviating the need to inject
the therapeutic virus directly into the brain.
perjury [ ] n.
the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by
omission to do what has been promised under oath:false swearing perjury:deposition
calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony
calumny:representation=perjury:testimony
perjure<>depose
358
Sample: When several witnesses appeared to challenge his story, he was indicted for
perjury.
permanence [ ] n.
the quality or state of being permanent:DURABILITY
evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency
heroic:craven=erratic:permanent
opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience
ephemeral<>permanent /perpetual
extinction<>perpetuation
interim<>permanent
transience<>permanence
Synonyms: LASTING, diuturnal, durable, enduring, perdurable, perduring, stable
permeable [ ] adj.
capable of being permeated:PENETRABLE; especially:having pores or openings that
permit liquids or gases to pass through
knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable
opacity:light=impermeability:fluid
waterproof<>permeable
diaphanous<>impermeable of light
impermeable<>easily penetrated
Synonyms: penetrable, pervious, porose, porous
pernicious [ ] adj.
highly injurious or destructive:DEADLY
pernicious:injure=disingenuous:mislead
Synonyms: baneful, deadly, noxious, pestiferous, pestilent, pestilential
Sample: He argued that these books had a pernicious effect on young and susceptible
minds.
perpetual [ ] adj.
continuing forever:EVERLASTING
transient:vanish=constant:perpetuate
ephemeral<>permanent/perpetual
extinction<>perpetuation
debunk<>perpetuate to sham
perpetual<>transitory
Sample: Ponce de Leon hoped to find perpetual youth.
persecute [ ] vt
to come to mind continually; obsess:
persecute:injure=haunt:remember
Synonyms: WRONG, aggrieve, oppress, outrage
Sample: They were persecuted by the government because of their religion.
359
persevere [ ] vi.
to persist in a state, enterprise, or undertaking in spite of counterinfluences, opposition,
or discouragement
obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend
persevere<>give up
Synonyms: carry on, go on, hang on, persist
Sample: My teacher encouraged me to persevere in my studies.
persiflage [ ] n.
to provide with an incentive; move to action; impel
exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite
Synonyms: BANTER, backchat, badinage, repartee, snip-snap
personable [ ] adj.
pleasant or amiable in person:ATTRACTIVE
personable<>unattractive
Sample: The man I am seeking to fill this position must be personable since he will be
representing us before the public.
perspective [ ] n.
an optical glass (as a telescope)
Synonyms: VISTA, lookout, outlook, prospect, scape
Sample: Because folk art is neither completely rejected nor accepted as an art form by
art historians, their final evaluations of it necessarily remain equivocal.
perspicacious [ ] adj.
of acute mental vision or discernment:KEEN
perspicacious<>obtuse/undiscerned
perspicacious<>dull { awkard
Synonyms: SHREWD, argute, astucious, astute, cagey, heady, sagacious
Sample: The brillant lawyer was known for his perspicacious deductions.
perspicuity [ ] n.
plain to the understanding especially because of clarity and precision of presentation
perspicuous<>dull
Synonyms: CLARITY, clearness, limpidity, lucidity, plainness
Sample: One of the outstanding features of this book is the perspicuity of its author;
her meaning is always clear.
pertinacious [ ] adj.
stubbornly unyielding or tenacious
inexperience:green=pertinacity:refractory )
encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise/
{pertinacity:changeable}{ recapitulation:lengthy}
360
pertinacious<>tractable
pertinacity<>vacillation
pertinacious<>pliable
pertinacious<>irresolute
capricious<>pertinacious
Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, mulish, perverse, refractory,
self-willed, stubborn, willful, unyielding
Sample: He is bound to succeed because his pertinacious nature will not permit him to
quit.
pertinent [ ] adj.
having a clear decisive relevance to the matter in hand
pertinent:relevance=redundant:superfluity
immaterial<>pertinent/relevant
pertinent<>irrelevant
pertinent<>lack of relevance
Synonyms: RELEVANT, ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apposite,
apropos, germane, material, pointful
Sample: The lawyer wanted to know all the pertinent details.
perturb [ ] vt.
to disturb greatly in mind:DISQUIET
impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy
stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy
perturb:serenity=reassure:doubt
perturb:serenity=impertinent:propriety
Sample: I am afraid this news will perturb him and cause him grief.
peruse [ ] v.
to examine or consider with attention and in detail:STUDY
stare:leer=peruse:smattering
Sample: I am certain that you have missed important details in your rapid perusal of
this document.
pervade [ ] vt.
to become diffused throughout every part of suffuse
pervasive<>limited distribution
Sample: Despite airing them for several hours, she could not rid her clothes of the
pervasive odor of mothbals that clung to them.
pessimism n.
an inclination to emphasize adverse aspects, conditions, and possibilities or to expect
the worst possible outcome
Sample: The good news we have been receiving lately indicates that there is little
reason for your pessimism.
361
pesticide [ ] n.
an agent used to destroy pests
insect:pesticide=plant:herbicide
pestle [ ] n.
a usually club-shaped implement for pounding or grinding substances in a mortar
hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar
pestle:grind=flint stone:sharpen=spoon:stir
awl:pierce=pestle:hash
Sample: From the way in which the elderly pharmacist pounded the drug with his
pestle, young George could tell that his employer was agitated about something.
petition [ ] vt.vi.
to make a request to:SOLICIT
minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner
Sample: Signing this petition is a mere formality; it does not obligate you in any way.
List 21 petrography --- prestige
petrography [ ] n.
the description and systematic classification of rocks
petrography:rock=mural:wall
petty [ ] adj.
having secondary rank or importance:MINOR, SUBORDINATE
petty:notice=mysterious:explain{contemptible:respect}
Synonyms: inconsequent, inconsequential, inconsiderable, measly, Mickey Mouse,
niggling, paltry, peanut, peddling, pettifogging, picayune, picayunish, piddling, piffling,
pimping, puny, small, trifling, trivial, unconsequential, unconsidered, ungenerous,
unvital
Sample: Children invariably get involved in petty squabbles; wise parents know when
to interfere and when to let the children work things out on their own.
petulance [ ] n.
the quality or state of being petulant:PEEVISHNESS
Sample: The feverish patient was petulant and restless.
phenomenal [ ] adj
EXTRAORDINARY, REMARKABLE
phenomenal<>ordinary
phenomenal<>unexceptional/commonplace
Synonyms: EXCEPTIONAL, extraordinary, rare, remarkable, singular, unimaginable,
unique, unthinkable, unusual, unwonted
Sample: That singer's new recording is a phenomenal success.
philanthropic [ ] adj.
of, relating to, or characterized by philanthropy:HUMANITARIAN
philanthropist:beneficence=comedian:humor
resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality
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philanthropist:endow=prevaricater:mislead
philanthropist:eleemosynary=??
Synonyms: CHARITABLE, altruistic, benevolent, eleemosynary, good, humane,
humanitarian
Sample: As he grew older, he became famous as a philanthropist and benefactor of the
needy.
philistine [ ] n.
a person who is guided by materialism and is usually disdainful of intellectual or artistic
values
philistine<>aesthete
Sample: We need more men of culture and enlightenment; we have too many
philistines among us.
phlegmatic [ ] adj.
having or showing a slow and stolid temperament
phlegmatic:arouse=??
phlegmatic<>spirited
phlegmatic<>vivacious
phlegmatic<>sprightly
Synonyms: IMPASSIVE, apathetic, dry, matter-of-fact, stoic, stolid
Sample: The nurse was a cheerful but phlegmatic person, unexcited in the face of
sudden emergencies.
piddling [ ] adj.
TRIVIAL, PALTRY
restive:calmness=piddling:considerable
, niggling, paltry, peanut, peddling, pettifogging, puny, trifling
piebald [ ] adj.
of different colors; especially:spotted or blotched with black and white
monotonous<>piebald
pigment [ ] n
a coloring matter in animals and plants especially in a cell or tissue;
albino:pigment=prairie:tree
Sample: Van Gogh mixed various pigments with linseed oil to create his paints.
pilfer [ ] vt.vi.
STEAL; especially:to steal stealthily in small amounts and often again and again
abscond:depart=pilfer:take
Synonyms: STEAL, appropriate, filch, lift, pinch, purloin, snitch, swipe, thieve
Sample: The children pilfered apples from the fruit stand.
pillar [ ] n.
a firm upright support for a superstructure:POST
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colonnade:pillar=queue:person
stockade:enclosure=pillar:support
derelict<>pillar of society
Sample: Her long years of service made her a pillar of the community.
pillory [ ] n
to expose to public contempt, ridicule, or scorn
admonish:denounce=punish:pillory{persuade:convince}
chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle
pillory<>exalt
Sample: Even though he was mocked and pilloried, he maintained that he was correct
in his beliefs.
pilot [ ] n.
one employed to steer a ship:HELMSMAN
pilot:ship=conductor:orchestra
Sample: The plane was lost in the stormy sky until the pilot saw the city through a rift
in the clouds.
pine [ ] vi.
to yearn intensely and persistently especially for something unattainable
longing:pine=remorse:rue
Sample: Though she tried to be happy living with Clara in the city, Heidi pined for the
mountains and for her gruff but loving grandfather.
pinnacle [ ] n
an upright architectural member generally ending in a small spire and used especially in
Gothic construction to give weight especially to a buttress
pinnacle<>low point
Sample: We could see the morning sunlight illuminate the pinnacle while the rest of
the mountain lay in shadow.
piquant [ ] adj
agreeably stimulating to the palate; especially:SPICY
pique<>mollify
piquant<>vapid
piquant<>flat
piquant<>insipid
Synonyms: PUNGENT, peppery, poignant, racy, snappy, spicy, zesty
Sample: The piquant sauce added to our enjoyment of the meal.
pithy [ ] adj.
having substance and point:tersely cogent
pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature
circumlocution<>pithy utters
364
pithy<>prolix/verbose/diffuse/wordy
pithy<>insubstantial
pith<>unimportant point
Synonyms: compact, epigrammatic, marrowy, meaty
Sample: I enjoy reading his essays because they are always compact and pithy.
pitiless [ ] adj.
devoid of pity:MERCILESS
clement<>pitiless
Sample: The pitiless soldiers killed innocent civilians.
pittance [ ] n.
a small portion, amount, or allowance; also:a meager wage or remuneration
pittance:money=??
pittance:allowance=rivulet:stream
cornucopia<>lack/pittance
pittance<>crop
crop:a batch or lot of something produced during a particular cycle]
Sample: He could not live on the pittance he received as a pension and had to look for
an additional source of revenue.
placate [ ] vt.
to soothe or mollify especially by concessions:APPEASE
inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated
irascible:placate=insensate:conscious
galling<>placating
placate<>peeve
placate<>antagonize
placate<>rile
placate<>foment
placate<>surprise
gall<>placate
Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, propitiate, sweeten
Sample: The teacher tried to placate the angry mother.
placebo [ ] n
an inert or innocuous substance used especially in controlled experiments testing the
efficacy of another substance (as a drug)
placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous
placebo:painkiller=backdrop:vista
placebo:innocuous=venom:toxious
Sample: In a controlled experiment, fifty volunteers were given erythromycin tablets;
the control group received only placebos.
plagiarize [ ] vt.vi.
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to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own:use (another's
production) without crediting the source
plagiarism:ideas=forgery:documents
plagiarism:ideas=rustling:cattle
Sample: The editor could tell that the writer had plagiarized parts of the article; he
could recognize whole paragraphs from the original source.
plangent [ ] adj
having a loud reverberating sound
plangent<>muffled
Synonyms: RESONANT, consonant, orotund, resounding, ringing, rotund, round,
sonorant, sonorous, vibrant
plantation [ ] n.
a usually large group of plants and especially trees under cultivation
plantation:tobacco=media:bacteria
Sample: Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequenthe
shows that the slaves preferencerevealed most clearly on plantations where sale was
infrequentwas very much for stable monogamy.
plateau [ ] n.
a region of little or no change in a graphic representation
plateau:change=respite:activity )
plateau:slope=
Sample: The economy kept improving, and then reached a plateau.
platitude [ ] n.
a banal, trite, or stale remark
equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal
Sample: The platitudes in his speech were applauded by the vast majority in his
audience; only a few people perceived how trite his remarks were.
plausible [ ] adj.
superficially fair, reasonable, or valuable but often specious
rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite}
Synonyms: BELIEVABLE, colorable, credible, creditable
Sample: The fact that a theory is plausible does not necessarily ensure its scientific
truth, which must be established by unbiased controlled studies.
pleat [ ] n.
FOLD; especially:to arrange in pleats
perforate:hole=pleat:fold )
Sample: The pleats in her skirt need pressing.
366
plethora [ ] n.
EXCESS, SUPERFLUITY; also:PROFUSION, ABUNDANCE
plethora<>dearth
Synonyms: EXCESS, overabundance, overflow, overkill, overmuch, overplus,
superfluity, surfeit, surplus, surplusage
Sample: She offered a plethora of excuses for her shortcomings.
pliable [ ] adj.
a. supple enough to bend freely or repeatedly without breaking b. Easily influenced,
persuaded, or swayed; tractable.
static:move=pliable:inflexible
pliable:influenced=censorious:condemn
pertinacious<>pliable
pliable<>rigid
pliable<>difficult to crumble
Synonyms: PLASTIC, adaptable, ductile, malleable, moldable, pliant, supple
Sample: In remodeling the bathroom, we replaced all the old, rigid lead pipes with
new, pliable copper tubing.
pliant [ ] adj
easily influenced:YIELDING
pliant:influence=ticklish:offend
evanescent:disappear=pliant:yield
pliant:indomitable=model:differentiated
pliant<>mulish
pliant<>intransigence/intractable
pliant<>incorrigible
Synonyms: PLASTIC, adaptable, ductile, malleable, moldable, pliable, supple
Sample: Catherine's disposition was pliant; she was like putty in her suitor's hands.
plight [ ] n.
to put or give in pledge:ENGAGE
plight<>favorable condition
Synonyms: PREDICAMENT, box, corner, dilemma, fix, hole, jam, pickle, scrape,
spot
Sample: His plight is that he has no money.
plodding [ ] adj.
working laboriously and monotonously:DRUDGE
meteoric<>plodding
flit<>plod
Synonyms: DULL, banausic, blah, dreary, humdrum, monotone, monotonous,
367
pedestrian, stodgy
Sample: Work in that government department plods along.
plot [ ] vi.
a secret plan for accomplishing a usually evil or unlawful end:INTRIGUE
cabal:association=plot:plan
joke:punch line=plot:denouement
plot:plan=inveigle:interest
follow:shadow=scheme:plot
taunt:provoke=plot:outwit )
Sample: With the connivance of his friends, he plotted to embarrass the teacher.
plot [ ] n.
the plan or main story of a literary work
choreography:dance=plot:story
Sample: Though he tried to follow the plot of Gravity's Rainbow, John found the novel
too episodic.
pluck [ ] n.
courageous readiness to fight or continue against odds:dogged resolution
pluck<>cowardice
pluckish<>coward
Synonyms: COURAGE, cojones, dauntlessness, guts, heart, mettle, resolution, spirit,
spunk
Sample: Even the adversaries of young Indiana Jones were impressed by the boy's
pluck in trying to rescue the archeological treasure they had stolen.
pluck [ ] n.
to play by sounding the strings with the fingers or a pick
horn:blow=harp:pluck
plucky<>craven
Sample: Robin Hood reached back and plucked one last arrow from his quiver.
plumb [ ] vt
to measure the depth of with a plumb
assess:value=plumb:depth
measure:dimensions=calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth
plumb:depth=verify:accuracy
plumb<>examine cursorily
Sample: The plumber fixed the leak in the pipes by soldering a couple of joints from
which water had been oozing.
plummet [ ] v.
to drop sharply and abruptly
fall descend:plummet=move:dart
plummet:ascend=??
Sample: Stock prices plummeted as Wall Street reacted to the rise in interest rates.
368
plump [ ] adj.
having a full rounded usually pleasing form a plump woman
svelte<>plump
Sample: You can say that a woman is pleasingly plump, but it is not polite to call her
chubby or fat.
polarize [ ] v.
to break up into opposing factions or groupings
polarize<>coalesce
polarize<>make compatible
polarize<>unity
Sample: The abortion issue has polarized the country into pro-choice and anti-abortion
camps.
polemic [ ] n.
the art or practice of disputation or controversy
polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive
polemical<>compromising
the main part, polemics for the party's policy.
polished [ ] adj.
highly developed, finished, or refined PERFECT
rustic<>polished
untutored<>polished
gaucheness<>polish
Sample: He polished the convex lens of his telescope.
politic [ ] adj.
characterized by shrewdness in managing, contriving, or dealing
politic:offend=aloof:associate
politic<>unsophisticated
politic<>injudicious { officious }
Sample: His inauguration as President of the United States marked the culmination of
his political career.
pollster [ ] n.
one that conducts a poll or compiles data obtained by a poll
exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass canvass:To conduct a survey of (public opinion);
poll.
Sample: Pollsters ask people questions and record their answers.
pompous [ ] adj.
having or exhibiting self-importance:ARROGANT
nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimles
pompous:bombast=exaggerated:hyperbole )
Sample: Instead of writing that Gorbachev had a birthmark on his forehead, the
369
pompous young poet sang of the former premier's maculated brow.
ponderable [ ] adj.
significant enough to be worth considering:APPRECIABLE
ponderable<>inappreciable
Sample: I can evaluate the data gathered in this study; the imponderable items are not
so easily analyzed.
ponderous [ ] adj
of very great weight
ponderous<>ethereal/gossamer/lively
slight<>ponderous
ponderous<>lively/vibrant/briskly
Synonyms: HEAVY, cumbersome, cumbrous, hefty, massive, eighty
Sample: His humor lacked the light touch; his jokes were always ponderous.
pontificate [ ] v.
to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
pontificate:speak=strut:walk
pontificate:speak=swagger:walk
pontificate<>comment tentatively
pontificate<>speak diffidently
Sample: Our boss pontificates about company rules at our meetings.
porcelain [ ] n.
a hard, fine-grained, sonorous, nonporous, and usually translucent and white ceramic
ware that consists essentially of kaolin, quartz, and feldspar and is fired at high
temperatures
clay:porcelain=flax:linen )
glaze:porcelain=varnish:wood )
glaze:porcelain=veneer:furniture )
Sample: Porcelain was invented by the Chinese in the 8th century A.D.
pore [ ] n.
a minute opening especially in an animal or plant; especially:one by which matter
passes through a membrane
pore:membrane=door:room )
Sample: Determined to become a physician, Beth spends hours poring over her
anatomy text.
porous [ ] adj.
capable of being penetrated
fragile:break=porous:penetrate CAN BE)
porous<>impenetrable
Sample: Dancers like to wear porous clothing because it allows the ready passage of
water and air.
370
portentous [ ] adj.
eliciting amazement or wonder:PRODIGIOUS
portentous:amaze=??
portentous<>regular
Sample: he riot was a portent of the revolution to come.
portrait [ ] n.
PICTURE; especially:a pictorial representation (as a painting) of a person usually
showing the face
portrait:painting=jazz:music
portrait:person=seascape:ocean )
portrait:painting=biography:history
Sample: The artist has captured the sadness of childhood in his portrait of the boy with
the rueful countenance.
poseur [ ] n.
a person who pretends to be what he or she is not:an affected or insincere person
poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness )
poser:sincere=recluse:gregarious
stickler:derelict=poseur:unaffected
poseur<>sincere person
Sample: Some thought Dali was a brillant painter; others dismissed him as a
poseur.
posit [ ] v
to assume or affirm the existence of:POSTULATE
posit<>deny as false
posterity [ ] n.
the offspring of one progenitor to the furthest generation
Synonyms: OFFSPRING, brood, children, descendants, issue, progeniture, progeny,
scions, seed
Sample: We hope to leave a better world to posterity.
postscript [ ] n.
a note or series of notes appended to a completed letter, article, or book
postscript:letter=??
Sample: She added a postscript (or) a P.S. at the bottom of her letter.
postulate [ ] v
to assume or claim as true, existent, or necessary:depend upon or start from the
postulate of
postulate<>deny as false
Synonyms: ASSUME, presuppose, posit, premise, presume
Sample: We must accept these statements as postulates before pursuing our
371
discussions any further.
posture [ ] vi.
to assume an artificial or pretended attitude:ATTITUDINIZE
posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant
posture<>behave naturally
Synonyms: attitudinize, masquerade, pass (as or for), pass off
Sample: No matter how much Arnold boasted or postured, I could not believe he was
as important as he pretended to be.
potable [ ] adj.
suitable for drinking
potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling
Synonyms: drinkable
Sample: The recent drought in the Middle Atlantic States has emphasized the need for
extensive research in ways of making sea water potable.
potentate [ ] n
RULER, SOVEREIGN; broadly:one who wields great power or sway
virtuoso:skill=potentate:power )
potentate<>subject
potentate<>powerless person
Synonyms: monarch, ruler, sovereign
Sample: The potentate spent more time at Monte Carlo than he did at home on his
throne.
pot [ ] n.
an enclosed framework of wire, wood, or wicker for catching fish or lobsters
lobster:pot=??
potentiate [ ] vt.
to make effective or active or more effective or more active; also:to augment the activity
of (as a drug) synergistically
deactivate<>potentiate
pout [ ] vt. vi.
to show displeasure by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression
wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt
pout<>grin
Synonyms: SULK, grump, mump, pet
Sample: When the child could not have any candy, she pouted.
prairie [ ] n.
a large area of level or rolling land in the Mississippi valley that in its natural
uncultivated state usually has deep fertile soil, a cover of tall coarse grasses, and few
trees
albino:pigment=prairie:tree
372
prate [ ] vi.
to talk long and idly:CHATTER
pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
prate:speak=saunter:walk )
Synonyms: CHAT, babble, chatter, clack, gabble, prattle, BOAST, blow, brag, crow,
puff, vaunt, BABBLE, blabber, blather, drivel, drool, gabble, prattle, twaddle
Sample: Let us not prate about our qualities; rather, let our virtues speak for
themselves.
preach [ ] vt.vi.
to deliver a sermon
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil
Synonyms: evangelize, sermonize, MORALIZE, preachify, sermonize
Sample: The minister preached the word of God to the people in the church.
precarious [ ] adj.
characterized by a lack of security or stability that threatens with danger
precarious:stability=spent:efficacy
impervious:?=precarious:stable
precarious<>secure/stable
precarious<>safe
Synonyms: DOUBTFUL, ambiguous, borderline, dubious, equivocal, impugnable,
indecisive, uncertain
Sample: I think this stock is a precarious investment and advise against its purchase.
precedent [ ] adj.
prior in time, order, arrangement, or significance
preempt:precedence=acquire:possession
unexceptionable:oppose=unique:precedent
unique:precedent=infinite:end
turncoat:constancy=simpleton:precedent
Synonyms: PRECEDING, antecedent, anterior, foregoing, former, past, previous, prior
Sample: In failing to see that the justice's pronouncement merely qualified previous
decisions rather than actually establishing a precedent, the novice law clerk
overemphasized the scope of the justice's judgment.
precipice [ ] n.
a very steep or overhanging place; dangerous position:CLIFF
precipice:steepness=defile:narrowness
precipitous<>level
Sample: Suddenly Indiana Jones found himself dangling from the edge of a precipice.
precipitate [ ] v.
to bring about especially abruptly
373
precipitate<>retard/dilatory
Synonyms: ABRUPT, headlong, impetuous, sudden
Sample: The new biological psychiatry does not deny the contributing role of
psychological factors in mental illnesses, but posits that these factors may act as a
catalyst on existing physiological conditions and precipitate such illnesses.
precipitation [ ] n
something precipitated:as a deposit on the earth of hail, mist, rain, sleet, or snow
snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone
Synonyms: HASTE , hastiness, hurriedness, precipitancy, rush
Sample: The hydrologic cyclea major topic in this scienceis the complete cycle of
phenomena through which water passesbeginning as atmospheric water vaporpassing
into liquid and solid form as precipitationthence along and into the ground surfaceand
finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation
and transpiration.
precipitous [ ] adj.
very steep, perpendicular, or overhanging in rise or fall
precipitous<>gradually sloping
precipitous<>slope slowly
Synonyms: PRECIPITATE, abrupt, hasty, headlong, hurried, impetuous, precipitant,
rushing, sudden
Sample: This hill is difficult to climb because it is so precipitous; one slip, and our
descent will be precipitous as well.
preclude [ ] v.
To make impossible, as by action taken in advance; prevent
preclude<>to make possible
Sample: This contract does not preclude my being employed by others at the same
time that I am working for you.
precursor [ ] n.
one that precedes and indicates the approach of another
precursory<>derivative
precursor<>sequela
Synonyms: ANCESTOR, antecedent, antecessor, foregoer, predecessor, prototype
Sample: Though Gray and Burns share many traits with the Romantic poets who
followed them, most critics consider them precursors of the Romantic Movement, not
true Romantics.
predecessor [ ] n.
374
one that precedes; especially:a person who has previously occupied a position or office
to which another has succeeded
legacy:predecessor=gift:donor )
Synonyms: FORERUNNER, ancestor, antecedent, antecessor, foregoer, precursor
Sample: Science advances in a widening spiral in that each new conceptual scheme
embraces that phenomena explained by its predecessors and adds to those explanations.
preeminent [ ] adj.
having paramount rank, dignity, or importance:OUTSTANDING
preeminence:importance=preponderance:weight )
efface<>bring to preeminent
Synonyms: SUPREME, incomparable, surpassing, towering, transcendent, ultimate,
unequalable, unmatchable, unsurpassable
Sample: The king traveled to Boston because he wanted the preeminent surgeon in the
field to perform the operation.
preempt [ ] v.
to replace with something considered to be of greater value or priority:take precedence
over
preempt:precedence=acquire:possession
Synonyms: APPROPRIATE, accroach, annex, arrogate, commandeer, confiscate,
expropriate, seize, sequester, take
Sample: Hoping to preempt any attempts by the opposition to make educational
reform a hot political issue, the candidate set out her own plan to revitalize the public
schools.
preen [ ] v.
to dress or smooth (oneself) up:PRIMP
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
preen<>ruffle
Synonyms: PRIDE, plume, pique
Sample: As Kitty preened before the mirror, carefully smoothing her shining hair, she
couldn't help preening herself on her good looks.
preface [ ] n.
the introductory remarks of a speaker or author
overture:symphony=preface:book )
preface<>epilogue
prefatory<>conclusive
Synonyms: INTRODUCTION, exordium, foreword, overture, preamble, prelude,
prelusion, prologue
Sample: In their preface, the collection's editors plead that certain of the important
375
articles they omitted were published too recently for inclusion, but in the case of many
such articles, this excuse is not valid.
pregnant [ ] adj.
abounding in fancy, wit, or resourcefulness:INVENTIVE
inane<>expressive/meaningful/pregnant/significant/weighty
Synonyms: childing, enceinte, expectant, expecting, gravid, parous, parturient
prejudice [ ] n
an adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or
examination of the facts.
tendentious<>unbiased/unprejudiced
Synonyms: bias, one-sidedness, partiality
Sample: The author argues for serious treatment of such arts as crochet and
needlework, finding in too many art historians a cultural blindness traceable to their
prejudice against textiles as a medium in which women artists pre-dominate.
preliminary [ ] adj.
coming before and usually forming a necessary prelude to something else
Synonyms: inductive, introductory, prefatory, preparative, preparatory
Sample: The isotopic composition of lead often varies from one source of common
copper ore to anotherwith variations exceeding the measurement errorand preliminary
studies indicate virtually uniform is topic composition of the lead from a single
copper-ore source.
premeditated [ ] adj.
characterized by fully conscious willful intent and a measure of forethought and
planning
offhand<>premeditated
spontaneous<>premeditated
Synonyms: forethought, precogitated, predetermine
Sample: She had premeditated the murder for months, reading about common poisons
and buying weed killer that contained arsenic.
preponderant [ ] adj.
having superior weight, force, or influence
preeminence:importance=preponderance:weight
preponderant<>commensurate
preponderate<>secondary
preponderant<>subsidiary
Synonyms: DOMINANT, ascendant, overbearing, paramount, predominant,
predominate, prevalent, regnant, master, sovereign
Sample: A preponderance of the evidence is against the defendant.
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prepossessing [ ] adj.
tending to create a favorable impression:ATTRACTIVE
unprepossessing<>entrancing/winsome
Synonyms: ATTRACTIVE, alluring, appealing, attracting, captivating, charming,
drawing, enchanting, engaging, mesmeric
Sample: During adolescence many attractive young people somehow acquire the false
notion that their appearance is unprepossessing.
preposterous [ ] adj.
contrary to nature, reason, or common sense:ABSURD
preposterous<>commonsensical
Synonyms: FOOLISH , absurd, crazy, harebrained, insane, loony, silly, wacky
Sample: When the candidate tried to downplay his youthful experiments with
marijuana by saying he hadn't inhaled, we all thought, "What a preposterous excuse!"
presage [ ] vt.
FORETELL, PREDICT
harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify
Synonyms: AUGUR, betoken, bode, forebode, foreshadow, foreshow, foretoken, omen,
promise
Sample: The vultures flying overhead presaged the discovery of the corpse in the
desert.
prescience [ ] n.
foreknowledge of events:a:divine omniscience b:human anticipation of the course of
events:FORESIGHT
dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict {clairvoyant:oversee}
myopia<>prescience
Sample: Crosby's colleagues have never learned, at least not in time to avoid
embarrassing themselves, that her occasional bogus air of befuddlement presages a
display of her formidable intelligence.
prescription [ ] n.
a written direction for a therapeutic or corrective agent; specifically:one for the
preparation and use of a medicine
overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention
Synonyms: LAW , decree, decretum, edict, institute, ordinance, precept, prescript,
regulation, rule
Sample: The patient took the prescription given him by his oculist to the optician.
presentiment [ ] n.
a feeling that something will or is about to happen:PREMONITION
Synonyms: APPREHENSION, apprehensiveness, foreboding, misgiving, premonition,
377
prenotion, presage
Sample: Hamlet felt a presentiment about his meeting with Laertes.
preservative [ ] n.
something that preserves or has the power of preserving; specifically:an additive used to
protect against decay, discoloration, or spoilage
censorship:communication=preservative:decay )
preservative:decay=anchor:drifting
seal:leakage=preservative:decay
Sample: Because of the excellent preservation of the fossil, anatomical details of early
horseshoe crabs were clarified for the first time, enabling experts to reassess the
evolution of the horseshoe crab.
prestige [ ] n.
standing or estimation in the eyes of people:weight or credit in general opinion
eclipse:prestige=(enervation)enfeeble:vigor )
abase:prestige=damp:ardor
Sample: The wealthy man sought to obtain social prestige by contributing to popular
charities.

List 22 presumptuous --- raconteur
presumptuous [ ] adj.
overstepping due bounds (as of propriety or courtesy):taking liberties
transgression:morality=presumption:propriety
presumptuous:unruly
Synonyms: brash, brassbound, confident, forward, gay, overconfident, overweening,
presuming, pushful, pushing, self-asserting, self-assertive, uppish, uppity
Sample: The struggle of the generations is one of the obvious constants of human
affairs; therefore, it may be presumptuous to suggest that the rivalry between young and
old in Western society during the current decade is uniquely critical.
pretense [ ] n.
an inadequate or insincere attempt to attain a certain condition or quality
pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove
Synonyms: MASK, cloak, color, coloring, cover, facade, face, false front, guise,
masquerade
Sample: An example of an illegitimate method of argument is to lump dissimilar cases
together deliberately under the pretense that the same principles apply to each.
prevail [ ] vi.
to gain ascendancy through strength or superiority:TRIUMPH
prevail<>yielding
Synonyms: CONQUER, best, master, overcome, triumph, RULE, dominate, domineer,
predominate, preponderate, reign
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Sample: This final essay, its prevailing kindliness marred by occasional flashes of
savage irony, bespeaks the dichotomous character of the author.
prevalent [ ] adj.
generally or widely accepted, practiced, or favored:WIDESPREAD
prevalent<>unusual
Synonyms: DOMINANT, ascendant, master, overbearing, paramount, predominant,
predominate, preponderant, regnant, sovereign
Sample: A radical committed to social change, Reed had no patience with the
conservative views prevalent in the America of his day.
prevaricate [ ] vi.
to deviate from the truth:EQUIVOCATE
blandishment:coax=prevarication:deceive
equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth
philanthropist:endow=prevaricater:mislead )
prevaricate:candid=??
Synonyms: LIE, equivocate, falsify, fib, palter
Sample: Some people believe that to prevaricate in a good cause is justifiable and
regard the statement as a "white lie."
prime [ ] n.
the earliest stage
prime<>uninitial
Synonyms: MORNING, aurora, cockcrow, dawn, daybreak, dayspring, morn, sunrise
Sample: Although he was over seventy years old, Jack had the vigor of a man in his
prime.
primordial [ ] adj.
existing in or persisting from the beginning
primordial<>most recent
Synonyms: EARLY, primitive, FIRST, primary, prime
Sample: The Neanderthal Man is one of our primordial ancestors.
primp [ ] vt.vi.
to dress, adorn, or arrange in a careful or finicky manner
primp:vain=gloat:smug
Synonyms: DRESS UP, deck (out), doll out, doll up, fix up, gussy up, slick, smarten
(up), spruce (up)
Sample: She primps for hours before a dance.
principal [ ] adj.
most important, consequential, or influential:CHIEF
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principal<>subordinate
Synonyms: CHIEF, capital, dominant, main, major, outstanding, predominant,
preeminent, star, stellar
Sample: The principal reproved the students when they became unruly in the
auditorium.
prissy [ ] adj.
being prim and precise:FINICKY
Synonyms: EFFEMINATE, epicene, sissified, sissy, unmanly
Sample: She is very prissy about her children using slang expressions.
pristine [ ] adj.
not spoiled, corrupted, or polluted (as by civilization):PURE
pristine:decay=stable:fluctuation
demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway}
demanding:satisfy=closed-mind:sway
dismantle:unity=adulterate:pristine
pristine:blemish=??
squalid<>pristine
pristine<>taint
Synonyms: original, pure
Sample: Scientists' pristine reputation as devotees of the disinterested pursuit of truth
has been compromised by recent evidence that some scientists have deliberately
fabricated experimental results to further their own careers.
privation [ ] n.
the state of being deprived; especially:lack of what is needed for existence
repletion<>privation
Synonyms: ABSENCE, dearth, default, defect, lack, want
Sample: In his youth, he knew hunger and privation.
privilege [ ] n.
a right or immunity granted as a peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor:PREROGATIVE;
especially:such a right or immunity attached specifically to a position or an office
Synonyms: RIGHT, birthright, perquisite, prerogative, franchise
Sample: Psychology has slowly evolved into an independent scientific discipline that
now functions autonomously with the same privileges and responsibilities as other
sciences.
probe [ ] v.
to make a searching exploratory investigation
cavil:criticize=probe:investigate
Synonyms: INQUIRY, delving, inquest, inquisition, investigation, probing, quest,
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research
Sample: The surgeon probed the wound for foreign matter before suturing it.
probity [ ] n.
adherence to the highest principles and ideals:UPRIGHTNESS
probity<>unscrupulousness
probity<>shiftness :shift:given to deception, evasion, or fraud:TRICKY
Synonyms: GOODNESS, morality, rectitude, righteousness, rightness, uprightness,
virtue
Sample: Everyone took his probity for granted; his defalcations, therefore, shocked us
all.
proclivity [ ] n.
A natural propensity or inclination; predisposition
proclivity<>aversion
Sample: The cross old lady has a proclivity to grumble.
procrastinate [ ] v.
to put off intentionally the doing of something that should be done
dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain
husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
procrastination<>diligence
Synonyms: DELAY, dally, dawdle, drag, lag, linger, loiter, poke, put off, tarry
Sample: It is wise not to procrastinate; otherwise, we find ourselves bogged down in a
mass of work that should have been finished long ago.
procure [ ] vt.
to get possession of:obtain by particular care and effort
procure<>relinquish
Synonyms: GET, acquire, annex, compass, gain, have, land, obtain, pick up, secure
Sample: The personnel department handles the procurement of new employees.
prod [ ] vt.
to incite to action:STIR
doze:sleep=nudge:prod
rein<>prod
Synonyms: POKE, dig, jab, jog, nudge, punchURGE, exhort, goad, prick, prompt,
propel, spur
Sample: If you prod him hard enough, he'll eventually clean his room.
prodigal [ ] adj.
characterized by wasteful expenditure:LAVISH
mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance
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miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal
parsimonious:save=prodigal:spend
husbandry<>prodigality
parsimonious<>prodigal
prodigal<>frugal
Synonyms: PROFUSE, exuberant, lavish, lush, luxuriant, opulent, profusive, riotous
Sample: She is most frugal in matters of business, but in her private life she reveals a
streak of prodigality.
prodigy [ ] n.
an extraordinary, marvelous, or unusual accomplishment, deed, or event
prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence
prodigious:amaze=??
prodigious<>slight
Synonyms: WONDER, marvel, miracle, phenomenon, portent, sensation, stunner
Sample: Often the difficulties of growing up in the public eye cause child prodigies to
retire from the world of achievement before reaching adulthood:happily, they
sometimes later return to competition and succeed brilliantly.
profane [ ] v.
to treat (something sacred) with abuse, irreverence, or contempt:DESECRATE
pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable
penetrate:impermeable=profane:inviolable
inviolable<>profane/impure
Synonyms: OBSCENE, coarse, dirty, filthy, foul, indecent, nasty, smutty, vulgar
Sample: Many philosophers agree that the verbal aggression of profanity in certain
radical newspapers is not trivial or childish, but an assault on decorum essential to the
revolutionaries purpose.
proffer [ ] v.
to present for acceptance:TENDER, OFFER
proffer<>retain
Synonyms: OFFER, extend, give, hold out, pose, present, tender
proficient [ ] adj.
having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation,
profession, or branch of learning
proficient<>inept
proficient<>incompetent
Sample: Experienced and proficient, Susan is a good, reliable trumpeter her music is
often more satisfying than Carol's brilliant but erratic playing.
profligate [ ] adj.
wildly extravagant:PRODIGAL
profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed
382
querulous:words=profligate:money
loquacious:word=profligate:money
parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance
profligate<>parsimonious
provident<>profligate
profligate<>thrift
profligate<>economize
Synonyms: ABANDONED, dissolute, licentious, reprobate, self-abandoned,
unprincipled
Sample: The profligacy and dissolution of life in Caligula's Rome appall some
historians.
profusion [ ] n
great quantity:lavish display or supply
profusion<>paucity
profuse<>scanty
Synonyms: ABUNDANCE, richness, wealth
Sample: Seldom have I seen food and drink served in such profusion as at the wedding
feast.
proliferate [ ] v.
to increase in number as if by proliferating:MULTIPLY
proliferate<>decrease in mount
barren<>prolific
Sample: Times of economic hardship inevitably encourage countless get-rich-quick
schemes to proliferate.
prolix [ ] adj
marked by or using an excess of words
pithy<>prolix
prolixity<>succinctness
taciturn<>prolix
terse<>prolix
Synonyms: WORDY, diffuse, long-winded, redundant, verbose, windy
Sample: Her prolix arguments irritated and bored the jury.
prolong [ ] vt.
to lengthen in extent, scope, or range
prolong<>truncate
Synonyms: EXTEND, draw, draw out, elongate, lengthen, prolongate, protract, spin
(out), stretch
Sample: In their determination to discover ways to prolong human life, doctors fail to
383
take into account that longer lives are not always happier ones.
prominent [ ] adj.
readily noticeable:CONSPICUOUS
prominent:notice=lucid:understand )
eclipse<>make more prominent/bring to more prominent
prominent<>inconspicuous
Synonyms: NOTICEABLE, arresting, conspicuous, outstanding, remarkable, salient,
striking,
Sample: Doreen justifiably felt she deserved recognition for the fact that the research
institute had been returned to a position of preeminence, since it was she who had
directed the transformation.
promote [ ] vt.
to contribute to the growth or prosperity of:FURTHER
abate<>intensify/promote
subside<>promote
Synonyms: ADVANCE, elevate, prefer, upgrade
Sample: For his intrepid conduct in battle, he was promoted.
propagate [ ] vt.
to cause to spread out and affect a greater number or greater area:EXTEND
propagate<>check
Synonyms: SPREAD, circulate, diffuse, disperse, disseminate, distribute, radiate,
strew
Sample: Since bacteria propagate more quickly in unsanitary environments, it is
important to keep hospital rooms clean.
propensity [ ] n.
an often intense natural inclination or preference
propensity<>aversion
Synonyms: LEANING, bent, disposition, inclination, inclining, penchant, predilection,
predisposition, proclivity, tendency
Sample: The poet W. H. Auden believed that the greatest poets of his age were almost
necessarily irresponsible, that the possession of great gifts engenders the propensity to
abuse them.
prophetic [ ] adj.
foretelling events:PREDICTIVE
mentor:guidance=oracle:prophecy
apocalyptic:prophetic=inconsequential:illogical
Synonyms: apocalyptic, Delphian, fatidic, mantic, oracular, prophetical, sibylline,
vatic
Sample: Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its first stressful experiences are
384
part of a natural process of development, not harbingers of childhood unhappiness or
prophetic signs of adolescent anxiety.
propitiate [ ] vt.
to gain or regain the favor or goodwill of:APPEASE, CONCILIATE
immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated
inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated
propitiate<>incense
propitiate<>antagonize
Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, sweeten
Sample: Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in
power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some propitiatory gesture of
comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his involvement
with the high and mighty.
propitious [ ] adj.
favorably disposed:BENEVOLENT
inauspicious<>propitious
propitious<>unfavorable
Synonyms: FAVORABLE, auspicious, benign, bright,, fortunate, white
Sample: I think it is advisable that we wait for a more propitious occasion to announce
our plans; this is not a good time.
proposal [ ] n.
an act of putting forward or stating something for consideration
Synonyms: invitation, proffer, proposition, suggestion
Sample: I am ready to accept your proposal with the two proviso that you meet your
obligations within the next two weeks.
prosaic [ ] adj.
DULL, UNIMAGINATIVE,EVERYDAY, ORDINARY
prosaic<>exceptional/imaginary/exciting
prosaic<>extraordinary
ingenious<>prosaic { spontaneous}
prosaic<>preternatural
Synonyms: COMMONPLACE, everyday, lowly, mundane, workaday, workday
Sample: Though the ad writers had come up with a highly creative campaign to
publicize the company's newest product, the head office rejected it for a more prosaic,
down-to-earth approach.
proscribe [ ] v.
to condemn or forbid as harmful or unlawful:PROHIBIT
proscribed<>permitted
proscription<>permission
Synonyms: SENTENCE, condemn, damn, doom
385
Sample: Despite the fact that it is almost universally proscribed, the practice of
indentured servitude still persists in many parts of the world.
prosecution [ ] n.
the act or process of prosecuting; specifically:the institution and continuance of a
criminal suit involving the process of pursuing formal charges against an offender to
final judgment
mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction
Sample: The defense called several respectable witnesses who were able to refute the
false testimony of the prosecution's only witness.
proselytize [ ] vi
to recruit or convert especially to a new faith, institution, or cause
hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert
salesperson:buy=proselytizer:convert { educator:promote}
Sample: In these interfaith meetings, there must be no attempt to proselytize; we must
respect all points of view.
prospect [ ] v.
to search for or explore (a region) for mineral deposits or oil.
prospect:mineral=investigate:information
Sample: Many people prospected for gold in California in the 1850s.
prosperous [ ] adj.
enjoying vigorous and healthy growth:FLOURISHING
palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity
impecunious<>wealthy/prosperous/affluent
prosperous<>depressed
Synonyms: FLOURISHING, booming, prospering, roaring, robust
Sample: Paradoxically, England's colonization of North America was undermined by
its success:the increasing prosperity of the colonies diminished their dependence upon,
and hence their loyalty to, their home country.
prostrate [ ] adj.
stretched out with face on the ground in adoration or submission; also:lying flat
prostrate<>erect
prostrate<>upright
Synonyms: PRONE, decumbent, flat, procumbent, reclining, recumbent
Sample: He prostrated himself before the idol.
protean [ ] adj.
displaying great diversity or variety:VERSATILE
circular:asymmetrical=protean:rigid
protean<>static
Synonyms: CHANGEABLE, changeful, fluid, mobile, mutable, unsettled, unstable,
386
unsteady, variable
Sample: A remarkably protean actor, Alec Guinness could take on any role.
protest [ ] vt.vi.
to execute or have executed a formal protest against (as a bill or note)
protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat
Synonyms: OBJECT , except, expostulate, inveigh (against), kick, remonstrate
Sample: Despite vigorous protestations, the grin on the teen-agers face belied her
denial that she had known about the practical joke before it was played on her parents.
protocol [ ] n.
a code prescribing strict adherence to correct etiquette and precedence
protocol:blunder=bumper:damage )
Sample: We must run this state dinner according to protocol if we are to avoid
offending any of our guests.
protract [ ] v
to prolong in time or space:CONTINUE
protract:length=throng:number
protract<>curtail
protract<>abridge
transient<>protracted
Synonyms: EXTEND, draw, draw out, elongate, lengthen, prolong, prolongate, spin
(out), stretch
Sample: During a period of protracted illness, the sick can become infirm losing both
the strength to work and many of the specific skills they once possessed.
protuberant [ ] adj.
thrusting out from a surrounding or adjacent surface often as a rounded
mass:PROMINENT
protuberant<>depressed
protuberance<>concavity
protrude<>concave
Synonyms: prominent, obtrusive
Sample: A ganglionic cyst is a fluid-filled tumor (generally benign) that develops near
a joint membrane or tendon sheath, and that bulges beneath the skin, forming a
protuberance.
provident [ ] adj.
FRUGAL, SAVING
provident<>profligate
Synonyms: PROVIDENT ,SPARING, canny, chary, economical, frugal, saving, Scotch,
stewardly, thrifty
387
Sample: In his usual provident manner, he had insured himself against this type of
loss.
providential [ ] adj.
Happening as if through divine intervention; opportune.
providential<>unfortunate/mishap
Synonyms: LUCKY, fortunate, happy, well
provincial [ ] adj.
limited in outlook:NARROW
bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination}
ecumenical<>factionalism/provincial
Synonyms: INSULAR, local, parochial, sectarian, small-town
Sample: As provincial governor, Sir Henry administered the Queen's law in his remote
corner of Canada.
provisional [ ] adj.
serving for the time being:TEMPORARY
definitive<>provisional
Synonyms: CONDITIONAL, provisionary, provisory, tentative
Sample: Before the Second World War, academics still questioned whether the body of
literature produced in the United States truly constituted a national literature, or whether
such literature was only a provincial branch of English literature.
provisory [ ] adj.
containing or subject to a proviso:CONDITIONAL
provisory<>unconditional
Synonyms: CONDITIONAL, provisional, provisionary, tentative
provoke [ ] vt.
to call forth (as a feeling or action):EVOKE
taunt:provoke=plot:outwit
choleric<>difficult to provoke
jejune<>thought provoking
Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, inflame, pique, rile, roil
Sample: Marshall's confrontational style could alienate almost anyone:he even
antagonized a board of directors that included a number of his supporters and that had a
reputation for not being easily provoked.
prowess [ ] n.
distinguished bravery; especially:military valor and skill
prowess<>timid
Synonyms: HEROISM, gallantry, valiance, valiancy, valor, valorousness
Sample: he showed her prowess on the basketball court by scoring 35 points for our
388
team.
prowl [ ] v.
to move about or wander stealthily in or as if in search of prey
reconnoiter:information=prowl:prey
Sample: At night, criminals are on the prowl for people to rob.
prude [ ] n.
a person who is excessively or priggishly attentive to propriety or decorum;
especially:a woman who shows or affects extreme modesty
fanatic:devoted=prude:proper
Synonyms: bluenose, goody-goody, prig, puritan
Sample: Prudery actually draws attention to the vice it is supposed to repress; the very
act that forbids speech or prohibits sight dramatizes what is hidden.
prudent [ ] adj.
marked by circumspection:DISCREET
prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton
fool<>prudent
Synonyms: WISE , judgmatic, judicious, sage, sane, sapient, sensible
Sample: It was a war the queen and her more prudent counselors wished to avoid if
they could and were determined in any event to postpone as long as possible.
prudish [ ] adj.
marked by prudery:PRIGGISH
scholarly:pedantic=modest:prudish
Synonyms: PRIM, genteel, priggish, prissy, proper, puritanical, straitlaced, stuffy,
tight-laced
Sample: He sang a ribald song that offended many of the more prudish listeners.
prune [ ] n.
a plum dried or capable of drying without fermentation
prune:plum=raisin:grape
Synonyms: DUNCE, blockhead, chump, dimwit, dolt, dope, dumbbell, idiot,
ignoramus, moron
Sample: With the help of her editor, she was able to prune her manuscript into
publishable form.
pry [ ] v.
to look closely or inquisitively; also:to make a nosy or presumptuous inquiry
connive:cooperate=pry:watch
prying:inquisitive=garish:colorful
Synonyms: SNOOP, busybody, mouse, nose, poke
Sample: He pried into his daughter's love life so closely that she stopped telling him
389
anything.
psychology [ ] n.
the study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity
fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist
Sample: Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a
paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioal psychology.
pucker [ ] v.
to contract into folds or wrinkles
squint:eye=pucker:mouth
puckish [ ] adj.
IMPISH, WHIMSICAL
puckish<>sober
puckish<>grave
puckish<>staid
Synonyms: PLAYFUL, antic, impish, larkish, mischievous, prankish, roguish, sportive,
waggish, wicked
puerile [ ] adj.
CHILDISH, SILLY
puerile<>sagacious
Synonyms: CHILDISH, babyish, immature, infantile, infantine, pre-kindergarten
Sample: His puerile pranks sometimes offended his more mature friends.
puissance [ ] n.
Power; might
puissance<>powerlessness
Sample: We must keep his friendship for he will make a puissant ally.
pulchritude [ ] n.
physical comeliness
pulchritude<>ugliness
pulchritude<>homeliness
pulchritudinous<>hideous
Synonyms: comeliness, beautifulness
Sample: I do not envy the judges who have to select this year's Miss America from
this collection of female pulchritude.
pullet [ ] n.
a young hen; specifically:a hen of the domestic chicken less than a year old
filly:horse=pullet:chicken
pulverize [ ] v.
to reduce (as by crushing, beating, or grinding) to very small particles:ATOMIZE
pulverize<>solidify
Synonyms: DESTROY, decimate, demolish, destruct, dynamite, rub out, ruin, shatter,
390
tear down, wreck
Sample: Before sprinkling the dried herbs into the stew, Michael first pulverized them
into a fine powder.
pun [ ] n.
a joke using words with similar sounds or two different meanings:
pun:joke=supernova:star
Synonyms: calembour, paronomasia
Sample: A pun is, for example:"I have a weak back that I hurt about a week back";
"weak" and "week" have the same sound but different meanings and "back" means "the
human back" and in "the past."
punch line [ ] n.
the sentence, statement, or phrase (as in a joke) that makes the point
joke:punch line=plot:denouement
Sample: In the pun, "Did you know that I hurt myself and have a weak back?" "No,
when did it happen?" "Oh, about a week back!" the punch line is a "week back."
punctilious [ ] adj.
marked by or concerned about precise accordance with the details of codes or
conventions
punctilious<>remiss
Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, fussy, heedful, meticulous,
painstaking, punctual, scrupulous
Sample: We must be punctilious in our planning of this affair, for any error may be
regarded as a personal affront.
pundit [ ] n
one who gives opinions in an authoritative manner:PANDIT, CRITIC
augur:predict=pundit:opine
authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans
miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion
pundit:opinion=augur:prediction
recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine
pundit:??=autocracy:power
Synonyms: pandit, teacher, critic
Sample: Even though he discourses on the matter like a pundit, he is actually rather
ignorant about this topic.
pungent [ ] adj.
causing a sharp or irritating sensation; especially:ACRID
pungency<>blandness
Synonyms: peppery, piquant, poignant, racy, snappy, spicy, zesty
391
Sample: The pungent verbal give-and-take among the characters makes the novel
lively reading, and this very spiritedness suggests to me that some of the opinions
voiced may be the author's.
puny [ ] adj.
slight or inferior in power, size, or importance:WEAK
measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly
puny<>enormous
Synonyms: PETTY, measly, niggling, paltry, piddling, trifling, trivial, unconsequential
Sample: Our puny efforts to stop the flood were futile.
purgatory [ ] n.
an intermediate state after death for expiatory purification; specifically:a place or state
of punishment wherein according to Roman Catholic doctrine the souls of those who die
in God's grace may make satisfaction for past sins and so become fit for heaven
Synonyms: SWAMP, bog, fen, marsh, mire, morass, quagmire
Sample: In this purgatory, he could expect no help from his comrades.
purity [ ] n.
the quality or state of being pure
mosquito:netting=impurity:filter
stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration
synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity
winnow:chaff=filter:impurities
winnow:grain=purify:water
distill:purity=leaven:volume
dismantle:unity(whole)=?:purity
inviolable<>profane/impure
Sample: Although ordinarily skeptical about the purity of Robinson's motives, in this
instance Jenkins did not consider Robinson's generosity to be alloyed with consideration
of personal gain.
purlieu [ ] n.
a frequently visited place:HAUNT
taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu
purlieu<>an unfrequent place
Synonyms: RESORT, hangout, haunt, rendezvous, stamping ground, watering hole
purloin [ ] vt.vi
to appropriate wrongfully and often by a breach of trust
lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate=abscond:depart
Synonyms: STEAL, appropriate, cabbage, filch, pilfer, pinch, snitch, swipe, thieve
pursue [ ] vt.
to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, or defeat
Synonyms: FOLLOW, chase, chivy, trail, ADDRESS, court, make up (to), spark, sue,
392
sweetheart, woo
Sample: Sure of his priestly vocation, Terrence planned to pursue his theological
training at the local Roman Catholic seminary.
purvey [ ] v.
to supply (as provisions) usually as a matter of business
vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate
Synonyms: provide, peddle
Sample: As purveyor of rare wines and viands, he traveled through France and Italy
every year in search of new products to sell.
pusillanimous [ ] adj.
lacking courage and resolution:marked by contemptible timidity
dauntless<>pusillanimous
pusillanimous<>stouthearted
temerity<>pusillanimity/circumspection
valiance<>pusillanimous
Synonyms: COWARDLY, coward, craven, gutless, lily-livered, poltroon, poltroonish,
spunkless, unmanly
Sample: You should be ashamed of your pusillanimous conduct during this dispute.
quaff [ ] vt.vi.
to drink (a beverage) deeply
quaff:sip=stride:mince )
quaff:sip=delve:skim
Sample: As we quaffed our ale, we listened to the gay songs of the students in the
tavern.
quail [ ] vi.
to recoil in dread or terror:COWER
quail<>become resolute
quail<>give bold
Synonyms: GIRL , damsel, gal, lass, lassie, maid, maiden, miss, missy
Sample: He was afraid that he would quail in the face of danger.
quaint [ ] adj.
unusual or different in character or appearance:ODD
Sample: Doors were closing on our past, and soon the values we had lived by would
become so obsolete that we would seem to people of the new age as quaint as travelers
from an ancient land.
qualified [ ] adj.
limited or modified in some way
mitigate:severe=qualify:general
absolute<>qualified
393
categorical<>qualified/conditional
qualified<>unreserved
Sample: Even though the general's carefully qualified public statement could hardly be
faulted, some people took exception to it.
quandary [ ] n.
a state of perplexity or doubt
quandary:perplex=??
Sample: When the two colleges to which he had applied accepted him, he was in a
quandary as to which one he should attend.
quarantine [ ] n.
to isolate from normal relations or communication
embargo:commerce=quarantine:contact
hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident
Sample: We will have to place this house under quarantine until we determine the
nature of the disease.
quarry [ ] n.
an open excavation usually for obtaining building stone, slate, or limestone
mine:ore=quarry:rock
Sample: He works in a stone quarry.
quarry [ ] n.
one that is sought or pursued:PREY
hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert
aspirant:quarry=hunter:prey
Synonyms: prey
Sample: Hunters kill deer (bears, rabbits, etc.) as quarry.
quash [ ] v.
to suppress or extinguish summarily and completely
quash<>engender
foment<>quash/quell
quash<>foment
Synonyms: ANNUL, abrogate, discharge, dissolve, vacate, void
Sample: The authorities acted quickly to quash the student rebellion, sending in tanks
to cow the demonstrators.
quell [ ] vt.
to thoroughly overwhelm and reduce to submission or passivity
uell<>foment/instigate/rouse
foment<>quash/quell
quell<>foment
Synonyms: CRUSH, annihilate, extinguish, put down, quash, quench, squash,
394
suppress
Sample: The police used fire hoses and teat gas to quell the rioters.
quench [ ] vt.
to cool (as heated metal) suddenly by immersion (as in oil or water)
tint:suffuse=damp:quench
Synonyms: CRUSH, annihilate, extinguish, put down, quash, quell, squash, suppress
Sample: The firefighters quenched the fire.
querulous [ ] vadj.
habitually complaining
querulous:words=profligate:money
querulous:complain=sycophant:flattery
querulous:complain=voluble:talk )
Synonyms: IRRITABLE, fractious, fretful, huffy, peevish, pettish, petulant, snappish,
waspish, waspy
Sample: His classmates were repelled by his querulous and complaining statements.
queue [ ] vi.
a waiting line especially of persons or vehicles
colonnade:pillar=queue:person
queue:people=chain:link=colonnade:pillar
Sample: They stood patiently in the queue outside the movie theatre.
quibble [ ] n.
to evade the point of an argument by caviling about words
encomiast:eulogize=quibbler:cavil
nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil
faultfinding:criticize=quibble:cavil
Synonyms: ARGUE, argufy, bicker, dispute, hassle, squabble, wrangle
Sample: Do not quibble; I want a straightforward and definite answer.
quiescent [ ] adj. marked by inactivity or repose:tranquilly at rest
tumult<>quietude/quiescence
quiescence<>tumult
rambunctious<>quiescent
Synonyms: LATENT, abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent
Sample: The astronomer and feminist Maria Mitchell's own prodigious activity and
the vigor of the Association for the Advancement of Women during the 1870's belie any
assertion that feminism was quiescent in that period.
quip [ ] n.
a witty or funny observation or response usually made on the spur of the moment
Sample: You are unpopular because you are too free with your quips and sarcastic
395
comments.
quixotic [ ] adj.
foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals; especially:marked by rash
lofty romantic ideas or extravagantly chivalrous action
quixotic<>displaying consistently practical behavior
Sample: His head is in the clouds; he is constantly presenting these quixotic schemes.
quota [ ] n.
a proportional part or share; especially:the share or proportion assigned to each in a
division or to each member of a body
quota<>unlimited number
Synonyms: SHARE, allotment, allowance, bite, cut, lot, part, partage, portion, slice
Sample: That student receives a yearly quota of money from the government.
quotidian [ ] adj
COMMONPLACE, ORDINARY
quotidian<>remarkable
quotidian<>striking
Synonyms: ORDINARY, everyday, plain, plain Jane, routine, unremarkable, usual,
workaday
Sample: Their piety was expressed in quotidian behavior:they worshipped regularly,
according all the regenerative processes of nature respect, and even awe.
rabble [ ] n.
a disorganized or disorderly crowd of people:MOB
items:hodgepodge=people:rabble
rabid [ ] adj.
extremely violent:FURIOUS
rabid<>logical
rabid<>detached
Synonyms: FURIOUS, corybantic, delirious, frantic, frenetic, frenzied, mad, wild
Sample: He was a rabid follower of the Dodgers and watched them play whenever he
could go to the ball park.
racketeer [ ] n.
one who obtains money by an illegal enterprise usually involving intimidation
Sample: The witness's testimony against the racketeers incriminates some high public
officials as well.
raconteur [ ] n
a person who excels in telling anecdotes
raconteur:storytelling=wordsmith:writing :)
Sample: My father was a gifted raconteur with an unlimited supply of anecdotes.
396

List 23 racy --- repatriate
racy [ ] adj.
having a strongly marked quality:PIQUANT
tame<>racy
Synonyms: PUNGENT, peppery, piquant, poignant, snappy, spicy, zesty
Sample: She writes racy novels about rich men and beautiful women.
raffish [ ] adj.
marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness
ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub
Synonyms: WILD, devil-may-care, fast, gay, rakehell, rakish, sporty
raffle [ ] n.
a lottery in which the prize is won by one of numerous persons buying chances
lottery:raffle=ticket:admission
Sample: Although the sponsor of the raffle claimed all winners were chosen at random,
people had their suspicions when the grand prize went to the sponsor's brother-in-law.
rafter [ ] n
any of the parallel beams that support a roof
roof:rafter=table:leg
Sample: The engineer calculated that the strut supporting the rafter needed to be
reinforced.
rage [ ] n.
violent and uncontrolled anger
bigotry=dedication=rage:anger
gush:effusive=rage:irate
infuriate:rage=commend:esteem {scrounge:possession}
infuriate:rage=nonplus:perplexity
Sample: Despite all prophylactic measures introduced by the authorities, the epidemic
raged until cool weather set in.
Synonyms: ANGER, fury, indignation, ire, mad, wrath
ragged [ ] adj.
torn or worn to tatters
cloth:ragged=furniture:rickety
Synonyms: frayed, frazzled, shreddy, tattered
Sample: His clothes are torn and ragged from living in the woods.
ragtime [ ] n.
rhythm characterized by strong syncopation in the melody with a regularly accented
accompaniment
music:ragtime=??
397
Sample: Scott Joplin made ragtime popular in 1893 and wrote ragtime piano pieces.
rail [ ] vi.
to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language
Synonyms: SCOLD, bawl out, berate, jaw, rate, revile, tongue-lash, upbraid,
vituperate
Sample: You may rail at him all you want; you will never change him.
rakish [ ] adj
of, relating to, or characteristic of a rake:DISSOLUTE
rakish:restraint=slothful:assiduity
Synonyms: WILD, devil-may-care, fast, gay, raffish, rakehell, sporty
Sample: He wore his hat at a rakish and jaunty angle.
ramble [ ] vi.
to move aimlessly from place to place
draw:doodle=travel:ramble
Synonyms: WANDER, gad, gallivant, meander, range, roam, rove, straggle, stray,
traipse
Sample: Listening to the teacher ramble, Judy wondered whether he'd ever get to his
point.
rambunctious [ ] adj.
marked by uncontrollable exuberance:UNRULY
rambunctious<>quiescent
Sample: Her rambunctious little boy is always chasing other children.
rampart [ ] n.
a protective barrier:BULWARK
tower:edifice=rampart:barrier
rampart:invasion=levee:flood
Sample: "From the ramparts we watched" as the fighting continued.
ramshackle [ ] adj.
appearing ready to collapse:RICKETY
ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity
Synonyms: rickety
Sample: The boys propped up the ramshackle clubhouse with a couple of boards.
rancid [ ] adj.
offensive in odor or flavor:RANK
Synonyms: MALODOROUS, fetid, high, nidorous, noisome, olid, putrid, reeking,
smelly, whiffy
398
Sample: A rancid odor filled the ship's galley and nauseated the crew.
rancor [ ] n
bitter deep-seated ill will
rancor<>goodwill
rancor<>charitableness
Synonyms: ENMITY, animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, hostility
Sample: Let us forget out rancor and cooperate in this new endeavor.
range [ ] n.
a series of mountains
range:mountain=chain:link {archipelago:island }
Sample: New York state has several mountain ranges, including the Adirondacks.
ranger [ ] n.
the keeper of a British royal park or forest
ranger:forest=curator:museum
Sample: A ranger in the national park watches out for fires.
rank [ ] adj.
offensive in odor or flavor; especially:RANCID
Synonyms: OBSCENE, coarse, dirty, filthy, foul, gross, indecent, raunchy, smutty,
vulgar
Sample: The chicken meat looked good in the market, but it smells rank now.
rankle [ ] v. (
to cause anger, irritation, or deep bitterness
rankle<>pacify
rankle<>calm
mollify<>rankle
Synonyms: fester
Sample: The memory of having been jilted rankled him for years.
rant [ ] vt.vi.
to scold vehemently
fear:cower=anger:rant
Synonyms: ORATE, bloviate, declaim, harangue, mouth, perorate, rave, soapbox
Sample: As we heard him rant on the platform, we could not understand his strange
popularity with many people.
rapacious [ ] adj.
excessively grasping or covetous
troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious )
399
Synonyms: VORACIOUS, edacious, gluttonous, ravening, ravenous
Sample: Hawks and other rapacious birds prey on variety of small animals.
rapport [ ] n
RELATION; especially:relation marked by harmony, conformity, accord, or affinity
rapport<>discord
Synonyms: HARMONY, concord, unity
Sample: In team teaching, it is important that all teachers in the group have good
rapport with one another.
rapprochement [ ] n.
establishment of or state of having cordial relations
estrangement<>rapprochement
Synonyms: RECONCILIATION, harmonizing, reconcilement
Sample: Two former enemies reached a rapprochement; they agreed not to fight again.
rapscallion [ ] n.
RASCAL, NE'ER-DO-WELL
rapscallion:mischievous=sluggard:lazy {cavalier:arrogant
Synonyms: SCAMP, devil, enfant terrible, limb, mischief, rascal, rogue, scalawag,
skeezicks, villain
rapt [ ] adj.
wholly absorbed:ENGROSSED
intrepid:deter=rapt:distract
rapt<>distracted
Synonyms: INTENT, absorbed, deep, engaged, engrossed, immersed, preoccupied,
wrapped, wrapped up
Sample: The audience listened with rapt attention to the excellent speaker.
rash [ ] adj.
marked by or proceeding from undue haste or lack of deliberation or caution
obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous
loquacious:talkative=rash:adventurous
rash<>circumspective
Synonyms: brash, hasty, hotheaded, ill-advised, incautious, incogitant, inconsiderate,
mad-brained, madcap, reckless, thoughtless, unadvised, unconsidered, unwary
Sample: Charging an expensive vacation that he couldn't pay for on his credit card was
a rash thing to do.
raisin [ ] n.
a grape of any of several varieties that has been dried in the sun or by artificial heat
400
prune:plum=raisin:grape
raspy [ ] adj.
HARSH, GRATING
mellifluous<>raspy
Synonyms: IRRITABLE, peevish, pettish, petulant, prickish, prickly, raspish, snappish,
snappy, waspish
Sample: The sergeant's raspy voice grated on the recruits' ears.
ratify [ ] vt.
to approve and sanction formally:CONFIRM
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification
Synonyms: confirm
Sample: Before the treaty could go into effect, it had to be ratified by the president.
ratiocination [ ] n.
the process of exact thinking:REASONING
ratiocination:thinking=articulation:talking
Synonyms: INFERENCE, conclusion, deduction, illation, judgment, sequitur
Sample: While Watson was a man of average intelligence, Holmes was a genius,
whose gift for ratiocination made him a superb detective.
ration [ ] n.
a food allowance for one day
dose:medicine=ration:food
Sample: Many food rations for soldiers come in cans.
rationalize [ ] v.
to provide plausible but untrue reasons for conduct
rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite}
Synonyms: EXPLAIN, account, explain away, justify
Sample: All attempts at rationalization at this time are doomed to failure; tempers and
emotions run too high for intelligent thought to prevail.
raucous [ ] adj.
disagreeably harsh or strident:HOARSE
Synonyms: HARSH, dry, grating, hoarse, jarring, rough, squawky, strident, stridulent,
stridulous
Sample: His raucous laughter irritated me and grated on my ears.
ravel [ ] vt.
to separate or undo the texture of:UNRAVEL
ravel<>knit
Synonyms: COMPLICATE, entangle, muddle, perplex, snarl, tangle
401
Sample: A sigle thread pulled loose, and the entire scarf started to ravel.
rave [ ] v. n.
an extravagantly favorable criticism
rave<>pan
Synonyms: ENTHUSE, drool, rhapsodize, rhapsody
Sample: Critics raved about the new play.
ravenous [ ] adj. very eager or greedy for food, satisfaction, or
gratification
incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{ravenous:satisfied}
Synonyms: VORACIOUS, edacious, gluttonous, rapacious, ravening
Sample: The revenous dog upset several garbage pails in its search for food.
raze [ ] vt.
to destroy to the ground:DEMOLISH
raze<>build
Synonyms: DESTROY, decimate, demolish, ruin, unbuild, undo, unframe, unmake,
wrack, wreck
Sample: The owners intend to raze the hotel and erect an office building on the site.
reactant [ ] n.
a substance that enters into and is altered in the course of a chemical reaction
reactant<>inert material
reactionary [ ] adj.
relating to, marked by, or favoring reaction; especially:ultraconservative in politics
contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty
recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change
reactionary:convention=??
votary<>reactionary
Synonyms: CONSERVATIVE, die-hard, fogyish, old-line, orthodox, right, tory,
traditionalistic
Sample: His program was reactionary since it sought to abolish many of the social
reforms instituted by the previous administration.
ream [ ] n.
a quantity of paper being 20 quires or variously 480, 500, or 516 sheets
ream:paper=cord:wood
Sample:Our office uses 20 reams of paper each week.
reap [ ] v.
to gather by reaping:HARVEST
scythe:reaper=axe:woodcutter )
reap<>plant
Synonyms: garner, gather, harvest, ingather
402
Sample: In the autumn, farmers reap their crops.
reassure [ ] v.
to restore to confidence
feed:hunger=reassure:uneasiness
perturb:serenity=reassure:doubt
formidable<>reassuring
Sample: She reassured him that she still loves him.
rebuff [ ] vt.
to reject or criticize sharply:SNUB
rebuff<>approve
Synonyms: FEND (off), hold off, keep off, rebut, repel, repulse, stave off, ward (off)
Sample: She rebuffed his invitation so smoothly that he did not realize he had been
snubbed.
rebus [ ] n.
a representation of words or syllables by pictures of objects or by symbols whose names
resemble the intended words or syllables in sound; also:a riddle made up of such
pictures or symbols
rebus:dissimulation=??
recalcitrant [ ] adj
obstinately defiant of authority or restraint
incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey
recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change
fastidious:outshine=recalcitrant:resist )
Synonyms: UNRULY, fractious, indomitable, intractable, undisciplinable,
undisciplined, ungovernable, unmanageable, untoward, wild
Sample: Donkeys are reputed to be the most recalcitrant of animals.
recant [ ] vi.
to withdraw or repudiate (a statement or belief) formally and publicly:RENOUNCE
apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy
recantation:error=confession:crime
recant:declare=??
recant<>reaffirm
Synonyms: ABJURE, forswear, palinode, recall, retract, take back, unsay, withdraw
Sample: A number of writers who once greatly disparaged the literary critic have
recently recanted, substituting approbation for their former criticism.
recapitulate [ ] v.
to repeat the principal points or stages of:SUMMARIZE
encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise
{pertinacity:changeable}{ recapitulation:lengthy}
403
Sample: Let us recapitulate what has been said thus far before going ahead.
recessive [ ] adj.
producing little or no phenotypic effect when occurring in heterozygous condition with
a contrasting allele
dominant<>recessive
Sample: The painting was larger than it appeared to be, for, hanging in a darkened
recess of the chapel, it was diminished by the perspective.
recidivism [ ] n.
a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially:relapse
into criminal behavior
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce
recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine
Sample: Prison reformers in the United States are disturbed by the high rate of
recidivism; the number of persons serving second and third terms indicates the failure of
the prisons to rehabilitate the inmates.
reciprocate [ ] vi.
to move forward and backward alternately
reciprocating<>moving unidirectional
Synonyms: recompense, requite, retaliate, return
Sample: The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, a reciprocity
between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are conducive to
the maintenance of community.
reckless [ ] adj.
marked by lack of proper caution:careless of consequences
circumspect<>audacious/reckless
measured<>reckless
Synonyms: ADVENTUROUS, adventuresome, audacious, daredevil, daring,
foolhardy, rash, temerarious, venturesome, venturous
Sample: He is reckless when he drives his car too fast.
recluse [ ] n.
a person who leads a secluded or solitary life
poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness
recluse:communicate=??
roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw
turncoat:consistency=recluse:compassion
recluse:crowd=claustrophobia:enclosure
recluse:crowd=shirk:duty
recluse:solitude=toady:favor
Synonyms: SECLUDED, cloistered, hermetic, secluse, seclusive, sequestered
Sample: The recluse lived in a hut in the forest.
404
recoil [ ] vi.
to fall back under pressure
recoil<>advance
Synonyms: blanch, blench, flinch, quail, shrink, squinch, start, wince
Sample: The hunter recoiled when he saw a dangerous snake in front of him.
reconcile [ ] vt.
to make consistent or congruous
rift<>reconciliation
Synonyms: ADAPT, accommodate, adjust, conform, fit, quadrate, square, suit, tailor,
tailor-make
Sample: Edith Wharton sought in her memoir to present herself as having achieved a
harmonious wholeness by having reconciled the conflicting elements of her life.
recondite [ ] adj
difficult or impossible for one of ordinary understanding or knowledge to
comprehend:DEEP
recondite<>widely understood
recondite<>patent
recondite<>self explain
recondite<>self-evident
Synonyms: abstruse, acroamatic, deep, esoteric, heavy, hermetic, occult, orphic,
profound, secret
Sample: He read many recondite books in order to obtain the material for the scholarly
thesis.
reconnaissance [ ] vi.
a preliminary survey to gain information; especially:an exploratory military survey of
enemy territory
reconnoiter:information=prowl:prey )
Sample: If you encounter any enemy soldiers during your reconnaissance, capture
them for questioning.
reconstitute [ ] vt.
to constitute again or anew; especially:to restore to a former condition by adding
water
reconstitute<>dehydrate
Synonyms: REORGANIZE, readjust, rearrange, reconstruct, reorder, reorient,
reorientate, reshuffle, retool
Sample: A mother reconstituted powdered milk by adding water to it for her child to
drink.
rectify [ ] v.
to correct by removing errors:ADJUST
405
rectify:treaty=confirm:hypothesis )
Synonyms: CORRECT, amend, emend, mend, right
Sample: I want to rectify my error before it is too late.
rectitude [ ] n.
moral integrity:RIGHTEOUSNESS
rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir}
inequity<>rectitude
Synonyms: GOODNESS, morality, probity, righteousness, rightness, uprightness,
virtue
Sample: He was renowned for his rectitude and integrity.
recuperate [ ] v.
to regain a former state or condition; especially:to recover health or strength
recuperative<>debiliating
Synonyms: IMPROVE, ameliorate, convalesce, gain, look up, mend, perk (up)
Sample: The doctors were worried because the patient did not recuperate as rapidly as
they had expected.
redolent [ ] adj.
exuding fragrance:AROMATIC
redolent<>unscented
Synonyms: SWEET, ambrosial, aromal, aromatic, balmy, fragrant, perfumed, perfumy,
savory, spicy
Sample: Even though it is February, the air is redolent of spring.
redoubtable [ ] adj
ILLUSTRIOUS, EMINENT; broadly:worthy of respect
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
redoubtable:regard/respect=creditable:belief/trust
Sample: During the Cold War period, neighboring countries tried not to offend the
Russians because they could be redoubtable foes.
redress [ ] n./v.
to set right:REMEDY
Synonyms: NEUTRALIZE, annul, cancel (out), counteract, countercheck, frustrate,
negate, negative
Sample: Do you mean to tell me that I can get no redress for my injuries?
redundant [ ] adj.
exceeding what is necessary or normal:SUPERFLUOUS
406
indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability
Synonyms: WORDY, diffuse, long-winded, palaverous, prolix, verbose, windy
Sample: The chances that a species will persist are reduced if any vital function is
restricted to a single kind of organ; redundancy by itself possesses an enormous survival
advantage.
reel [ ] n.
a revolvable device on which something flexible is wound
reel:winding=die:shaping
Sample: He bought a new reel and stronger fish line, so he could catch bigger fish.
refinery [ ] n.
a building and equipment for refining or processing (as oil or sugar)
refinery:petroleum=mill:grain
crass<>refined
refine<>reduce purity
reflective [ ] adj.
marked by reflection:THOUGHTFUL, DELIBERATIVE
ruminative<>unreflective
Synonyms: THOUGHTFUL, cogitative, contemplative, meditative, pensive,
pondering, reflecting, ruminative, speculative, thinking
refractory [ ] adj
resisting control or authority:STUBBORN, UNMANAGEABLE
adamant:flexibility=refractory:control
recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change
inexperience:green=pertinacity:refractory
unruly:authority=refractory:change
refractory<>responsive
Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, intractable, mulish, perverse,
self-willed, stiff-necked, stubborn, unyielding
Sample: The refractory horse was eliminated from the race when he refused to obey
the jockey.
refresh [ ] vt.
to restore strength and animation to:REVIVE
disgruntle<>refresh
Synonyms: RENEW, modernize, refurbish, rejuvenate, renovate, restore, update
Sample: A balmy breeze refreshed us after the sultry blast.
refugee [ ] n.
one that flees; especially:a person who flees to a foreign country or power to escape
danger or persecution
refugee:asylum=??
407
Synonyms: displaced person, evacuee, fugitive
Sample: The church harbored illegal aliens who were political refugees.
refulgent [ ] adj.
a radiant or resplendent quality or state:BRILLIANCE
Synonyms: BRIGHT, beaming, brilliant, effulgent, fulgent, incandescent, lambent,
lucent, luminous, radiant
refute [ ] vt.
to prove wrong by argument or evidence:show to be false or erroneous
refutation<>verification
Sample: One witness refuted the statement of another by presenting new evidence.
regard [ ] n.
a feeling of respect and affection:ESTEEM
exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard
flout:disregard=taunt:challenge
redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
redoubtable:regard/respect=creditable:belief/trust
Synonyms: ADMIRE, consider, esteem, respect
Sample: I have high regard for mothers who take good care of their children.
regenerate [ ] adj.
restored to a better, higher, or more worthy state
truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse
Sample: Shocked by Huck Finn's barefaced lies, Miss Watson prayed the good Lord
would give him a sense of his unregenerate wickedness.
regime [ ] n.
a government in power
Sample: The challenge of interpreting fictional works written under politically
repressive regimes lies in distinguishing what is organic to an authors beliefs, as
opposed to what is imposed by political coercion.
regimen [ ] n.
a systematic plan (as of diet, therapy, or medication) especially when designed to
improve and maintain the health of a patient
regimen:health=mnemonics:memory
regimen:health=budget:solvency
Sample: I doubt whether the results warrant our living under such a strict regimen.
regress [ ] v.
to tend to approach or revert to a mean
regressive<>forward
Synonyms: REVERT, retrogress, throw back
408
Sample: The transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic era is viewed by most art
historians as a regression, because, instead of an increasingly sophisticated pictorial art,
we find degeneration.
rehabilitate [ ] v.
to restore to a former state (as of efficiency, good management, or solvency)
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce
recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition
Synonyms: RESTORE, reclaim, recondition, reconstruct, recover, rejuvenate, restitute
Sample: We must rehabilitate those whom we send to prison.
rehearsal [ ] n.
a private performance or practice session preparatory to a public appearance
rehearsal:perform=??
Sample: When Gutherie gave Guiness his assurance that rehearsals were going
well, he spoke with such assurance that Guiness was convinced.
reign [ ] n.
royal authority:SOVEREIGNTY
coronation:reign=wedding:marriage
Synonyms: RULE, dominate, domineer, predominate, preponderate, prevail
Sample: Louis XIV reigned in France for over 70 years.
rein [ ] n.
to check or stop by or as if by a pull at the reins
rein<>prod
Synonyms: COMPOSE, collect, control, cool, re-collect, repress, restrain, simmer
down, smother, suppress
Sample: If those parents don't rein in their children a little, the children will never
learn to behave.
reiterate [ ] v.
to state or do over again or repeatedly sometimes with wearying effect
digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant
Sample: He reiterated the warning to make sure everyone understood it.
rejoice [ ] v.
to feel joy or great delight
rejoice<>moroseness
sulky<>rejoice
Sample: When the war ended, the winners rejoiced.
relapse [ ] vi.
to slip or fall back into a former worse state
recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce
409
recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine
relapse:error=??
Synonyms: LAPSE, backslide, recidivate
Sample: The economy relapsed into a depression from the peak.
release [ ] vt.
to set free from restraint, confinement, or servitude
constrain<>release
immure<>release
Synonyms: FREE, discharge, emancipate, liberate, loose, loosen, manumit, unbind,
unchain, unshackle
Sample: De Klerk's decision to set Nelson Mandela free was pivotal; without
Mandela's release, there was no possibility that the African National Cogress would
entertain talks with the South African government.
relentless [ ] adj.
showing or promising no abatement of severity, intensity, strength, or
pace:UNRELENTING
inexorable<>relenting
Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE, adamant, dogged, inexorable, obdurate, rigid,
single-minded, unbending, uncompromising, unyielding
Sample: For someone as laconic as she, who preferred to speak only when absolutely
necessary, his relentless chatter was completely maddening.
relevant [ ] adj.
having significant and demonstrable bearing on the matter at hand
relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious
immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center
immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness
germane<>irrelevant
immaterial<>relevant
relevant<>immaterial
Synonyms: ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apposite, apropos, germane,
material, pertinent, pointful
Sample: Teri was impressed by how relevant Virginia Woolf's remarks were to her as a
woman writer; it was as if Woolf had been writing with Teri's situation in mind.
religion [ ] n.
a cause, principle, or system of beliefs held to with ardor and faith
religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy
Synonyms: creed, cult, faith, persuasion
Sample: Buddhism and Hinduism are two of the world's major religions.
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relinquish [ ] vt.
to give over possession or control of:YIELD
procure<>relinquish
relinquish<>cling to
relinquish<>cooperate/reward
Synonyms: abandon, cede, give up, hand over, lay down, leave, resign, surrender, turn
up, waive, yield
Sample: I will relinquish my claims to this property if you promise to retain my
employees.
relish [ ] n.
characteristic flavor; especially:pleasing or zestful flavor
relish<>despise
Synonyms: ENJOYMENT, delectation, diversion, pleasure
Sample: I relish a good joke as much as anyone else.
reluctant [ ] adj.
Unwilling; disinclined:
hesitation:reluctance=hubris:pride
cajole:reluctant=??
alacrity<>reluctant
Sample: The prosecutor's office was ready to serve a subpoena on the reluctant
witness.
remiss [ ] adj.
showing neglect or inattention:LAX
assiduous<>remiss
punctilious<>remiss
remiss<>scrupulous/wary
Synonyms: NEGLIGENT, behindhand, careless, delinquent, derelict, disregardful, lax,
neglectful, regardless, slack
Sample: Though Senator Tsongas had been treated for cancer, his symptoms were in
remission, and he was considered fit to handle the strains of a Presidential race.
remnant [ ] n.
a usually small part, member, or trace remaining
shred:remnant=??
Synonyms: REMAINDER, balance, heel, leavings, remains, remanet, residual, residue,
residuum, rest
Sample: I suggest that you wait until the store places the remnants of these goods on
sale.
remodel [ ] vt.
to alter the structure of:REMAKE
411
construct:remodel=compose:edit
Sample: In remodeling the bathroom, we replaced all the old, rigid lead pipes with
new, pliable copper tubing.
remonstrance [ ] n
an earnest presentation of reasons for opposition or grievance; especially:a document
formally stating such points
remonstrance:offend=syllogism:disprove
remonstrance:dissuade=apprehend:censure
remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal
remonstrance:dissuade=syllogism:disprove
Synonyms: DEMUR, challenge, demurral, demurrer, difficulty, objection, protest,
question, remonstration
Sample: The authorities were deaf to the pastor's remonstrances about the lack of
police protection in the area.
remorse [ ] n.
a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt for past wrongs:SELF-REPROACH
longing:pine=remorse:rue
truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse
Synonyms: PENITENCE, attrition, compunction, contriteness, contrition, penance,
penitency, remorsefulness, repentance, rue
Sample: Although remorse is usually thought to spring from regret for having done
something wrong, it may be that its origin is the realization that one's own nature is
irremediably flawed.
remunerate [ ] vt.
to pay an equivalent to for a service, loss, or expense:RECOMPENSE
remuneration:service=retaliation:injury
remunerative<>unrequited
Synonyms: COMPENSATE, indemnify, pay, recompense, reimburse, repay, requite
Sample: The legislators of 1563 realized the futility of trying to regulate the flow of
labor without securing its reasonable remuneration, and so the second part of the statute
dealt with establishing wages.
rend [ ] v
to split or tear apart or in pieces by violence
rend:tear=rush:hurry
rend<>unite/mend/repair
Synonyms: TEAR, cleave, rip, rive, split
Sample: In his grief, he tried to rend his garments.
412
renounce [ ] vi.
to give up, refuse, or resign usually by formal declaration
claim<>renounce
renounce<>embrace
Synonyms: ABANDON, chuck, desert, forsake, quit, throw over
Sample: Even though she knew she would be burned at the stake as a witch, Joan of
Arc refused to renounce her belief that her voices came from God.
renovate [ ] vt.
to restore to a former better state (as by cleaning, repairing, or rebuilding)
renovate<>cause to decay
Synonyms: REVIVE, reactivate, rekindle, renew, resurrect, resuscitate, retrieve,
revitalize, revivify
Sample: They claim that they can renovate worn shoes so that they look like new ones.
repartee [ ] n.
a succession or interchange of clever retorts:amusing and usually light sparring with
words
repartee:retort=debate:issue {advisement:product} :=: (
)
Synonyms: RETORT, back answer, comeback, riposte
Sample: He was famous for his witty repartee and his sarcasm.
repatriate [ ] v. (
to restore or return to the country of origin, allegiance, or citizenship
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification
Sample: Ancient artworks were repatriated from the USA to Greece.
List 24 repeal --- safeguard
repeal [ ] v.
to rescind or annul by authoritative act; especially:to revoke or abrogate by legislative
enactment
repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification
Synonyms: REVOKE, dismantle, lift, recall, rescind, reverse
Sample: We have many statutes in our law books which should be repealed.
repel [ ] vt.
to drive back:REPULSE
repellent:attract=ephemeral:endure
court<>repel intentionally
entrancing<>disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore
winsome<>unprepossessing/repelling
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Synonyms: RESIST, buck, combat, contest, dispute, duel, fight, oppose, traverse,
withstand
Sample: His classmates were repelled by his querulous and complaining statements.
repertoire [ ] n.
the complete list or supply of dramas, operas, or musical works available for
performance
palette:color=repertoire:play (
repertoire:performance=manifest:cargo=agenda:meeting
Synonyms: EFFECT, impact, imprint, influence, mark
Sample: The opera company decided to include Madame Butterfly in its repertoire for
the following season.
replete [ ] adj.
fully or abundantly provided or filled
repletion<>want
repletion<>emptiness
repletion<>privation
Synonyms: ALIVE, abounding, overflowing, rife, swarming, teeming, thronged
Sample: The book is replete with humorous situations.
reportage [ ] n.
the act or process of reporting news
reportage:journalist=ridicule:satirist {choreography:dancer}
repose [ ] n.
to take a rest
guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose
dehydrate:water=fatigue:repose/rest
Synonyms: REST, lie, lie down, recline, stretch (out)
Sample: She reposed on a sofa and fell asleep.
reprehensible [ ] adj.
worthy of or deserving reprehension:CULPABLE
lamentable:pity=reprehensible:censure
censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible )
despicable:contempt=reprehensible:censor
Synonyms: BLAMEWORTHY, amiss, blamable, blameful, censurable, culpable,
demeritorious, guilty, sinful, unholy
Sample: Your vicious conduct in this situation is reprehensible.
repressed [ ] adj
characterized by restraint
unrepressed<>restrained
414
Synonyms: SUPPRESS, muffle, shush, squelch, strangle
Sample: Although Darwinism was a profoundly repressive world view, it was
essentially passive, since it prescribed no steps to be taken, no victories over nature to
be celebrated, no program of triumphs to be successively gained.
reprieve [ ] n.
to delay the punishment of (as a condemned prisoner)
reprieve:punishment=moratorium:activity )
Synonyms: RESPITE
Sample: During the twenty-four-hour reprieve, the lawyers sought to make the stay of
execution permanent.
reprimand [ ] n./v.
to reprove sharply or censure formally usually from a position of authority
Sample: I am afraid that my parents will reprimand me when I show them my report
card.
Synonyms: REPROVE, admonish, call down, chide, lesson, monish, rebuke, reproach,
tick off
reprisal [ ] n(
the act or practice in international law of resorting to force short of war in retaliation for
damage or loss suffered
Synonyms: REPARATION, amends, compensation, indemnification, indemnity,
quittance, recompense, redress, restitution
Sample: I am confident that we are ready for any reprisals the enemy may undertake.
reproach [ ] n./v.
an expression of rebuke or disapproval
irreproachable:blame=irresponsible:restraint
nefarious<>above reproach/virtuous
scurvy<>above reproach
opprobrious<>irreproachable
Synonyms: REBUKE, admonishment, admonition, chiding, rap, reprimand, reproof,
wig, wigging
Sample: Having no sense of moral obligation, Shipler was as little subject to the
reproaches of conscience after he acted as he was motivated by its prompting before he
acted.
reprobate [ ] n.
A morally unprincipled person.
reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn
reprobate<>righteous individual
415
Synonyms: VILLAIN, blackguard, heel, lowlife, miscreant
Sample: I cannot understand why he has so many admirers if he is the reprobate you
say he is.
reprobate [ ] v.
to condemn strongly as unworthy, unacceptable, or evil
accolade<>reprobate/reproof
reprobation<>acclaim/tribute
Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, condemn, denounce, denunciate, knock, rap,
reprehend, skin
Sample: The students showed their reprobation of his act by refusing to talk with him.
reproof [ ] n.
criticism for a fault:REBUKE
castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial{ glorification:merit }
castigation:reproof=loathing:dislike
castigation:reproof=soaking:damp
accolade<>reprobate/reproof
Synonyms: REBUKE, admonishment, admonition, chiding, rap, reprimand, reproach,
wig, wigging
Sample: The judge gave a reproof of the man's behavior in court.
reprove [ ] v.
to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent
pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove
reprove:reprimand=blame:censure
Synonyms: admonish, call down, chide, lesson, monish, back, rebuke, reprimand,
reproach, tick off
Sample: The principal reproved the students when they became unruly in the
auditorium.
reptile [ ] n.
Any of various cold-blooded, usually egg-laying vertebrates of the class Reptilia, such
as a snake, lizard, crocodile, turtle, or dinosaur, having an external covering of scales or
horny plates and breathing by means of lungs.
lizard:reptile=orange:fruit
finch:bird=aspen:tree=lizard:reptile=eagle:bird
Sample: The skeleton of a primitive. bird that was recently discovered indicated that
this ancient creature anticipated todays birds in that, unlike earlier birds and unlike
reptilian ancestors, it had not a tooth in its head.
repudiate [ ] vt.
to refuse to accept; especially:to reject as unauthorized or as having no binding force
repudiate<>espouse/uphold
416
Synonyms: DEFECT, apostatize, desert, rat, renounce, tergiversate, tergiverse, turn
Sample: Fashion is partly a search for a new language to discredit the old, a way in
which each generation can repudiate its immediate predecessor and distinguish itself.
repugnant [ ] adj.
exciting distaste or aversioninconsistent.
odious:repugnance=menacing:fear
cogent:convince=repugnant:repel
repugnance<>affinity
Synonyms: abhorrent, invidious, obnoxious, repellent, revulsive
Sample: Jones was unable to recognize, the contradictions in his attitudes that were
obvious to everyone else; even the hint of an untruth was repugnant to him, but he
courted serious trouble by always cheating on his taxes.
repulse [ ] v./n.
to drive or beat back:REPEL
captivate<>repulse
court<>repulse intentionally
entrancing<>disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore
Synonyms: DISGUST, nauseate, reluct, repel, revolt, sicken
Sample: The repulsion of the enemy forces was not accomplished bloodlessly; many
of the defenders were wounded in driving the enemy back.
rescind [ ] v
to make void (as an act) by action of the enacting authority or a superior
authority:REPEAL
irrevocable:rescind=??
rescind<>institute
rescission<>enactment
Sample: Because of public resentment, the king had to rescind his order.
resentment [ ] n.
a feeling of indignant displeasure or persistent ill will at something regarded as a wrong,
insult, or injury
Synonyms: OFFENSE, dudgeon, huff, miff, pique, umbrage
Sample: Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in
power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some propitiatory gesture of
comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his involvement
with the high and mighty.
reserved [ ] adj.
restrained in words and actions
417
furtive:openness=flamboyant:reserved
gregarious:reserved=??
expansive<>reserved/diffident
qualified<>unreserved
Synonyms: constrained, incommunicable, noncommittal, restrained
Sample: Although he was known to be extremely reserved in his public behavior,
scholars have discovered that his diaries were written with uncommon frankness.
resign [ ] v.
to give up one's office or position:QUIT
abdicate:throne=resign:office
Synonyms: RELINQUISH, abandon, cede, give up, hand over, leave, surrender, waive,
yield
Sample: Job failure means being fired from a job, being asked to resign, or leaving
voluntarily to protect yourself because you had very strong evidence that one of the first
two was impending.
resilience [ ] n.
the capability of a strained body to recover its size and shape after deformation caused
especially by compressive stress
resilience:recover=??
resilience<>unable to recover
Sample: Highly resilient, steel makes excellent bedsprings.
resin [ ] n.
a sticky substance found in some plants
resin:tree=gum:rubber plant
Sample: The resin that comes out when a rubber tree's bark is cut is used to make
rubber.
resolute [ ] adj.
marked by firm determination:RESOLVED
malleable:shape=irresolute:opinion
bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution{condone:mercy} {condemn:warning}
indubitable:questioned=resolute:sway
daunt<>make resolute
jittery<>resolute
Synonyms: DECIDED, bent, decisive, determined, intent, resolved, set, settled
Sample: Nothing could shake his resolution to succeed despite all difficulties.
resonant [ ] adj
continuing to sound : ECHOING
full-bodied:flavor=resonant:sound
resonant<>muffled
Synonyms: consonant, fat, orotund, plangent, resounding, ringing, rotund, round,
418
sonorant, sonorous, vibrant
Sample: The deep, resonant voice of the actor James Earl Jones makes him particulary
effective when he appears on stage.
resourceful [ ] adj.
able to meet situations:capable of devising ways and means
resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality
Synonyms: WEALTH, fortune, property, riches, substance, worth
Sample: No crisis could faze the resourceful hotel manager.
respite [ ] n.
A usually short interval of rest or relief.
fast:eat=respite:labor )
plateau:change=respite:activity )
moratorium:activity=respite:labor
respite:labor=interim:concert {mediate:confliction} )
Synonyms: BREAK, blow, breath, breather, breathing space (or spell), reprieve
Sample: The judge granted the condemned man a respite to enable his attorneys to file
an appeal.
respire [ ] v.
BREATHE; specifically:to inhale and exhale air successively
lung:respire=tooth:masticate {eye:envision , ear:resonate}
Sample: Artificial light enhances the respiratory activity of some microorganisms in
the winter but not in the summer, in part because in the summer their respiration is
already at its peak and thus cannot be increased.
resplendent [ ] adj
shining brilliantly:characterized by a glowing splendor
bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence
bravura:performance=resplendent:appearance )
resplendence<>lackluster
resplendent<>dull
Synonyms: SPLENDID, glorious, gorgeous, magnificent, proud, splendiferous,
splendorous, sublime, superb
Sample: The toreador wore a resplendent costume called a suit of lights.
responsive [ ] adj.
quick to respond or react appropriately or sympathetically:SENSITIVE
dispassionate<>responsive
Synonyms: TENDER, compassionate, kindhearted, softhearted, sympathetic, warm,
warmhearted
Sample: Some activists believe that because the health-care system has become
419
increasingly unresponsive to those it serves, individuals must circumvent bureaucratic
impediments in order to develop and promote new therapies.
restive [ ] adj.
marked by impatience:FIDGETY
incogitant:thoughtful=restive:calm
restive:calm=piddling:considerable )
restive:calm=keen:obtuse )
incogitant:thoughtfulness=restive:calmness )
restive:calmness=impeccable:flaw
restive:calmness=impetuous:patience
restive<>calm/imperturbable
restiveness<>contentment
Synonyms: TENSE, edgy, nervy, uneasy, uptight
Sample: Waiting impatiently in the line to see Santa Claus, even the best-behaved
children grow restive and start to fidget.
restless [ ] adj.
marked by a lack of quiet, repose, or rest
restless:serene=??
Synonyms: uneasy, unpeaceful, unquiet, unrestful, unsettled, untranquil
Sample: Intellectual restlessness and flight from boredom have caused him to rush
pell-mell into situations that less adventurous spirits might hesitate to approach.
restore [ ] vt.
to put or bring back into existence or use
dilapidated<>restored
Synonyms: recall, reestablish, reinstate, reintroduce, renew, revive
Sample: The slow recession of the flood waters created problems for the crews
working to restore power to the area.
restrain [ ] vt.
to limit, restrict, or keep under control
temperate:restrain=tenacious:persist
rakish:restraint=slothful:assiduity
bridled<>without restraint
fervid<>restrained
unrepressed<>restrained
theatrical<>restraint {professional}
Synonyms: QUIET, inobtrusive, subdued, tasteful, tasty, unobtrusive
Sample: goumands lack self-restraint; if they enjoy a particular cuisine, they eat far
too much of it.
resurgence [ ] n.
a rising again into life, activity, or prominence:RENASCENCE
420
resurgence<>waning vitally
sycophantic:obsequious=rebellious:resurgent
Sample: The resurgent nation surprised everyone by its quick recovery after total
defeat.
resuscitate [ ] v
to revive from apparent death or from unconsciousness; also:REVITALIZE
extinct<>resuscitated
resuscitation<>enervation
Synonyms: REVIVE, reactivate, rekindle, renew, renovate, resurrect, retrieve,
revitalize, revivify
Sample: The lifeguard tried to resuscitate the drowned child by applying artificial
respiration.
retainer [ ] n.
a person attached or owing service to a household; especially:SERVANT
retainer:retinue=witch:coven
retaliate [ ] v.
to repay (as an injury) in kind
remuneration:service=retaliation:injury
Synonyms: RECIPROCATE, recompense, requite, return,avenge, revenge
Sample: The repudiation of Puritanism in seventeenth-century England expressed
itself not only in retaliatory laws to restrict Puritans, but also in a general attitude of
contempt for Puritans.
retard [ ] vt.
to slow up especially by preventing or hindering advance or accomplishment:IMPEDE
divert:shunt=retard:brake
catalyze<>retard
expedite<>retard
precipitate<>retard/dilatory
Synonyms: DELAY, bog (down), decelerate, detain, embog, hang up, mire, set back,
slacken, slow (up or down)
Sample: Lack of good food retarded the boy's growth.
reticent [ ] adj
restrained in expression, presentation, or appearance
reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge
reticent:voluble=?? )
reticent<>loquacious
vociferous<>reticent/monotone
voluble<>taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent
effusive<>reticent
421
Synonyms: SILENT, close, close-lipped, closemouthed, close-tongued, reserved,
taciturn, tight-lipped, tight-mouthed, uncommunicative
Sample: Though extremely reticent about his own plans, the man allowed his
associates no such privacy and was constantly soliciting information about what they
intended to do next.
retinue [ ] n.
a group of retainers or attendants
retainer:retinue=witch:coven
retinue:attendant=staff:officer {suite:room/coterie:group}
Sample: The queen's retinue followed her down the aisle.
retort [ ] vi.
to pay or hurl back:RETURN
repartee:retort=debate:issue
retort:response=??
Synonyms: ANSWER, come in, rejoin, reply, respond, return
Sample: Even when it was advisable for her to keep her mouth shut, she was always
ready with a retort.
retouch [ ] vt.vi.
to alter (as a photographic negative) to produce a more desirable appearance
revise:manuscript=retouch:picture
Sample: A photographer retouched the boy's picture to make his skin look clearer.
retract [ ] vt.vi.
TAKE BACK, WITHDRAW
misunderstood:clarify=erroneous:retract
foster<>retract
Synonyms: RECEDE, back, fall back, retreat, retrocede, retrograde
Sample: He dropped his libel suit after the newspaper published a retraction of its
statement.
retreat [ ] n.
the usually forced withdrawal of troops from an enemy or from an advanced position
incursion<>retreat
Synonyms: RECEDE, back, fall back, retract, retrocede, recoil, shrink
Sample: Opponents of the expansion of the market economy, although in retreat,
continued to constitute a powerful political force throughout the century.
retrench [ ] v.
to cut out:EXCISE
retrench:expense=decelerate:speed
attenuate:force=retrenchment:money
422
retrench<>enlarge
retrench<>expand
Synonyms: SHORTEN, abbreviate, abridge, curtail, cut, cut back, slash
Sample: If they were to be able to send their children to college, they would have to
retrench.
retrospective [ ] adj.
affecting things past:RETROACTIVE
retrospective<>anticipatory
Sample: In retrospect. Gordon's students appreciated her enigmatic assignments,
realizing that such assignments were specifically designed to stimulate original thought
rather than to review the content of her course.
revelry [ ] n.
noisy partying or merrymaking
revelry<>mournfulness
Synonyms: MERRYMAKING, festivity, gaiety, jollity, merriment, revel, reveling,
revelment, whoopee
Sample: New Year's Eve is a night of revelry.
revenge [ ] n.
to inflict injury in return for
mercenary:money=vindictive:revenge
Synonyms: AVENGE, redress, venge, vindicate
Sample: Casting a baleful eye at his successful rival, the rejected suitor stole off,
vowing to have his revenge.
revere [ ] v.
to show devoted deferential honor to:regard as worthy of great honor
reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm )
reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe
venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn
elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence
paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard
exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference
revere<>jape at
revere<>disparage
impudent<>reverence/deference
reverence<>despise
Synonyms: adore, reverence, venerate, worship
Sample: Reverence for one's forebears (sometimes referred to as ancestor worship)
plays an important part in many Oriental cultures.
revise [ ] vt
423
to make a new, amended, improved, or up-to-date version of
revise:manuscript=retouch:picture
Synonyms: redraft, redraw, restyle, revamp, rework, rewrite, work over
Sample: Aptly enough, this work so imbued with the notion of changing times and
styles has been constantly revised over the years, thereby reflecting its own mutability.
revive [ ] vi.
to return to consciousness or life:become active or flourishing again
wither<>revive
lull<>revive
Synonyms: RESTORE, resuscitate, revivify
Sample: The corporation expects only modest increases in sales next year despite a
yearlong effort to revive its retailing business.
revoke [ ] vt.
to annul by recalling or taking back:RESCIND
empower<>revoke the authority
irrevocable:rescind=??
Synonyms: dismantle, lift, recall, repeal, rescind, reverse
Sample: Repeat offenders who continue to drive under the influence of alcohol face
having their driver's licenses permanently revoked.
revue [ ] n.
a theatrical production consisting typically of brief loosely connected often satirical
skits, songs, and dances
Sample: We went to a musical revue last night.
rewarding [ ] adj.
yielding or likely to yield a reward:VALUABLE, SATISFYING
drudgery<>rewarding work
relinquish<>cooperate/reward/procure
Sample: Punishment for violating moral rules is much more common than reward for
following them; thus, adherence to the rules goes almost unnoticed in society.
ribald [ ] adj.
CRUDE, OFFENSIVE
ribald:seemly=labyrinthine:direct
ribald<>seemly
ribald<>proper
Synonyms: SCAMP, devil, enfant terrible, mischief, rapscallion, rascal
Sample: He sang a ribald song that offended man