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8.

Words are divided into different kinds or classes, called Parts of Speech, according to
their use; that is, according to the work they do in a sentence. The parts of speech are
eight in number:
1. Noun.
2. Adjective.
3. Pronoun.
4. Verb.
5. Adverb.
6. Preposition.
7. Conjunction.
8. Interjection.

Noun: Proper noun (marifah), common noun (nakirah).
Also collective noun (crowd, fleet), and abstract or mass noun (kindness,
mercy, laughter).
Also countable nouns (pens), uncountable nouns (milk, oil).

Adjective: beautiful, five, little, that man, all, many, few (number adjective).
Every, either, neither, each.
The Adjective sweet is said to be in the Positive Degree.
The Adjective sweeter is said to be in the Comparative Degree.
The Adjective sweetest is said to be in the Superlative Degree.
The following take either er and est or more and most. :
Polite simple feeble gentle narrow cruel common handsome pleasant stupid

A: Indefinite Article
The: Definite Article
Rama or Hari must lend his hand.
Either Sita or Amina forgot to take her parasol.
Neither Abdul nor Karim has done his lesson.
After a few minutes the jury gave its verdict.
The jury were divided in their opinions.
You and I have done our duty.
'You and I' not 'I and you'.
'You and he' not 'he and you'.
'Hari and I' not 'I and Hari'.
'He and F not T and he'.

My uncle asked my brother and me to dinner (not I!)
Each, either, neither are called Distributive Pronouns because they refer to persons or
things one at a time. For this reason they are always singular and as such followed by
the verb in the singular.

Each of the boys gets a prize.
Either of these roads leads to the railway station

Omission of that/ which: May omit that if it is accusative (object, comes after the verb)
Nominative: rajulun (a man)
Accusative: as'alu rajulan (I ask a man) as'alu ar-rajula (I ask the man)
The accusative case is called in Arabic an-nab
A contented mind is the greatest blessing -- a man can enjoy in the world.
Whoso diggeth a pit shall fall therein.

Verbs:
1. I love. (Simple Present)
2. I am loving. (Present Continuous)
3. I have loved. (Present Perfect)
4. I have been loving. (Present Perfect Continuous)

The Verbs in all of these sentences refer to the present time, and are therefore said to
be in the present tense.
In sentence I, however, the Verb shows that the action is mentioned simply, without
anything being said about the completeness or incompleteness of the action.
In sentence 2, the Verb shows that the action is mentioned as incomplete or continuous,
that is, as still going on.
In sentence 3, the Verb shows that the action is mentioned as finished, complete, or
perfect, at the time of speaking.
The tense of the Verb in sentence 4 is said to be Present Perfect Continuous, because
the verb shows that the action is going on continuously, and not completed at this
present moment.

Just as the Present Tense has four forms, the Past Tense also has the following four
forms:
1. I loved. (Simple Past)
2. I was loving. (Past Continuous)
3. 1 had loved. (Past Perfect)
4. I had been loving. (Past Perfect Continuous)

Similarly the Future Tense has the following four forms :
1. I shall/will love. (Simple Future)
2. I shall/will be loving. (Future Continuous)
3. I shall/will have loved. (Future Perfect)
4. I shall/will have been loving. (Future Perfect Continuous)
--

The boy kicks the football. (Transitive Verb (mutadi). Transitive means passing over.)

The girl laughs loudly. (Intransitive Verb (lazim). Intransitive means not passing over.)

Most verbs can be used both as Transitive and as Intransitive verbs:

The driver stopped the train.
The train stopped suddenly.

Two objects:
His father gave him (Indirect) a watch (Direct).
When the Subject and the Object both refer to the same person, the verb is said to be
used reflexively.
The man killed himself '


The Intransitive Verb seems requires a word (e.g., happy) to make the sense complete.
Such a verb is called a Verb of Incomplete Predication.
'The baby seems' : seems what?


The passive form is used when the subject or doer is vague or known:

My pen has been stolen. (Somebody has stolen my pen.)
I was asked my name. (They asked me my name.) ;
English is spoken all over the world. (People speak English all over the world.)
I have been invited to the party. (Someone has invited me to the party.)

When verbs that take both a direct and an indirect object in the Active Voice are
changed to the Passive, either object may become the subject of the Passive verb,
while the other is retained.

Mr. Krishnaji teaches us grammar. -- Grammar is taught to us by Mr. Krishnaji., We are
taught grammar by Mr. Krishnaji.
The manager will give you a ticket. -- A ticket will be given to you by the manager. You
will be given a ticket by the manager.

By: human, with: object
The dog was hit with a stick.
The dog was hit by a boy.

Mood (condition (hal) of the verb)
There are three Moods in English: Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive.

The Indicative Mood is used:
(1) To make a statement of fact; John goes to school daily
(2) To ask a question; Have you found your book?
(3) expressing a supposition which is assumed as a fact;
If it rains, I shall stay at home. [Assuming as a fact that it will rain, etc.]
The Imperative Mood is used to express Command, exhortation (warning), entreaty or
prayer:
Wait here
Take care of your health
God, have mercy upon us

The Subjunctive Mood scarcely exists in present-day English.
The Present Subjunctive occurs In certain traditional phrases, where it expresses a wish
or hope ; as, .
God bless you !
God save the King !
Heaven help us !
It is suggested that a ring road be built to relieve the congestion.
We recommended that the subscription be increased to ten rupees.
The Past Subjunctive is used
After the verb wish, to indicate a situation which is unreal or contrary to fact; as,
I wish I knew his name. (= I'm sorry I don't know his name,)
I wish I were a millionaire.
She wishes the car belonged to you.


Adverb: always,
Conjunction: and, but, very
Interjection: Ah, alas, eh, oh.