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2012 Gas Market Review
Queensland
State of Queensland, 2012.
The Queensland Government supports and encourages the dissemination and exchange of its
information. The copyright in this publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
Australia (CC BY) licence.
Under this licence you are free, without having to seek our permission, to use this publication in
accordance with the licence terms.
You must keep intact the copyright notice and attribute the State of Queensland as the source of the
publication.
For more information on this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/deed.en
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The Queensland Government
shall not be liable for technical or other errors or omissions contained herein. The reader/user accepts
all risks and responsibility for losses, damages, costs and other consequences resulting directly or
indirectly from using this information.
CS1645 07/12
i :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Preface ii
Acknowledgments iii
Summary iv
Background iv
Modelling and analysis iv
Gas demand v
Gas pricing vi
Gas reserves vii
Gas supply ix
Market conditions issues and
recommendations x
Introduction 1
Focus of the 2012 GMR 1
Consultation for the 2012 GMR 2
Prospective gas production land reserve 2
Background 3
Gas in Queensland 3
Gas transmission pipelines 4
Gas distribution networks 8
Retail market 8
Eastern Australian gas market 8
LNG projects 9
Responses to issues raised
in the 2011 GMR 11
Gas reserves 11
Gas transmission pipelines 11
Gas distribution networks 12
Trading markets 12
Gas storage 12
Modelling and analysis 13
Terms of reference/key inputs 13
Contents
The scenarios 14
Economic scenarios 14
Reserves development scenarios 15
LNG in the scenarios 17
Carbon pricing in the
modelling scenarios 19
Gas production cost assumptions 20
Future oil prices 20
Gas demand in the scenarios 21
Domestic gas price assumptions 21
Gas demand 23
Customer segments 23
Domestic customer contracting 23
Domestic demand modelling outcomes 23
Gas pricing 27
Gas pricing outcomesQueensland 27
Gas pricing outcomesQueensland
submarkets 28
Gas reserves 29
Reserve levels 30
The reserves modelling outcomes 32
Reserves modelling outcomes 35
Gas supply and transmission 36
Supply modelling outcomes 36
Transmission modelling outcomes 36
Potential supply from the
southern states 37
Market conditions issues and
recommendations 38
Market conditions 38
Market issues 38
List of shortened forms 40
References and further reading 41
Preface
Welcome to the third annual Queensland Gas Market Review (GMR). The GMR informs
government decision-making on security of domestic gas supply, effective gas resource
management and the development of a more competitive Queensland gas market.
The GMR aims to improve stakeholder market knowledge and provide transparency of views
and outcomes. The 2012 GMR continues to build on the comprehensive picture and detailed
analysis of the Queensland gas market provided in the previous reviews undertaken in 2010
and 2011. Forecasts for future industry growth and identication of participants needs
remain a priority.
Feedback from last year has been incorporated and the GMR continues to evolve to address
gas market development and growth. Changes in the 2012 GMR are designed to provide an
improved market context, capture the signicant industry and market progress made in the
past 12 months, provide an improved understanding of the issues impacting access to gas for
domestic contracting, and increase the level of market information on these matters.
Following the 2012 Queensland state election, changes this year also include a machinery-
of-government move for the ofce from the Mines and Energy area of the Department of
Employment, Economic Development and Innovation to the Department of Energy and Water
Supply. In addition, the Ofce of the Queensland Gas Commissioner has been renamed as the
Ofce of the Queensland Gas Market Advisor.
This years review has an upstream focus on the development and ownership of gas reserves,
identifying domestic demand in the changing market environment and ensuring the
modelling is appropriately focused on the short term as well as the longer term. Consideration
is also given to the barriers that could impact reserves and future gas supplies, including
Prospective Gas Production Land Reserve (PGPLR) issues.
The 2012 GMR consists of a general overview and background to the issues, a market update,
a response to issues raised by the 2011 GMR, and a supply and demand review that includes
the consultants modelling report and summary ndings.
As in previous years, there have been high levels of engagement with industry participants
and comprehensive public consultation in developing the 2012 GMRwith the aim of
capturing all relevant views in a transparent manner and developing industry consensus on
the outcomes. The GMR could not be undertaken without your ongoing contribution to the
consideration of issues surrounding the Queensland gas market.
All feedbackcomments, corrections and criticismsare welcome as we continue to improve
GMR market modelling and analysis.
Kay Gardiner
Queensland Gas Market Advisor
ii :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Acknowledgments
The Queensland annual GMR is entirely dependent on the active engagement and
contributions of gas market participants. I gratefully acknowledge the many organisations
within the gas industry that voluntarily and enthusiastically participated in the review
process and supplied information and views to help shape the preparation of the 2012 GMR.
Consultation and feedback are very important parts of the review process and I would like
to thank all those who took the time and made the effort to respond to the consultation
opportunities.

BG Groups Ikdu plant in Egypt
Source: BG Group
iii :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Summary
The annual GMR informs government decision-making regarding the need to develop PGPLR
tenure. It also considers the development of a more competitive and transparent Queensland
gas market, identies constraints on gas supply availability and gas market development, and
considers security of supply within the relative context in the broader eastern Australian gas
market.
The Queensland Gas Market Advisor is responsible for leading the GMR process and advising
the government on review outcomes. The Queensland Gas Market Advisor is also accountable
for progressing government actions in response to the reviews.
The 2012 GMR has a strong upstream focus aimed at establishing reserves allocations
and development rates, and identifying and quantifying any constraints on reserves that
may impact on gas supply availability, gas market development, security of supply, and
likely wholesale gas price outcomes in Queensland and in the broader eastern Australian
gas market.
Background
Gas exploration and production in Queensland has a cyclical development pattern, with the
state undergoing a lengthy period of incremental development interspersed with periods of
major investment, projects and growth.
Since 2008, Queensland has experienced unprecedented growth with the development of the
coal seam gas (CSG) to liqueed natural gas (LNG) export industry.
The overwhelming majority of Australias current 2P reserves are found in Queenslandmore
than 93 per cent.
Modelling and analysis
The GMR is underpinned by gas market modelling and analysis. For the 2012 GMR,
Intelligent Energy Systems (IES) was engaged in conjunction with Resource Land
Management Services (RLMS) and Jenkins Advisory Services to model a 20-year study
period.
It was a requirement of the modelling that, to the extent possible and reasonable, there
was to be consistency with Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) Gas Statement of
Opportunities (GSOO) scenarios and the economic scenarios used in the 2011 GMR.
This ensures stakeholders can make valid comparisons between the outcomes of the 2011 and
2012 GMR and the GSOO. Where there are reasonable differences, these are identied.
To address the inuence of economic conditions and technical/operational issues, scenarios
were developed to incorporate three key drivers that inuence gas availability and price:
macro-economic conditions
LNG developments
CSG developments.
Three modelling scenarios were developed for each driver. From these 27 combinations,
12 scenarios were identied for modelling.
The development rate for gas reserves is critical in assessing future availability of gas
to meet domestic and export demand. The expected and potential development variation
was assessed with allowances given to the variation in declared 2P reserves growth and
forward projection.
This was undertaken using a consideration of conversion efciency and conversion rate.
Factors that inuence conversion efciency and conversion rate are well productivity and
drilling rates (that impact the rate at which wells are developed).
iv :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Three scenarios of reserves development were used that correspond to an annual 2P increase
in the range of about 3500 to 9500 PJ with an expected increase of about 5000 PJ. Also
modelled were options to the operating rules for three modes. These were the cooperation
between the LNG proponents and the inclusion of prospective reserves.
A reference case was used to model potential gas reserves outcomes. It represents the most
likely and realistic representation of how the market would develop:
medium growth outlook
medium LNG train development
planned reserve development (medium reserve conversion efciency and conversion rate)
base mode (prospective resources included, LNG proponents not cooperating with
each other).
The LNG development program is possibly the most important input for the Queensland gas
market. Two future demand growth scenarios (labelled low and high) of LNG development
were developed by IESa low demand scenario (approximately 4 per cent per annum growth)
and a high demand scenario (approximately 6.5 per cent per annum growth).
Gas demand
The eastern Australian gas market is, in reality, a series of interconnected markets.
Queensland, more so than any other eastern Australian state, also has a series of submarkets
with different characteristics that are captured in the modelling. Queensland has a gas
consumption of around 240 PJ per year and the eastern Australia gas market consumption is
around 718 PJ per year.
LNG is the dominant force in the Queensland gas market moving forward, as seen in Figure 1
below. Figure 1 shows Queenslands gas demand and projected gas demand for LNG export.
It assumes domestic demand is static at 201112 levels, with 6 LNG trains by 201516 and a
further 2 trains by 202021.
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Figure 1 Queensland domestic gas demand and projected gas demand for LNG exports
The large industrial customers in Queensland comprise over 70 per cent of Queensland gas
demand (excluding gas power generation (GPG) and LNG exports). Higher exchange rates
and assessed gas costs result in the high scenario having lower large industrial demand in
Queensland and the low scenario having higher demand (Figure 2 overleaf). In the high
scenario, there was a relatively small increase in gas use in the other states.
v :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
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Figure 2 Queensland large industrial demand changes from the medium scenario (PJ)
Source: IES (2012)
GPG was envisaged to play an increasing role in the generation of electricity due to the
lower carbon emissions of gas generation compared with coal generation. However, the
economic modelling showed that the level of GPG did not change signicantly between
scenarios to 2020, and the increase in the level of GPG over the period to 2020 is small
under all scenarios. Post-2020, GPG increases signicantly with the level of increase
being scenario-sensitive.
Gas pricing
The modelled price outcomes for the domestic market show that a high demand LNG
development outlook, accompanied by high projected oil prices, would likely lead to domestic
gas prices increasing to over $10/GJ by 2015 and gas scarcity for domestic contracts; whereas
a modest oil and LNG development outlook could see prices in the order of $6.50/GJ by 2015.
Under the same scenarios, gas prices in 2020 would be in the range (high to low) of $12/GJ
to $7/GJ.
vi :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
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Figure 3 Range of Queensland long-term ex-eld gas contract price outcomes ($/GJ)
Source: IES (2012)
Variations can be seen when prices are considered for the Queensland submarkets. Some of
this variation can be attributed to the different production cost of gas from different elds
that supply these markets and to the different distances gas must be transported from the
elds to the submarkets.
The modelling indicates that, with the exception of Brisbane, the submarket variation
in prices will decrease over time and prices will converge. The modelling also shows a
widening gap over time between Queensland gas prices and those in southern states. If this
price variation bridges the difference in Queensland CSG and southern conventional gas
production costs, it could underpin the ow of southern states gas to Queensland.
Gas reserves
Long-term contracts for gas supply are struck using 2P reserves estimates and these are
the most widely quoted. In general, 2P reserves equal to the total contract gas quantity are
required, although the producer may undertake to prove up sufcient reserves within a set
period or on an annual basis, or agree to maintain a minimum number of years of reserves
coverage at all times.
The concentration of the ownership of the largest volume of gas reserves is shown in Figure 4
overleaf, where companies holding less than 1000 PJ of 2P reserves are grouped together.
vii :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Others (less than
1000 PJ), 3079
Santos, 2901
QCLNG, 10 350
Origin, 787
GLNG, 5268
Esso-BHPBilliton, 5175
Arrow, 7800
APLNG, 12 810
AGL, 2176
Figure 4 2P potential CSG reserves by CSG company
Source: Data sourced from IES/RLMS (2012)
Based on the range of 2P reserves development of 3500 to 9500 PJ with an expected increase
of about 5000 PJ, the potential development rate of 2P reserves in Queensland is shown in
Figure 5. Also shown are the total reserves required for 6 and 14 LNG trains (notionally of
4 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) capacity each and not related to the individual positions
of the 4 proponents or geographic locations).
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Figure 5 2P reserves development rates
Source: IES (2012)
viii :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
When the reference case is modelled, there are currently just over 2000 PJ of non-LNG
2P reserves in Queensland and the Cooper Basin. This reduces over time to a low point
around 2020 to 2022, primarily due to acquisition by LNG proponents who require more
reserves for their LNG trains. Reserves required to be withheld for LNG development peaks
around 2021.
All four LNG proponents are modelled to experience a shortfall in their required gas reserves
for their LNG plant at some stage during the study period and are expected to be acquiring
available reserves located in Queensland and the Cooper Basin from non-LNG businesses.
No gas supply shortfalls occur during the study period modelling; but this is dependent on
the time and efciency rates of conversion of reserves to 2P and, further, of 2P reserves to
produced gas. It also assumes that LNG proponents would make their surplus gas reserves
available to non-LNG gas users.
In summary, with LNG developments limited to 8 trains by 2020 and an additional 4 trains
by 2030, there are sufcient reserves to provide gas for the domestic market and any
operational LNG trains over the study period. The results indicate that with the assumed
LNG train development scenario, the gas market is expected to tighten further to 2021 before
unconventional gas located in the Cooper Basin becomes available.
Over the next 2 to 4 years leading up to the commissioning of the 6 committed LNG
trains, the reserve holding of the LNG proponents would have option value in maintaining
opportunities for forthcoming decisions regarding additional LNG trains. This may lead to
reluctance in making these available to the domestic market until such time as the option
is deemed not viable. Domestic supply may be seen as more desirable and/or feasible in the
event of a relatively pessimistic LNG outlook.
Gas supply
In the medium growth/medium LNG scenario, Queensland CSG dominates future supply from
the commencement of LNG export in the period 2014 to 2015. The modelling suggests that by
the middle of the next decade, Victorian conventional gas supply will increase and there will
be modest but increasing supply from New South Wales CSG.
When the high growth/high LNG scenario is compared with the medium growth/medium
LNG scenario, the increase in gas supply required to meet the higher demand comes from
Queensland CSG. When comparing the low growth/low LNG scenario with the medium
growth/medium LNG scenario, there is a decrease in supply from all sources, with the
exception of Cooper Basin conventional gas.
Potential supply from the southern states to support future Queensland demand was
modelled. This showed that, using the cost of supply plus pipeline costs, the economic
outcome was Queensland gas demand supplied by gas elds in Queensland and that physical
transport of gas from Victoria was not likely to be economic.
Physical constraints and the cost of transport are signicant hurdles to wholesale sales of
Victorian gas in Queensland. Only if supply costs in Victoria are substantially cheaper than
Queensland CSG, or if the gas price in Queensland is substantially higher than the southern
states, would gas transfers be considered likely. On this basis, signicant gas swaps over
longer timeframes would require a price differential settlement, but some small gas swaps
could potentially proceed on a net transfer basis.
ix :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Market conditions issues and recommendations
Market conditions
The Queensland gas market lacks liquidity, with gas in short supply for new contracts
both pre- and post-2015.
This is contributing to a high level of uncertainty in the market, which is also impacted
by the uncertainties of domestic and international LNG and future gas prices.
Ramp-up gas, that previous modelling assumed would be a feature of the market prior to
the commencement of LNG export, has not materialised due to a range of management
techniques including gas swaps between LNG proponents, and storage and production
delays resulting from oods.
In the 12 months to June 2012, customers seeking new domestic supply contract for
gas post-2015 reported a continued lack of access to basic market information (forward
prices, volumes available and potential delivery timeframes) for forward contracting.
No customers seeking domestic supply of gas reported achieving a term sheet (binding
or non-binding) for a large volume of gas. A small number of customers report offers of
small volumes of gas for short-term supply.
A feature of market activity in the past 12 months has been the entrance of LNG
proponents as customers of other producers. In contrast to customers seeking domestic
supply of gas, LNG proponents have been able to access the required information and
contract for gas.
Market issues
Access to gas reserves for domestic contracting is particularly sensitive to the
development of new LNG trains prior to 2020, and this sensitivity could continue if a
signicant number of trains continued to be developed post 2020:
For the current level of 6 committed LNG trains and a further 2 trains post-2020
(8 in total), the modelling of gas reserves and ownership found that there were
available reserves throughout the 20-year study period and sufcient gas to supply
all demand including LNG trains. Under this scenario, gas would be expected to
become available to the domestic market.
For the current level of 6 committed LNG trains and the construction of a further
2 trains prior to 2020 (8 in total), reserve levels available for domestic market
contracting would be highly sensitive to, and dependent upon, planned or above
planned reserves conversion and development rates. Low reserves conversion rates and
slow development could result in a continuation of the current tight market conditions
or, in the worse case, a potential reserves shortfall.
Beyond the development of 8 LNG trains prior to 2020 (6 currently committed, plus
2 additional), reserves shortfalls would occur with the level of shortfall proportional to
the number of additional trains developed.
Modelled gas prices fell in a wide range$6 to $12/GJ depending on the submarket
demand and oil prices. Similar to the 2011 GMR outcomes, regardless of demand, market
expectation of future gas prices continues to remain at the higher end of the range.
Implementation of the PGPLR cannot be supported based on current LNG projects that
have reached nal investment decisions (FID). However, even when these developments
reach production capacity and gas reserves might be assumed to be available in the
future to the domestic market, there is the potential for stockpiling of reserves to retain
the option of developing further LNG trains. The pace of development of LNG trains, in
addition to the 6 under construction plus a further 2 trains, will be a key issue impacting
whether future domestic gas market liquidity improves or declines further.
x :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Major industrial customers in the domestic market are effectively unable to resolve future
contracting requirements and business plans due to lack of access to future gas supply
contracting informationin market terms, the market is unable to clear.
Balance has not been achieved between large gas demand for export supply and demand
for domestic gas supply.
Industry debate on the issue appears to have become captured by the option to reserve gas
for domestic use (reservation) and the price impact for domestic gas customers as result of
connection to the international LNG market.
There are a range of potential options, ranging from regulatory intervention to market
facilitation, that could encourage market participants to achieve balanced export/domestic
market outcomes, and a wider, more informed debate is desirable.
The Gas Market Advisor cautions that if the next 12 months does not see the future domestic
supply situation improve, there could be insufcient time for development, consideration,
consultation and implementation of measures that could be implemented by government to
address a domestic supply constraint in the period 2015 to 2020.
Recommendation
The Queensland Gas Market Advisor recommends that government consider the security
of domestic gas supply and market liquidity in the planning and approval process for
development of future new LNG trains.
Recommendation
The Queensland Gas Market Advisor recommends that government undertake early work
to develop and consider measures that could be implemented in a timely manner should the
future domestic supply constraint continue.
Schematic of Queensland Curtis LNG (QCLNG) plant near Gladstone
Source: BG Group
xi :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Introduction
The annual GMR informs government decision-making regarding the need to develop PGPLR
tenure. It also:
identies and analyses key issues affecting the effective management of resources
considers the development of a more competitive and transparent Queensland gas market
helps stakeholders and government stay abreast of the increasing complexities of the
Queensland market gas and its links to interstate and international markets
identies constraints on gas supply availability and gas market development
considers security of supply within the relative context in the broader eastern Australian
gas market.
The Queensland Gas Market Advisor is responsible for leading the GMR process and advising
government on review outcomes. The Queensland Gas Market Advisor is also accountable for
progressing government actions in response to the reviews.
Focus of the 2012 GMR
Gas is currently being supplied in the Queensland gas market and it is acknowledged that
gas producers are attempting to prove up 2P gas reserves as quickly as possible. The 2011
GMR identied that access to gas reserves for contracting for the period 2011 to 2015, for gas
supply in the period 2015 to 2020, was critical for security of future domestic gas supply.
In order to understand the potential speed of reserves growth, and therefore the level of
reserves that might be available for contracting, we must understand the efciency rate of
development and the conversion rate of resources to reserves. Also critical to understanding
the extent to which reserves will be available for domestic contracting is the allocation of
reserves to LNG supply and the timeframe in which this occurs.
For this reason, the 2012 GMR has a strong upstream focus aimed at establishing reserves
allocations, development rates and identifying and quantifying any constraints on reserves
that may impact on gas supply availability, gas market development, security of supply, and
likely wholesale gas price outcomes in Queensland and in the broader eastern Australian gas
market.
The GMR considers and models issues, including:
gas reserves, including relevant matters such as resource to reserves conversion rates,
reserves and potential reserves locations relative to current and future demand centres,
necessary infrastructure connections and any facilities required for development
wellhead (ex-eld) gas costs/prices
identication from a Queensland perspective of any barriers to growth of the eastern
Australian gas market as a whole and/or, any Queensland market segment
customer demand for all market demand segments (wholesale and retail) and drivers for
demand growth
any signicant differences in outcomes from previous GMR modelling or other signicant
industry gas market modelling
the timing and level of any identied future gas supply/demand/reserves imbalances.
The 2012 GMR continues to focus on the modelling horizons to identify major potential
demand growth or supply shortfalls, including the immediate years 2015 to 2017 when LNG
exports are scheduled to start. This timeframe is important as it reects the period within
which reserves must be developed and available for delivery for LNG contracts commencing
in 2015, and for new domestic customer contracts to satisfy demand in the period 2015
to 2020.
1 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Consultation for the 2012 GMR
A primary objective of the Queensland Gas Market Advisor is to provide an independent,
single point of contact for ongoing dialogue between government and industry stakeholders
on gas market issues. The annual GMR is a valuable and focused part of this dialogue.
A transparent review process, high levels of engagement and thorough consultation are
necessary to ascertain and distil the wide range of views, information and issues impacting
the gas industry in 2012, together with issues likely to impact the future of the gas market.
In undertaking the 2012 GMR:
the Stakeholder Reference Group was utilised
two stakeholder forums were held
draft modelling and analysis work was released for consultation through the Stakeholder
Reference Group
the Queensland Gas Market Advisor engaged in 31 one-on-one meetings with stakeholders
the draft 2012 GMR was released for public consultation.
Consultation meeting discussions with stakeholders focused primarily on:
stakeholder project development (demand-side and supply-side)
issues regarding domestic demand and supply, including counterparties willingness to
buy or sell gas
changes over the 12 months since the previous GMR.
Consultation has provided an excellent understanding of issues faced by stakeholders and
of current gas market conditions. All information provided during consultation was in
condence and has not been reproduced in this report unless independently sourced from
public reports.
Issues and concerns raised by stakeholders have been captured in the relevant sections of this
report and, where appropriate and practical, considered as part of the development, modelling
and analysis for the 2012 GMR.
Prospective gas production land reserve
The PGPLR policy aims to ensure the future security of supply for domestic gas users in light
of the international demand for gas. The ability to enact the PGPLR is provided in legislation
and can be actioned by government, where supported by outcomes of the annual GMR
process, if domestic market supply becomes constrained or is forecast to become constrained.
The PGPLR provides the ability to condition tenure and grant such that any gas produced
from sale from the area can only be consumed within the Australian gas market.
2 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas exploration and production in Queensland has a cyclical development pattern, with the
state undergoing a lengthy period of incremental development interspersed with periods
of major investment, projects and growth. Since 2008, Queensland has had unprecedented
growth in the development of the CSG to LNG export industry.
Gas is frequently categorised as conventional or unconventional with regards to
exploration or production. Conventional gas is found in sandstone and carbonate
reservoirs with good porosity and permeability, and is usually discovered in the same
types of reservoirs as oil. Conventional gas discoveries are associated with oil exploration.
Conventional gas is produced in south-western Queensland at Ballera and in smaller volumes
around Roma and Rolleston.
Unconventional gas is tight gas, shale gas or CSG:
Tight gas is gas held tightly in low permeability conventional gas reservoirs. Prospective
tight gas areas are known to be located around Ballera, but the cost to extract is not
currently clear.
Shale gas refers to signicant accumulations of gas trapped within shale formations
called plays. Shale is a ne-grained sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction
of silt and clay-size mineral particles (mud). It is the most commonly found sedimentary
rock worldwide. Shale gas is produced by drilling horizontally along the play. Prospective
areas of shale gas are known to be located around Ballera and Maryborough, but no
reserves have been declared. The extent, ability to extract and cost are currently
not clear.
CSG is attached to coal along its natural fractures and cleats. CSG is released when
pressure in the coal seam is reduced, usually by removal of water from the seam. CSG is
produced by drilling a well into a coal seam. Gas is then released by pumping water from
the seam to reduce water pressure.
Gas in Queensland
The overwhelming majority of Australias current 2P reserves are found in Queenslandmore
than 93 per cent.
0
10 000
20 000
30 000
40 000
50 000
60 000
70 000
Total Queensland
Total New South Wales
3P reserves 2P reserves
P
J
Figure 6 Eastern Australian CSG reserves by state (31 December 2011)
Background
3 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas suppliers
Gas is currently supplied to the Queensland market by the following participants:
AGL Energy AGL currently supplies around 29 per cent of the eastern Australian
domestic market as well as having signicant gas-red power generation holdings. AGLs
major reserves in Queensland are around the Moranbah area, where it supplies a net
24 TJ/d to Townsville.
Mitsui E&P/WestSide Corporation/Molopo Energy These three companies currently
supply small quantities of gas in Queensland (around 1.5 per cent of the market). WestSide
Corporation and Molopo Energy operate adjacent tenements in the Dawson Valley near
Moura, with Mitsui E&P having interest in both tenements.
Origin Energy (Origin) Origin is a major supplier of gas in Queensland and a major
shareholder of the APLNG project (42.5 per cent). Origin holds a portfolio of gas reserves
that includes a small portfolio of conventional gas reserves in the Surat Basin and the
recently announced Ironbark CSG project, which is expected to supply a total of
1600 PJ over 40 years from 2014. Origin also has conventional gas reserves in the Cooper
Eromanga Basin and signicant conventional gas reserves and resources in the Bass and
Otway Basins off the Victorian coast.
Australia Pacic LNG (APLNG) APLNG is the most signicant CSG supplier to domestic
consumers, including Origins power generation requirements. Virtually all the gas sales
agreements (GSA) that Origin entered into before the nalisation of APLNG are supplied
by reserves that now belong to APLNG.
Santos Santos is the project leader for the Gladstone LNG (GLNG) project that does not
yet have sufcient certied 2P gas reserves for a full 20-year, 2-train operation. Santos
has signicant gas reserves and resources in eastern Australia outside of GLNG. These are
held in the Cooper, Gunnedah and Otway Basins. Santos also has signicant uncontracted
CSG reserves and resources in the Surat and Gunnedah Basins.
Arrow Energy (Arrow) While Arrow does not have sufcient 2P reserves at this time to
support a 2-train export LNG plant for a full 20 years, it purchased Bow Energy in early
2012 and holds a number of permits in the Bowen Basin as well as having interests in the
Surat and CooperEromanga Basins. Arrow holds a number of existing contracts with
major customers.
QGC QGCs current primary production and tenures under development are in the
Surat Basin, but it also holds tenure in the Bowen Basin. QGC currently supplies gas to a
number of existing Queensland customers, but is understood to be focusing on developing
its reserves towards its LNG project. Future gas availability to the domestic market will
depend on its reserve position and LNG export expectations.
Several smaller companies that hold reserves in Queensland and northern New South Wales
are unlikely to be in a position to supply the domestic market for at least the next 5 years.
Gas transmission pipelines
Gas transmission refers to the transportation of natural gas via pipelines from gas production
facilities to major users and markets.
The major east coast Australian gas transmission pipelines, their regulatory status, average
capacity factor and capacity (forward/reverse) are shown overleaf. Not all pipelines serve
demand centres. Some provide transmission capacity between two other pipelines, such as
the South West Queensland Pipeline.
Gas
The Queensland annual GMR deals exclusively with natural gasreferred to simply as gas.
Gas is a blend of hydrocarbons (primarily methane and inert gases) found in sandstone, carbonate
and shale reservoirs, and in coal seams at depth in the earths crust.
4 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Table 1 Regulatory classication and capacity of major transmission pipelines
Name Regulation Average capacity
factor (%) *
Capacity
TJ/day
North Queensland Gas Pipeline (NQGP) None 108
Queensland Gas Pipeline (QGP) None 79 142
Carpentaria Gas Pipeline (CGP) Light 81 119
Roma to Brisbane Pipeline (RBP) Full 75 219
QSN Link Pipeline (QSN) None 83 385
Moomba to Sydney Pipeline (MSP) Light 41 439
Moomba to Adelaide Pipeline (MAP) None 50 253
SEA Gas Pipeline None 50 314
Eastern Gas Pipeline None 80 268
NSWVictoria Interconnector Full 23 90/73
South West Queensland Pipeline (SWQP) None 34 353/129
Longford to Melbourne Full 48 1030
Tasmania Gas Pipeline None 35 129
*Source: IES (2012)calculations based on information sourced from the Gas Bulletin board
Existing major gas pipelines
Existing and proposed new pipelines are shown in Figure 7 overleaf. The four major
interconnected natural gas transmission pipelines in Queensland are the:
RBP running from Wallumbilla (Roma) to Gibson Island in Brisbane and owned
and operated by the APA Group (APA)
CGP running from Ballera to Mount Isa Pipeline and owned and operated by the APA
QGP running from Wallumbilla to Gladstone and Rockhampton, and owned and
operated by Jemena Limited
SWQP connecting Ballera and Wallumbilla, and is owned and operated by Epic Energy.
The QSN Link interconnects the SWQP with the MSP and MAP.
The initial capacity of the RBP, QGP and CGP has been expanded, with more expansions
either underway or planned to meet domestic market demand.
Another major pipeline, the NQGP, runs from Moranbah to Townsville. It is owned by
Victorian Funds Management Corporation and operated by AGL and Arrow Energy through a
jointly owned company called NQPM4.
Proposed new transmission pipelines
Each of the LNG proponent groups have designed their projects around dedicated gas
transmission pipelines linking the upstream gas production centres with the LNG processing
plants on Curtis Island. Four new Queensland transmission pipelines are planned to supply
gas from the Surat Basin to Gladstone for LNG processing:
Queensland Curtis LNG (QCLNG) The QGC-managed QCLNG project has commenced
the preliminary construction activities for a 380 km, 1050 mm pipeline. This pipeline will
start near Miles and be fed by treated gas from the projects Surat Basin Gas Fields via
two major gas headers of some 150 km in length.
GLNG The GLNG project has commenced early construction activities on a 420 km,
1050 mm pipeline to operate up to 10.2 MPa. This pipeline will follow the basic alignment
of the QGP from Arcadia to Callide, where it will use the Queensland Governments major
infrastructure corridor (also being used by the other LNG proponents), which goes all the
way to Gladstone.
5 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
APLNG The APLNG pipeline alignment roughly parallels that of QCLNG from Miles to
Callide, before traversing to Gladstone by way of the common infrastructure corridor. The
major part of the pipeline is 380 km of 1050 mm section pipe with maximum operating
pressure of 10.2 MPa. Gas will be fed into this pipeline from 70 km of large-diameter
headers. APLNG have commenced preliminary construction activities on their gas
transmission pipeline.
Arrow LNG The Arrow Surat Pipeline has a planned length of 470 km, including major
headers and transport. It will be aligned east of the QCLNG and APLNG pipelines until it
joins the common infrastructure corridor at Callide.
Proposed multi-user pipelines
A number of new multi-user gas transmission pipelines are undergoing detailed
feasibility studies:
Arrow Bowen Gas Pipeline The Arrow Bowen Gas Pipeline would connect Arrows
gas operations in the Bowen Basin to a Gladstone LNG plant. The pipeline is proposed to
commence approximately 90 km north of Moranbah with the route to Gladstone mostly
east of the Bowen Basin Coal Measures. It will have an approximate length of 477 km
with three major laterals of some 103 km.
Queensland Hunter Gas Pipeline The Queensland Hunter Gas Pipeline is a proposed
850 km gas pipeline running from Wallumbilla to Tomago near Newcastle through the
Gunnedah Basin. The pipeline has received environmental and regulatory approvals from
both the Queensland and New South Wales governments, and is now being considered in
two stagesthe rst stage being from Narrabri to Wallumbilla and the second stage from
Narrabri to Newcastle.
Lions Way Gas Pipeline Metgasco proposes to connect its gas reserve and resource base
in the ClarenceMoreton Basin in northern New South Wales to the RBP near Ipswich, via
construction of a 145 km pipeline from near Casino. It would follow the alignment of the
Lions Waya road and rail corridor through the Border Ranges between New South Wales
and Queensland.
Galilee Basin Gas Pipeline Studies While the Galilee Basin is in its early stages
of exploration activity, a number of the permit holders exploring in the basin have
undertaken preliminary studies into how any gas production from their tenements might
get to market. All of these studies are preliminary scoping exercises based on individual
company expectations. It is too early to undertake such an investigation in a meaningful
way until the gas resource across the basin is better understood.
6 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
SOUTH
AUSTRALIA
NEW SOUTH
WALES
VICTORIA
TASMANIA
QUEENSLAND
N
O
R
T
H
E
R
N

T
E
R
R
I
T
O
R
Y
Mount Isa
Cannington
Barcaldine
Rockhampton
Gladstone
Hervey Bay
Gold Coast
Tamworth
Dubbo
Lithgow
Mildura
Gladstone
Whyalla
Newcastle
Narrabri
Wallumbila
Brisbane
Sydney
Canberra
Melbourne
Adelaide
Hobart
Moranbah
Townsville
Otway Basin
Bass Basin
Gippsland Basin
Longford
Yolla
Ballera
Braemar
Peat/Scotia
Fairview
Moomba
Silver Springs
Kincora
Spring Gully
Moura
Denison Trough
Gunnedah
Basin
Surat
Basin
Bowen
Basin
Galilee
Basin
Cooper
Basin
Figure 7 Eastern Australian gas basins and pipeline network
Source: Data sourced from IES/RLMS (2012)
7 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas distribution networks
Gas distribution refers to the delivery of natural gas via distribution pipeline networks
(serviced by transmission pipelines)natural gas distribution networks in Queensland are
operated by APA. In Brisbane, the network covers the Gold Coast and southern and northern
Brisbane. Small distribution networks are also located in the regional areas of Toowoomba,
Oakey, Bundaberg, Maryborough and Hervey Bay. Roma and Dalby are serviced by networks
owned and operated by their local councils.
Gas distribution networks in Queensland continue to increase overall customer connection
numbers; but overall gas use is declining, reecting the impact of competition from other
fuel sources and improved appliance and operational efciencies. Gas consumption of
the Queensland distribution networks is approximately 29.5 PJ per annum consumed by
approximately 172 000 customers. Around 96 per cent of these customers are residential
users consuming approximately 1.6 PJ per annum or 5 per cent of total consumption.
Average residential consumption in Queensland is currently about 9 to 10 GJ per annum;
down from the 11 to 12 GJ per annum of earlier years. The primary gas use underpinning
residential load is gas hot-water heating, which faces strong competition from solar and heat
pump appliances and improved water-use efciency by south-east Queensland households.
Lower water use means lower hot water use, and this is reected in a reduction in gas
consumption for water heating.
In the commercial and small industrial sector, volume is growing slowly but steadily at
around 1 per cent per annum due to increasing business focus on efcient energy use.
Customer numbers are expected to grow at less than 1 per cent per annum.
Retail market
The retail market for gas in Queensland is deregulated and based on the distribution
networks. Maranoa Regional Council and Western Downs Regional Council operate small
combined distribution and retail businesses, and there are ve holders of general retail
authorities to retail gas in Queensland:
AGL
Origin Energy
Australian Power & Gas (AP&G)
Dodo Power & Gas
EnergyAustralia.
AGL, Origin Energy and AP&G are active in the Queensland retail market. AP&G services a
small number of customers. While there is no impediment to customers changing retailers,
there currently appears to be low levels of customer churn. There is potential for additional
new entrant retailers and improved competition since the commencement of the Short Term
Trading Market (STTM) in Brisbane on 1 December 2011. The STTM also offers larger retail
customers the opportunity to purchase gas from the STTM as a further supply option and to
address trade imbalances.
Eastern Australian gas market
The eastern Australian gas marketwhich consists of Queensland, New South Wales, the
Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmaniahas a domestic gas
demand estimated at 780 PJ per annum. The eastern Australian gas market operates with
long-term GSAs between gas producers and buyers such as retailers, large industrial users
and generators. Gas is delivered via equally long-term transmission agreements.
Although it will be 3 to 5 years before exports of LNG start from Queensland (based
on current project schedules), the export projects have already changed the domestic
demand-supply dynamic. The primary factors expected to inuence the future direction of
the gas industry in eastern Australia are LNG exports and gas reserves development.
8 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
LNG projects
The rst CSG-based LNG project was announced in May 2007. Four projects currently
have signicant project status and three have all the necessary approvals for project
development.
Table 2 LNG project trains under construction/development
LNG project Train
capacity
(MTPA)
Trains under
construction
Project size
(MTPA)
Gas use per
train (PJ/a)
Scheduled
start-up
Australia
Pacic LNG
(APLNG)
4 500 000 2 18 000 000 270 Q2-2015
Gladstone LNG
(GLNG)
3 900 000 2 12 000 000 234 Q1-2015
Queensland
Curtis LNG
(QCLNG)
4 250 000 2 13 500 000 255 Q4-2014
Arrow LNG 4 000 000 0 16 000 000 260 Q1-2017*
*Project has not currently reached FID.
Source: RLMS (2012)
Two projectsQCLNG and GLNGhave reached FID and are constructing 2 LNG trains. The
project schedules suggest that QCLNGs trains will start up in 2014 and 2015, and that GLNGs
trains will start up in 2015 and 2016. APLNG has reached FID for the projects rst train and
is expected to reach FID for the second train in the second half of 2012.
Arrow LNG is owned in a 50/50 joint venture by Royal Dutch Shell and China National
Petroleum Corporation (PetroChina), and has released the projects environmental impact
statement (EIS) for consultation.
More detailed information on the four major LNG projects is provided in Table 3 (overleaf).
LNG
Once gas is cooled to 161 C at atmospheric pressure, it becomes a liquid that occupies less than
0.2 per cent of its original volume, making international transportation economical.
LNG production facilities are called trains. Each train is an independent unit that converts (or
liquees) gas. Typically, trains produce 3 to 5 MTPA of LNG, equivalent to 165 to 275 PJ per annum.
The LNG market represents about 9 per cent of the global gas market and is the primary source of
supply for countries with no domestic gas supplies, such as Japan, Korea and Taiwan. LNG is a
supplementary supply in other countries, including many European countries, China and India.
The international LNG import market has three broad regionsAsia, Europe and the Americaswith
Asia being the region of growth.
9 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
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10 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Responses to issues
raised in the 2011 GMR
In August 2011, the Queensland Government considered the 2011 GMR and accepted all the
recommendations made.
Gas reserves
During consultation for the 2011 GMR, customers and potential customers advised of
an almost universal inability to engage in meaningful, substantive negotiations with
producers regarding domestic GSAs for supply in the period 2015 to 2020. The 2011 GMR
concluded that:
customer concerns regarding access to gas reserves for contracting in the period 2011
to 2015, for gas supply commencing in the period 2015 to 2020, were supported by the
modelling and analysis undertaken for the 2011 GMR
for efcient operation, the Queensland gas market required clarity on the activities
underway to develop reserves for domestic market use post-2015
unless domestic appraisal plans were in place or shortly to be put in place, available gas
reserves may not be sufcient to underpin execution of new domestic GSAs.
It was recommended that the government seek detailed advice, conrmation and commitment
from gas producers regarding drilling and appraisal programs to provide reserves for new
domestic contracting in the period 2011 to 2015 for gas supply in the period 2015 to 2020.
The government sought this information from six major gas producers/LNG proponents:
AGL
APLNG
Arrow
Origin
QGC (part of the BG Group)
Santos.
All six respondents rmly reiterated their commitment to being a long-term supplier to
the domestic gas market. Information was provided by some proponents on tenures being
developed for domestic supply, redevelopment of the Cooper Basin and further exploration of
tight and shale gas resources.
Gas transmission pipelines
The initial capacity of the RBP, QGP, SWQP and CGP has been expanded, with more
expansions either underway or planned. While these are being undertaken in a timely
manner, pipeline owner-operators expressed a desire to allow a reasonable volume for further
incremental growth when undertaking a major capacity expansion. Customers also sought
this outcome. This issue was also noted by the Australian Government in its Draft energy
white paper 2011 released on 13 December 2011.
The 2011 GMR concluded that there appeared to be the potential for a category of customer to
be excluded from timely purchase of pipeline capacity due to their volume requirements, and
the issue would require a review of the relevant sections of the national legislation. It was
recommended that the government act through the appropriate jurisdictional forum/s to raise
the issue of incremental pipeline capacity expansion for review.
Development of the gas supply trading hub will require a concurrent consideration of gas
pipeline capacity issues and the drivers for incremental investment in capacity. This issue is
on the current Standing Council on Energy and Resources (SCER) work program.
11 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas distribution networks
The 2011 GMR found that Queensland gas distribution networks face signicant fuel competition,
including from coal, which continues to be used as a fuel by some customers with access to gas.
Coal use had dropped over the years, but it remained as a competitor and its use equated to several
petajoules per year of gas use.
Little work had been done, but the 2011 GMR concluded that this area offered some potential
to increase gas consumption on the distribution networks and improve utilisation of the
infrastructure. It was recommended the government investigate the potential to increase gas
consumption on the distribution networks and improve utilisation of network infrastructure by
encouraging customers using coal as a fuel to move to gas, where gas is available.
The investigation is being undertaken by the Department of Energy and Water Supply.
Trading markets
Once the three committed Queensland CSG to LNG projects are fully operational after 201516,
the annual volume of gas required by the projects will exceed 1500 PJ per annum. Total demand
in Queensland will exceed 1700 PJ per annumaround 2.5 times the volume of gas currently
consumed in the entire east coast gas market. The growth in gas production is centred in the Surat
Basin region around Wallumbilla where three major gas transmission pipelines interconnect and
four new pipelines are planned.
The 2011 GMR concluded this provides a timely opportunity in the period to 2015 to design,
develop and implement a wholesale gas trading market at Wallumbilla. It was recommended
that the government continue to work through the SCER and with other jurisdictions, the gas
market reform process and stakeholders to settle a design for a supply-based trading market for
implementation by 2015.
At its 9 December 2011 meeting, SCER noted the rapid changes in the Queensland gas market and
identied the gas supply trading hub as a potential next step in the gas market reform process.
SCER requested that the AEMO undertake rigorous consideration of whether pursuing a gas supply
hub trading market had merit. AEMO worked with an industry reference group to develop a market
design for consideration by SCER at the June 2012 meeting.
At the SCER 8 June 2012 meeting, Ministers noted the scoping and cost report prepared by AEMO
and agreed to give further consideration to its implementation. Ministers agreed to task AEMO
to prepare a report, in close consultation with industry participants, on the detailed design of
a gas supply brokerage hub trading market at Wallumbilla, Queensland. SCER also noted the
importance of pipeline capacity trading in ensuring the success of the gas supply hub. Ministers
have requested that the issue be considered further, in close consultation with stakeholders, as part
of the broader SCER gas market development agenda. Ministers will consider this issue further in
December 2012.
Gas storage
Produced and processed natural gas can be stored for an indenite period. Storage of sales-quality
gas is, like trading markets, a feature of mature gas markets and is widely used in North America
and Europe to better manage variations in production capability and market and customer demand.
The development of dedicated commercial natural gas storage facilities can provide exibility for
both producers and customers, support competitive market trading and enhance security of supply.
Under existing Queensland petroleum legislation, underground storage of petroleum can be
undertaken under a petroleum lease. The legislation does not envisage gas storage outside of a
current depleted petroleum area (e.g. the use of salt caverns) and does not seek to regulate the safe
operation of such facilities.
The 2011 GMR concluded future investment in gas storage projects in Queensland will require
appropriate tenure and tenure management, and the ability to effectively regulate the safe
operation of storage facilities regardless of tenure type or location. It was recommended that the
government consider a review of existing Queensland petroleum and minerals legislation to ensure
a solid legislative foundation for future investment in, and operation of, dedicated gas storage
facilities in Queensland.
The review is being undertaken by the Department of Natural Resources and Mines.
12 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
The GMR is underpinned by gas market modelling and analysis. For the 2012 GMR, IES was
engaged in conjunction with RLMS and Jenkins Advisory Services to undertake gas market
analysis and modelling for a 20-year study period. The IES report on the modelling and
analysis has been released with this 2012 GMR.
IES undertook economic modelling that addressed the economic fundaments and ignored
participant reserve requirements, thereby providing insights such as the level of GPG
and new pipeline developments. Next, modelling that tracked the reserve positions of the
individual LNG proponents, their required reserve holding for their respective LNG trains
and the reserves of non-LNG companies was undertaken. This modelling also considered the
sensitivity of how cooperation between the LNG proponents would inuence the market.
Other issues included in the modelling were:
gas demand
timing of LNG plant commitment, construction, start-up and the consequent timing of
gas reserves commitments in the context of global LNG demand
domestic gas demand projections, the requirement for new gas contracts to support
demand growth and replacement of existing contracts and the gas reserves required
gas supply
the rate of development of gas reserves (importantly CSG in Queensland) and factors
that may affect it
factors and behaviours that may restrict production of gas from certain reserves, such
as transmission connection to markets
demandsupply balance
assessment of the physical ability of gas supply to meet projected gas demand
projected demand, supply and price outcomes for three economic scenarios.
Terms of reference/key inputs
It was a requirement for IES, to the extent possible and reasonable, to ensure consistency
with AEMO GSOO scenarios and the economic scenarios used in the 2011 GMR. This ensures
stakeholders can make valid comparisons between the outcomes of the 2011 and 2012 GMR
and the GSOO. Where there are reasonable differences these are identied.
It was also a requirement that IES address the issues confronting the gas industry over the
next 5 to 7 years. It should also address the longer term and additional scenarios that take
into account technical and operational issues.
Key direct inputs and scenario variables for the modelling included:
domestic gas demand and LNG export development in Queensland
gas production costs
gas reserves estimates, reserves conversion rates and production projections
economic parameters, including economic growth and associated commodity prices,
the price of carbon and international oil and gas prices
electricity market demand.
Key components of the 2012 GMR are the scenarios that are to be subject to modelling.
Modelling and analysis
13 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
The scenarios developed and the assumptions made by IES are explained below. Please
refer to the IES modelling report for further detailed information on the scenarios
and assumptions.
In order to address the inuence of economic conditions and technical/operational issues,
the scenarios were developed to incorporate three key dimensions that inuence gas
availability and price:
Macro-economic conditions This refers to the factors that inuence costs, domestic
demand, GPG development and economics of LNG export development. This includes
factors such as carbon emission policy, global conditions, oil price etc. These were
developed using the AEMO scenarios as a basis.
LNG developments This refers to the number of LNG trains developed in Queensland
before 2020 and after 2020. While the economics of an LNG plant is being treated as an
output of the modelling, this recognises that there is a potential range of developments
within a set of macro-economic conditions.
CSG development factors This refers to the dynamics of CSG gas availability as
inuenced by (1) the development rate of reserves (conversion efciency) compared with
that planned and (2) the productivity of wells compared with that expected.
Three modelling scenarios were developed for each driver. From these 27 combinations, 12
scenarios were identied for modelling. The scenarios are intended to capture the potential
spread of long-term economic outlooks as contained in the AEMO scenarios, as well as the
inuence LNG economic projections and reserves development can have in the medium term.
Economic scenarios
As a basis of the macro-economic scenarios for this study, IES developed three modied
AEMO scenarios as follows:
Modied AEMO scenario medium This is based on the planning scenario modied to
account for factors such as lower growth than AEMO medium.
Modied AEMO scenario low This is based on the slow rate of change scenario.
Particular change is a low price on carbon emissions.
Modied AEMO scenario high This is based on the decentralised world scenario
modied, among other things, to have a slightly higher economic growth than the
planning scenario.
The basis of the assumptions is as follows:
domestic gas demand 2011 GSOO modied through discussions with users and scenario
assumptions
electricity demand 2011 Electricity Statement of Opportunities (ESOO) adjusted for
current level and trend
carbon price consistency with AEMO scenario interpretation
oil price determined by the current price level and a conceivable view of the long-term
price range
exchange rate consistent with the range and pattern presented in the ACIL report, Fuel
cost projections natural gas and coal outlooks for AEMO modelling, dated December 2011.
Table 4 (overleaf) provides a summary of these assumptions. IES provide very detailed
descriptions of the scenarios in Appendix G of the IES modelling report.
The scenarios
14 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Table 4 Overview of key assumptions for economic scenarios
High Medium Low
Economic growth
Gas demand
Electricity demand
GSOO modied
Current moving to
ESOO low
GSOO modied
Current moving to
ESOO low
GSOO modied
Lower than ESOO low
Number LNG trains
Committed
Additional**
6
Outcome of modelling
6
Outcome of modelling
6
Outcome of modelling
Oil prices Moving to USD140 Moving to USD110 Moving to USD95
Carbon price
Pre-2018
Post-2018
Commonwealth
Treasury Core scenario
$57 by 2030
Between high and low
$40 by 2030
Near oor price
$24 by 2030
USD/AUD exchange rate
Pre-2018
Post-2018
1.05
1
1
0.9
0.95
0.8
Source: IES (2012)
Reserves development scenarios
The LNG proponents are currently developing and stockpiling reserves to support the
committed LNG projects. The level of reserves held by each LNG proponent is shown in
Figure 8.
0
5000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
QCLNG GLNG ARROW APLNG
L
N
G

p
r
o
p
o
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n
t

r
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s
e
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v
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s

(
P
J
)4 LNG trains
3 LNG trains
2 LNG trains
1 LNG train
2P 2C 3P
Figure 8 LNG proponent reserves at 31 December 2011 (PJ)
Source: IES (2012)
Future reserve levels will be determined by the current level of reserves, less the drawdown
of reserves to meet domestic and export demand plus the development of new reserves. The
rate at which new reserves are developed is critical to future supply capability.
The history of CSG reserves development (see Figure 9 overleaf) shows a signicant increase
since about 2005, a maximum annual increase of 14 933 PJ in declared 2P reserves in 2010,
followed by an increase of only 2079 PJ in 2011. The drop in reserves declared in 2011 was
due to weather effects in 201011.
15 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
0
5000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
30 000
35 000
40 000
45 000
Annual increase 2P reserves
2
P

C
S
G

r
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(
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)
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1
9
9
7
1
9
9
6
Year
Figure 9 Total CSG annual 2P reserves and annual increase (PJ)
Source: IES (2012)
Given the variation in declared 2P reserves growth, in looking forward, IES assessed the
expected and potential variation in the rate at which 2P reserves will be developed. This was
undertaken by a consideration of:
the percentage of (3P-2P) / 2C / (3C-2C) that will realise 2P reservesreferred to as
conversion efciency
the time taken for the conversions (3P-2P) to 2P, (3C-2C) to 2P and 2C to 2P to occur
referred to as conversion time.
Conversion time and conversion efciency
Factors that inuence conversion efciency and conversion rate are well productivity
and drilling rates (that impact the rate at which wells are developed). Below-standard
performance, in either drilling rates or well productivity, could impact the ability of LNG
proponents to reach the level of reserves required to underpin the current LNG trains
under construction and supply gas to the domestic market through long-term contracts to
domestic users.
It was assumed that expected weather conditions over a number of years would result in a
conversion period of 5 years, and that weather conditions below and above that expected
would result in the conversion period being 6 and 4 years respectively.
From the three scenarios of reserve conversion efciency, three scenarios of reserves
development that combine reserve conversion efciency and reserve conversion assumptions
were developed. These were labelled above planned, planned, and below planned (Table 5).
Table 5 Reserve development scenarios
Conversion rate
Conversion
efciency
High Medium Low
High Above planned
Medium Planned
Low Below planned
Source: IES (2012)
16 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
The conversion efciencies and conversion rates presented in Table 5 correspond to annual 2P
increases in the range of about 3500 to 9500 PJ with an expected increase of about 5000 PJ.
Also modelled were options to the operating rules for three modes. These were the
cooperation between the LNG proponents and the inclusion of prospective reserves. The name
of the options and description is shown in Table 6.
Table 6 IES Gas Reserves Availability Model (GRAM) operation rule scenarios
Mode LNG proponents Prospective reserves
Base Non-cooperative Included
Sensitivity 1 Cooperative Included
Sensitivity 2 Non-cooperative Not included
Source: IES (2012)
Severe weather delays reserves appraisal drilling programs
For the second year in succession, extreme wet weather conditions impacted the Bowen and Surat
Basins during the 201112 summer. After 10 years of dry and drought conditions prior to 201011,
severe rainfall and oods in summer 201112 again hampered access to gas wells while causing
minimal damage to infrastructure and CSG production.
The adverse weather conditions had a major impact on the appraisal and development activities
underway to prove up CSG reserves to underpin LNG export.
In addition to limited access to land due to ooded roads (mostly over short periods), the major
constraints were ground conditions that delayed drilling and the inability to establish and operate
multi-well pilot operations, partly due to the inability to handle and process co-produced water as
most water storage dams were full.
To mitigate the delays, the LNG project proponents have increased the number of drilling rigs
(particularly production drilling units), introduced single pad and directional drilling processes,
reprogrammed eld development schedules and entered into some early phase gas swapping
arrangements with those that have slightly later start-up schedules.
Reference case
The reference case was used to model potential gas reserves outcomes and was developed
by IES to represent the most likely and realistic representation of how the market would
develop, using:
medium growth outlook
medium LNG train development (8 trains by 2020, 12 trains by 2030)
planned reserve development (medium reserve conversion efciency, medium
conversion rate)
GRAM model operated in base mode scenario to model:
prospective resources included
LNG proponents that do not cooperate with each other (meaning that proponents with
surplus reserves do not sell to proponents with a shortage of reserves).
LNG in the scenarios
Two future demand growth scenarios (labelled low and high) of LNG development were
developed by IES. Using a primarily World Bankbased forecast estimate of gross domestic
product growth for 2012 and 2013, growth extrapolated for the period up to 2020 provides
a conservative 2020 low demand scenario (given the modest growth rates incorporated for
the Asian region of approximately 4 per cent). The low demand scenario results in a forecast
LNG demand of 332 MT in 2020 and 470 MT in 2030, which represents an overall growth rate
of approximately 3.5 per cent per annum since 2011. In the period to 2020, potential supply
options (uncommitted projects) greatly exceeds the forecast capacity shortfall.
17 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
The 2020 high demand scenario assumes higher LNG growth in Europe, South America
and across the ve major LNG-consuming countries of Asia. The high scenario results in a
forecast LNG demand of 425 MT in 2020 and 800 MT in 2030, which represents an overall
growth rate of approximately 6.5 per cent per annum since 2011.
Table 7 LNG demand scenarios
2020 MTPA 2030 MTPA
Committed
capacity
Additional
demand
Shortfall Additional
demand
Total
demand
Low demand (assumes
extrapolation of 3.5% per
annum global LNG growth)
318 332 14 138 470
High demand (assumes
extrapolation of 6.5% per
annum global LNG growth)
318 425 107 375 800
Source: IES (2012)
LNG price assumptions
The modelling assumed 6 LNG trains are committed and that these would begin operation
prior to 2016 (APLNG2 trains, QCLNG2 trains, GLNG2 trains).
The LNG outlook has changed since 2011, with substantial competition for LNG sales
appearing on the world marketfor instance, the Cheniere projects approval to export LNG
from the United States (US).
Nevertheless, the large decit in LNG requirements means that potential remains for
additional signicant developments. This is causing additional uncertainty in relation to LNG
prices and the economics of additional LNG trains at Gladstone.
LNG pricing structure
LNG contracting terms vary across different international trading regions. In general, the
delivered price of LNG depends primarily on the price of crude oil (using the Japan Crude
Cocktail (JCC)) and the US dollar to Australian dollar conversion rate (USD/AUD), and
secondarily on the link between LNG prices (in USD per million BTU or USD/mmbtu) and the
JCC price (in USD per barrel or USD/bbl).
The values used in the scenarios are shown in the Table 8.
Table 8 LNG netback values at Gladstone
Low scenario Medium scenario High scenario
JCC price (USD/bbl) $95 $110 $140
Exchange rate (USD/AUD)
Post 2018
$0.95
$0.80
$1.00
$0.90
$1.05
$1.00
Slope 0.10 0.12 0.13
LNG netback price (AUD/GJ) $4.40 $9.00 $14.00
Source: IES information (2012)
The Asian region is the customer for the Queensland LNG export projects. Other features of
Asian contract pricing sometimes include:
the primary slope, which represents the linkage to crude oil and is expressed as a decimal
an S-curve mechanism, which introduces a lower primary slope value to apply when
crude prices are in a low or high range (secondary slope), protecting sellers at low crude
oil prices and buyers at high crude oil prices (kink points)
or
ceiling/oor constraints usually linked to crude oil prices.
18 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
New term contracts to Asian buyers over the past several years have displayed the following
elements within the traditional formula:
values for slope in the range 0.1395 to 0.154
values for b reecting shipping costs for delivered sales or close to zero for free on board
(FOB) sales
increasing adoption of S-curves (but not in all cases), with low and high crude price
trigger points often at around US$50/bbl and US$90/bbl respectively.
Looking forward, IES considers that the current pricing formula for LNG sales in Asia would
remain (i.e. linked to JCC via the formulas slope), but that the slope could reduce to between
0.10 and 0.13.
Carbon pricing in the modelling scenarios
In electricity generation, carbon pricing should have the effect of making gas more
competitive with coal, but simultaneously less competitive with low- or no-carbon options
such as renewables. A secondary effect of carbon pricing on gas is the expected growth of
peaking gas generation plants to support intermittent renewable generation such as wind.
The basis of the scenarios is that the current legislated carbon pricing scheme continues and:
a high price outlook is taken to be prices at the federal treasury core scenario (this is
consistent with AEMO and ACIL interpretations of the decentralised world scenario)
a low price outlook is taken to be prices near the oor price (this is different than the
AEMO interpretation for this scenario that has prices at $23 for the rst 3 years and near
$0 after that)
a medium case is taken to be between the high case and the legislated oor price.
See Figure 10 for a graph of the scenario carbon prices.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
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45
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O
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(
r
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2
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1
1

d
o
l
l
a
r
s
)
IES (most likely) Low (oor) High (core policy)
Year
Figure 10 Scenarios of future carbon emissions price ($/tonne)
Source: IES (2012)
19 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas production cost assumptions
For the purposes of modelling for the 2012 GMR, IES assumed current gas production
costs to be:
conventional gas $3.50/GJ to $4.00/GJ
CSG $2.65/GJ to $4.42/GJ.
For CSG, the costs of producing gas vary considerably across elds. The review showed costs
currently in the range of $2.65/PJ to $4.42/PJ. As more remote and marginal locations are
utilised, the costs would be expected to increase to about $7/GJ at reserve levels of 80 000 PJ.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
C
S
G

a
n
d

u
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o
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t
i
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a
l

g
a
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s
u
p
p
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y

c
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t
s
,

A
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(
r
e
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a
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2
0
1
2

d
o
l
l
a
r
s
)
Volume (PJ)
0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000
Figure 11 CSG supply curve ($/GJ)
Source: IES (2012)
The development and economics of conventional gas is very different from that of CSG. The
main resources are the Cooper Basin and offshore in the Gippsland and Otway Basins. There
are no ramp-up gas issues. The economics can be highly inuenced by the oil recovered,
which may be of signicantly more value than the gas obtained.
The cost structure of conventional gas is thus dependent on many issues and an assessment,
including that of oil, is difcult to assess. Assessments of supply cost have the Gippsland
and Otway Basins in the order of $3.50/GJ and the Cooper Basin slightly higher in the order
of $4/GJ.
These gas resources may become an economically viable alternative supply to Queensland
under conditions of high Queensland wholesale gas prices and low production costs.
Future oil prices
IES developed and used (without reference) the following oil price outlook for the three
economic scenarios being considered. These prices (shown overleaf) are consistent with the
range of prices that could be expected, noting that in practice oil prices can be expected to
show volatility through time.
20 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
0
10
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Low Actual High Medium
Year
Figure 12 Scenarios of future oil price (USD/bbl)
Source: IES (2012)
Gas demand in the scenarios
Gas demand, excluding LNG and non-GPG, was based on the 2011 AEMO GSOO. The basis of
the gas demand projections for each of the three economic growth scenarios are as follows:
The high scenario is based on the 2011 AEMO scenario decentralised world.
The low scenario is based on the 2011 AEMO scenario slow rate of change.
The medium scenario is between the high and low scenarios.
These demand projections were modied using information obtained from meetings held by
IES with large gas users associated with this study. LNG demand was part of the output of the
scenario and was consistent with the scenario description and LNG economics.
Domestic gas price assumptions
Indications are that gas prices are in the process of moving from cost-based to export-
opportunity value. Export-opportunity value is based on the price of LNG sold ex-Gladstone,
less the costs associated with liquefaction and upstream pipeline transportation (assumed to
be $5/GJ). This is referred to as netback pricing.
Netback price (to the ex-eld location) is determined as the LNG FOB export price less the
costs of liquefaction and pipeline transportation.
The costs of liquefaction and upstream pipeline transportation can vary depending on many
factors such as plant size, location and exchange rate.
IES assumed a generic Gladstone LNG project liquefaction cost and upstream pipeline
transportation cost, with a combined cost of $5/GJ.
IES identied two possible future price formation models:
Domestic prices based on supply costs Under market conditions where the level of LNG
exports is xed (with no expected increase) and sufcient reserves have been developed
and set-aside for that purpose, additional domestic sales would not impact LNG export
sales. Under such conditions, the LNG sector would be effectively ring-fenced from the
domestic market and domestic prices would be formed on the basis of cost and the level
of competition.
21 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Domestic prices internationally linked Under market conditions where LNG proponents
are developing reserves to support an increasing level of LNG exports, additional domestic
sales would impact the date of nancial close of an LNG export facility or the ability
to sign long-term supply contracts. Under such conditions, all gas would have an LNG
export-opportunity cost and there would be a close link between domestic prices and LNG
netback prices.
It may be that the LNG developers are unsure of the economics of additional LNG export
trains, but determine that a medium-term strategy of stockpiling reserves is appropriate
pending a future decision on LNG. This could be described as domestic prices being loosely
internationally linked. The modelling undertaken was required to identify the conditions
under which price formation process should be the dominant inuence.
0
2
4
6
8
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12
14
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18
Slope = 0.13 Slope = 0.1
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70
N
e
t
b
a
c
k

p
r
i
c
e

U
S
D
/
G
J
Japan customs-cleared crude USD/bbl
Expected range moving forward
Figure 13 Netback price (ex-eld) range as a function of JCC ($/GJ)
Source: IES (2012)
22 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Demand for gas within eastern Australia is considered in two broad segmentsdomestic and
LNG export. Domestic demand is further broken down into customer segments.
Customer segments
Mass market customers are residential, small business and larger commercial and
industrial customers who are supplied principally from distribution mains.
Large industrial customers consuming signicant quantities (typically more than
1 to 2 PJ per annum) and are supplied principally from transmission mains. Large
industrial customer demand was projected using information available in the market
and following consultation with the operators and proponents of large industrial projects.
Utility and large industrial demand are modelled together because they represent
the section of the gas market not directly linked to electricity generation and gas
export markets.
GPG is gas for power generation, including large cogeneration projects. GPG was
modelled based on assumptions related to electricity demand, timing and price of carbon
emissions, renewable energy schemes, fuel prices and availability of alternative fuels
and technologies.
Domestic customer contracting
In highly competitive markets, price is set by the short-run cost of the marginal product
being produced. Historically, the gas markets in Australia have not had a highly competitive
structure and prices have mostly reected the all-up costs of supply. This has been in the
range $3/GJ to $4/GJ.
The advent of gas export sales (via LNG) from Queensland connects the east coast gas market
gas prices to internationally traded gas (LNG) prices, and it would appear that prices are
now being based on export-opportunity value. This means that domestic users seeking to
recontract supply are for the rst time competing with LNG and the initial start of the LNG
export facilities when contracting for ongoing supply and new projects.
When graphed, demand appears as a straight line, but the underlying contracts reach term
and require recontracting at different times. This timing is critical for assessing market
activity. Existing east coast supply contracts reached a peak around 2008, which means
as a whole there will be a very high contract replacement requirement in 2018 due to the
termination of contracts (primarily in Victoria). In Queensland, the majority of major
users must recontract at least part of their load in the period 2015 to 2016. LNG project
development combined with the need for existing major users to recontract is placing
pressure on reserves development to underpin contracting.
Domestic demand modelling outcomes
Queensland has a gas consumption of around 240 PJ per year and the eastern Australia gas
market consumption is around 718 PJ per year. LNG is the dominant force in the Queensland
gas market moving forward (as can be seen in Figure 14 opposite). Figure 14 shows
Queenslands gas demand and projected gas demand for LNG export. It assumes domestic
demand is static at 201112 levels, with 6 LNG trains by 201516 and a further 2 trains
by 202021.
Gas demand
23 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
0
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a
Year
LNG export demand
Queensland domestic demand
Figure 14 Queensland domestic gas demand and projected gas demand for LNG exports
Mass market
As part of the AEMO GSOO publication, projections of mass market gas demand and large
industrial demand by the state are provided under a range of economic outlook scenarios.
These were used by IES as the basis of these demands in the economic outlook scenarios
developed in this report (labelled high, medium and low).
0
100
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SA
Vic
NSW
Townsville
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Brisbane
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n
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a
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n
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G
P
G

d
e
m
a
n
d

(
P
J
)
Figure 15 AEMO 2011 GSOO demand outlook (PJ per annum)excludes GPG and LNG exports
Source: AEMO (2011)
24 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Queensland large industrial
The large industrial customers in Queensland comprise over 70 per cent of Queensland gas
demand (excluding GPG and LNG exports). The economic modelling showed that the level
of large-user demand in Queensland was greatest for the low growth scenario. In the high
scenario, the gas requirements of Queensland large users reduced, but there was a relatively
small increase in gas use in the other states. The change in large-user industrial demand for
the high and low scenarios compared with the medium scenario (current volumes) is shown
in Figure 16.
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Q
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High Low
Figure 16 Queensland large industrial demand changes from the medium scenario (PJ)
Source: IES (2012)
Gas power generation
On average, 12 per cent of electricity in the National Energy Market (NEM) was generated
by gas in the nancial years 2009 to 2011. In the NEM as a whole, the gas consumption by
power generators has increased from 101 PJ in the 2009 nancial year to 124 PJ in 2011,
conrming a recent general trend to more gas-red electricity generation.
0
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300
400
500
600
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a
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Latrobe Valley (Vic)
Melbourne (Vic)
South-eastern SA
Adelaide (SA)
North Qld
South-western Qld
South-east Qld
Northern NSW
South-western NSW
Central NSW
Figure 17 Gas usage for power generation by location for the medium growth/medium LNG scenario (PJ)
Source: IES (2012)
25 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
GPG was envisaged to continue to play an increasing role in the generation of electricity due
to the lower carbon emissions of gas generation compared with coal generation. However,
the economic modelling showed that the level of GPG did not change signicantly between
scenarios to 2020, and the increase in the level of GPG over the period to 2020 is small under
all scenarios.
This reects the state of the electricity market (sufcient generation and low load
growth) and the economics of gas generation in light of a low carbon price outlook and
higher gas costs. Post-2020, GPG increases signicantly with the level of increase being
scenario sensitive.
Another issue impacting future development of GPG in Queensland and elsewhere in the
NEM is securing gas. Parties that cannot secure a viable supply may be unwilling to invest
in GPG. However, there are synergies associated with GPG that can result from integration of
generation with other steps in the supply chain. Synergies and risk mitigation are greatest for
a party with all of the following:
its own low-cost gas near electricity transmission line(s)
a captive electricity market
a captive gas market.
Another type of synergy is electricity demand together with demand for low/medium
pressure steam in close proximity to each other, which can make cogeneration viable.
LNG export
By the end of 2015 (subject to possible delays), there are likely to be 6 LNG trains in
operation at Gladstone with a total gas consumption of 1518 PJ per year.
Table 9 Committed LNG trains and annual demand volumes
Project No. of committed
trains
Gas use per train
PJ per annum
Scheduled
start-up
Australia Pacic LNG (APLNG) 2 270 2015
Gladstone LNG (GLNG) 2 234 2015
Queensland Curtis LNG (QCLNG) 2 255 2014
Arrow LNG 0 260 2017
Source: IES (2012)
The LNG developments occurring in Queensland mean there are a potential range of
outcomes that may emerge in the longer term. These are considered in context to total gas
demand in Queensland and the east coast gas market.
26 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas pricing
The modelled price outcomes for the domestic market reect the assessment of supply costs
and the pipeline tariffs. The key observations from the IES economic modelling of prices are:
prices reect the underlying economic costsramp-up gas over the next 2 to 3 years may
have prices lower than in the projections, but based on the supply curve presented by IES,
costs would be expected to reect economic costs under a competitive industry structure
gas prices are sensitive to the level of LNG development to the extent they require the
development of gas sites to be more costly than would otherwise be the casecosts are the
critical issues in this circumstance.
The sensitivity of reserve availability to LNG outlook meant that gas contract prices could
be linked to LNG export prices, with a discount depending on the number of projected LNG
developments that would occur. However, this is a complex dynamic where the key drivers
are exogenous to Australia, are difcult to assess and largely based on factors that include
LNG proponents longer term aspirations, oil price outlook to the extent this impacts LNG
development economics and competing LNG developments in North America and East Africa.
Gas pricing outcomesQueensland
The resulting range of average Queensland contract price outcomes based on the different
outlooks of oil price (at a slope of 0.12) is shown in Figure 18.
A high demand LNG development outlook accompanied by high projected oil prices would
likely lead to domestic gas prices increasing to over $10/GJ by 2015 and gas scarcity for
domestic contracts.
A modest oil and LNG development outlook could see prices in the order of $6.50/GJ by 2015.
Under the same scenarios, gas prices in 2020 would be in the range (high to low) of $12/GJ to
$7/GJ.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Low High Medium
A
U
D
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J

(
r
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o
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)
Year
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9

2
0
3
0

Figure 18 Range of Queensland long-term ex-eld gas contract price outcomes ($/GJ)
Source: IES (2012)
27 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas pricing outcomesQueensland submarkets
The eastern Australian gas market is, in reality, a series of interconnected markets.
Queensland, more so than any other eastern Australian state, also has a series of submarkets
with different characteristics. For the 2012 GMR, the state markets are modelled as a group
and the Queensland submarkets are considered separately as Brisbane, Gladstone, Mount Isa
and Townsville. Wallumbilla, while not a true demand centre, was also modelled as it is a
focal point for gas movement and pricing.
When prices are considered for the submarkets, the variations can be seen. Some of this
variation can be attributed to the different production cost of gas from different elds that
supply these markets, and to the different distances gas must be transported from the elds
to the submarkets. Wallumbilla prices do not include the variations to the same extent and
provide a useful comparator to southern state prices.
The modelling indicates that, with the exception of Brisbane, the submarket variation will
decrease over time and prices will converge. The modelling also shows a widening gap over
time between Queensland gas prices and those in southern states. If this price variation
bridges the difference in Queensland CSG and southern conventional gas production costs, it
could underpin the ow of southern states gas to Queensland.
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
G
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Year
Southern states average
Mt Isa Townsville Gladstone
Wallumbilla Brisbane
Figure 19 Gas prices by location for the medium growth/medium LNG scenario ($/GJ)
Source: IES (2012)
28 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Long-term contracts for gas supply are struck using 2P reserves estimatesthese are the most
widely quoted. In general, 2P reserves equal to the total contract gas quantity are required,
although the producer may undertake to prove up sufcient reserves within a set period or
on an annual basis, or agree to maintain a minimum number of years of reserves coverage
at all times.
On this basis, the potential development spread of 2P reserves in Queensland is shown in
Figure 20. Also shown are the total reserves required for 6 and 14 LNG trains (notionally of
4 MTPA capacity each). This illustrates that if the reserve development rate was to decrease
much below the low case, the time required to develop reserves necessary to support
additional LNG trains could increase substantially.
0
10 000
20 000
30 000
40 000
50 000
60 000
70 000
80 000
Reserves required for 14 LNG trains
Reserves required for 6 LNG trains
2
P

r
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s
e
r
v
e

d
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o
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m
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n
t

r
a
t
e
s

(
P
J
)
Number of years
1 2 3 4
Low High Medium
Figure 20 2P reserves development rates
Source: IES (2012)
Gas reserves
29 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Gas reserves classication
Commercial reserves
Demonstrated reserves that would yield a commercial return at expected prices:
proved (1P) reserves
proved and probable (2P) reserves
proved, probable and possible (3P) reserves
Subcommercial contingent resources
Demonstrated resources for which commerciality requires further assessment:
low estimates (1C)
best estimates (2C)
high estimates (3C)
Prospective resources
Inferred resources:
low estimates
medium estimates
high estimates
Reserve levels
Conventional reserves holdings have been largely static through to 2000, but are now
declining, while CSG reserves have grown rapidly from a zero base in 1995 to overtake
conventional reserves from 2008. For the eastern Australian gas market, total 2P reserves
are estimated at 50 385 PJ with CSG reserves making up 41 920 (82 per cent) of the total.
Table 10 provides a regional breakdown. CSG reserves grew by 2750 PJ over 2011, compared
with growth of in excess of 10 000 PJ in recent years. Queensland severe summer weather
was a signicant factor in the reduction in reserves growth.
Table 10 Eastern Australian 2P reserves (PJ) at 31 December 2011
2P reserves New South
Wales
Victoria Tasmania South
Australia
Queensland Total
Conventional 6 6 394 241 1 594 230 8 465
CSG 2 846 0 0 0 39 074 41 920
Total 2P
reserves

2 852

6 394

0

1 594

38 645

50 385
Source: IES (2012)
Potential 2P reserves by company ordered from highest to lowest are presented in Figure 21
(overleaf). Potential 2P reserves represent the likely 2P reserves that will result from the
conversion of 3P, 2C and 3C resources. This illustrates the tiered nature of reserve ownership
of the CSG companies.
30 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
0
5000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
30 000
T
o
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a

T
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R
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R
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E
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E
n
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g
y
M
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t
g
a
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c
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S
a
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o
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P
h
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l
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p
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O
r
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E
n
e
r
g
y
A
r
r
o
w

E
n
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G
C
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2
P

C
S
G

R
e
s
e
r
v
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s

(
P
J
)
Figure 21 2P potential CSG reserves by CSG company
Source: IES (2012)
QGC has by far the largest holding of reserves, being more than twice the next tierwhich
consists of Arrow, Origin Energy, Conoco Philips and Santos. All of these companies have an
LNG export focus.
The concentration of the ownership of the largest volume of gas reserves is shown in Figure 22,
where companies holding less than 1000 PJ of 2P reserves are grouped together.
Others (less than
1000 PJ), 3079
Santos, 2901
QCLNG, 10 350
Origin, 787
GLNG, 5268
Esso-BHPBilliton, 5175
Arrow, 7800
APLNG, 12 810
AGL, 2176
Figure 22 2P potential CSG reserves by CSG company
Source: Data sourced from IES/RLMS (2012)

31 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
The reserves modelling outcomes
Based on the range of 2P reserves development of 3500 to 9500 PJ with an expected increase
of about 5000 PJ, the potential development spread of 2P reserves in Queensland is shown
in Figure 23. Also shown are the total reserves required for 6 and 14 LNG trains (notionally
of 4 MTPA capacity each and not related to the individual positions of the 4 proponents or
geographical locations). Figure 23 illustrates that if the reserve development rate was to
decrease much below the low case shown below, the time required to develop reserves to
support additional LNG trains could increase substantially.
0
10 000
20 000
30 000
40 000
50 000
60 000
70 000
80 000
Reserves required for 14 LNG trains
Reserves required for 6 LNG trains
2
P

r
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s
e
r
v
e

d
e
v
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o
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m
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t

r
a
t
e
s

(
P
J
)
Number of years
1 2 3 4
Low High Medium
Figure 23 2P reserves development rates
Source: IES (2012)
Reference case
When the reference case is modelled, there is currently just over 2000 PJ of non-LNG
2P reserves in Queensland and the Cooper Basin. This reduces over time to a low point
around 2020 to 2022, primarily due to acquisition by LNG proponents who require more
reserves for their LNG trains. Beyond this point, non-aligned 2P reserves increase back
to a high of around 4000 PJ due to the assumed commencement of the development of
unconventional gas reserves in the Cooper Basin.
32 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
0
10 000
20 000
30 000
40 000
50 000
60 000
70 000
2
P

r
e
s
e
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s

i
n

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l
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a
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d

C
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p
e
r

b
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(
P
J
)
2P available (Qld & Cooper)others
2P available (Qld & Cooper)APLNG
2P available (Qld & Cooper)Arrow
2P available (Qld & Cooper)GLNG
2P available (Qld & Cooper)QCLNG
2P reserved (Qld & Cooper)APLNG
2P reserved (Qld & Cooper)Arrow
2P reserved (Qld & Cooper)GLNG
2P reserved (Qld & Cooper)QCLNG
2
0
2
8
2
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9
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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1
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2
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1
2
Figure 24 Reference case (base mode)2P reserves in Queensland and Cooper Basin
Source: IES (2012)
Reserves owned by LNG proponents that are additional to their reserve requirements for
operational and future LNG trains (whose produced gas is assumed to be available for sale
to the domestic market) are currently estimated to be just under 10 000 PJ. The volume
decreases to zero over the years to 2021, as the reserves required to be withheld for
operational and future LNG train increases and as the reserves are depleted through gas
production to meet LNG train and domestic demand. With the development of unconventional
gas in the Cooper Basin, these reserves begin to increase once more. In total, the modelling
indicates that over 8000 PJ of 3P reserves will exist surplus to LNG requirements in 2030.
Reserves that are being withheld for operational and future LNG trains grows throughout
this decade, reecting the fact that the reserves required to be withheld peaks around 2021.
Based on the reserve assumptions used, GLNG has almost no reserves surplus to the 20 years
of potential 2P reserves being kept for its assumed LNG trains in this decade. However,
it still has substantial reserves being withheld for its LNG trains, and sufcient gas to
operate the plant.
33 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
0
5000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
30 000
P
o
t
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t
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r
e
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s
h
o
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t
f
a
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(
P
J
)

Potential 2P shortfallAPLNG
Potential 2P shortfallArrow Energy
2
0
2
8
2
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9
2
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3
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Potential 2P shortfallGLNG
Potential 2P shortfallQCLNG
Figure 25 Reference case (base mode)shortfall in potential 2P reserves by LNG proponent
Source: IES (2012)
Variables modelled
Low 2P reserve development When the reference case is modelled with the below
planned 2P reserve development rate assumed, the available (for sale) reserves are
substantially reduced and close to exhausted by 2018. There is also signicantly less
reserves owned by the non-LNG aligned suppliers, resulting from the continuing
acquisition of reserves by the LNG proponents aiming to meet their reserve requirements.
The availability of gas to non-LNG demands is very low from 2018 to 2022 when
unconventional gas in the Cooper Basin is developed. This shows that the development
rate of 2P reserves is an important factor in the continuing availability of gas reserves
under an 8 LNG train by 2020 scenario.
Additional LNG trains When the reference case is modelled with 2 additional LNG
trains by 2020 and 4 additional LNG trains post-2020 (a total of 10 trains by 2020 and
an additional 6 trains post-2020), the availability of gas to non-LNG demands is very low
over the middle years around 2020. This scenario indicates that:
a higher reserve development rate than that assumed would be necessary from the
LNG proponents if they were to develop more than 8 LNG trains by 2020
as a consequence of this, reserves to the domestic market would unlikely be made
available by the LNG proponents during the early years of the study period.
Reduced number of LNG trains, low domestic demand When the reference case is
modelled with 2 less LNG trains by 2020 (6 in total by 2020), 4 less LNG trains post-
2020 (total of 12 trains by 2030) and low domestic demand, it shows that spare reserves
are available throughout the study period, owned by both LNG proponents and non-LNG
businesses. On the basis that there was no aspiration to develop LNG trains beyond that
assumed here, there would be a considerable amount of available gas, and it would be
expected that this would be made available to the domestic market.
Cooperation between LNG proponents When the reference case is modelled with the
LNG proponents assumed to be fully cooperative (that is, they act as a single entity,
sharing all LNG trains and gas reserves), they need to acquire overall less reserves owned
by non-LNG proponents in order to full their LNG reserves requirements. This difference
is due to the fact that some LNG proponents currently have more reserves than they need
for their assumed LNG train development, and that under a cooperative sensitivity these
reserves may be used by other LNG proponents who are short of the reserves they require.
Without cooperation, these other proponents instead acquire reserves from non-LNG
businesses, which adds further pressure on the reserves available to the domestic market.
34 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Prospective reserves When the reference case is modelled with prospective reserves
not included in the model prior to 2021, the results appear very similar to the base mode
when prospective reserves are included. This is because it is assumed that the bulk of
the prospective reserves (primarily located in the Cooper Basin) start being developed
to 2P reserves only after this time. Under an 8 LNG train scenario, the reserves required
to be withheld for the LNG trains are greater than the total of the proven, probable and
contingent reserves in Queensland and the Cooper Basin, resulting in a full acquisition of
these reserves by the LNG proponents.
Reserves modelling outcomes
All four LNG proponents are modelled to experience a shortfall in their required gas reserves
for their LNG plant at some stage during the study period. This occurs in the rst few years
for GLNG and in the middle to later years for the other three proponents. Over this period
of time, the LNG proponents are expected to be acquiring available reserves located in
Queensland and the Cooper Basin from non-LNG businesses.
No gas supply shortfalls occur during the study period modelling, but this is dependent on
the time and efciency rates of conversion of reserves to 2P, and of 2P reserves to produced
gas. It also assumes that LNG proponents would make their surplus gas reserves available to
non-LNG gas users.
In summary, with LNG developments limited to 8 trains by 2020 and an additional 4 trains
by 2030, there are sufcient reserves to provide gas for the domestic market and any
operational LNG trains over the study period. However, the rate of reserve development is
insufcient for the LNG proponents to fully meet the reserve requirements for their planned
LNG train development post-2020. For this reason, it is possible that the LNG proponents may
choose to withhold their available reserves from the domestic market in the rst few years in
order to reduce their reserve shortfall later in the study period.
The results also indicate that with the assumed LNG train development scenario, the gas
market is expected to tighten further to 2021 before unconventional gas located in the
Cooper Basin becomes available.
The modelling led IES to conclude that over the next 2 to 4 years leading up to the
commissioning of the 6 committed LNG trains, the reserve holding of the LNG proponents
would have option value in maintaining opportunities for decisions on additional LNG trains
to be made and this might lead to a reluctance to make these available to the domestic market
until/unless the option is not deemed viable. Domestic supply may become seen as more
desirable/feasible in the event of a relatively pessimistic LNG outlook.
35 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Supply modelling outcomes
In the medium growth/medium LNG scenario, Queensland CSG dominates future supply
from the commencement of LNG export in the period 2014 to 2015. By the middle of the next
decade, Victoria conventional gas supply will increase with a modest, but increasing supply
from New South Wales CSG.
When the high growth/high LNG scenario is compared with the medium growth/medium
LNG scenario, the increase in gas supply required to meet the higher demand comes from
Queensland CSG. However, when compared with the medium scenarios, the low growth/low
LNG scenario shows a decrease in supply from all sources with the exception of Cooper Basin
conventional gas.
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Qld CSG NSW CSG Cooper conventional Vic conventional
Figure 26 Gas supply by type for the medium growth/medium LNG scenario (PJ)
Source: IES (2012)
Transmission modelling outcomes
LNG is the dominant issue in the Queensland gas market moving forward. Given that
dedicated gas pipelines will be developed for these projects, gas ow impacts on existing
gas pipelines will be minimal with the exception of the SWQP/QSN, which has already
been expanded.
The modelling indicates that stage 1 of the Queensland Hunter Gas Pipeline could enter the
Queensland market in 203031, but due to the opportunity it presents to monetise gas in the
Gunnedah Basin it may enter earlier. Also, due to the established reserves in the Clarence
Moreton Basin, the modelling indicates (in all scenarios) that the Lions Way Gas Pipeline
would commence operation in the period 202324 to 202829.
Gas supply and
transmission
36 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Potential supply from the southern states
IES modelled the potential for gas supply from the southern states to support future
Queensland demand. This showed that (using the cost of supply plus pipeline costs) the
economic outcome was Queensland gas demand supplied by gas elds in Queensland and that
physical transport of gas from Victoria was not likely to be economical.
Physical constraints and the cost of transport etc. present signicant hurdles to wholesale
sales of Victorian gas in Queensland. Gas transfers would be only be considered likely if
supply costs in Victoria are substantially cheaper than Queensland CSG or if the gas price
in Queensland is substantially higher than the southern states. On this basis, signicant gas
swaps over longer timeframes would require a price differential settlement, but some small
gas swaps could potentially proceed on a net transfer basis.
37 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Market conditions
The Queensland gas market lacks liquidity with gas in short supply for new contracts
both pre- and post-2015.
This is contributing to a high level of uncertainty in the market, which is also impacted
by the uncertainties of domestic and international LNG and future gas prices.
Ramp-up gas, that previous modelling assumed would be a feature of the market prior to
the commencement of LNG export, has not materialised due to a range of management
techniques including gas swaps between LNG proponents, and storage and production
delays resulting from oods.
In the 12 months to June 2012, customers seeking a new domestic supply contract for
gas post-2015 reported a continued lack of access to basic market information (forward
prices, volumes available and potential delivery timeframes) for forward contracting.
No customer seeking domestic supply of gas reported achieving a term sheet (binding or
non-binding) for a large volume of gas. A small number of customers reported offers for
small volumes of gas for short terms.
A feature of market activity in the past 12 month has been the entrance of LNG
proponents as customers of other producers. In contrast to customers seeking domestic
supply of gas, LNG proponents have been able to access the required information and
contract for gas.
Market issues
Access to gas reserves for domestic contracting is particularly sensitive to the
development of new LNG trains prior to 2020, and this sensitivity could continue if a
signicant number of trains continued to be developed post 2020:
For the current level of 6 committed LNG trains and a further 2 trains post-2020
(8 in total), the modelling of gas reserves and ownership found that there were
available reserves throughout the 20-year study period and sufcient gas to supply
all demand, including LNG trains. Under this scenario, gas would be expected to
become available to the domestic market.
For the current level of 6 committed LNG trains and the construction of a further
2 trains prior to 2020 (8 in total), reserves level available for domestic market
contracting would be highly sensitive to, and dependent upon, on planned or above
planned reserves conversion and development rateslow reserves conversion rates and
slow development could result in a continuation of the current tight market conditions
or, in the worse case, a potential reserves shortfall.
Beyond the development of 8 LNG trains prior to 2020 (currently 6 committed plus
2 additional), reserves shortfalls would occur, with the level of shortfall proportional
to the number of additional trains developed.
Modelled gas prices fell in a wide range$6 to $12/GJ depending on the submarket
demand and oil prices. Similar to the 2011 GMR outcomes, regardless of demand, market
expectation of future gas prices continues to remain at the higher end of the range.
Implementation of the PGPLR cannot be supported based on current LNG projects that
have reached FID. However, even when these developments reach production capacity and
gas reserves might be assumed to be available in the future to the domestic market, there
is the potential for stockpiling of reserves to retain the option of developing further LNG
trains. The pace of development of LNG trains, in addition to the 6 under construction
plus a further 2 trains, will be a key issue impacting whether future domestic gas market
liquidity improves or declines further.
Market conditions, issues
and recommendations
38 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
Major industrial customers in the domestic market are effectively unable to resolve future
contracting requirements and business plans due to lack of access to future gas supply
contracting informationin market terms, the market is unable to clear.
Balance has not been achieved between large gas demand for export supply and demand
for domestic gas supply.
Industry debate on the issue appears to have become captured by the option to reserve gas
for domestic use (reservation) and the price impact for domestic gas customers as result of
connection to the international LNG market.
There are a range of potential options, ranging from regulatory intervention to market
facilitation, that could encourage market participants to achieve balanced export/domestic
market outcomes, and a wider, more informed debate is desirable.
The Gas Market Advisor cautions that if the next 12 months does not see the future domestic
supply situation improve, there could be insufcient time for development, consideration,
consultation and implementation of measures that could be implemented by government to
address a domestic supply constraint in the period 2015 to 2020.
Recommendation
The Queensland Gas Market Advisor recommends that government consider the security
of domestic gas supply and market liquidity in the planning and approval process for
development of future new LNG trains.
Recommendation
The Queensland Gas Market Advisor recommends that government undertake early work
to develop and consider measures that could be implemented in a timely manner should the
future domestic supply constraint continue.
39 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
1C Sub-commercial contingent
resources (low estimate)
2C Sub-commercial contingent
resources (best estimate)
3C Sub-commercial contingent
resources (high estimate)
1P Proved reserves
2P Proved and probable reserves
3P Proved, probable and
possible reserves
AEMO Australian Energy Market
Operator
AP&G Australian Power & Gas
APLNG Australia Pacic LNG
AUD Australian dollar
bbl United States dollars
per barrel of oil
BG British Gas Group
BTU British thermal units
CGP Carpentaria Gas Pipeline
CSG Coal seam gas
EGP Eastern Gas Pipeline
EIS Environmental impact statement
ESOO Electricity Statement of
Opportunities (AEMO)
FID Final investment decision
FOB Free on board
GJ Gigajoule
GLNG Gladstone LNG
GMR Gas Market Review
GPG Gas power generation
GRAM Gas Reserves Availability Model
GSA Gas sales agreement
GSOO Gas Statement of
Opportunities (AEMO)
HoA Heads of Agreement
IES Intelligent Energy Systems
JCC Japan Crude Cocktail/Japan
Customs-cleared Crude
LNG Liqueed natural gas
MAP Moomba to Adelaide Pipeline
MoU Memorandum of understanding
MSP Moomba to Sydney Pipeline
mmbtu Million British thermal units
MPa Megapascal
MT Megatonne
MTPA Million tonnes per annum
NEM National Electricity Market
NQGP North Queensland Gas Pipeline
PetroChina China National Petroleum
Corporation
PGPLR Prospective Gas Production
Land Reserve
PJ Petajoules
QCLNG Queensland Curtis LNG
QGP Queensland Gas Pipeline
QSN QSN Link Pipeline
RBP Roma to Brisbane Pipeline
RLMS Resource and Land
Management Services
SCER Standing Council on Energy
and Resources
STTM Short Term Trading Market
SWQP South West Queensland Pipeline
TJ/d Terajoules per day
USD United States dollar
List of shortened forms
40 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland
AEMO, see Australian Energy Market Operator, <www.aemo.com.au>.
Australian Energy Market Operator, Electricity statement of opportunities for the National
Electricity Market 2011, AEMO, available from <www.aemo.com.au>.
Australian Energy Market Operator, Gas statement of opportunities for eastern and south
eastern Australia 2011, AEMO, Melbourne, available from <www.aemo.com.au>.
Australian Energy Market Operator, Industry guide to the STTM 2011, version 3.3, AEMO,
available from <www.aemo.com.au>.
Australian Energy Market Operator, Overview of the Short Term Trading Market 2011,
version 4.2, AEMO, available from <www.aemo.com.au>.
Australian Energy Market Operator, Review of the operation and design of the Short Term
Trading Market 2012, AEMO, available from <www.aemo.com.au>.
Australian Energy Regulator, State of the energy market 2011, Australian Competition and
Consumer Commission, Canberra, available from <www.accc.gov.au>.
BP, BP energy outlook 2030, BP, London, available from <www.bp.com>.
CIGI, see Centre for International Governance Innovation, <www.cigionline.org>.
DNRW, Queenslands Petroleum: Exploration and Development Potential, Brisbane, available
from <www.mines.industry.qld.gov.au>.
EIA, see US Energy Information Administration, <www.eia.gov>.
ExxonMobil, The outlook for energy: a view to 2040, ExxonMobil, Irving, Texas, available
from <www.exxonmobil.com>.
Geoscience Australia, Oil and gas resources Australia 2010, available from <www.ga.gov.au>.
Geoscience Australia & ABARE 2010, Australian energy resource assessment, Canberra,
Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism, available from <www.abare.gov.au>.
International Energy Agency, World energy outlook 2011, OECD/IEA, Paris, available from
<www.worldenergyoutlook.org>.
Ministerial Council on Energy, Statement on principles for gas market development 2004,
MCE, Canberra, available from <www.ret.gov.au>.
SKM MMA, Gas market modelling for the Queensland 2011 Gas Market Review, available
from <www.deedi.qld.gov.au>.
Standing Council on Energy and Resources communiques available from <www.scer.gov.au>.
US Energy Information Administration, Annual energy outlook 2011, EIA, Washington DC,
available from <www.eia.gov>.
References and
further reading
41 :: 2012 Gas Market Review: Queensland