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EE301 Lesson 36

Reading: 23.9
1

cos cos
sin sin
P JI S
Q JI S
u u
u u
= =
= =
(W)
(VAR)
2
2
cos
R
J
P J I I R
R
| | | | | |
|
u = = = phase power
3
T an bn cn
P P P P P
|
= + + =
3
L
J J
|
=
2
2
sin
X
J
Q J I I X Q
X
| | | | | | |
|
u = = = (VAR) =
3 sin
T L L
Q J I
|
u = (VAR)
cos
T
P
T
P P
F
S S
|
|
|
u = = =
THREE PHASE POWER

Learning Objectives

(a) Compute the real, reactive and apparent power in three phase systems.
(b) Calculate currents and voltages in more challenging three phase circuit arrangements.
(c) Apply the principles oI Power Factor Correction to a three phase load.


Recall that the power triangle graphically shows the relationship between
real (P), reactive (Q) and apparent power (S).



We will Iirst examine three-phase power in the context oI a wye-load; then we`ll examine a delta load.

Power to the Wye-Load

Active (Real) Power. Suppose that each phase has impedance .

Then the active (real) power per phase (P
|
) is given




Because we are considering a balanced system, the power per phase (P
|
) is identical in all three phases,
and thus the total active power (P
T
) is simply P
T
3 P
|
.


Using line voltage ( ) and line current (I
L
I
|
), we have




Reactive Power The reactive power per phase (Q
|
) is given by



The total reactive power can be calculated similar to the total active power:



Apparent Power

The apparent power per phase (S
|
) is given




The power factor (F
P
) is given

3 3 cos 3 cos 3 cos
3
L
T L L L
J
P P J I I J I
| | | | | |
u u u
| |
= = = =
|
\ .
(W)
2
2
3
T L L
J
S J I I Z
Z
S J I
|
| | | | |
|
= = =
=
(VA)
(VA)
Z R X f
| | | |
u = Z = + Z
EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
2

3
T ab bc ca
P P P P P
|
= + + =
3
L
I I
|
=
3 3 cos 3 cos 3 cos
3
L
T L L L
I
P P J I J J I
| | | | | |
u u u
| |
= = = =
|
\ .
(W)
Power to the Delta (A) Load

Active (Real) Power.










Total active power (P
T
) is simply P
T
3 P
|
.



Using line voltage (V
L
I
|
) and line current ( ):




Which was the EXACT same equation as Ior Y loads

Reactive and Apparent Power The equations Ior calculating total reactive and apparent power are also
identical to the Wye load versions:






The applicable portion oI the equation sheet:


3 sin
T L L
Q J I
|
u = (VAR)
3
T L L
S J I = (VA)
EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
3

Example In the Y-Y circuit shown, E
AN
277Z-30 V.

(a) Compute P


(b) Compute P
T
.
(c) Compute Q


(d) Compute Q
T
.
(e) Compute S


(I) Compute S
T

(g) Compute F
P
.

Solution:
EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
4

3 cos sin
T L L T T T T
S J I P S Q S u u = = =
Example

In the circuit shown E
AN
120Z-30 V

(a) Determine per phase powers (active, reactive, and apparent).
(b) Determine total powers (active, reactive, and apparent) by
multiplying the per-phase powers by 3.
(c) Determine total powers (active, reactive, and apparent) by
using these Iormulas:


Solution:



































EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
5

Example In the circuit shown, E
AB
208Z0 V.

a. Determine the line currents
b. Determine total real power delivered by the generator
c. Total real power dissipated by the load.
d. Determine the load phase voltage V
an

Solution:













EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
6

Example. In the circuit shown, E
AB
208Z0 V

a. Find the load phase voltage V
ab
b. Find S
T
, Q
T
, and P
T
delivered by the generator.
c. Find S
T
, Q
T
, and P
T
oI the load.

Solution:







































EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
7

Power Factor Correction

Recall: In order to cancel the reactive component oI power, we must
add reactance oI the opposite type. This is called power factor
correction.

In a three phase circuit, capacitors are connected in parallel with
each load phase (presuming the actual load is inductive, which is
usually the case)
















Solution steps:
1. Calculate the reactive power (Q) oI ONE PHASE oI the load
2. Insert a component in parallel oI the load that will cancel out that reactive power
e.g. II the load has Q

512 VAR, insert a capacitor with Q

-512 VAR.
3. Calculate the reactance (X) that will give this value oI Q
Normally the QV
2
/X Iormula will work
4. Calculate the component value (F or H) required to provide that reactance.







EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
8

Example

In the system shown we have E
AB
480Z0 V.
The Irequency is 60 Hz.

Determine value oI capacitor which must be placed across each
phase oI the motor to correct to a unity power Iactor.

Solution:





































EE301 Lesson 36
Reading: 23.9
9

Example (Irom Robbins and Miller, Circuit Analysis Theory and Practice, 4
th
ed, Delmar Cengage,
2007)

In the circuit below, the 60 Hz motor is providing 100 hp at an eIIiciency oI 80. The power Iactor oI
the motor is 0.85 (lag). The line voltage is 575 V.











The capacitors are connected in a Y-conIiguration, and each capacitor has the value C 120 . F
Compute the overall power Iactor oI the system.

Solution.