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Lesson1 :Adjectives

Types of Adjectives

Attributive Attributives are the ones that come right before the word(s) they modify.

The old man asked a question. That is a good book. I found an old, black, cotton sweater.

 Appositive Appositives come after the words they modify. They are usually in used in
 Appositive Appositives come after the words they modify. They are usually in used in

Appositive Appositives come after the words they modify. They are usually in used in pairs.

 Appositive Appositives come after the words they modify. They are usually in used in pairs.
the words they modify. They are usually in used in pairs. The woman, beautiful and smart

The woman, beautiful and smart, knew what she was doing. The winner, tired but happy, waved and smiled.

 Predicate Predicates come after verb to be or after linking verbs. They come at
 Predicate Predicates come after verb to be or after linking verbs. They come at

Predicate Predicates come after verb to be or after linking verbs. They come at the end of the sentence and they modify the subject.

come after verb to be or after linking verbs. They come at the end of the

The tickets are expensive. She looked old. The oven felt hot. He was young and shy.

The Order of Adjectives

When there are more than 1 adjectives modifying the same word, they are usually placed

When there are more than 1 adjectives modifying the same word, they are usually placed

in a certain order.

When there are more than 1 adjectives modifying the same word, they are usually placed in

a- What we think (Lovely, beautiful, intelligent, nice, fine

)

b- Size (small, big, large, short, tall

)

 

c- Age (young, old

)

 

d- Shape (round, slim, fat, square

)

 

e- Color (white, green, red

)

 

f-

Material (plastic, glass, wooden

)

 

g- Origin (German, Russian, American

)

 

A nice big house. A big square table.

A lovely little town.

 

An old plastic pipe.

An expensive Scotch whiskey.

 

A

tall young woman.

 

Intelligent young Danish scientist.

 

Present and Past Participles as Adjectives

Ing / Ed - Interesting / Interested

Boring-

Causes

boredom

 

Bored-

 

Result

 

of boredom (something boring)

Tiring-

Causes

 

tiredness

 

Tired-

 

Result

 

of something tiring

 

He is

bored

with his job.

 

Because his job is boring (at least to him), it caused him to be bored.

He is

boring.

 

I don't want to be with him because he is a boring person.

 

•He is

interested

in your offer.

 

Because your offer is interesting (at least to him), it drew his attention.

•He is an

interesting

man.

 

He engages attention, you want to know him better.

 
Some other verb roots that can become adjectives in a sentence by adding

Some other verb roots that can become adjectives in a sentence by adding

ing

Some other verb roots that can become adjectives in a sentence by adding ing
ed or
ed or

Charm, admire, amaze, amuse, depress, worry, thrill, excite, disgust, disappoint,

 

discourage, embarrass, fascinate, frighten, frustrate, horrify, irritate, please, satisfy,

shock, startle, stimulate, surprise, terrify, confuse

 

Degrees of Adjectives

Positive Degree : Expresses a quality without a comparison

The twins are smart. The tree is tall. The book is old.

 Comparative Degree : Used to compare things to each other.
 Comparative Degree : Used to compare things to each other.

Comparative Degree : Used to compare things to each other.

 Comparative Degree : Used to compare things to each other.

Form

Use

Example

er

Shorter adjectives (1 syllable or 2)

hotter area, warmer water

more

longer adjectives (2 or more syllables)

more interesting subject, more comfortable couch

more

adjectives that end withed , ing , 's' (even if they are 1 syllable)

I am more tired , more boring book

2

 

Fred is taller than Barney. He is the more aggressive of the two. Barney is smarter than Fred. Climbing is more tiring than running.

Superlative Degree : Superlative is the highest or the lowest degree when comparing two or more things/persons. The inflectional suffix for superlative degree is est. Longer superlatives usually takemost instead of est.

This is the brightest room in the house. Duncan is the tallest player on the team. Britney is the most beautiful girl in the class.

Article the is used with superlative adjectives since it is definite (thing/person) what's being talked about.

Absolute Adjectives

You either have the quality or you don't. There is no comparison. Dead, perfect, round

You can't be deader than someone else who is only dead.

Some Absolute Adjectives:

absolute

basic

certain

 

complete

empty

entire

devoid

excellent

fatal

final

dead

perfect

square

essential

unique

full

harmless

immortal

meaningful

obvious

pure

superior

ultimate

universal

Carol drives

carefully. (How does she drive?)

 

I looked for her

everywhere. (Where did you look for her?)

 

She came to London

yesterday. (When did she come to London?)

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Lesson2 : Adverbs

Adverbs are generally divided into seven groups:

1) Manner: slowly, bravely, carefully, simply, quietly

2) Place: there, here, up, down, near

 

3) Time: yesterday, tomorrow, now, yet, still

 

4) Frequency: never, always, often, once, twice

 

5) Sentence: actually, really, obviously, evidently

   

6) Degree: very, quite, rather, fairly, hardly

 

7) Focus: just, only, simply, even, also

 

Forming Adverbs

They are generally made from adjectives.

Many adverbs of manner and degree are formed by putting -ly at the end of an adjectives.

slow slowly

happy - happily

cold coldly

rapid - rapidly

bad badly

kind - kindly

I don’t know why, but they spoke to me

The weather was

awfully

cold.

 

You should treat people

gently.

 

Please, drive the car

slowly.

 
coldly.
coldly.
When an adjective ends in consonant + y, it becomes -ly. busy - busily happy
When an adjective ends in consonant + y, it becomes -ly.
busy - busily
happy - happily
easy - easily
dry - drily (or dryly)
She is working
busily.
Chuck passed the test
easily.

When an adjective ends in -le, we omit -e and add -(l)y

noble - nobly

possible - possibly

simple - simply

gentle - gently

Ex: My mom brushes my hair

gently every day.
gently
every day.
When an adjectives ends in -e, we keep -e and add -ly. extreme - extremely
When an adjectives ends in -e, we keep -e and add -ly.
extreme - extremely
free - freely
brave - bravely
safe - safely
His political ideas are
extremely
dull.
Our army fought
bravely.

When an adjective ends in -ic, we add -ally.

Systematic - systematically

Systematic - systematically

Phonetic - phonetically

Systematic - systematically Phonetic - phonetically

We searched the attic

systematically.

 

Mrs. Burns wanted us to write the words

phonetically.

Degrees of Adverbs

Positive : Expresses a quality without a comparison.

Ivan walks slowly.

Comparative : Expresses a higher or lower degree than the positive.

Ida walks faster than Ivan.

Superlative : Expresses the highest or the lowest degree when comparing more than two things/persons.

Brad walks slowest.

1. Adverbs having the same form as adjectives:

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

 

SUPERLATIVE

   

fast

faster

 

the fastest

 

early

earlier

 

the earliest

 

late

later

 

the latest

 

hard

harder

 

the hardest

 

They came

earlier

than me.

 

Kenyans always win prizes in marathons because they run

the fastest of all.
the fastest
of all.

My parents’ plane will arrive

later

than my uncle's.

 

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2. Adverbs formed with ly.

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

easily

more easily

most easily

quickly

more quickly

most quickly

fluently

more fluently

most fluently

carefully

more carefully

most carefully

Linda drives

more carefully

than her husband.

 

Elizabeth speaks English the

most fluently.

 

3. Irregular adverbs

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

well

better

the best

badly

worse

the worst

far

father / further

the farthest / the furthest

much

more

the most

Who speaks English

the best?

 

They do everything

worse

than us.

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Lesson3 : Adjectives vs Adverbs

Adjectives vs Adverbs Examples

Adjectives vs Adverbs Examples
Adjectives vs Adverbs Examples
Adjectives vs Adverbs Examples

1) Adverbs and Adjectives are both modifiers, so it is easy to confuse them with each other. And even more confusingly, some words sometimes act as adjectives, and sometimes act as adverbs.

Hint: Ask yourself which word is being described: adjectives alwaysmodify nouns or pronouns, but adverbs never do.

Sarah was a little sleepy. (adverb modifying adjective sleepy) Sarah took a little nap. (adjective modifying noun nap)

2) Use the comparative degree of an adjective or an adverb when speaking of two things and the superlative degreee when speaking ofthree or more:

This is the larger of the two roooms. This white one is the smallest of the three puppies.

Good vs well

Good
Good

is an adjective. The adverb is

well.
well.
Ex: My father is a good driver -> He drives well.

Ex: My father is a good driver -> He drives well.

Your English is good -> You speak English well.

Ex: My father is a good driver -> He drives well. Your English is good ->
I feel good. (psychologically / morally)

I feel good. (psychologically / morally)

I feel well. (healthy / well being)

I feel good. (psychologically / morally) I feel well. (healthy / well being)

You must study in bed until you feel

well / better /

I

hope you will get

well / better /

good

soon.

 
good.
good.

Fast / Hard / Late

These words are both adjectives and adverbs:

 

ADJECTIVES

ADVERBS

Jack is a very fast runner.

He runs very fast. (fastly)

Ann is a hard worker.

She works very hard. (hardly)

The train was late.

The train arrived late. (lately)

Lately = recently

Lately = recently Have you seen Tom lately?
Have you seen Tom lately?

Have you seen Tom lately?

Hardly = very little, almost not

 

Sarah was rather unfriendly to me at the party. She hardly spoke to me.(she spoke to

me very little, almost not at all)

 
I don't think they should get married yet. They hardly know each other. (they know

I don't think they should get married yet. They hardly know each other. (they know each

other very little)

I don't think they should get married yet. They hardly know each other. (they know each

We cannot form adverbs from adjectives ending in ly.

Common adjectives: friendly, lively, ugly, lonely. We add the pattern in a … way/manner or fashion to make them adverb.

Friendly: In a friendly way/manner/fashion He behaves in a friendly way. Lively : In a lively way / manner / fashion

Lesson4: English Articles - A An The

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Lesson4: English Articles - A An The

Table of Articles

NUMBER

INDEFINITE

DEFINITE

Singular

the

Plural

nothing

the

Non-Count

nothing

the

Quick Hints

a before consonants (a book) an before vowels (an exam)

 Pronunciation is what matters. an h our ('h' is silent and it's pronounced: an
 Pronunciation is what matters. an h our ('h' is silent and it's pronounced: an

Pronunciation is what matters. an hour ('h' is silent and it's pronounced: an our)

 Pronunciation is what matters. an h our ('h' is silent and it's pronounced: an o
 Temporary illnesses: (I have a headache, a cold, a fever, a backache)

Temporary illnesses: (I have a headache, a cold, a fever, a backache)

 "The" with superlative forms (He is the smartest kid I have seen.)
 "The" with superlative forms (He is the smartest kid I have seen.)

"The" with superlative forms (He is the smartest kid I have seen.)

 "The" with superlative forms (He is the smartest kid I have seen.)

Rules of Articles

Articles Rule 1: With singular count nouns, use 'a' if indefinite or "the" if

Articles Rule 1: With singular count nouns, use 'a' if indefinite or "the" if

definite.

Articles Rule 1: With singular count nouns, use 'a' if indefinite or "the" if definite.

My daughter wants to buy

a

dog this weekend. (Indefinite-It could be any dog)

The dog

in the backyard is very cute.(Definite- The one in the backyard)

 

Examples

1. He requested

a

puppy for his birthday.

 

2. He wanted

the

puppy he played with at the pet shop.

3. She ordered

 

a

hamburger without onions.

 

4. Did you drink

the

coke I just ordered?

 

Articles Rule 2: With plural count nouns use either "the" or nothing, never 'a'.

1.Come and look at

the

children. (definite)

 

2.Children are always curious. (indefinite)

3.She loves flowers. (indefinite)

 

4.The

flowers in her garden are beautiful. (definite)

 

5.Do you like reading grammar rules?

 

6.Do you like reading

the

grammar rules on this page?

Articles Rule 3: With non-count nouns, use either "the" or nothing.

He has experience. (if indefinite or mentioned for the first time)

 

He has the experience necessary for

the

job. (if definite or mentioned before)

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1.The

medicine

the

doctor prescribed had unpleasant side effects.

2.Writing in a second language is especially challenging.

 

3.Have you studied

the

history of South Africa?

 

4.History reminds us that events repeat themselves.

 
Articles Rule 4: If a plural or non-count noun is followed by [of + noun],

Articles Rule 4: If a plural or non-count noun is followed by [of + noun], "the" is

preferred.

Articles Rule 4: If a plural or non-count noun is followed by [of + noun], "the"

1.The

languages of Asia are unrelated to English.

 

2.The

wines of France are famous.

 

3.The

birds of North America are beautiful.

 

4.X Museum of Art is having X exhibit of

the

paintings of Picasso.

Special Rules for Articles

1. Adjectives as Nouns

When referring to a group of people by use of an adjective rather than a noun, use

"the".

 

the elderly

the disabled

the unemployed

 

the rich

the sick

the needy

the homeless

the young

the restless

2.

Names of Countries

 

Some countries are preceded by "the", usually if the name is plural, contains an

adjective, or includes "of".

 

The United States

 

The Soviet Union

The Republic of Congo

America

 

Russia

Spain

Japan

 

Chine

Mexico

3.

Cities and Streets use nothing

 

Chicago

Fifth Avenue

 

San Francisco

Highway 5

London

 

Kennedy blvd.

4. Rivers, Oceans, Seas, Groups of Mountains & Islands use "the"

the Amazon

the Atlantic

the Mediterranean

the Cascades

the Hawaiian Islands

the Bahamas

5. Numbers

Cardinal numbers(1,2,3) use nothing

 

World War 2

Page 7

Chapter 1

Mission 1

Paragraph 5

Channel 6

Ordinal numbers (1st,2nd,3rd) use "the"

 

The Second World War

the seventh page

the first chapter

the first mission

the fifth paragraph

the sixth channel

6.

Titles of People

 

When a title is given with a name, use nothing

10

President Mitchael

Queen Mary

Professor Scott

When a title is used without a name, use "the"

The president

the queen

the professor

7.Schools

 

When a school has "of" in its title, use "the"

 

The University of Arizona

The University of London

Chapter 2

When a school does not have "of" in its title, use nothing

 

Lincoln High

Arizona State

Liverpool John Moores University

School

University

8. Location versus Activity

When referring to an

activity, use

nothing

   

I am going to school now.(activity-study)

 

We went to cinema. (activity-see a movie)

 

He is always on time for class. (activity-learn)

When referring to the

location, use "the"
location, use
"the"

The meeting is at the school. (location-campus)

 

They are remodeling the cinema. (location-building)

 

The new student had trouble finding the class. (location-classroom)

9. When the object is the only one that exists, use "the"

the earth

the human race

the world

 

the moon

the sun

the universe

10. When you use expressions that identify part of a larger group, use "the"

-One of the students -None of the students -Both of the students -All of the students

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Lesson6: Modal Verbs / Auxiliaries

Modal Verbs Table

AUXILIARY

USES

PRESENT/FUTURE

PAST

be supposed

 

We are supposed to meet them here.

We were supposed to meet here.

to

expectation

be to

strong expectation

We are to meet them here.

We were to meet them here.

 

ability/possibility

can learn modal verbs online.

I

couldjump

high a few years ago but now Ican't.

I

can / could

informal permission

informal polite

You can use my car tomorrow.

request

 

Can I borrow your book?

impossibility(negative

That can'thave

only)

Cats can't swim.

been true!

     

I

had togo to

necessity

have to go to class today.

I

class

yesterday.

have to

lack of necessity(negative)

don't have to go to class today.

I

I

didn't have

to go to class

   

yesterday.

   

have got to go to class

I

today

I

had togo to

have got to

necessity

class

yesterday.

had better

strongly advised

You had better be on time.

(past form

uncommon)

may

polite request formal permission less than 50% certainty

May I borrow your book? You may leave the room. He may be at the school.

He mayhave been at school.

Might

less than 50% certainty

He might be at school.

He might have beenat school.

must

strong necessity

I

must go to class today.

I

had togo to

class

12

 

prohibition

You must notopen that door.

Mary isn't in class. She must be sick.(present only)

yesterday.

95% certainty

Mary musthave

beensick

 

yesterday.

     

I ought tohave studied last

advisability

I

ought to study tonight.

night.

ought to

80% certainty

She ought to be at school

She ought to have done well on the test.

shall

ask another person's opinion(only used with I or we)

Shall I invite them too? Shall we dance?

 
     

Youshouldhave

advisability

I

should study tonight

paid your bills.

should

80% certainty

He should be at school

He shouldhave done well on the test.

Another Reference for Modals

   

Police officer:

Legal obligation/official

MUST

'You must wear a seatbelt.'

Logical Conclusion

MUST

The teacher's absent. Shemust be sick.

 

BE SUPPOSED

We are supposed turn our cell phones off in movie theaters.

Reporting a rule

TO

Personal necessity / obligation

HAVE TO / HAVE GOT TO

have to call the doctor today.

I

Possibility

CAN

can meet with you on Friday.

I

Ability

CAN / BE

I

can play the piano.

13

 

ABLE TO

am able to speak English.

I

   

I

can have a dog in my

Permission

CAN / BE ALLOWED TO

apartment. I am allowed tohave pets in my room.

   

When I was a kid,

COULD / WAS ABLE TO

I

could run for hours.

Past Ability

 

to

 

WAS

 

ALLOWED /

wasn't allowed to go out at nights.

I

Past Permission

PERMITTED

TO

 

Advice

SHOULD

You should call your mother on her birthday.

Warning

HAD BETTER

You'd better study before the test.

 

DON'T HAVE

don't have to wear a suit to work.

I

A Choice/Not required

TO

Possibility/uncertainty about the future *adverb MAYBE

MAY / MIGHT

It might / may rain this evening. May be it will rain this evening.

Polite request

WOULD /

Would you open the door, please?

COULD

Permission

MAY / CAN / COULD

May I borrow your pen?

To express what you want

WOULD LIKE

would like to learn English free.

I

 

WOULD

would rather walking than driving.

I

Preference

RATHER

like to learn English free. I   WOULD would rather walking than driving. I Preference RATHER

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Lesson7 : Causatives Examples

A.

have / get something done

subject + have / get + direct object + verb3

Mr. Chaps got his house painted.

 

Gary had his ring polished.

 

He had himself kicked out of school.

I

had my tooth extracted yesterday.

B.

have / make somebody do OR get somebody to do something

Subject + have / make + somebody + verb (infinitive)

 

Subject - get + somebody + to verb (infinitive)

I had Luis repair my car.

I made my little brother say sorry.

Fred got his friend to do his homework. Charlie had the carpenter repair the table. Dora had her hairdresser cut her hair.

 

Note:

Make someone do something is stronger than the others and it means forcing someone to do what we ask / want them to do.

15

Lesson8: Conjunctions / Transitions

Here are the relationships that the seven coordinators show:

For

Expresses a result-cause relationship.(Because, Since)

I will get financial aid for college (result), for I applied on the first day.(cause)

She flew as much as she could (result),for she loved flying.(cause)

And

Chronological order

I went to the station(first) and waited for half an hour.(second)

I had breakfast and left for work.

Expresses surprise

He is 13 and he speaks 3 languages?(wow really?)

Adding two similar sources.

His job brought in several thousand dollars a month (a source of $), and he got another large sum from an inheritance (a second source).

Nor

Expresses a relationship of addition like "and", but it's an addition ofnegatives

Worms cannot swim, nor can they walk. John did not like movies, nor did he care much for television.

But

Expresses opposition between two ideas.

She bought food but she forgot the drinks.

I can understand everything but I can't speak very well.

can understand everything but I can't speak very well.  Idea of exception I like everything

Idea of exception

I like everything but onions.

This website is about nothing but free English lessons.

16

Or

Indicates alternatives

You can come with me if you want to or you can stay home. We can watch a movie or have dinner outside.

Yet

It expresses opposition between ideas (just like "but")

She got the job she wanted, yet she discovered that she hated it.

Fred is very good at math, yet he is majoring in biology

So

while for shows a result-cause relationship, "so" shows a cause-result.

She loved flying(cause), so she flew as much as she could.(result) I applied on the first day, so I will get financial aid for college.

Both

and

 

Connects two positives (this and that)

She is beautiful and she is smart. She is both beautiful and smart.

Both Mia and Katie are coming

Neither

nor

 
 

Connects two negatives(not this not that)

She is not tall. She is not short.

She is neither tall nor short.

Neither my parents nor my friend approves my work. Neither my friend nor my parents approve my work.

Notice the use of singular and plural verb form

Either

or

One of two

She is

either

20

or

22 years old.

 

You

either

come with us

or

I will punish you.

Not only

but

also

Links two clauses

She is not only beautiful but also very intelligent. He disappointed not only his father but also everybody else around him.

17

Lesson9 : Subordinating Conjunctions Table

Table of Subordinating Conjunctions with their meanings and example

Table of Subordinating Conjunctions with their meanings and example

sentences online for English learners and teachers.

Table of Subordinating Conjunctions with their meanings and example sentences online for English learners and teachers.

Conjunction

Meaning

Example

after

time

I

left after you came

sequence

 

concession

Although I failed my last two exams, I passed.

and contrast

as

Time

Take notes as you read the article.

as far as

Place

will come with you as far as you go.

I

as if

manner

The man stumbled, as if he were about to fall.

 

conditional

will help you as long as you don't disappoint me.

I

as long as

time

as soon as

Time

Call me as soon as possible.

because

Cause

lied to her because you told me to.

I

because of

cause /

I lied to her because of you.

blame

 

time

 

before

sequence

I left before you came.

by the time

Time

Finish your worksheet by the time I come back.

even though

despite

passed even though I failed my last two exams.

I

however

contrast

We spent so much time on it,however, the boss didn't like it.

in case

condition

Take your umbrella with you in case it rains.

in case of

condition

Call 911 in case of emergency.

18

in order to

purpose

want to improve my English in order to communicate better.

I

so that

 

I

want to improve my English so

purpose

that I can communicate better

though

concession

Though I failed my last two exams,

and contrast

I passed.

   

I know her, she won't text

unless

condition

me unless I text her first. It's stoppage time, we are going to lose the game unless a miracle

saves us.

until/till

Time

have until/till Friday to take my grammar quiz.

I

when

Time

Were they asleep when you arrived?

whenever

Time

She goes shopping whenever she wants.

 

concession

It's only 12.30 here, whereas it is 5 o'clock in Margaritaville.

whereas

and contrast

wherever

Place

He follows me wherever I go.

Conjunctions Practice

1) ---- what technique is used, a fisherman cannot catch fish unless the bait or

1) ---- what technique is used, a fisherman cannot catch fish unless the bait or the

artificial lure is placed where the fish are.

what technique is used, a fisherman cannot catch fish unless the bait or the artificial lure

However

No matter

Although

Inspite of

2) ---- the first half of the 20th century California suffered several setbacks - a

2) ---- the first half of the 20th century California suffered several setbacks - a disastrous

earthquake and a fire in San Fransisco In 1906.

of the 20th century California suffered several setbacks - a disastrous earthquake and a fire in

Since

During

By

For

3) The two ships collided with a sharp impact. ----, the damage was found, on

3) The two ships collided with a sharp impact. ----, the damage was found, on inspection,

to be of little or no significance.

The two ships collided with a sharp impact. ----, the damage was found, on inspection, to

Although

Nonetheless

Nevertheless

However

smell, taste, and touch, many more senses exist.

Despite

No matter

Even so

Although

5) Insects differ from each other in terms of ability to endure heat; ----, caterpillars

5) Insects differ from each other in terms of ability to endure heat; ----, caterpillars

prefer colder temperatures while cockroaches seek out warm, moist locations.

of ability to endure heat; ----, caterpillars prefer colder temperatures while cockroaches seek out warm, moist

in other words

for instance

that is

for example

6) ---- do creative writers create images in their writings ---- they communicate with them.
6) ---- do creative writers create images in their writings ---- they communicate with
them.
Not only / but
Both / and
Neither / nor
Either / or
7) An idiomatic expression is a phrase that has become an accepted part of a language
but that makes little sense if taken literally. Most idioms are difficult, ----, to translate
from one language to another.

thus

therefore

hence

as a consequence of

8) In the late 1980s, ---- the many organizations working to teaeh adults to read,

8) In the late 1980s, ---- the many organizations working to teaeh adults to read, the

number of people who were illiterate remained constant.

---- the many organizations working to teaeh adults to read, the number of people who were

though

despite

in spite of

much as

9) ---- individual interests and tastes vary so much, no single target in life can

9) ---- individual interests and tastes vary so much, no single target in life can be

prescribed for everyone

9) ---- individual interests and tastes vary so much, no single target in life can be

Because of

As

Because

Since

10) Many students often conclude, mistakenly, that to be well read means to read as

 

many books as possible. ----, to be well read means to read well and selectively among

the works that are most challenging.

 

Although

Actually

Accordingly

In fact

selectively among the works that are most challenging.   Although Actually Accordingly In fact 20

20

Lesson10 : Gerunds and Infinitives

Infinitives

An infinitive is a verb used as a noun. They can be used as a

An infinitive is a verb used as a noun. They can be used as a subject or an object of a

sentence. It is made by adding "to" to the beginning of a verb.

can be used as a subject or an object of a sentence. It is made by

After certain verbs:

I want to find a job.

After an object:

I want you to help me.

After certain adjectives:

I'm happy to help you.

After certain expressions with 'it':

 

It's important to practice English.

 

I

To show purpose:

 

went to the mall to buy some shoes.

Verbs followed by infinitives (to)

Agree

Forget

Prefer

Ask

Hope

Promise

Attempt

Learn

Refuse

Begin

Like

Remember

Continue

Love

Start

Decide

Need

Try

Expect

Plan

 

Adjectives followed by infinitives

Afraid

Lucky

Ready

Glad

Prepared

Sad

Happy

Proud

 

'It' expressions + adjectives followed by infinitives

Dangerous

Good

Necessary

Difficult

Great

Possible

Easy

Hard

Sad

Expensive

Important

Wrong

Fun

Impossible

 

21

Gerunds

Verbs followed by a gerund (ing)

Admit

Enjoy

 

Practice

Appreciate

Finish

 

Put off

Avoid

Keep

 

Quit

Can't help

Mind

 

Recommend

Consider

Miss

 

Risk

Discuss

Permit

 

Suggest

Dislike

Postpone

   

Go + gerund expressions

 

Go boating

Go hiking

 

Go sightseeing

Go bowling

Go hunting

 

Go skating

Go camping

Go jogging

 

Go skiing

Go dancing

Go sailing

 

Go swimming

Go fishing

Go shopping

 

Verb + preposition + gerund

 

Care about

Think about

 

Look forward to

Complain about

Worry about

Object to

Dream about

Believe in

 

Depend on/upon

Forget about

Succeed in

 

Insist on/upon

Talk about

Adjust to

 

Plan on

Adjective + preposition + gerund

 

Afraid of

Excited about

Responsible for

Fond of

Upset about

 

Famous for

Proud of

Worried about

Good at

Tired of

Sad about

 

Interested in/upon

Concerned about

Accustomed to

Successful in

Verbs Used with Gerunds and Infinitives

Attemp

Deserve

Prefer

22

Begin

Hate

Start

 

Can't stand

Like

Try

Continue

Love

 

A. Complete the following exercise with gerund or infinitive forms of the indicated verbs.

1.

What do you want

1. What do you want (do) tonight?

(do) tonight?

 

I

feel like

I feel like

(go) to a movie.

2.

It's not so bad

(tell) a white lie, is it?

(tell) a white lie, is it?

 

I

don't think

I don't think (lie) is ever right.

(lie) is ever right.

 

3.

It isn't wrong

(defend) yourself, is it?

(defend) yourself, is it?

 

I

think

I think

(defend) yourself is the right thing to do if you have a

good reason.

4.

Why did you end up

4. Why did you end up (major) in forestry?

(major) in forestry?

 

I've always loved

(be) outdoors. And I've always had trouble

(be) outdoors. And I've always had trouble

(do) desk jobs.

(do) desk jobs.

 

B. Complete the following exercise with gerund or infinitive forms of the indicated verbs.

1. She decided

(move) in another city.

(move) in another city.

 

2. Grammarbank is one of the best websites

2. Grammarbank is one of the best websites

(practice)

English grammar.

3. Alicia enjoys

(watch) soap operas on television.

(watch) soap operas on television.

 

4. She refuses

(listen) to her father.

(listen) to her father.

 

5. Students want

(get) good grades.

(get) good grades.

6. Many drivers avoid

6. Many drivers avoid (drive) in traffic.

(drive) in traffic.

23

7. Do you feel like

7. Do you feel like (eat) hamburger?

(eat) hamburger?

8. I can't imagine

8. I can't imagine (jump) out of a flying jet.

(jump) out of a flying jet.

9. The president wishes

9. The president wishes (end) the war.

(end) the war.

10. I would love

(see) that movie. I heard it's really good.

(see) that movie. I heard it's really good.

11. Mrs. Rogala is a really good teacher. She always offers

(help) her students.

(help) her students.

 

24

Lesson11 : If Clauses / Conditionals

If clauses have three sub categories:

First Conditional IF

Type 1- True In the present or future

-If the weather is nice, we usually sit in the garden. (present) -If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will sit in the garden. (future)

Second Conditional IF

Type 2- Untrue (contrary to the fact) In the present or future

-If it were our day off today, we would have a barbecue in the garden. (present)

-If it were our day off tomorrow, we would have a barbecue in the garden. (future)

Third Conditional IF

Type 3- Untrue (contrary to the fact) in the past

-If the weather had been nice yesterday, we would have sat in the garden.(past)

-If it had been our day off yesterday, we would have had a barbecue in the garden.(past)

Present (do/does) or Simple Future (will) -If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we will go on a picnic. -I will visit my parents after work if I have time. -They will come to the cinema with us if they leave work early enough. -If she fails that exam, her life will change a lot. -Perhaps she will come tomorrow. Then we will study together. -If she comes tomorrow, we will study together. -Perhaps she will get her salary next week. Then she'll pay back what she owes me. -If she gets her salary next week, she will pay back what she owes me. -Perhaps there will be another rise in prices soon. Then everybody will suffer. -If there is another rise in prices soon, everybody will suffer. -Perhaps it won't be her day off tomorrow. Then I'll go shopping alone. -If it isn't her day off tomorrow, I'll go shopping alone.

UNLESS:

We usually use “unless” in order to mean “if not”.

You won't learn English unless you practice a lot.

You won't learn English if you don't practice a lot.

Unless you come, I won’t invite you again.

If you don’t come, I won’t invite you again.

Unless you leave home at once, you will be late for work.

25

If you don’t leave home at once, you will be late for work.

"Unless" is followed by the condition

1) Complete this exercise with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.

A:

We had a great time at Drew's house Sunday. Why didn't you come?

 

B:

I had to study for Spanish.

 
A: If you awesome movie. B: Yeah? What?
A:
If you
awesome movie.
B:
Yeah? What?

(come) with us, you

If you awesome movie. B: Yeah? What? (come) with us, you (see) an A: We rented
(see) an
(see) an
A: We rented
A:
We rented

Back to the Future. It's about a kid who time

travels back to his parents' high school days. He changes his own future.

At the end, his parents

days. He changes his own future. At the end, his parents Wait-Don't tell me. If you

Wait-Don't tell me. If you

At the end, his parents Wait-Don't tell me. If you (tell) me the ending, you (spoil)
At the end, his parents Wait-Don't tell me. If you (tell) me the ending, you (spoil)

(tell) me the ending, you

(spoil) it for me. I want to see it myself.

OK. But have you ever thought about that?

B: About what?
B:
About what?

About how things could be different. You grew up here in Baileyville,

and you're almost an adult now. But what your childhood (be) like if you (be
and you're almost an adult now. But what
your childhood
(be) like if you
(be born) in a different
family?
B:
Let's see. If I
(have) a different family, I
(not grow up) here in Baileyville.
A:
And if you
(not grow up) here, I
(not
meet) you.
B:
That's true. But getting back to the here-and-now, how did you do on
the Spanish test?
A:
I flunked. I wish I
(not take) that course. I'm going to fail.
B:
You just don't study enough. If you
(study) more,

26

you
you
you (pass) this course easily this semester. A: That's easy for you to say. You always

(pass) this course easily this semester.

A:
A:

That's easy for you to say. You always get A's.

 
B:
B:

Sometimes I don't. It's not automatic. I

 

(not get) A's unless

I
I
not automatic. I   (not get) A's unless I (study) hard. A: I suppose you're right.

(study) hard.

A:
A:

I suppose you're right.

 
B:
B:
If I
If I
B: If I (be) you, I   (try) to do better on the next test.

(be) you, I

 

(try) to do better on the next test.

I suppose you're right.   B: If I (be) you, I   (try) to do better

27

Lesson12 : Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Direct speech:

We repeat the speaker’s words.

We repeat the speaker’s words.

He said, "I have lost my key."

We repeat the speaker’s words. He said, "I have lost my key."

Indirect speech:

We give the exact meaning of a speech without necessarily using the speaker's exact

words. If we want to mention who the speaker talked to, we use

told, otherwise we

 

use

said.

 

She said that she had lost her wallet.

She told me that she had lost her wallet.

How to put direct speech into indirect speec

A. Put the tense one step in the PAST:

B. Expressions of Time and Place in Reported Speech

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

 

We usually change from first or second to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words.

Pronouns and possessive adjectives

 

today

that day

yesterday

the day before (the previous day)

now

Then

tonight

that night

here

here / there

this

that, it

these

Those

can

Could

will

Would

could

Could

may

Might

might

Might

have to / has to

had to

must

Must

ought to / should

ought to / should

Examples:

Direct: Paul says, "I don't like coffee."

Direct: Paul says, "I don't like coffee." Indirect: Paul says that he doesn't like coffee.
Indirect: Paul says that he doesn't like coffee.

Indirect: Paul says that he doesn't like coffee.

Direct: Dwayne says, "I didn't do my homework."

Direct: Dwayne says, "I didn't do my homework." Indirect: Dwayne says that he didn't do his
Indirect: Dwayne says that he didn't do his homework.

Indirect: Dwayne says that he didn't do his homework.

Pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first or second person to third

Pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first or second person to third

person except when the speaker is reporting his own words.

adjectives normally change from first or second person to third person except when the speaker is

Examples:

Direct : He said, "You don't know my language."

 

Indirect : He said that I didn't know his language.

 

Direct : I said, "I sold my book."

 

Indirect : I said that I had sold my book.

 

Direct : She said to me, "Your brother is bothering me."

 

Indirect : She told me that my brother was bothering her.

Indirect Speech Statements

We join the indirect and the direct parts of a sentence with that. Sometimes we may omit that.

Examples:

Direct : They said, "We love our teacher."

Direct : They said, "We love our teacher." Indirect : They said that they loved their
Indirect : They said that they loved their teacher.

Indirect : They said that they loved their teacher.

Direct : Mr. Jones said to me, "I educated myself by reading widely."

said to me, "I educated myself by reading widely." Indirect : Mr. Jones told me that
Indirect : Mr. Jones told me that he had educated himself by reading widely.

Indirect : Mr. Jones told me that he had educated himself by reading widely.

Direct: The teacher said to her, "You have done your homework well."

Indirect: The teacher told her that she had done her homework well.

Direct: Mr. Woods said, "There are many boats in the harbor." Indirect: Mr. Woods said

Direct: Mr. Woods said, "There are many boats in the harbor." Indirect: Mr. Woods said

that there were many boats in the harbor.

said, "There are many boats in the harbor." Indirect: Mr. Woods said that there were many

Mixed Types

If a direct speech consists of mixed types, each section requires its own

If a direct speech consists of mixed types, each section requires its own

introductory verb.

If a direct speech consists of mixed types, each section requires its own introductory verb.

Examples:

Direct: Theressa said, "I can't understand this lesson, mother. Please help me."

 

Indirect: Theressa told her mother that she couldn't understand that lesson and wanted

her mother to help her.

 

Direct: Tia said to me, "I can't help you now. I am very tired."

to me, "I can't help you now. I am very tired." Indirect: Tia told me that
Indirect: Tia told me that she couldn't help me then as she was very tired.

Indirect: Tia told me that she couldn't help me then as she was very tired.

Direct: Carl said, "It's hot in here. Isn't the AC on?"

said, "It's hot in here. Isn't the AC on?" Indirect: Carl said that it was hot
Indirect: Carl said that it was hot in there and asked if the AC was

Indirect: Carl said that it was hot in there and asked if the AC was on or not.

29

Direct: Mr. Jefferson said to Helen, "Didn't you hear what I said? You must be quiet when

I talk."

 

Indirect: Mr. Jefferson asked Helen if she had heard what he had said or not, and added

 

that she must / had to be quiet when he talked.

 

Direct: David said, "Let's go to the movie theater!"

 

Indirect: David suggested that they should go to the movie theater.

Or

 

Dave suggested going to the move theater.

 

Direct: Penny said, "How about going for a walk?"

Direct: Penny said, "How about going for a walk?" Indirect: Penny suggested that we might go
Indirect: Penny suggested that we might go for a walk.

Indirect: Penny suggested that we might go for a walk.

Common Verbs used with Reported Speech

Add

complain

point out

shout

Assure+object

boast

observe

scream

Argue

murmur

object

reply

Answer

inform

remark

remind

Announce

grumble

protest

yell

Admit

deny

promise

whisper

Allege

You will feel comfortable at this hotel.

You will feel comfortable at this hotel. The travel agent assured us that we would feel
The travel agent assured us that we would feel comfortable at that hotel.

The travel agent assured us that we would feel comfortable at that hotel.

I

can’t finish all this work.

 

She protested that she couldn’t finish all that work.

Note:
Note:

Deny can’t be used in negative.

I didn’t steal the money. He denied that he had stolen the money. Reported Speech
I
didn’t steal the money.
He denied that he had stolen the money.
Reported Speech Examples 1
1.
"Don't play with matches," his mother said.
1.
His mother told him not to play with matches.
2.
"I've forgotten to bring my lunch with me," he said.
2.
He said that he'd forgotten to bring his lunch with him.
3.
"Will you be home soon?" she asked her husband.
3.
She asked her husband if he would be home soon.
4.
"Go to bed!" father said to the children.
4.
Father told the children to go to bed.
5.
"I'll clean the car tomorrow," Tim said to his father.
5.
Tim told his father that he would dean the car the following day.

30

6.

"Where have you be en?" Gary asked his wife.

 

6.

Gary asked his wife where she had been.

 

7.

"I've been working for the same company since 1960," he said to me.

 

7.

He told me that he had been working for the same company since 1960.

8.

"Do you know Garfield?" she asked me.

 

8.

She asked me if I knew Garfield.

 

9.

"How shall I tell Tom the bad news?" she said.

 

9.

She asked how she should tell Tom the bad news.

 

10.

"You must try my horne-made wine," he said.

 

10.

He said that i had to try his home-made wine.

11.

"Can 1 go home now?" he asked her.

 

11.

He asked her if he could go home then.

 

12.

"May 1 call you by your first name?" he asked.

 

12.</