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Measuring Service Quality Using SERVQUAL

Introduction Measuring the quality of a service can be a very difficult


exercise. Unlike product where there are specific specifications
such as length, depth, width, weight, colour etc. a service can
have numerous intangible or qualitative specifications. In
addition there is there expectation of the customer with regards
the service, which can vary considerably based on a range of
factors such as prior experience, personal needs and what other
people may have told them.
SERVQUAL a
methodology for
measuring service
quality
As a way of trying to measure service quality, researchers have
developed a methodology known as !"#$UA% & a perceived
service quality questionnaire survey methodology. !"#$UA%
examines five dimensions of service quality'
"eliability
"esponsiveness
Assurance(
!mpathy, and
)angible *e.g. appearance of physical facilities,
equipment, etc.+
,or each dimension of service quality above, !"#$UA%
measures both the expectation and perception of the service on
a scale of - to ., // questions in total. )hen, each of the five
dimensions are weighted according to customer importance,
and the score for each dimension multiplied by the weighting.
,ollowing this, the 0ap core for each dimension is calculated
by subtracting the !xpectation score from the 1erception score.
A negative 0ap score indicates that the actual service *the
1erceived score+ was less than what was expected *the
!xpectation score+.
)he 0ap score is a reliable indication of each of the five
dimensions of service quality. Using !"#$UA%, service
providers can obtain an indication of the level of quality of their
service provision, and highlight areas requiring improvement.
he Methodology 2utlined below are the instructions for carrying out a
!"#$UA% survey, and a sample of the questions used in the
questionnaire. In this sample, a bank is surveyed however, any
service organisation can be surveyed using this questionnaire.
All that needs to be done is to substitute the word 3bank3 with
the particular organisation or industry being surveyed.
-. elect the bank whose service quality you want to assess.
Using the questionnaire *see Appendix A below+, obtain the
score for each of the // !xpectation statements, then obtain
the score for each of the // 1erception statements.
4alculate the 0ap core for each of the statements where
the 0ap core 5 1erception & !xpectation *see )able -
below+.
/. 2btain an average 0ap core for each dimension of service
quality by assessing the 0ap cores for each of the
statements that constitute the dimension and dividing the
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
-
sum by the number of statements making up the dimension
*see )able - below+.
6. um the averages calculated in step / above and divide by
7 to obtain an average !"#$UA% score. )his core is the
unweighted measure of service quality for the area being
measured.
8. If you want to have a weighted score, calculate the
importance weights for each of the five dimensions of
service quality constituting the !"#$UA% scale. )he sum
of the weights should add up to -99 *see )able / below+.
7. 4alculate the weighted average !"#$UA% score for each
of the five dimensions of service quality multiplying the
averages calculated in step / above by the weighted scores
calculate in step 8 above *see )able 6 below+.
um the scores calculated in step 7 above to obtain the
weighted !"#$UA% score of service quality for the area being
measured.
!imension Statement E"#ectation
Score
$erce#tion
Score
%a# Score Average for
!imension
angi&les -
/
6
8
Relia&ility 7
:
.
;
<
Res#onsiveness -9
--
-/
-6
Assurance -8
-7
-:
-.
Em#athy -;
-<
/9
/-
//
Un'eighted Average SERVQUAL score(
a&le ) * +alculation of SERVQUAL Scores
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
/
SERVQUAL
Im#ortance ,eights
%isted below are the five sets of features pertaining to banks
and the services they offer. =e would like to know how much
each of these sets of features is important to the customer.
1lease allocate -99 points among the five sets of features
according to how important it is to you. Make sure the points
add up to -99.
-eatures $oints
-. )he appearance of the banks physical facilities,
equipment, personnel and communication materials.
/. )he bank>s ability to perform the promised service
dependably and accurately
6. )he banks willingness to help customers and provide
prompt service.
8. )he knowledge and courtesy of the bank>s employees
and their ability to convey trust and confidence.
7. )he caring individual attention the bank provides its
customers.
otal( -99
a&le . * SERVQUAL Im#ortance ,eights
SERVQUAL
!imension
Score from
a&le )
,eighting from
a&le .
,eighted
Score
angi&ility
Relia&ility
Res#onsiveness
Assurance
Em#athy
Average ,eighted score(


a&le / * +alculation of ,eighted SERVQUAL Scores
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
6
A##endi" A the SERVQUAL Questionnaire
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
8
he Survey )he questionnaire below is in two sections. )he first section
asks you to rank all banks according to your expectations i.e.
what you expect all banks to provide. )he second section asks
you to rank the bank you chose for the survey according to your
experiences and perceptions.
E"#ectations )his section of the survey deals with your opinions of banks.
1lease show the extent to which you think banks should posses
the following features. =hat we are interested in here is a
number that best shows you expectations about institutions
offering banking services.
?ou should rank each statement as follows'
trongly trongly
@isagree Agree
- / 6 8 7 : .
Statement Score
-. !xcellent banking companies will have modern looking
equipment.
/. )he physical facilities at excellent banks will be visually
appealing.
6. !mployees at excellent banks will be neat in their
appearance.
8. Materials associated with the service *pamphlets or
statements+ will be visually appealing at an excellent
bank.
7. =hen excellent banks promise to do something by a
certain time, they do.
:. =hen a customer has a problem, excellent banks will
show a sincere interest in solving it.
.. !xcellent banks will perform the service right the first
time.
;. !xcellent banks will provide the service at the time they
promise to do so.
<. !xcellent banks will insist on error free records.
-9. !mployees of excellent banks will tell customers exactly
when services will be performed.
--. !mployees of excellent banks will give prompt service to
customers.
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
7
Statement Score
-/. !mployees of excellent banks will always be willing to
help customers.
-6. !mployees of excellent banks will never be too busy to
respond to customers> requests.
-8. )he behaviour of employees in excellent banks will instil
confidence in customers
-7. 4ustomers of excellent banks will feel safe in
transactions.
-:. !mployees of excellent banks will be consistently
courteous with customers.
-.. !mployees of excellent banks will have the knowledge
to answer customers> questions.
-;. !xcellent banks will give customers individual attention.
-<. !xcellent banks will have operating hours convenient to
all their customers.
/9. !xcellent banks will have employees who give
customers personal service.
/-. !xcellent banks will have their customers> best interest
at heart.
//. )he employees of excellent banks will understand the
specific needs of their customers.
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
:
$erce#tions )he following statements relate to your feelings about the
particular bank you have chosen. 1lease show the extent to
which you believe this bank has the feature described in the
statement. Aere, we are interested in a number from - to . that
shows your perceptions about the bank.
?ou should rank each statement as follows'
trongly trongly
@isagree Agree
- / 6 8 7 : .
Statement Score
-. )he bank has modern looking equipment.
/. )he bank>s physical features are visually appealing.
6. )he bank>s reception desk employees are neat
appearing.
8. Materials associated with the service *such as
pamphlets or statements+ are visually appealing at the
bank.
7. =hen the bank promises to do something by a certain
time, it does so.
:. =hen you have a problem, the bank shows a sincere
interest in solving it.
.. )he bank performs the service right the first time.
;. )he bank provides its service at the time it promises to
do so.
<. )he bank insists on error free records.
-9. !mployees in the bank tell you exactly when the
services will be performed.
--. !mployees in the bank give you prompt service.
-/. !mployees in the bank are always willing to help you.
-6. !mployees in the bank are never too busy to respond to
your request.
-8. )he behaviour of employees in the bank instils
confidence in you.
-7. ?ou feel safe in your transactions with the bank.
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
.
Statement Score
-:. !mployees in the bank are consistently courteous with
you.
-.. !mployees in the bank have the knowledge to answer
your questions.
-;. )he bank gives you individual attention.
-<. )he bank has operating hours convenient to all its
customers.
/9. )he bank has employees who give you personal
attention.
/-. )he bank has your best interests at heart.
//. )he employees of the bank understand your specific
needs.
!"#$UA% $uestionnaire
;