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May 6, 2014

Psychology 101
John Campbell jdcampb2@gmail.com

Tests: May 27
, June 17
, July 8
, July 22

- Each test has 50 multiple choice (40 from text 10 from your lecture).

Chapter 1 Psychology: The Science of Behaviour
- Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind.
- Behavior refers to action and responses that we can directly observe.
- Mind refers to internal states and processes, such as thoughts and feelings.
- Psychology is a science. It involves the systematic gathering and evaluating of empirical
evidence to answer questions and test beliefs about the natural world.
Four central goals
1) To describe how people and other animals behave.
2) To explain and understand the causes of these behaviours.
3) To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions.
4) To influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to
enhances human welfare.
Wilhelm Wundt
- Established the first experimental psychology lab.
- Along with Edward Titchener, developed the structuralism approach.
- Structuralism:
o The mind should be studied by breaking it down into its basic components.
o Used introspection to study sensations.
o Describe inner experiences.
- Structuralism gave way to functionalism.
- Focuses on the functions of consciousness rather than its structure.
- Functionalism
o Ask similar questions about our mental processes and behaviours.

May 6, 2014
Psychodynamic Perspective
- Searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality.
Emphasizing the role of unconscious processes.
- Psychoanalysis is the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces.

The behavioural perspective
- Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions
- John Locke tabula rasa or blank slate.
- Human nature is shaped by our environment.
- Fear can be taught through conditioning.
The humanistic Perspective
- Emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in ones
- Rejects psychodynamic concepts.
- Focuses on self-actualization.
- Humanism reflected in todays positive psychology movement.
The cognitive perspective
- Examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behaviour.
- Humans are information processors whose actions are governed by thoughts.
Gestalt perception and problem solving
- Developed several principles of perception.
Modern Cognitive
- Memory and factors that can distort it: misinformation effect.
- Its impact on eyewitness memory and testimony.
The sociocultural perspective
- Examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behavior,
thoughts and feeling.
- Social psychology component is how the presence of other people influence our
behaviour, thoughts, and feelings.
Critical Thinking
- We have a tendency to allow our beliefs and emotions to prevent