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To better understand the Prophets role as educator, let us first study the
following verse:
It is He who has raised up from amongst the unlettered a Messenger of their
own, to recite His signs to them and to purify them, and to teach them the
Boo and the !isdom, though before that they were in manifest error" #al$
%umu&a, '("()
The verse begins with &He" This manner of indirect address is appropriate
because the people did not now *od" They were ignorant and savage" There
was no &He in their mental world referred to *od" +o, *od first emphasi,es
the darness of their character and how far removed they were from being
able to receive a direct address from Him"
Then, *od calls them unlettered" They were not literate, had no nowledge
about *od and the Messenger" *od, by His infinite Power, sent this petty
community the one with greatest will$power, with loftiest spirit and deepest
heart and, through him, instructed them as geniuses who would go on to
govern much of humanity" Moreover, although *od attaches great importance
to writing and reading, they were unaware of it"
The word amongst shows that the Messenger was one of them in the sense
of being unlettered" -et, the Messenger was not a man of the .ge of
Ignorance" It was necessary for him to be unletttered, because *od would
teach him what he needed to now" He would set him apart from them,
educate him and mae him a teacher for the unlettered peoples"
""" to recite to them His signs, to purify them, points out that he instructs them
in the meanings of the Boo and the creation gradually, e/plains to them, and
wants to mae them complete human beings by educating and guiding them
to intellectual and spiritual perfection" He guides them to higher rans by
instructing them through the Boo and educating their souls"
""" though before that they were in manifest error reveals that *od would purify
and educate them even though they were astray" He did all of this through an
unlettered Messenger"
*od teaches the Boo, that is, the *lorious 0uran" This Boo will reach the
brilliant generations of the future, as it did in the past" .ll of the so$called
original ideas will disappear one by one, lie candles blown out, and there will
be only one &sun left" It will never set" Its flag will be the only one waving on
the hori,on, and every generation to come one after the other will rush to it,
breaing the chains around their necs" The signs have already appeared"
1onsider 2ussia and 1hina" If you had heard the news about them ten years
ago, you would have supposed that it was a dream" 3oo, how terrifying
despotic states are collapsing one by one4 .nd the 0uran appears lie an
ember among their ashes" . great world e/pressing 5neness of *od coming
to life again" 6espite the despotism, tyranny, cruelty and aggression against it,
the Islamic spirit, with its freshness allures hearts from all over the world"
.nother meaning of the verse is that *od taught the Boo to His noble
Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, so that he could guide his
people to higher spiritual rans, in the brilliant climate of this Boo" He would
show them how to become perfect, and he would mae them rise spiritually
so that their souls and hearts could follow his body and soul in his ascension"
-et his nation had been in deep corruption before" If *od wills, He may turn
coal into diamond, and turn the earth golden, and he did" The *olden
*eneration of the !hite .ge is still shining" This is by *ods !ill" He did it
through His Messenger, Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings" The
one who led humanity to spiritual and intellectual perfection is the Prophet
Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, who is himself at the summit
of perfection"
.fter him, humanity saw his standard carried everywhere by men who had
been raised on the wings of sainthood, purification, fear of *od and the desire
to be close to Him" !herever they went, they waled in the footsteps of the
Prophet Muhammad" 5thers will do so in the future"
The education of the Messenger was not 7ust the purification of the evil$
commanding self, not 7ust an inward discipline" He came with a universal
education system, presented a Message that would raise all hearts, spirits,
minds and souls to reali,e their ideal forms" This is affirmed by the 0uran" He
respected reason, inspired it and led it to the highest under the intellect of
2evelation" He did not neglect the human spirit but encouraged it to the
highest attainment, higher by far than those of so$called spiritual masters" He
led the spirit to the realms it yearned for, the &green slopes of heaven$lie
realms" His teaching touched the human faculties and senses with an
inspiration that raised them to the heights where even imagination follows
limping, which opened the way to progress in every field, economic, social,
administrative, military, political and scientific, for his followers and made of
them world$renowned administrators, economists, statesmen, military
commanders, scholars and scientists" The Messenger came with a universal
call which embraced economics, finance, public administration, health and
education, 7ustice, the law of states and nations, and nowledge" If there had
been any lac in his teaching of manind, the aim of his Prophethood would
not have been reali,ed so fully" He said: 8ach of the Prophets before me built
some part of this marvelous building, but there was a gap which needed to be
closed" 8very person passing by would say: &I wonder when this building will
be completed" The one who completes it is me" .fter me, there is no longer
any defect in the structure"9
The 0uran, by affirming him, says:
This day I have completed your religion for you" #al$Maida, :";)
In short, the Prophet was one who reformed, completed and perfected the
ways of life that had been lacing or deficient or deviated from the !ill of *od"
The virtues of an educator consist in the following:
< To give due importance to all aspects of a human being, mind, spirit and self,
and to raise each to its proper perfection"
The 0uran mentions the evil$commanding self which drags a man, lie a
beast with a rope around its nec, everywhere it wants, and goads him
continually to obey the desires of his body whereas, by the disposition *od
gave him, he could be elevated in feeling, thought and spirit"
The 0uran =uotes the Prophet %oseph, upon him be peace, as saying:
+urely the self commands evil, unless my 3ord has mercy" #-usuf, 9(":;)
1ommanding evil is inherent in the selfs nature" However, through worship
and discipline, the self can be raised to higher rans" It rises to a position
where it accuses itself for its evils and shortcomings #al$0iyama, >:"(), and
then still higher, where *od addresses it, 5 self at peace4 2eturn unto your
3ord, well$pleased, well$pleasing #al$?a7r, @A"(>$@)"
Higher than the self at peace #at rest and contented) is the self perfectly
purified" Those who have been able to rise to this degree of attainment are
the nearest to *od" !hen you loo at them, you remember *odB they are lie
polished mirrors in which all the attributes of *od are reflected" It is through
the training by the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings,
that almost all of his 1ompanions reached this degree of moral and spiritual
perfection and they have been followed by hundreds of thousands of others to
this day"
.n education system is 7udged by its universality, its comprehensiveness, and
the =uality of its students" The students of the Prophet Muhammad, upon him
be peace and blessings, were ready to convey his Message throughout the
world" +ince this Message is universal, including all times and peoples,
regardless of color, temperament, age and differences of intellectual level, it
received a warm welcome in a very short period in a vast area stretching from
Morocco and +pain to the Philippines, from the 2ussian steppes to the heart
of .frica, and has remained welcome there" The principles of the education
system taught by the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings,
still preserve their validity" .fter so many upheavals, changes, and social,
economic, intellectual and scientific and technological revolutions, his system
is the most uni=ue and original, so much so that it is the hope of the future of
< .n education system is 7udged by the capacity it has to change its students"
-ou now that even a little bad habit lie cigarette smoing among a small
community can be permanently removed only with great effort" To those who
refuse to accept the Prophethood of Muhammad, upon him be peace and
blessings, we present as a challenge, not the .rabian peninsula of fourteen
centuries ago, but any part of the &civili,ed world" 3et them go there with
hundreds of philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and pedagogues, and
strive for a hundred years" I wonder whether they would be able to achieve in
that period a hundredth part of what the Prophet achieved in twenty$three
!hen the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was
entrusted with communicating the 6ivine Message, the .rabian peninsula, cut
off from the neighboring countries by vast deserts, was one of the most
bacward areas of the world, culturally and intellectually" In addition, people
were habituated to the worst moral corruption" +pecifically the Hi7a,, where
the Prophet was born, had not e/perienced any social evolution or attained
any share of intellectual development worthy of mention" !ith minds
saturated with superstitions, customs barbarous and ferocious, moral
standards very degraded, people lived in savagery" They dran wine and
gambled, and illicit se/ual relations were widespread" Prostitutes would, by
way of advertising their trade, hang a flag on the doors of their houses"(
It was a country without law and a government" Might was right, as in many
parts of the world today, and looting, arson, and murder of the innocent and
wea were commonplace" .ny trivial incident could provoe inter$tribal
feuding which sometimes developed into country$wide wars"
The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, appeared
amongst such a tribe" !ith the Message he brought and his way of preaching
it, he eradicated the evils and savage customs and immoral =ualities to which
the people had been so fanatically attached, and e=uipped and adorned the
wild and unyielding peoples of that large peninsula with all the praiseworthy
virtues, and made them teachers of all the world" It was not an outward
domination" 2ather, he con=uered and sub7ugated the peoples minds, spirits,
hearts, and souls" He became the beloved of hearts, the teacher of minds, the
trainer of souls, and the ruler of spirits" In place of the evil =ualities he
eradicated, he implanted and inculcated in the peoples hearts e/alted
=ualities in such a way that those =ualities became part of their permanent
The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, not only
changed the people of his age" His Message has continued to spread and to
change people radically ever since that age" It was not only =uicly accepted
by .rabia, +yria, Ira=, Persia, 8gypt, Corthern .frica and +pain at its first
outburst, but, with the e/ception of +pain, where the most brilliant civili,ation
of the time flourished, it has never lost its vantage groundB it has been
spreading ever since it came into being" . nineteenth$century !estern writer
notes his impressions of the influence of Islamic moral values on blac
.s to the effects of Islam when first embraced by a Cegro tribe, can there,
when viewed as a whole, be any reasonable doubtD Polytheism disappears
almost instantaneouslyB sorcery, with its attendant evils, gradually dies awayB
human sacrifice becomes a thing of the past" The general moral elevation is
most maredB the natives begin for the first time in their history to dress, and
that neatly" +=ualid filth is replaced by some approach to personal
cleanlinessB hospitality becomes a religious dutyB drunenness, instead of the
rule, becomes a comparatively rare e/ception" 1hastity is looed upon as one
of the highest, and becomes, in fact, one of the commoner virtues" It is
idleness that henceforward degrades, and industry that elevates, instead of
the reverse" 5ffences are henceforward measured by a written code instead
of the arbitrary caprice of a chieftain $ a step, as everyone will admit $ of vast
importance in the progress of a tribe" The mos=ue gives an idea of
architecture at all events higher than any the Cegro has yet had" . thirst for
literature is created and that for wors of science and philosophy as well as
for commentaries on the 0uran";
Individual e/amples
In the school of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, many world$
renowned individuals have been brought up" 1ertainly, we come across
numerous great men during history in other schools of education as well" *od
has honored manind with great heroes, eminent statesmen, invincible
commanders, inspired saints and great scientists" However, most of them
have not been able to mae any deep impression on more than one or two
aspects of human life" They have tended to concentrate on one or two
aspects of life and overlooed the other aspects" But since Islam is a 6ivine
way leading man through all fields of life, a 6ivine system encompassing all
aspects of life, since it is, in the words of Muhammad .sad, a %ewish convert
to Islam, &lie a perfect wor of architecture all of whose parts are
harmoniously conceived to complement and support each other, nothing
lacing, with the result of an absolute balance and solid composureE, those
who have been brought up in the school of Muhammad, upon him be peace
and blessings, have usually been able to combine in themselves the spiritual
with the rational or intellectual and material, the worldly with the other$worldly,
the ideal with the real, and the scientific with the &revealed"
Islam, having at its very outset put an end to tribal conflicts and condemned
discrimination on the basis of color and race to the e/tent of putting the chiefs
of the 0uraysh under the command of an emancipated blac slave,
innumerable scholars and scientists, commanders and saints have been
raised among con=uered peoples" .mong them was a Tari= $ Tari= ibn Fiyad
$ an emancipated Berber slave, who con=uered +pain" He was a victorious
commander" However, more than the day when he defeated the +panish
army of ninety thousand soldiers with a handful of valiants, he was truly
victorious when he put his feet on the treasury of the con=uered +panish ing
and said to himself: &Tari=4 -ou were a chained slave, then *od freed you and
you became a commander" Cow you are the con=ueror of +pain" 6o not ever
forget that tomorrow you will stand in the presence of *od" He did not touch
anything of the treasury"
G=ba ibn Cafi& was another great commander" He con=uered northern .frica
and reached the Meditarrenean coast" There he stood and uttered: &5 *od4 If
this sea of darness did not appear before me, I would convey -our Came,
which is the source of light, to overseas lands as far as the remotest corners
of the world":
Prior to his conversion, &.dbullah ibn Mas&ud used to tae care of the sheep of
&G=ba ibn .bi Mu&ayt" He was a wea, little man, to whom no one paid
respect" He became a Muslim and one of the most senior 1ompanions of the
Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings" 6uring his caliphate, &Gmar sent
him to Hufa' as a teacher" In the scholarly climate Ibn Mas&ud formed in Hufa,
the greatest figures of Islamic 7urisprudence were raised" .mong them are
.l=ama, Ibrahim al$Cahai, Hammad ibn .bi +ulayman, +ufyan al$Thawri
and especially Imam .bu Hanifa, the founder of the biggest school of Islamic
Irima was the son of .bu %ahl, the harsh and infle/ible leader of the
unbelieving party of the 0uraysh" .fter many years of opposition to the
Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, he became a Muslim following the
con=uest of Maa" Islam changed him so radically that he was martyred
three years later at the Battle of -armu" His son, .mir, was also martyred
together with him"
Hansa was among the leading woman poets in the .ge of Ignorance"
Becoming a Muslim, she gave up writing poems" +he used to acnowledge:
&!hile we have the 0uran, I cannot write poems" +he lost her four sons at
the Battle of 0adisiya" This great woman, who had once recited poems of
lament over the death of her brother in the .ge of Ignorance, uttered no words
of ob7ection and, instead, murmured in a deep submission to *od: &5 *od4 .ll
praise be to -ou" -ou have bestowed on me while alive the possibility of
offering you as gifts my four sons that you gave me">
The most 7ust statesmen history has nown have also been brought up in the
school of the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings" Besides
.bu Bar, &Gthman, &.li and many others who succeeded them, &Gmar, the
second 1aliph, has been appreciated in almost every age as one of the most
7ust and greatest statesmen ever to have lived" He used to say: &If a sheep
falls from a bridge even on the river Tigris and dies, *od will call me to
account for it on the 6ay of %udgement"@ !hen you compare &Gmar before
his conversion and &Gmar after he became a Muslim, you will easily see the
sharp contrast between the two and understand how radically Islam changes
Teaching laws of life
6ue to the misconceptions and secular tendencies arising especially in the
!est in recent centuries, most people in the world tend to restrict religion to
mean &blind faith andIor meaningless acts of worship, or a consolation for the
pains of life" 1ontrary to such notions which have developed in 1hristendom
partly because of the historical mistaes and shortcomings of 1hristianity and
partly because of the tendencies of seculari,ed, worldly people, some
movements in Muslim countries have, unfortunately, also reduced &religion $
in this case $ to an ideology, to a social, economic and political system"
!hereas, Islam, standing between these two e/tremes, addresses itself to all
of the faculties and senses of man, including his mind, heart and feelings, and
encompasses all aspects of life" That is why the Prophet Muhammad, upon
him be peace and blessings, gave due importance to learning, trading,
agriculture, action and thought, and encouraged his people to do perfectly
whatever they would do and condemned inaction and begging"
?or e/ample, he said: *od loves a believing, silful servant"A
. believer should do in the best way whatever he does" ?or the 0uran
+ay: &!orB and *od will surely see your wor, and the Messenger and the
believers" #al$Tawba, A"9J:)
!hatever one does in the world will be e/hibited on the 6ay of %udgment" +o
a believer cannot wor carelessly and do something in a manner of wishing to
get rid of it"
*ods Messenger declares: !hen you do something, *od lies you to do it
Islam encourages man to wor and regards it as an act of worship that one
wors to earn ones living and support ones family in lawful ways" Gnlie
1hristianity, it does not ideali,e #nor even advise) life as a hermit" However, it
forbids dissipation and lu/ury" Its aim is to ensure mans prosperity in both
worlds, and therefore it warns man against living a self$indulgent life and
neglecting his religious duties" ?or e/ample, in one of his concise sayings,
which summari,es the essentials of a happy economic and social life and the
prosperity in both this world and the ne/t, *ods Messenger, upon him be
peace and blessings, declares:
!hen you let yourselves go into speculative transactions and are occupied
with animal$breeding only and content with agriculture and abandon striving in
the way of *od to preach His religion, *od will sub7ect you to such a
humiliation that He will not remove it from you until you return to your
This hadith is e/traordinarily apt in describing the pitiable condition of Muslims
over the last few centuries" +peculative transactions signify the dying of a
healthy economic life and the resort to unlawful, self$abandoned ways of
earning ones living" 1ontentment with agriculture and animal breeding is the
sign of la,iness and abandoning scientific investigations, whereas the 0uran
e/plicitly states that *od has created man as His vicegerent on the earth and
entrusted him with nowledge of the names of things" This means that by
discovering 6ivine laws of nature and reflecting on natural phenomena, man
should establish sciences and e/ploit natural resources" However, while doing
this, he should aim at gaining *ods good pleasure and practicing His religion"
In many verses such as +ay: &.re they e=ual$those who now and those who
now thatD #al$Fumar, ;A"A), the 0uran emphasi,es the importance of
nowledge and learning, and warns that among His servants, only those who
have nowledge truly fear *od #al$?atir, ;:"(@), meaning that true piety and
worship can be possible through nowledge" 1onfinement of nowledge to
&religious sciences devoid of reflection and investigation, must inevitably
result, as indeed it did, in contentment with animal breeding and agriculture,
and in idleness and neglect of striving in the way of *od, and ultimately in
misery, poverty and humiliation" *ods Messenger, upon him be peace and
blessings, drew attention to this important fact in some other sayings of his
also" ?or e/ample, he said: 5ne hour of reflection and contemplation is better
than one year of #supererogatory) religious worship"9( He also said: .
powerful believer is better and more lovable to *od than a wea one"9; Being
powerful re=uires both spiritual and physical health and having scientific and
technical competence" 2estricting the meaning of &being powerful to mere
physical strength shows lac of understanding of the basis of power"
Being a good Muslim is possible through being a good student in the school of
the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings"
?urther remars on the education system of *ods Messenger
%afar ibn .bi Talib, the cousin of the Prophet, who emigrated to .byssinia in
the face of the unbearable persecutions of the 0uraysh polytheists, once told
the Cegus, the then ruler of .byssinia:
5 ing4 !e used to drin blood, eat of carrion, commit fornication, steal, ill
one another and plunder" The powerful used to oppress the wea" !e used to
do many other things shameful and despicable"9E
The Prophet Muhammad came and set the best e/ample for them in belief,
worship, and good conduct, and, in short, in all aspects of life" They had used
to bury their daughters aliveB having a daughter was a cause of shame for
them" !hen the Prophet came with the 6ivine Message, women en7oyed their
rights fully" 5nce a young girl came to *ods Messenger and complained: &5
Messenger of *od4 My father would force me to marry the son of my uncle,
but I am unwilling to" The Messenger sent for her father and warned him: -ou
cannot force your daughter to marry one whom she does not want" &I wont do
that, the man replied" The girl stood up and e/plained:
5 Messenger of *od4 I did not intend to oppose my father" I came here only to
find out whether Islam allows a father to marry his daughter to somebody she
does not want"9:
*ods Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, warned his 1ompanions
not to beg" However poor and needy, the 1ompanions did not beg from
anybody" They were so sensitive in this matter that they even refrained from
asing help" If, for e/ample, one of them dropped his whip while on a mount,
he would not re=uest anybody to pic it up and pass it to himB rather, he got
off and piced it up himself"9'
Prior to Islam, people worshipped idols and did not pay due respect to their
parents" *ods Messenger came with the 6ivine Message, which commanded
them: -our 3ord has decreed you shall not worship any but Him, and to be
good to parents #al$Isra, 9>"(;)" This 6ivine decree changed them so
radically that they began asing the Messenger whether it would deserve
punishment if they were not able to return the loos of their parents with a
smile" The 0uran ordered them not to approach the orphans property #al$
Isra, 9>";E) and forbade theft, and they were so sensitive in respecting
others rights that history does not record more than one or two thefts in that
blessed period of the Prophets rule"
Murder was e/tremely widespread in the .ge of Ignorance" However, when
the Prophet came with the prohibition, +lay not the soul *od has forbidden
#al$Isra, 9>";;), it was all but eradicated"
*ods Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, also forbade fornication"
This was enough for the end of all inds of illicit intercourse" However, we do
encounter a single incident of fornication during the blessed period of the
Prophets rule, upon him be peace and blessings"
5ne day a man, pale and e/hausted, came to *ods Messenger and ased:
&5 Messenger of *od4 1leanse me4 The Messenger turned his face from him,
but the man insisted: &5 Messenger of *od4 1leanse me4 This was repeated
four times" .t last, the Messenger ased: 5f what sin shall I cleanse youD &5f
fornication, the man replied" The sin of illicit intercourse weighed on his
conscience so heavily that he desired to be punished"
The Messenger ased those present: 6oes this man suffer from insanityD
$ Co, he is sound, they replied"
$ +ee, if he is into/icated4
They e/amined him" He was sober" In the face of his insistent confession,
*ods Messenger had to order the e/ecution of the punishment on the man"
.fter it, he sat and wept"
. few days later, a woman appealed to *ods Messenger to cleanse her of
her sin" +he was the mans partner" Many times *ods Messenger turned
away from her and sent her bac" In utmost remorse, the woman insisted on
being punished" The Messenger sent her bac once more, saying: -ou may
be pregnant" *o and give birth to your child" The woman went and came bac
again after she had given birth" The Messenger e/cused her: *o bacB your
child needs feeding" .fter the child had been weaned, the woman came
again" !hen someone reproved the woman during the e/ecution of her
punishment, the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, frowned at him
and said: By *od, this woman repented of her sin so much that were her
repentance to be shared out among the whole of the people of Madina, it
would suffice for their forgiveness"9>
The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, established such
a magnificent system and formed such an e/cellent community that neither
Plato nor Thomas Moore nor 1ampanella nor any other utopian has been
able to imagine its e=ual" .mong thousands of other e/amples, the following $
the last we have space to give in this boo $ illustrates this fact"
.bu Hurayra, one of the poorest of the 1ompanions, once came to *ods
Messenger" He had not eaten anything for some days" .bu Talha, one of the
Helpers, too him home to give food" Cevertheless, there was nothing at
home save some soup which .bu Talhas wife had made for her children" +he
consulted with her husband and they decided: They would mae their children
sleep without eating anything" The soup was too little to mae all of them full
so only the guest should have it" They sat at the table and it was 7ust when
they began eating that Gmm +ulaym, .bu Talhas wife, noced the candle as
if by mistae" In darness, they acted as if they ate but they did not" The guest
ate the soup and was satisfied"
It was dawn when they stood for prayer after *ods Messenger in the
mos=ue" .t the end of the prayer, the Messenger turned to them and ased:
&!hat did you do last night, that this verse was revealed in praise of you:
KThey prefer others above themselves, even though poverty be their portionL
#al$Hashr, :A"A)D9@
9" Buhari, Mana=ib, 9@B Muslim, ?adail, (J$(;"
(" Buhari, Ciah, ;'B .bu 6awud, Tala=, ;;"
;" !ait, =uoted by B" +mith, Muhammad and Muhammadanism, E($;"
E" Islam at the 1rossroads, :"
:" Ibn al$.thir, el$Hamil fi al$Tarih, E"9J'"
'" Hufa was a famous city in the early history of Islam, situated on the west
branch of the river 8uphrates, to the south of the ruins of Babel, in southern
>" Ibn al$.thir, Gsd al$*haba, >"@@$AJB Ibn Ha7ar, al$Isaba, E"(@>"
@" Tabari, Tarih, :"9A:B Ibn +a&d, Taba=at, ;";J:B .bu Cu&aym, Hilya, 9":;"
A" Munavi, ?ayd al$0adir, ("(AJ"
9J" Mutta=i al$Hindi, Han, al$&Gmmal, ;"AJ>"
99" .bu 6awud, Buyu&, :EB I" Hanbal, Musnad, ("@E"
9(" &.7luni, Hashf al$Hhafa, 9";>J"
9;" Muslim, 0adar, ;EB Ibn Ma7a, Mu=addima, 9JB I" Hanbal, ;";''"
9E" Buhari, !asaya, A"
9:" Casai, Ciah, ;'"
9'" Muslim, Faat, 9J@B Ibn Ma7a, %ihad, E9"
9>" Muslim, Hudud, (($;"
9@" Buhari, Tafsir, 'B Muslim, .shriba, 9>("


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