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2013 Aspen Technology, Inc.

All rights reserved



Compressor Modeling Using
Aspen HYSYS Dynamics
Glenn Dissinger, Director of Product Management
Martyn Blanchard, Global Practice Director

Engineering Collaboration Webinar Series
April 23, 2013
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Ongoing Series of Technical Webinars
Engineering Webinars for Education and Best Practices
UPCOMING WEBINARS:
April 30, 2013: Vea lo Nuevo de aspenONE Engineering V8
May 14, 2013: Melhorar o Projeto Conceitual com Modelagem e Fluxo de Trabalho
Integrado Usando Aspen Plus
May 15, 2013: Utilizing Property Data with Aspen Properties in Aspen Plus
May 22, 2013: Integrate Thermal & Mechanical Heat Exchanger Designs to Save
Time and Reduce Capital Costs
OTHER RECENT WEBINARS:
Recent webinars on many engineering topics can be viewed on-demand on
aspentech.com including:
April 2013: Modeling Solids Dryers and Granulators with Aspen Plus V8
April 2013: Optimize Specialty Chemical Processes with aspenONE Engineering
March 2013: The New Aspen HYSYS for Refining





2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

3
Common Models & Data
aspenONE Integration
Support
Manufacturing
& Supply
Chain

Conceptual
Engineering
Basic
Engineering
Detailed
Engineering
aspenONE Engineering
Industry Leading Products
Aspen Simulation
Workbook & Aspen Online
Deployment
Aspen Petroleum
Downstream & HYSYS
Upstream
Aspen Equipment
Design & Rating
Aspen Basic
Engineering
Aspen Capital
Cost Estimator
(ACCE)


Aspen Plus
Dynamics, ACM &
Flare System &
Energy Analyzer
Aspen Plus
Aspen HYSYS
Aspen Process
Economic
Analyzer (APEA)
Detailed
Engineering
Aspen Plus
Aspen HYSYS
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aspenONE Engineering V8.0
The New
HYSYS
Solids
Modeling
in Aspen
Plus
Activated
Economic
Analysis
Activated
Energy
Analysis
Integrated
Exchanger
Design
Plant Data
View
Easy To
Adopt
Reduce Time to Get Started for New & Occasional Users by 50%
Increase Engineering Productivity by 20%
Reduce Capital & Energy Costs by 10%
Increase Troubleshooting Efficiency by 20%
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

5
aspenONE Engineering V8.0
The New
HYSYS
Solids
Modeling
in Aspen
Plus
Activated
Economic
Analysis
Activated
Energy
Analysis
Integrated
Exchanger
Design
Plant Data
View
Easy To
Adopt
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

6
Compressor Modeling Using
Aspen HYSYS Dynamics
Glenn Dissinger, Director of Product Management
Martyn Blanchard, Global Practice Director


2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

7
Disclaimer
Aspen Technology may provide information regarding possible
future product developments including new products, product
features, product interfaces, integration, design, architecture,
etc. that may be represented as product roadmaps.
Any such information is for discussion purposes only and does
not constitute a commitment by Aspen Technology to do or
deliver anything in these product roadmaps or otherwise.
Any such commitment must be explicitly set forth in a written
contract between the customer and Aspen Technology,
executed by an authorized officer of each company.

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

8
Outline
Overview of HYSYS V8
Compressor Overview
Types
Whats Important to Consider
Surge
Modeling Compressors in HYSYS
Overview
Demo
Compressor Trip Case Studies
Best Practices
Customer Examples
AspenTech Global Services & Capabilities
Wrap-Up and Q&A
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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New Aspen HYSYS:
Easier to Use
Faster to Learn
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10
Multiple Views
Interactive Analysis
Environments
Streamlined Workflow & Easier Access
Easier to Learn
New Aspen HYSYS
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11
Add Pure or Hypothetical
Components from the Same Form
Properties
Environment
Workflow Oriented Ribbon -> Left to
Right
Navigation Pane to Easily
Browse Objects
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Units of
Measure
Simulation
Options
Home
Ribbon
Solver
Summary
and Reports
Analysis
Tools
Simulation
Environment
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13
Easy Navigation Pane
Status
Icons
One Dockable
Model Palette
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14
Stream Analysis Button in
Ribbon
One Click to Analyze
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15
Case Study Button in Ribbon
Drag & Drop Variables
Results in Table and Plots
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Outline
Overview of HYSYS V8
Compressor Overview
Types
Whats Important to Consider
Surge
Modeling Compressors in HYSYS
Overview
Demo
Compressor Trip Case Studies
Best Practices
Customer Examples
AspenTech Global Services & Capabilities
Wrap-Up and Q&A
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

17
Poll Question
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Compressors Three Typical Types
Centrifugal
Most common compressor
used in industry

Reciprocating Piston
Used for very high pressures
and low flow rates

Axial
Special compressor used for
very high flow rates and low
pressures
Inlet Flow
(acfm)
1
0
10
2

10
3

10
4

10
6

10
5

1
10
10
2

10
5
10
3
10
4
Discharge
Pressure
(psia)
Reciprocating
Centrifugal
Axial
Flow
Reference Compressor Handbook for the
Hydrocarbon Industries, Gulf Publishing Co., 1979
Compressors are mechanical devices commonly used to increase
the pressure of a gas and transport it through a pipeline
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Compressors Why Worry?
Design Issues
Expensive equipment
Often customized with
long lead times to
replace

Operability Issues
Very fast dynamics
Compressor trips are
costly
Compressor surge is very
hazardous
Specialized anti-surge
control systems are
common
From both a design and controllability / operability point of
view, compressors provide unique issues and challenges
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

20
What is Surge and Why is it Such a Problem?
Results
Rapid flow reversals (e.g., surge)
Rapid changes in axial thrust
High vibration
Potential damage to rotor seals
and bearings
Catastrophic equipment failures
and release of gases to
atmosphere
Surge is the point where a centrifugal compressor cannot add enough
energy to overcome the system backpressure
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

21
Outline
Overview of HYSYS V8
Compressor Overview
Types
Whats Important to Consider
Surge
Modeling Compressors in HYSYS
Overview
Demo
Compressor Trip Case Studies
Best Practices
Customer Examples
AspenTech Global Services & Capabilities
Wrap-Up and Q&A
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Two Operating Modes Centrifugal & Reciprocating
Operating
Mode
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Theory - Efficiencies
Isentropic Efficiency = ratio of isentropic
(ideal) power required for compression to
the actual power required

Efficiency(%) = (Power Required
isentropic
) /
(Power Required
actual
) x 100%

Polytropic Efficiency = Work for a
mechanically reversible (polytropic) process
W = V dP where
W = work
V = volume
dP = pressure difference

For a polytropic compression of a gas from P
1
to P
2

W = F
1
(MW) (n/(n-1)) CF (P
1
/r
1
) (P
2
/P
1
)
((n-1)/n)
- 1]

Flow (ACFM) Polytropic Efficiency (%)
Centrifugal 2000 69
5000 72
10,000 73
20,000 74
50,000 75
100,000 76
Pressure Ratio Polytropic Efficiency (%)
Reciprocating 1.5 73
2.0 79
3.0 83
5.0 85
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

24
Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curves
Typically available from the manufacturer as plots of efficiency and head vs.
flow capacity of a centrifugal compressor for one or more operating speeds
(e.g., RPM)
Head vs. Flow Capacity

Decreasing Speed
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Input for Multiple Head and Efficiency Curves
The Enable Curves
checkbox must be
clicked
One curve per speed
All curves must use
the same efficiency
definition (Adiabatic or
Polytropic)
Individual curves may
be activated or
deactivated
Remove any input
value for efficiency on
the Parameters page
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Input for Multiple Head and Efficiency Curves
Able to Add Additional Curves for Other MW Gases
Able to add performance
curves for the different
molecular weights
Compressor performance impacted by significant shifts in gas
molecular weight, particularly for low pressure compressors
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Limits
Surge Limit Lower Flow
Capacity Limit
Occurs at the upper end of head
vs. flow curve (for a given
speed) where the performance
curves tangent becomes zero

Stonewall Limit Upper Flow
Capacity Limit
Maximum flow rate for a given
speed due to the approach of
sonic flow of the gas within the
compressor
Occurs at the lower end of head
vs. flow curve (for a given
speed)
Important for capacity control,
but not as critical as surge
control

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Surge and Stonewall Curves
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Handling Inertia of Compressor Impeller &
Shaft
Used to account for frictional energy
loss associated with the impeller and
the energy required to accelerate
the rotational speed of the shaft

Key Equations

I = MR
2


E
I
= I II d/dt

E
f
= f
fric
I II

I = rotational inertia
E
I
= power to accelerate impeller
E
f
= frictional work
= rotational speed
M = mass of impeller and rotating shaft
R = radius of gyration

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

30
Surge Controller
Surge controller
attempts to maintain a
minimum flowrate
through the compressor
Surge controller takes
more aggressive action
if compressor is close to
surging
Parameters for surge
controller set on Surge
Control page on the
Parameters tab
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

31
Modeling Linked Compressors & Expanders
Used to model compressors
and expanders that are
physically connected to the
same shaft
Operate at the same
speed or a specified
gear ratio
Total Power Loss can be
specified

Notion of upstream and
downstream links is
arbitrary and determined
by the user
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Demonstration
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Outline
Overview of HYSYS V8
Compressor Overview
Types
Whats Important to Consider
Surge
Modeling Compressors in HYSYS
Overview
Demo
Compressor Best Practice & Case Studies
Best Practices
Customer Examples
AspenTech Global Services & Capabilities
Wrap-Up and Q&A
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Centrifugal & Axial Compressors Whats
Important
What power will it absorb and what mechanical design does it have?
Back to back casing designs have particular issues
Axial compressors are not very rugged
Single small wheel high pressure compressors have less issues than multi-wheel ones
Surging a 5MW compressor is very different to surging a 40MW one
What driver does it have?
Gas Turbine
Steam Turbine
Electric Motor variable speed or fixed speed
What arrangement are you looking at:
Stages in parallel, series
Multiple drivers per train or only one?
How is it controlled?
What protection is there for high or low pressures, low flows
What range of operating conditions will it be expected to cope with?
Differing gas molecular weights
Differing ambient temperatures (gas turbine driver)
Continuous recycle?
Special start-up conditions (nitrogen, de-frost gas)


2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Best Practices for Modelling Compressors
What is Needed in a Dynamic Model
Compressor dynamics
Accurate modelling of speed lines to at least minimum governed speed
(dont just assume the fan laws apply)
Inertia of all items on the string, must be related to the same speed
(watch the units used)
Driver power decay rate
Accurate capacities/holdups in all pipelines to/from compressor
Return location of the recycle or hot gas bypass line
Piping details of the recycle line, both up and down stream in case
choking occurs
Discharge volume up to the NRV after the compressor and the hot gas
bypass or recycle take-off
Valve dynamics
Size, speed of operation and characteristics of the recycle or hot gas
bypass valve
Relative timings and delays if these can be assessed
Valid Boundary Conditions

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Best Practices for Modelling Compressors
Compressor Trip Tests on the Dynamic Model
Discuss the basis for the trip tests. Possible scenarios are:
Trip from design?
Trip from the surge line just out of recycle ?
Trip at maximum power?
Depends on expected operation and possible consequences
Examine simulation results with a critical eye
First make sure you can trust them
If the trajectory isnt very smooth or there seems to be any sign of instability,
halve the sample time and repeat it. Continue to do this until there is no
discernible difference between results. If you are inexperienced in dynamics
you may want to do this in any case.
Next gather the facts from the model
How long before it enters surge (if it does)
What is the power at the time it enters?
Does the model predict recovery within a very short period (1 second or so)


2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Best Practices for Modelling Compressors
Modelling the Compressor under Surge Conditions
The only details you can rely on are the time and power of
entry into surge
No commercially available dynamic compressor model
accurately predicts behavior in surge
You may draw some tentative conclusions from the time
spent in surge according to the model
Less than 0.5 seconds on a HYSYS Dynamics model is often
unlikely to be real based on feedback from operations
Always discuss with the Compressor Vendor, in the end it is
their decision on whether action needs to be taken
Ideally surge should be totally prevented in all cases

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Best Practices for Modelling Compressors
Possible Design Changes to Avoid Surge
Minimize the discharge volume
Increase the recycle valve size (within the limits of
controllability)
Increase the speed of opening of the recycle valve
Consider a parallel cold gas bypass valve around the recycle
valve
Consider a hot gas bypass valve
Considerations such as leakage, vibration etc. often make this an
unattractive option

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Best Practices for Modelling Compressors
Modelling the Anti-Surge Control System
Surge control systems are designed to detect the imminent start of
surging, and prevent the compressor from reaching this operating
condition
Basic Strategy Open a surge recycle valve that will allow outlet flow
from the compressor to recycle back to the compressor inlet, thus
providing a flow rate through the compressor above the minimum
surge limit.
For conceptual and FEED studies, use the HYSYS Anti-Surge controller
For detailed design, there may be a need to use a proprietary system:
CCC, Dresser Rand, Man-Turbo, Solar, Triconex etc
Most of these systems use multiple control lines, linking between serial
and parallel units, surge protection by moving lines, various
characterizers, algorithm selection etc. and can be quite complex to set
up
In some cases the Vendor will provide software (at a cost) or an
emulator; in others just the algorithms are used and settings

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Challenge Solution Results Challenge
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
plant revamp design verification
Ensure compressor anti-surge
system will provide adequate
protection from the risk of
damage under all scenarios
Verify controllability of the
compressors during unit upsets,
start-up, shutdown and normal
operation scenarios
Check the start-up and
shutdown procedures for
compressors
Verify compressor systems and
equipment design conditions


Ref: Siti Rafidah Moslim, Petronas, Vikas Singh, AspenTech,
aspenONE Global Conference, Boston, May 2010
PETRONAS Malaysia LNG
Dynamic Simulation for LNG Plant Revamp
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Challenge Solution Results
PETRONAS Malaysia LNG
Dynamic Simulation for LNG Plant Revamp
Challenge
Aspen HYSYS Dynamics model
to represent actual equipment,
piping arrangements and
controls
A high fidelity emulation of CCC
controller to reproduce the
precise behavior of anti-surge
control
Torque and power characteristics
of the gas turbines to reproduce
precise conditions during start-up
and shut down
Over 45 Scenarios were
simulated and analyzed in an
iterative process using HYSYS
Event Scheduler
Ref: Siti Rafidah Moslim, Petronas, Vikas Singh, AspenTech,
aspenONE Global Conference, Boston, May 2010
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Challenge Solution Results
PETRONAS Malaysia LNG
Dynamic Simulation for LNG Plant Revamp
Challenge
Better sizing of recycle valves
and bypass valves based on all
failure scenarios compared to
steady state
Relieving loads confirmed for
various scenarios which form the
basis for key relief valve sizing
Start-up and shutdown
procedures tested in advance of
actual plant start-up



Safe Compressor
Operating Points
(outside surge line)
Final Results
(after implementing recommendations)
Ref: Siti Rafidah Moslim, Petronas, Vikas Singh, AspenTech,
aspenONE Global Conference, Boston, May 2010
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Challenge Solution Results Challenge
Compressor operation and
control critical to success of the
overall gas processing project
Customer determined that a
dynamic simulation study was
essential to verify the
performance of the compressors
and the associated control
systems

JGC Ourhoud Algeria Gas Processing Facility
Verification of Compressor Performance
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Challenge Solution Results
JGC Ourhoud Algeria Gas Processing Facility
Verification of Compressor Performance
Challenge
AspenTech Global Services commissioned
to develop a Aspen HYSYS Dynamics
model to represent actual equipment,
piping arrangements and controls
5-stage compression train
Detailed vendor (Nuovo Pignone)
compressor curves implemented
Production manifold & injection manifold
modeled to match piping holdups
Many scenarios were simulated and
analyzed covering trips, feed changes,
start-ups etc.
The project was completed to a fixed
budget and was executed within 12
weeks. This met JGC's design and
construction schedule and enabled
equipment changes to be ordered.
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Challenge Solution Results
JGC Ourhoud Algeria Gas Processing Facility
Verification of Compressor Performance
Challenge
The study revealed many aspects that
were significant to the operation and
control of the compressors, one example
below:
In the original control scheme the recycle
from the Lift Gas Compressor (LGC) was
taken downstream of the cooler. With a
large pressure drop a large Joule
Thomson effect was observed so that the
feed to the Booster Compressor (BC)
cooled and the heavy components
dropped out in the suction drum. In order
to avoid this it was recommended that
the recycle be taken upstream of the
cooler with a smaller valve on
temperature control to prevent the
suction temperature increasing too much.
This modification was subsequently
agreed, implemented and proved to work
well.



2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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Global Services Expertise
AspenTech Professional Services is organized around five
regions and four global technology practices to deploy process
and business solutions based on aspenONE products
Service Areas
Process Engineering/
Real-time Optimization
Advanced Process Control
Production Management
& Execution
Supply Chain Management

Regions
Asia Pacific (APAC)
Europe (EURA)
Middle East Africa (MENA)
North America (NORAM)
Latin America (LATAM)

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

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AspenTech has 29 office locations in 20 countries and 142 Professional
Services employees to effectively serve our customers
on a global basis. Partner locations further expand our global
delivery network.
NALA
56
EMEA
48
APAC
38
142 Total
* As of April 2013 AT office locations
Key partner locations
Service Delivery Centers
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

48
Outline
Overview of HYSYS V8
Compressor Overview
Types
Whats Important to Consider
Surge
Modeling Compressors in HYSYS
Overview
Demo
Compressor Trip Case Studies
Best Practices
Customer Examples
AspenTech Global Services & Capabilities
Wrap-Up and Q&A
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

49
aspenONE Engineering V8.0
The New
HYSYS
Solids
Modeling
in Aspen
Plus
Activated
Economic
Analysis
Activated
Energy
Analysis
Integrated
Exchanger
Design
Plant Data
View
Easy To
Adopt
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

50
Online Training at Your Fingertips
aspenONE Engineering
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51
New Online Training Courses for aspenONE Engineering V8
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52
Learn More
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53


OPTIMIZE 2013
Global Conference
Join us in Boston for the
industrys must-attend event!


OPTIMIZE 2013
6 8 May 2013
The Westin Waterfront Hotel
Boston, MA USA




For more information, visit
www.aspentech.com/agc
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

54
Optimize 2013
Global Conference
Foster Wheeler
UK


Refinery wide modeling with Aspen
HYSYS

Jord
International


Optimization of a mixed refrigerant
LNG process
Kuwait National
Petroleum
Company

Refinery energy reduction using Aspen
HYSYS
May 6-8, 2013
See these and over 50 additional presentations and training sessions
Inprocess



Reliability of Dynamic Simulation to
Reproduce Plant Dynamics

2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

55
What Next?
Get more information now
Additional resources available at:
http://www.aspentech.com/products/aspen-hysys.aspx
http://www.aspentech.com/products/aspen-hysys-dynamics.aspx
Videos also available at: www.youtube.com/user/aspentechnologyinc
Contact info for todays presenters and hosts
Glenn Dissinger glenn.dissinger@aspentech.com
Martyn Blanchard martyn.blanchard@aspentech.com
Luisa Herrmann luisa.herrmann@aspentech.com
Ron Beck ron.beck@aspentech.com
2013 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved |

56
Questions?