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The Apostle Paul’s Letter to the Romans

A Translation by A. B. Caneday

Professor of New Testament Studies & Biblical Theology

Northwestern College
Saint Paul, Minnesota
aul, a servant of Christ Jesus, wise and to the foolish I am obligated. 15
called as an apostle, having So, as for me, I am eager to preach the
been set apart for the gospel gospel also to you who are in Rome.
of God, 2 which he promised 16
For I am not ashamed of the gospel,
beforehand through his for it is God’s power for salvation to
prophets in the holy scriptures, everyone who believes, first to the Jew
concerning his Son who was born from and then to the Greek. 17 For God’s
the seed of David according to the flesh, righteousness is revealed in it from
who was appointed Son of God in faithfulness to faithfulness, just as it is
power by the resurrection from the written, “The Righteous One shall live
dead according to the Spirit of holiness, from faithfulness.”
Jesus Christ our Lord, 5 through whom
we have received grace and apostleship For God’s wrath is being revealed
for the obedience of faith among all the from heaven against all godlessness and
Gentiles on behalf of his name, 6 among unrighteousness of humans, who
whom you also are the called of Jesus suppress the truth in unrighteousness,
Christ, 7 to all the beloved who are in 19
because what is known about God is
Rome, called saints: grace to you and apparent among them, because God
peace from God our Father and the Lord made it apparent to them. 20 For his
Jesus Christ. invisible attributes, particularly his
eternal power and divine nature, have
First, I offer thanks to my God through been plainly seen from the time of
Jesus Christ concerning all of you, creation of the world in that they were
because your faith is being proclaimed understood through what has been
in the whole world. 9 For God is my made, for this reason they are without
witness (the one whom I serve in my excuse. 21 Because, even though they
spirit in the gospel of his Son) as to how knew God, they did not glorify him as
I make mention of you without ceasing, God or offer thanks, but they became
at all times in my prayers, requesting futile in their thinking and their foolish
if perhaps now at last by God’s will to heart was darkened. 22 Even though
come to you. 11 For I long to see you in they claimed to be wise, they became
order that I may impart some spiritual fools 23 and exchanged the glory of the
gift to you, that you may be established; incorruptible God for the likeness of the
that is, that I may be encouraged image of corruptible man and birds and
along with you through the faith of one beasts and reptiles.
another, both yours and mine. 13 And I
do not want you to be ignorant, Therefore God handed them over in
brothers, that I have often planned to the desires of their hearts to
come to you (and until now I have been uncleanness, in order that their bodies
prevented), in order that I may get would be dishonored among
some fruit also among you just as also themselves. For they exchanged the
among the rest of the Gentiles. 14 To truth of God for the lie and worshiped
both Greeks and to barbarians, to the and served the creature rather than the
creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. contempt on the riches of his kindness,
For this reason God handed them forbearance, and patience, because you
over to dishonorable passions–their know that God’s kindness is intended to
women exchanged the natural use of lead you to repentance? 5 But because
their bodies for that which is against of your hard and unrepentant heart you
nature, 27 and likewise the men, are storing up wrath for yourself in the
forsaking the natural use of women, day of wrath and the revelation of the
burned in their desire for one another– righteous judgment of God, 6 who will
men committed with one another that render to everyone according to his
which is shameless and they received in deeds. 7 To those who by persevering in
themselves the proper penalty for their a good work seek glory and honor and
error. incorruptibility, he will return eternal
life. 8 But upon those who act out of
And just as they did not think God was selfish ambition and who disobey the
worthy to be known, God handed them truth and instead submit to
over to a reprobate mind, in order that unrighteousness, he will return wrath
they might do things that are not fitting, and anger. 9 Tribulation and distress
being filled with all kinds of upon every soul of mankind who brings
unrighteousness, wickedness, to completion what is evil, both upon
covetousness, malice. They are full of the Jew first and also upon the Greek, 10
envy, murder, strife, deceit, and ill-will. but glory and honor and peace to
They are gossips, 30 slanderers, haters of everyone who accomplishes what is
God, insolent, arrogant, braggarts, good, both to the Jew first and also to
inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, the Greek. 11 For there is no prejudice
senseless, faithless, loveless, and with God.
merciless. 32 Although they know God’s
righteous requirement that those who For as many as have sinned without
practice such things are deserving of the Law, also will perish without the
death, they not only do these things, Law; and as many as have sinned within
but also they give their approval to the Law, shall be judged through the
those who practice them. Law. 13 For not the hearers of the Law
are righteous before God, but the doers

2 Therefore you are without excuse,

O man, everyone who condemns;
for in that for which you condemn
of the Law shall be declared righteous.
For when the Gentiles who by nature
do not have the Law do the things
another, you condemn yourself, for you required by the Law, these who do not
who condemn practice the same things. have the Law are a Law to themselves,
2 15
And we know that God’s judgment is in that they show the work required
according to the truth, against those by the Law written in their hearts, with
who practice such things. 3 But do you their conscience testifying, and their
suppose, O man who condemns those thoughts now accusing and now
who practice such things while doing defending them, 16 in the day when God
the same things, that you will escape shall judge the secrets of humans
the judgment of God? 4 Or, do you pour according to my gospel, through Christ

But if you call yourself a “Jew” and
3 Therefore, what advantage has the
Jew? Or what is the benefit of
circumcision? 2 Much in every
you rely upon the Law and boast in God respect! First of all, indeed they are
and know his desire and approve the entrusted with the oracles of God.
things that are excellent, because you For what? If some were unfaithful,
have been instructed from the Law; does their unfaithfulness nullify God’s
and if you are confident that you faithfulness? 4 No way! Let God be
yourself are a guide to the blind, a light found true, but every man is found a
to those who are in darkness, 20 an liar, just as it is written, “That you might
instructor of the foolish, a teacher of be justified in your words and might
babes, because you have the outward prevail when you judge.”
form of knowledge and truth in the Law;
21 5
you, therefore, who teach others, do But if our unrighteousness brings out
you not teach yourself? You who preach more clearly God’s righteousness, what
not to steal, do you steal? 22 You who shall we say? Is God who inflicts wrath
speak against adultery, do you commit unrighteous? (I speak in human terms.)
adultery? You who detest idols, but do No way! Otherwise, how would God
you rob the temples of idols? 23 You judge the world? 7 But if God’s
who boast in the Law, through your truthfulness by my falsehood abounds
transgression of the Law, you dishonor unto his glory, why am I still condemned
God. 24 For “the name of God is as a sinner? 8 And why do we not say (as
blasphemed among the Gentiles on we are slanderously accused and as
account of you,” just as it is written. some claim we say), “Let us do evil that
good may come?” Their condemnation
For indeed circumcision yields profit, is right.
if you practice the Law. But if you are a
transgressor of the Law, your circum- What, then, should we say? Do we
cision has become the foreskin. have an advantage over them? No way!
Therefore if the man with the foreskin For we have previously charged
keeps the righteous requirements of the everyone, both Jew and Greek, to be
Law, will not his foreskin be reckoned under sin, 10 just as it is written, “There
for circumcision? 27 And the one who by is no one righteous, not one. 11 There is
nature has the foreskin but who fulfills no one who understands. There is no
the Law will condemn you, the one who seeks God. 12 Everyone has
transgressor of the Law, though you turned aside. Together they have
have both the letter and circumcision. become useless. There is no one who
For it is not the Jew on display nor the does good. There is not one.” 13 “Their
circumcision on display in the flesh, throat is an open grave. They deceive
but the Jew in secret, and the with their tongues.” “The poison of
circumcision of the heart by the Spirit, asps is under their lips.” 14 “Their
not by the letter who receives praise mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.”
not from men but from God. “Their feet are swift to shed blood. 16
They leave destruction and misery in

their paths. 17 They do not know the faithfulness. 29 Or is God the God of the
way of peace.” 18 “God’s fearfulness is Jews alone? Is he not the God of the
not before their eyes.” Gentiles also? Yes, he is God of the
Gentiles also, 28 since God is one who
And we know that whatever the Law will declare righteous the circumcised
says it says to those who are in the from faithfulness and the one with the
Law’s jurisdiction, in order that every foreskin through the same faithfulness.
mouth may be stopped and all the Therefore, do we nullify the law
world may be liable to judgment by through this faithfulness? No way!
God. 20 For on the basis of deeds Rather, we establish the law.
required by the Law no flesh shall be
declared righteous, for through the Law
comes knowledge of sin.
4 What then shall we say? Have we
found Abraham to be our
forefather according to the flesh? 2
But now apart from the Law God’s For if Abraham was declared righteous
righteousness has been disclosed, on the basis of deeds he has a ground
though being testified to by the Law and for boasting, but not with God. 3 For
the Prophets, even God’s what does scripture say? “Abraham
righteousness disclosed through Jesus believed God, and it was reckoned to
Christ’s faithfulness unto all who him for righteousness.” 4 But to the one
believe. For there is no distinction, 23 for who works, the wage is not reckoned
all sinned and persist in falling short of according to grace but according to
God’s glory, 24 being freely declared debt. 5 But to the one who does not
righteous by his grace through the work but believes upon him who
redemption which is in Christ Jesus, 25 declares the ungodly to be righteous,
whom God publicly set forth as that one’s faith is reckoned for
propitiation through the faithfulness righteousness, 6 just as also David says
which is in his blood for the purpose of concerning the blessing of the man to
demonstrating his righteousness whom God reckons righteousness apart
because of God’s forbearance in passing from deeds. “Blessed are those whose
over sins that were previously Lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose
committed, 26 for the demonstration of sins are covered. Blessed is the man
his righteousness in the present time, whose sins the Lord will not reckon
that he might be both righteous and the against him.”
one who declares righteous the one
who is of the faithfulness of Jesus. This blessing, therefore, does it rest
upon the circumcised or upon those
Where then is boasting? It is with the foreskin also? For we say,
excluded. Through what law? Is it “Faith was reckoned to Abraham for
excluded through the law that requires righteousness.” 10 How then was it
deeds? No! It is excluded through the reckoned? Was it reckoned to him in the
law of faithfulness. 28 For we consider a condition of circumcision or with the
man apart from deeds required by the foreskin? It was certainly not in
law to be declared righteous by circumcision but with the foreskin.

And he received the sign of dead, since it was nearly one hundred
circumcision as a seal of the years old, and the deadness of Sarah’s
righteousness of faithfulness which was womb. 20 But he did not doubt because
his though with the foreskin, that he of unfaithfulness but he grew strong in
might be the father of all who believe faith, by giving glory to God 21 and by
through the foreskin, that righteousness being fully assured that what God
might also be reckoned to them 12 and promised he was also able to
that he might be the father of the accomplish. 22 Therefore also “it was
circumcised, who are not of the reckoned to him for righteousness.”
circumcision alone but also are ones But “it was reckoned to him” was not
who walk in the steps of the faith our written for him alone 24 but also for us,
father Abraham had while yet with the to those who will be reckoned, that is to
foreskin. those who believe upon the one who
raised our Lord Jesus from the dead.
13 25
For the promise to Abraham and to Who was delivered up on account of
his seed did not come through the our trespasses and was raised on
Law—the promise that he was heir of account of our being declared
the world—but through the righteousness.
righteousness of faithfulness. 14 For if
the heirs are from the Law, then this
faithfulness is made void and this
promise is nullified. 15 For the Law
5 Therefore, since we have been
declared righteous from
faithfulness, we have peace with
brings wrath to completion. But where God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
the Law is not, there is no transgression. through whom we also have access by
On account of this the promised the same faithfulness into this grace in
inheritance is from faithfulness, in order which we stand, and we boast in hope
that it might be according to grace, for of God’s glory. 3 And not only this, but
the purpose that the promise might be we also boast in our afflictions, because
confirmed to all the seed, not only to we know that affliction brings to
those who are of the Law but also to completion perseverance, 4 likewise
those who are of Abraham’s faith, who perseverance brings to completion
is the father of us all, 17 just as it is tested character, and tested character
written “I have appointed you to be the yields hope. 5 And this hope does not
father of many nations” in the sight of put us to shame, because God’s love has
him whom he believed, namely God been poured out into our hearts
who gives life to the dead and calls non- through the Holy Spirit who was given
existing things into existence. 18 Who to us.
against hope believed on the evidence
of hope, in order that he would become For while we were still morally weak,
the father of many nations in at the proper time, Christ died for the
accordance with what was spoken, “So ungodly. 7 For one will seldom die for a
shall your seed be.” 19 And he did not righteous person, although for a good
weaken in faith when he considered his person one might dare even to die. 8 But
own body, which was already as good as God demonstrates his own love for us,

in that Christ died for us while we were transgression of one man brought
still sinners. 9 Much more, then, since condemnation to all, so also by the one
we now have been declared righteous man’s act of righteousness came the
by his blood we shall be saved from righteousness of life for all humanity. 19
wrath through him. 10 For while we For just as through the disobedience of
were enemies, we were reconciled to the one man the many were made
God through the death of his Son, much sinners, so also through the obedience
more, since we have been reconciled, of the one man the many shall be made
we shall be saved by his life. 11 And not righteous.
only this, but we are boasting in God
through our Lord Jesus Christ, through Now the Law came in with the
whom we now have received purpose that transgression might
reconciliation. increase; but where sin increased, grace
increased all the more, 21 in order that
Because of this, just as through one as sin reigned in death, so also grace
man sin came into the world and death might reign through righteousness unto
came through sin, and so death spread eternal life through Jesus Christ our
to all people, by which all sinned. 13 For Lord.
until the Law, sin was in the world. But
sin is not reckoned when there is no
Law. 14 But death reigned from Adam
until Moses, even over those who did
6 What shall we say, then? Shall we
persist in sin, in order that grace
might increase? 2 No way!
not sin in the likeness of Adam’s Whoever among us died to sin, how can
transgression, who is a type of the one we still live in it any longer? 3 Or are you
to come. ignorant that as many as were baptized
into Christ Jesus were baptized into his
But is not the transgression like the death? 4 Therefore, we were buried
gift? Indeed, for if by the transgression together with him through this baptism
of one the many died, how much more into death, in order that just as Christ
God’s grace and the gift in grace that is was raised from the dead through the
from the one man Jesus Christ has glory of the Father, so also we, let us
abounded for the many. 16 And is not walk in newness of life. 5 For if we have
the result of the gift like that which been joined together in the likeness of
resulted from the one who sinned? his death, we shall also be joined with
Indeed, for the judgment from one sin him in the likeness of his resurrection.
resulted in condemnation, but the gift For we know this, that our old man
came from many transgressions, was crucified together with him, in
resulting in righteousness. 17 For if death order that the body of sin should be
by the transgression of the one reigned abolished, that we should no longer be
through the one man, much more those enslaved to sin; 7 for the one who died
who receive the abundance of grace has been vindicated from sin. 8 Now if
and the gift of righteousness will reign we have died with Christ, we believe
in life through the one man, Jesus that we shall also live together with
Christ. 18 Therefore, then, as the him, 9 because we know that Christ,

because he was raised from the dead, things is death. 22 But now having been
no longer dies. 10 For the death he died set free from sin and having been
he died to sin once for all time; and the enslaved to God, you have your fruit
life he lives he lives to God. 11 Likewise, unto holiness, and its goal is life eternal.
you also consider yourselves to be dead For the wages of sin is death, but the
to sin but alive to God in Christ Jesus. gift of God is life eternal in Christ Jesus
our Lord.
Therefore, do not let sin have
dominion in your mortal bodies unto
the obedience of its cravings. 13 Nor
present your members to sin as tools for
7 Or do you not know, my brothers
(for I am speaking to those who
know the Law), that the Law rules
unrighteousness, but present yourselves over a man for as long as he lives? 2 For
to God as ones who are alive from the the married woman is bound by the Law
dead, and present your members to to her husband while he lives. But if her
God as tools for righteousness. 14 For sin husband dies, she is released from the
shall not rule over you, for you are not Law concerning her husband.
under the Law but under grace. Therefore, then, while her husband is
living she shall be called an adulteress, if
What then? Shall we sin because we she marries another man. But if her
are not under the Law but under grace? husband dies, she is free from the Law,
No way! 16 Do you not understand that so that she will not be an adulteress,
the one to whom you present even if she marries another man. 4 So
yourselves as slaves to obedience, you then, my brothers, you also died to the
are slaves of the one whom you obey, Law through the body of Christ, so that
either of sin leading to death, or of you could be married to another,
obedience leading to righteousness? 17 namely to the one who was raised from
But thanks be to God that although you the dead, in order that we would bear
were slaves of sin, from the heart you fruit to God. 5 For when we were in the
became obedient to the pattern of flesh, sin’s passions were stimulated in
teaching unto which you were handed our members through the Law, so that
over, 18 and having been set free from we bore fruit for death. 6 But now we
sin, you were enslaved to righteousness. have been released from the Law, dying
(I am speaking humanly on account of to that by which we were bound, so that
the weakness of your flesh.) For just as we serve in the newness of the Spirit
you presented your members as slaves and not in the oldness of the letter.
to uncleanness and to Lawlessness
leading to Lawlessness, in the same way What shall we say, therefore? Is the
now present your members as slaves to Law sin? No way! On the contrary, I
righteousness leading to holiness. 20 For would not have come to know sin
when you were slaves of sin, you were except through the Law. For I would not
free with regard to righteousness. have known coveting if the Law had not
What fruit, therefore, did you reap said, “You shall not covet.” 8 And sin,
then, from the things of which you are seizing the opportunity through the
now ashamed? For the goal of those commandment, brought about in me

coveting of every kind; for apart from am! Who will deliver me from this body
the Law sin is dead. 9 And formerly I was of death? 25 Thanks be to God through
alive apart from the Law. But when the Jesus Christ our Lord. Therefore, then, I
commandment came, sin sprang to life, in my mind am serving the Law of God,
and I died and found that the but in my flesh I am serving the Law of
commandment that was to lead to life, sin.
this same commandment led to death.

For sin, seizing the opportunity Therefore, now there is no
through the commandment, deceived condemnation to those who are in
me and through it killed me. 12 So then, Christ Jesus. 2 For the Law of the
the Law is holy and the commandment Spirit of life in Christ Jesus freed you
is holy and righteous and good. 13 Did from the Law of sin and of death. 3 For
the good thing, therefore, become a that which the Law could not do, in that
cause of death to me? No way! On the it was powerless through the flesh, God
contrary sin, in order that it might be did by sending his Son in the likeness of
disclosed to be sin, through the good sinful flesh and concerning sin he
thing brought about death, in order that condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order
sin should become exceedingly sinful that the righteous requirements of the
through the commandment. Law may be fulfilled in us, in us who do
not walk according to the flesh but
For we know that the Law is spiritual. according to the Spirit. 5 For those who
But I am fleshly, sold under sin. 15 For exist according to the flesh think on the
that which I am accomplishing, I do not things of the flesh, but those who exist
understand. For I am not practicing according to the Spirit think on the
what I desire to do; but the thing I hate, things of the Spirit. 6 For the mind that is
this is what I do. 16 But if I am doing fixed upon the flesh terminates in
what I do not want to, then I agree with death, but the mind that is fixed upon
the Law that it is good. 17 But now I am the Spirit results in life and peace. 7 For
no longer carrying it out, but it is sin the mind set upon the flesh is at enmity
which dwells in me. 18 For I know that with God, for it is not subject to the Law
nothing good dwells in me, that is in my of God, neither is it able to be. 8 And
flesh. For to desire is present in me, but those who are in the flesh are not able
I am not able to carry out the good. 20 to please God. 9 But you are not in the
But if I am doing that which I do not flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit
want to do, then I am no longer doing it of God dwells in you. And if someone
but sin dwelling in me is carrying it out. does not have the Spirit of Christ, that
Therefore, I discover the Law: when I one does not belong to him. 10 But if
desire to do the good, evil is present Christ is in you, the body is dead on
with me. 22 For I agree with the Law of account of sin, yet the Spirit is life on
God according to the inner man. 23 But I account of righteousness. 11 But if the
see another Law in my members waging Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from
war with the Law of my mind and taking the dead dwells in you, then the one
me captive by the Law of sin that is in who raised Christ from the dead will
my members. 24 Wretched man that I give life also to your mortal bodies

through his Spirit who is in you. we expectantly wait for it through
Therefore, then, brothers and sisters
we are under obligation but not to the Likewise also the Spirit assists our
flesh that we should live according to it, weakness. For we do not know what to
for if you live according to the flesh, pray for as we should, but the Spirit
you will die; but if by the Spirit you put intercedes for us with groans that
to death the deeds of the body you will cannot be spoken. 27 And the one who
live. 14 For as many as are led by the searches the hearts knows what the
Spirit of God, these are sons of God. Spirit’s intention is, because he
For you have not received the Spirit of intercedes for the saints in keeping with
slavery leading again to terror, but you God’s purpose. 28 And we know that for
received the Spirit of adoption in which those who love God, all things work
we cry out, “Abba, Father!” 16 The Spirit together for good, to those who are
himself testifies with our spirit that we called according to his purpose.
are children of God. 17 Now if we are 29
Because those whom he foreknew, he
children, we are also heirs, heirs of God also predestined to be conformed into
and fellow-heirs with Christ, if indeed the image of his Son, in order that he
we suffer together with him, in order should be the firstborn among many
that we should also be glorified brothers. 30 And those whom he
together with him. predestined, these also he called; and
those whom he called, these also he
For I consider that the sufferings of justified. And those whom he justified,
the present time are not worthy to be these also he glorified.
compared to the glory that shall be
revealed in us. 19 For the eager longing 31
What then shall we say to these
of the creation waits expectantly for the things? If God is for us, who is against
revelation of God’s sons. 20 For the us? 32 For since he did not spare his own
creation is subjected to futility, not of its Son, but handed him over for us all, how
own choice, but on account of the shall he not also with him graciously
choice of the one who subjected it in give us all things? 33 Who shall bring an
hope 21 that the creation itself will be accusation against God’s elect? God is
set free from the slavery resulting from the one who justifies. 34 Who shall
corruption unto the freedom of the condemn us? Christ Jesus is the one
glory of God’s children. 22 For we know who died, and even more has been
that the whole creation groans together raised, who is also at the right hand of
and suffers birth pangs together until God, who also intercedes for us. 35 Who
now. 23 And not only this, but we also shall separate us from Christ’s love?
groan in ourselves, while we wait for Shall affliction or distress or persecution
the adoption, the redemption of our or famine or nakedness or danger or the
bodies. 24 For we have been saved in sword? 36 Just as it is written, “For your
hope. But hope that is seen is not hope. sake we suffer death all day long; we
For who hopes for what one sees? 25 But are considered as sheep to be
if we hope for that which we do not see, slaughtered.” 37 But in all these things

we decisively conquer through him who said to her, “The older shall serve the
loves us. 38 For I am persuaded that younger.” 13 Just as it is written, “I loved
neither death nor life nor angels nor Jacob, but I hated Esau.”
rulers nor the present nor things to
come nor powers 39 nor height nor 14
What, then, shall we say? There is no
depth nor any other created thing shall injustice with God, is there? No way!
be able to separate us from the love of For he says to Moses, “I will have
God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. mercy on whomever I have mercy, and
I will have compassion on whomever I

9 I am speaking the truth in Christ. I

am not lying, as my conscience
bears witness to me in the Holy
have compassion.” 16 Therefore, then, it
is not based upon the one who desires
nor based upon the one who runs but it
Spirit 2 that there is great grief and is based upon God who shows mercy. 17
unceasing pain in my heart. 3 For I For the scripture says to Pharaoh, “For
almost wish that I myself were accursed this very purpose I raised you up in
from Christ on behalf of my brothers, order that I might show in you my
my kinsmen according to the flesh, power and in order that my name
who are Israelites, to whom belong the should be proclaimed in all the earth.”
adoption and the glory and the Therefore, then, he has mercy upon
covenants and the giving of the Law and whom he desires, and he hardens whom
the priestly service and the promises, 5 he desires.
to whom belong the fathers and from
whom is the Christ according to the You will reply to me, therefore, “Why
flesh, the God who is over all things, does he still find fault? For who has
blessed forever. Amen. thwarted his will? 20 O man, on the
contrary, who are you to answer back to
But it is not that God’s word has failed. God? The thing formed will not say to
For it is not all who belong to Israel, the one who formed it, “Why do you
who are Israel. 7 Nor is it that all the make me this way?” Will it? 21 Or does
children are the seed of Abraham, but in not the potter have authority over the
Isaac your seed shall be called. 8 That is, clay to make from the same lump on the
the children of the flesh, these are not one hand that which is a vessel for
the children of God, but the children of honor and on the other hand that which
the promise are reckoned as seed. 9 For is a vessel for dishonor? 22 What if God,
this is the word of promise, “At this desiring to display his wrath and to
time I will come and Sarah shall have a make known his power, has borne with
son.” 10 And this case is not alone, but much patience vessels of wrath
Rebecca also, when she conceived from prepared for destruction, 23 even in
one man, Isaac our father, 11 for though order that he might make known the
her sons were not yet born and had not wealth of his glory upon vessels of
done anything good or evil, in order that mercy which he prepared beforehand
God’s electing purpose might endure– for glory?
not upon the basis of works but upon
the basis of the one who calls–it was Whom he also called, namely us, not

only from the Jews but also from the For Christ is the end of the Law for
Gentiles, 25 as also he says by Hosea, “I righteousness to every believer.
will call those who were not my people
‘My people” and those who are not For Moses writes about the
beloved ‘Beloved.’ 26 And it shall be in righteousness that is from the Law, that
the place where it was said to them, “the one who does these things shall
‘You are not my people,’ there they live by them.” 6 But the righteousness
shall be called sons of the living God.” that is from faithfulness speaks this way,
And Isaiah cried out concerning Israel, “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will
“Even if the number of Israel’s sons are ascend into heaven?’” That is, to bring
as the sands of the sea, it is the Christ down. 7 “Nor say, ‘Who will
remnant that shall be saved. 28 For the descend to the abyss?’” That is, to raise
Lord will decisively accomplish his Christ from the dead. 8 But what does it
word upon the earth.” 29 And just as say? “The word is near you, in your
Isaiah foretold, “Except the Lord of mouth and in your heart,” that is, the
hosts had left us a seed, we would have word of this faithfulness which we are
become as Sodom and we would have preaching. 9 For if you confess with your
appeared like Gomorrah.” mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in
your heart that God raised him from the
What, then, shall we say? That the dead, you will be saved. 10 For with the
Gentiles, who did not pursue heart he is believed unto righteousness,
righteousness attained righteousness, and with the mouth he is confessed
even the righteousness which is based unto salvation. 11 For the scripture says,
upon faithfulness, 31 but Israel, pursuing “Everyone who believes upon him shall
the Law of righteousness did not attain not be put to shame.” 12 For there is no
it. 32 Because of what? 33 Because they distinction between Jew and Greek, for
did so, not on the basis of faithfulness the same Lord is Lord of all, wealthy for
but as on the basis of works. They everyone who calls upon him. 13 For
stumble upon the stone of stumbling, “everyone who calls upon the name of
just as it is written, “Behold I am the Lord shall be saved.”
laying in Zion a stone of stumbling and How, then, shall they call upon him in
a rock of offense, and the one who whom they have not believed? And how
believes upon him will not be put to shall they believe in him whom they
shame.” have not heard? And how shall they
hear without someone preaching to

10 Brothers, the desire of my

heart and my petition to God
for them is for salvation. 2 For
them? 15 And how shall they preach
except they be sent? Just as it is written,
“How beautiful are the feet of those
I testify about them that they have a who proclaim good news!” 16 But not all
zeal for God but not in keeping with have obeyed the gospel, for Isaiah says,
knowledge. 3 For not acknowledging “Lord, who has believed our message?”
God’s righteousness, and seeking to Thus, faith comes from what is heard,
establish their own righteousness, they and what is heard comes through the
did not submit to God’s righteousness. word about Christ. 18 But I say, they

[Israel] certainly heard the gospel, didn’t hear, until this very day.” 9 And David
they? Indeed they have, “their voice says, “May their table become a snare
went out to the whole earth, and their and a trap, even a stumbling block and
words to the ends of the inhabited a repayment to them. 10 May their eyes
world.” 19 But I say, “Did not Israel be darkened that they might not see
know?” First Moses says, “I will provoke and their backs be bent continually.”
you to jealousy by that which is not a
nation; by a nation without I ask, therefore, Did they stumble so
understanding I will make you angry.” that they fell permanently? No way! But
And Isaiah is more bold and says, “I by means of their transgression
will be found by those who do not seek salvation has come to the Gentiles in
me, I will disclose myself to those who order to provoke Israel to jealousy. 12
are not inquiring after me.” 21 But as for And if their transgression is wealth for
Israel he says, “All day long I have the world and if their loss is wealth for
stretched out my hands to people who the Gentiles, how much more shall be
are disobedient and obstinate.” their fullness. 13 But I am speaking to
you Gentiles. Insofar as I am an apostle

11 I say then, God has not

rejected his people, has he?
No way! For I also am of the
of the Gentiles, I glorify my ministry, 14 if
somehow I should provoke my flesh and
I should save some of them. 15 For if
seed of Abraham, of the tribe of their rejection is reconciliation of the
Benjamin. 2 God has not forsaken his world, what is their reconciliation
people whom he foreknew. Or do you except life from the dead? And if the
not know what the scripture says in the firstfruits are holy, so also the lump, and
Elijah text, how he intercedes with God if the root is holy so also the branches.
against Israel? 3 “Lord, they have killed
your prophets, torn down your altars, But if some of the branches were
and I alone am left and they are broken off, and you being a wild olive
seeking my life.” 4 But what is the divine tree were grafted in among them and
answer to him? “I have left to myself you are a partaker of the rich root of the
seven thousand men who have not olive tree, 18 then do not boast over the
bowed the knee to Baal.” 5 So also, branches. And if you do boast, you do
therefore, in the present time there is a not support the root but the root
remnant according to grace. 6 And if it is supports you. 19 You will say then,
by grace, then it is no longer on the “Branches were broken off in order that
basis of works. Otherwise grace is no I might be grafted in.” 20 Well said.
longer grace. Because of unfaithfulness they were
broken off, but you stand by means of
What therefore? That which Israel faithfulness. Do not think in a haughty
sought after, it did not obtain; but way, but fear. 21 For if God did not spare
election obtained it. And the rest were the natural branches, neither will he
hardened, 8 just as it is written, “God spare you. 22 Behold, therefore, God’s
gave to them a spirit of stupor, eyes kindness and God’s severity–upon those
that do not see and ears that do not who have fallen, severity, but upon you,

God’s kindness, if you persevere in his has known the mind of the Lord? Or
kindness; if not you also will be cut off. who has become his counselor? 35 Or
And those, if they do not persist in who has given anything to him
unfaithfulness, shall be grafted in. For beforehand that it should be repaid to
God is able to graft them in again. 24 For him? 36 Because from him and through
if you were cut off from the natural wild him and unto him are all things. To him
olive tree, and you were grafted into the be the glory forever. Amen.
cultivated olive tree contrary to nature,
how much more shall those who belong
to it naturally be grafted into their own
olive tree?
12 I admonish you, therefore,
through the mercies of God to
present your bodies as a living
For I do not desire you to be ignorant, sacrifice, holy, well pleasing to God,
brothers, concerning this mystery, lest which is your reasonable service. 2 And
you be wise in your own assessment, do not be conformed to this age, but be
that a hardening of part came to Israel transformed by the renewal of the mind
until the fullness of the Gentiles enters that you might approve what God’s will
in. 26 And in this manner all Israel will be is–good and well pleasing and perfect.
saved, just as it is written, “The
deliverer shall come from Zion and will For through the grace which was given
turn back ungodliness from Jacob. 27 to me, I say to every one who is among
And this will be my covenant with you, do not think too highly of
them, whenever I take away their yourselves, but think soberly, as God
sins.” has apportioned to each one a measure
of faith. 4 For just as in one body we
According to the gospel, they are have many members, and all the
enemies on account of you, but members do not have the same
according to election, they are beloved function, 5 so also we who are many are
on account of the fathers, 29 for the gifts one body in Christ, but individually we
and the calling of God are irrevocable. are members of one another. 6 And
For just as you were once disobedient because we have different gifts
to God, but now you have been shown according to the grace which is given to
mercy by means of their disobedience, us—if it is prophecy, prophesy in
so also these now have become keeping with the gift of faith; 7 if it is
disobedient with reference to your serving, do so in serving; if one teaches,
receipt of mercy, in order that also they do so in teaching; 8 if one exhorts, do so
may now be shown mercy. 32 For God in exhortation; the one who gives
has shut up all unto disobedience, in generously should do so in generosity;
order that he might have mercy upon the one who leads should lead
all. diligently, and the one who shows
mercy should do so cheerfully.
O the depth of the wealth, both of the
wisdom and knowledge of God! How Love must be genuine. Hate what is
unsearchable his judgments and how evil; cleave to what is good. 10 Have
untraceable are his ways! 34 For who tender family affection for one another

in brotherly love. In honor give does not bear the sword in vain. For it is
preference to one another. 11 Do not be God’s servant, an avenger for wrath to
lagging in diligence, but be fervent in the one who practices evil. 5 Therefore
the Spirit, serving the Lord. 12 Rejoice in it is necessary to submit not only on
hope. Persevere in affliction. Be account of wrath, but also on account of
devoted to prayer. 13 Provide for the conscience. 6 For on account of this also
needs of the saints. Pursue hospitality. you pay taxes. For they are God’s
Bless those who persecute you; bless ministers, devoting themselves to this
and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those very thing. 7 Pay to all what is owed
who rejoice; weep with those who them–tax to whom tax is due, custom to
weep. 16 Be of the same mind with one whom custom is due, fear to whom fear
another. Do not be haughty, but is due, honor to whom honor is
associate with the lowly. Do not be wise due.8 Owe no one anything except to
in your own estimation. love one another. For the one who loves
another has fulfilled the Law. 9 For the
Do not pay back evil for evil to commandments, “You shall not commit
anyone. Think beforehand what is good adultery, you shall not murder, you
in the sight of all men. 18 If it is possible shall not steal, you shall not covet,”
as far as it depends upon you, be at and if there is any other commandment,
peace with all men. 19 Do not avenge it is fulfilled in this word, “You shall love
yourselves, beloved ones, but give place your neighbor as yourself.” 10 Love does
to wrath, for it is written, “Vengeance is no evil to one’s neighbor. Love,
mine. I will repay,” says the Lord. 20 But therefore, fulfills the Law.
“if your enemy is hungry, feed him. If
he is thirsty, give him something to And do this, understanding the time,
drink. For by doing this you will heap because the hour is already here for you
coals of fire upon his head.” 21 Do not to be awakened from sleep. For now
be conquered by evil, but conquer evil salvation is nearer to us than when we
with the good. began to believe. 12 The night is almost
spent, and the day has drawn near.

13 Everyone should be subject to

the ruling authorities. For
there is no authority except by
Therefore let us put aside the works of
darkness, and let us put on the armor of
light. 13 Let us walk as in the day, not in
God, and those authorities that do exist drinking bouts and drunkenness, not in
are ordained by God. 2 So then, the one sexual sin and sensuality, not in strife
who resists authority resists the and jealousy. 14 But put on the Lord
ordinance of God, and those who resist Jesus Christ and do not make provision
shall receive judgment on themselves. for the flesh for its cravings.
For rulers are not a cause of terror for
the good work but for the evil. Do you
desire not to dread the authority? Do
good, and you will have praise from the
14 Now accept the one who is
weak in faith, not for the
purpose of disputing about his
same. 4 For it is God’s servant to you for scruples. 2 On the one hand, a person
good, but if you do evil, be afraid. For it believes in eating anything, but on the

other hand one who is weak eats “common” in itself, except to the one
vegetables only. 3 Let neither the one who reasons that something is
who eats despise the one who does not “common.” To that one it is “common.”
eat, nor the one who does not eat For if your brother is grieved on
condemn the one who eats. For God has account of food, you are no longer
accepted this one. 4 Who are you that walking according to love. Do not
judge another’s servant? Before his own destroy one for whom Christ died for
Lord he stands or falls, and he shall the sake of food. 16 Therefore, do not
stand, for the Lord is able to make him allow your good thing to be
stand. 5 One the one hand one person blasphemed. 17 For the kingdom of God
judges one day above another day, but is not eating and drinking but
on the other hand another person righteousness and peace and joy in the
judges every day as the same. Let each Holy Spirit. 18 For the one who serves
one be fully convinced in one’s own Christ in this is well pleasing to God and
mind. 6 The one who takes note of a approved by all men. 19 Therefore, then,
day, takes note of it to the Lord. And the let us pursue the things that make for
one who eats, eats to the Lord, for he peace and the things that work for
gives thanks to God. And the one who edification of one another. 20 Do not
does not eat, does not eat to the Lord, destroy the work of God for the sake of
yet he gives thanks to God. 7 For not food. All things are clean, but they are
one of us lives to oneself and not one of evil to the man who eats by reason of a
us dies to oneself. 8 For if we live, we cause for stumbling. 21 It is good not to
live to the Lord; if we die, we die to the eat meat nor to drink wine nor do
Lord. Therefore, if we live or if we die, anything by which your brother
we are the Lord’s. 9 For unto this end stumbles. 22 You, the faith that you
Christ died and came to life again, in have, have it as your own before God.
order that he might be Lord of both the Blessed is the one who does not
dead and the living. 10 Now then why do condemn himself in that which he
you judge your brother? Or also, why do approves. 23 But the one who doubts is
you despise your brother? For we all condemned, if he eats, because it is not
shall stand before the judgment seat of from faith. And everything that is not
God, 11 for it is written, “‘As I live,’ says from faith is sin.
the Lord, ‘every knee will bow to me
and every tongue shall confess to
God.’” 12 Therefore, then, each of us
shall give an account concerning oneself
15 Now we who are strong ought
to bear the weaknesses of
those who are without
to God. strength and not to please ourselves. 2
Each of us should please one’s neighbor,
Therefore, let us no longer pass unto good, for edification. 3 For even
judgment against one another. But Christ did not please himself, but just as
rather pass judgment on this, not to put it is written, “The reproaches of those
an obstacle or a stumbling block before who reproach me have fallen upon
a brother. 14 I know and am persuaded me.” 4 For as many things as were
in the Lord Jesus that nothing is written in advance were written for our

instruction, in order that through Christ Jesus unto the Gentiles, that is
perseverance and through the performing the priestly function
consolation of scripture we should have concerning the gospel of God, in order
hope. 5 Now may the God of that the offering of the Gentiles might
perseverance and of consolation grant be an acceptable, made holy by the Holy
to you to be of one mind with one Spirit.
another in keeping with Christ Jesus, 6 in
order that with one accord by one Therefore I have this boast in Christ
mouth you may glorify the God and Jesus, in this priestly service to God.
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. For I will not presume to speak of
anything which Christ has not
Therefore, accept one another just as accomplished through me unto the
also Christ has accepted you unto God’s obedience of the Gentiles, by word and
glory. 8 For I say that the Christ has deed 19 in the power of signs and
become the servant for the circumcision wonders, by the power of the Spirit of
on behalf of God’s truthfulness, in order God; so from Jerusalem and around
to confirm the patriarchal promises, over to Illyricum I have fulfilled the
and with respect to the Gentiles on gospel of Christ. 20 And so I aspired to
behalf of mercy in order to glorify God, preach the gospel, not where Christ was
just as it is written, “On account of this I already named, lest I build upon
will offer praise to you among the another preacher’s foundation, 21 but
Gentiles, and to your name I will sing just as it is written, “Those who were
psalms.” 10 And again, it says, “Gentiles, not told about him shall see, and those
rejoice with his people.” 11 And again, who have not heard shall understand.”
“Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles, and For this reason also I have often been
let all the peoples sing praises to him.” prevented from coming to you.
And again Isaiah says, “The root of
Jesse shall come and the one who will But now, having no further territory in
rise to rule over the Gentiles, upon him these regions, but having a longing for
the Gentiles shall set their hope.” 13 many years to come to you, 24 whenever
Now may the God of hope fill you all I go to Spain–for I hope to see you when
with joy and peace in your believing, passing through and to be assisted by
that you may abound in hope by the you on my way there–if I may first enjoy
power of the Holy Spirit. your company for a little while.
14 25
I myself am persuaded, my brothers, But for now I am going to Jerusalem
concerning you, that you yourselves are as I minister to the saints. 26 For
full of goodness, being filled with all Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to
knowledge, and being able also to make a contribution for the poor among
admonish one another. 15 Now I have the saints in Jerusalem. 27 For they were
written to you boldly on some matters, pleased and they are indebted to them;
as if to remind you again on account of for if the Gentiles have shared in their
the grace which was given to me by spiritual things, they are indebted also
God, 16 that I might be a minister of in the fleshly things to minister to them.

who also were in Christ before me.
Therefore, when I have completed
this mission and have sealed to them Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the
this fruit, I will go by way of you on to Lord. 9 Greet Urbanus, our fellow
Spain. 29 And I know that if I come to worker in Christ, and Stachys, my
you I will come in the fullness of the beloved one. 10 Greet Apelles, who is
blessing of Christ. approved in Christ. Greet those who are
of the household of Aristobulus. 11 Greet
Now I admonish you, brothers, Herodian, my kinsman. Greet those who
through our Lord Jesus Christ and are of the household of Narcissus, who
through the love of the Spirit, to strive are in the Lord.
together with me in prayer to God for
me, 31 in order that I may be rescued 12
Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa,
from those who are disobedient in laborers in the Lord. Greet Persis, the
Judea, and that my service which is for beloved one, who has labored hard in
Jerusalem may turn out to be the Lord. 13 Greet Rufus, who is chosen
acceptable to the saints there, 32 in in the Lord and his mother and mine.
order that in joy I may come to you Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes,
through God’s will and together with Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers
you find refreshing rest. 33 Now may the with them. 15 Greet Philologus and Julia,
God of peace be with all of you. Amen. Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and
all the saints with them. 16 Greet one

16 I commend to you our sister

Phoebe, who is a deaconess of
the church which is in
another with a holy kiss. All the
churches of Christ greet you.

Cenchrea, 2 in order that you receive her 17

Now I admonish you, brothers, to
in the Lord in a manner worthy of the watch out for those who want to cause
saints and that you assist her in dissensions and scandals contrary to the
whatever manner she may have need of teaching which you learned, and turn
you, for she herself has also been a away from them. 18 For such people are
helper of many even of me, myself. not slaves who belong to our Lord Christ
but to their own appetites; and through
Greet Priscilla and Aquila, my fellow smooth and flattering speech they
workers in Christ Jesus, 4 who, on behalf attempt to deceive the hearts of the
of my life, risked their own necks, to innocent. 19 For news of your obedience
whom not only do I give thanks, but also has reached all; therefore I rejoice over
all the churches of the Gentiles. 5 Greet you. But I want you to be wise
also the church that is in their house. concerning what is good, and innocent
Greet Epenetus my beloved one, who is concerning what is evil.
the first convert to Christ from Asia.
6 20
Greet Mary, who worked hard for you. And the God of peace will soon crush
Greet Andronicus and Junias, my Satan under your feet. The grace of our
kinsmen and my fellow prisoners, who Lord Jesus be with you.
are outstanding among the apostles,

Timothy, my fellow worker, greets
you, so also does Luke and Jason and
Sosipater, my kinsmen. 22 I, Tertius, who
write this letter, greet you in the Lord.
Gaius, who is host to me and to the
whole church, greets you. Erastus, who
is the director of the city, and Quartus
his brother greet you.
Now to him who is able to establish
you according to my gospel and the
proclamation of Jesus Christ,
according to the revelation of the
mystery concealed for long ages,
but is now disclosed through
the prophetic scriptures, according to
the commandment of the eternal God,
has been made known for the
obedience of faith unto all the Gentiles–
to the only wise God through Jesus
Christ, to him be glory forever. Amen.