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Preface

Traditional Chinese medical pharmacy goes back to ancient times. Involving more than just the great contributions
to the flourishing and prosperity of the Chinese nation, it represents an important chapter to the annuals of Oriental
civilization. lts unique theories and miraculous therapeutic effects have fascinated more and more people in the
worid.
Included in this book are fifty clinically proved, valuable and world-famous traditional Chinese drugs, of which
twentyseven are herbal drugs, twenty are animal drugs and three are other categories. The introduction of each
drug is composed of the following eleven parts.
1. Name The narnes of drugs are identical with those in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1985). Three
narnes are listed for each drug in the English version: the Chinese pinyin (phonetic alphabet), the English name and
the Latin name.
2. Other Chinese Names They are Chinese names cornrnonly and habitually used in clinical practice, or
applied in prescriptions.
3. Origin Parts of the medicinal rnaterials, the Latin names and the families they belong to are introduced
4. Distribution lt is the introduction to the rnain producing regions of the orthodox drugs.
5. Characteristics The appearances of drugs are mainly depicted with pictures attached, to rnake them
convenient for differentiation.
6. Differentiation Common fakes and the simple differentiation rnethods are introduced
7. Preparation Forms for exhibition (e.g., slice, powder, etc.) are illustrated.
8. Nature, Taste and Channel Tropism The nature, taste and channel tropism of the drugs are explained on the basis of
the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1985) and on other classical literature and books.
9. Actions and Indications Main actions and indications of the drugs are introduced in a concise way.
10. Administration and Dosage Directions of administration and routine dosage are explained.
11. Caution The contraindications and special remarks are emphasized.
The drugs presented in this book, as compared with the rich tradicional Chinese pharmacy, are but a drop in the sea. The
purpose of this book is to provide a ladder, or a path, which can lead our readers to the treasure-house of tradicional Chinese
medicine (TCM).
May tradicional Chinese drugs contribute to the health and longevity of the people in the world.

July 26, 1989 Dr. Zhang Enqin
Editor-in-Chief of the Book
Director of the Advanced
Studies Department of
Shandong TCM College


CONTENTS

Chapter One Herbal Drugs.......................................................2
Renshen Ginseng Radx Ginseng .........2
Sanqi Notoginseng Radix Notoginseng.... 12
Daihuang Rhubarb Radix et Rhizoma
Rhei 18
Chuanxiong Chuanxiong Rhizome Rhizoma Chuanxiong
............................ 24
Chuanbeimu Sichuan Fritillary Bu!bus FritiIlariae
Bulb Cirrhosae................ 28
Taizishen Pseudostellaria Root Radix Pseudostellariae..49
Tianma Gastrodia Tuber . Rhizoma Gastrodiae.... 36
Wujiapi Acanthopanax Bark Cortex Acanthopanacis..40
Wuweizi Magnolia Vine Fruit Fructus Schisandrae.......44
(Schisandra Fruit)
Bajitian Morinda Root Radix Morindae
Officinalis.................. 48
Danshen Red Sage Root Radix Salviae
Miltiorrhizae.................54
Gancao Licorice Root Radix Glycyrrhizae.............58
Longyanrou Longan Aril Arillus Longan............... 62
Baizhu Bighead Atractylodes Rhizoma Atractylodis
Rhizome Macrocephalae..........66
Danggui Chinese Angelica Radix Angelicae
Root Sinensis....................70
Duzhong Eucommia Bark Cortex Eucommiae..........76
Lingzhi Lucid Ganoderma Ganoderma Lucidum........82
Heshouwu Fleece-flower Root Radix Polygoni Multiflori....86
Yanhusuo Corydalis Tuber Rhizoma Corydalis......90
Jinyinhua Honeysuckle Flower Flos Lonicerae........... 94
Houpo Magnolia Bark Cortex Magnoliae
Officinalis...................98
Sharen Amomum Fruit Fructus Amomi...........102
Gouqizi Wolfberry Fruit Fructus Lycii............110
Huangqi Astragalus Root Radix Astragali.........112
Huanglian Coptis Root Rhizoma Coptidis ........116
Huangbai Phellodendron Bark Cortex Phellodendri.....122
Yiner White Jellyfungus Tremella.................. 126

Chapter Two Animal Drugs

Mabao Horse Bezoar Caculus Equi . ..........130
Niuhuang Cow Bezoar Calculus Bovis........134
Quanxie Scorpion Scorpio...................140
Guiban Tortoise Plastron Plastrum Testudinis... 142
Hugu Tiger Bone Os Tigris ................... 150
Jineijin Chicken's Gizzardskin Endothelium Corneum
Gigeriae Galli.............158
Jinqian Multibanded Krait Bungarus Parvus.....160
Baihuashe
Zhenzhu Pearl Margarita................164
Hamayou Forest Frogs Oviductus Ranae........170
Oviduct
Chuanshanjia Pangolin Scales Squama Manitis........174
Haigoushen Ursine Seal's Penis Peni et Testes
and Testes Gallorhini.................178
Lingyangjiao Antelope's Horn Cornu Saigae
Tataricae.............180
Lurong Pilose Antler Cornu Cervi
Pantotrichum...............188
Gejie Gecko (Red-spotted Gecko................196
House Lizard)
Wugong ........................................................................ Centipede Scolopendra..............202
Xiongdan Bear Gall Fel Ursi........................206
Jiangcan Batryticated Bombyx Batryticatus....212
Silkworm
Chansu Toad Venom Venenum Bufonis.... 216
Shexiang Musk Moschus.................... 222
Biejia Fresh-water Turtle Carapax Trionycis..........228
Shell
Chapter Three Other Kinds of Drugs.................................... 234
Dongchongxiacao Chinese Caterpillar Cordyceps........234
Fungus
Ejiao Donkey-hide Gelatin Colla Corii Asini... 238
Hupo Amber Succinum.. ................244
Chapter One
Herbal Drugs
Renshen
Ginseng
Radix Ginseng
OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Bang chui,Ye shan shen, Jilin shen, Hong shen and Ren shen xu
ORIGIN
It is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey, Araliaceae. Wild ones are called wild mountain ginseng,, while
cultivated ones are called garden ginseng.
DISTRIBUTION
Wild mountain ginseng are mainly produced in Changbai and other mountains in Jilin Province. Garden ginseng are
mainly produced in Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
l.Garden ginseng: Mainly, there are two kinds: dried raw ginseng and steamed red ginseng.
(1) Dried raw ginseng
The main root is conical or spindle in shape, 6-9 cm in length and 1-2 cm in diameter. The upper part is connected to
the thin rhizome which is 2-5.5 cm in length. There are 4-6 convex stalk marks which are arranged in alternate order.
Winter sprouts can often be seen beside the convex stalk marks at the top of the rhizome. While at the lower part of
the rhizome, there are 2-4 tributary roots and a few thin offroots which are 8-12 cm in length. There are irregular
vertical wrinkles and thin cross striations on the surface which is light brown in colour. Cross striations of the main
root are thin and close, and the striations form into circles. The tributary roots have few long and transverse
lenticels. The dried root is hard in texture, with its cross section being yellowish-white in colour. There are many
radial crevices on the root bark, on which some yellowish-brown spots are scattered. The root is peculiarly fragrant
in smell, and a little sweet and bitter in taste (See Fig. 1-1).
(2) Steamed red ginseng
It is usually 6-17 cm long in all. The main root is 3-10 cm in length, with its surface being transparent and
reddishbrown in colour. Opaque dark brown spots can occasionally be found and vertical furrows, wrinkles and
marks of small roots are all over. Annular furrows can be seen in the upper part, while there are 2-3 cross twisted
tributary roots in the lower part. There are marks of stalk and 1-2 complete or broken adventitious roots on the
rhizome. Steamed red ginseng is hard and fragile in text ure. Its cross section is smooth and cutin-like (See Fig. 1-2).
2. Dried raw wild mountain ginseng
The rnain root is as long as the rhizome or even shorter. lt is usually 2-10 cm in length, lambdoid, rhomboid, or
cylindrical in shape. Its surface is greyish-yellow in colour and has vertical furrows. The top of the main root has
close and deep annular transverse striations and the lower part often has two tributary roots. Its fibrous roots are
Iong, thin, not twisty, and have distinct verrucous processes. The rhizome is long and thin, and has dense stalk
marks at the upper part. The adventitious root is relatively thick and date pit -like in shape (See Fig. 1-3).
DIFFERENTIATION
1. Wild cowpea (Vigna vexillata (L.) Benth.)
Dried root of Vigna vexillata (L.)Benth. assumes the shape of a cylinder or a long spindle and has no or a
few tributary roots. It is 10-20 cm in length and 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter. At the top of the root is the mark
of herbaceous stalk. It has no rhizome part (while ginseng has). Those roots, the corks of which remain
on the surface, are yellowish-brown and with vertical furrows and transverse lenticel-like scars on the
surface; while those, the corks of which are removed and the roots steamed or boiled, are greyish-brown
and slightly transparent, and have remarkable vertical furrows and very thin fibres stretching out like soft
fur. The root is hard in texture, not easy to break. The cross section of the non-steamed or non-boiled
root is fibroid and with starch; while that of steamed or boiled ones is cutin-like and with crevices in the
centre. It is slightly stinking or sometimes beanstench in smell and light in taste. The bark of the root is
orange in colour, and turns into reddish-brown after steamed or boiled. The steamed or boiled root is
rather similar to the steamed or boiled red ginseng.
2. Talinum Paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaerth.
Dried root of the Talinum Paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaerth. takes the shape of a cone or a long spindle,
some have tributary roots, some have none. The root is 7-15 cm in length and 0.7-1.7 cm in diameter.
At the top is the remainder of the xylum mark of stalk. The surface of the root, with its corks not
removed, is greyish-black and covered with vertical furrows and protruding spot-like traces of fibrous
roots. The surface of the root, with its corks removed, root steamed or boiled, is greyish-yellow and
translucent. Spot-like root traces and vertical furrows are clearly seen on the surface and longitudinal
vascular bundles dimly found inside. The root is hard in nature, not easy to break. The cross section of
the raw root is smooth, while that of the steamed or boiled is cutin-like, with a large cavity in the centre.
It is slightly stinking in smell and weak in taste, leaving a slight feeling of mucosity in tlle mouth. Peeled
and then soaked in boiling water, it turns into reddishbrown, rather similar to red ginseng.
3.Huashan ginseng (Physochlaina infundibularis Kuang)
It refers to the dried root of Physochlaina infundibularis Kuang, traditionally called Reshen
(warm ginseng) and Huashan Renshen (Huashan ginseng). lt takes the shape of a cone or a cylinder,
with a clear main root and fewer tribuatry roots. Often there is a short rhizome at the top. lt is 10-20 cm
in length and 1-3.5 cm in diameter. The surface with corks still remaining, is brown and has transverse
light-coloured lenticel-like scars. The area where corks come off is yellowish-white in colour. There are
fine transverse annular furrows at the top of the root. The surface of processed Huashan ginseng is
yellowish-brown, translucent, with spot-like fibrous root traces and dim longitudinal vascular bundles. It is
hard, in texture. Cross section of the processed root is whitish in colour and has radial fissures, while that
of the non-processed ones is cutin-like. It is faint in smell, sweet and a little bitter in taste.
4. Lactuca indica L.
lt refers to the dried root of Lactuca indica L. The root assumes the shape of a cone, often with tributary
roots branching at the upper area. It is 5-15 cm in length and 0.7-1.7 cm in diameter. Disc-shaped
sprouts
or trace of sprouts are usually found at the top. lts surface is greyish-yellow or greyish-brown in colour,
with fine wrinkles and transverse spot-like root traces, while the surface of the steamed and boiled one is
yellowish-brown and translucent. lt is hard in texture and easy to break. The cross section is
comparatively
smooth and cambium can be dimly seen, which assumes an irregular annular form. Occasionally, there
are radial fissures. It is weak in smell and a little sweet first but bitter then after in taste. Among other
counterfeits are dried roots of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., Mirabilis jalapa L., Hyoscyamus niger L.,
Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC., Campanumoea javanica Bl. Var. Japonica Makino, etc.
The main characteristics of the counterfeits are: they have no convex stalk marks in the top area of the
root, instead, they have traces of flbrous roots in the upper part. Besides, the root bark is rougher, there
are no annular furrows and fragrant smell. The tastes of sweetness and bitterness are different from that
of ginseng.

PREPARATION
Dried raw ginseng: remove the stalk and cut into thin slices.
Steamed red ginseng: remove the stalk and cut into, thin slices.
Dried raw wild mountain ginseng: remove the stalk and grind into powder or pieces.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet and gently bitter in taste, slightly warm in nature, its therapeutical action is related to the
channels of the spleen and lung.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Invigorating the primodial qi.
It is used for the symptoms of shortness of breath, mental fatigue, faint and indistinct pulse and
prostration due to severe or chronic illnesses, profuse bleeding and excessive vomiting or diarrhea.
2. Tonifying the spleen and lung.
The drug is prescribes for the symptoms of poor appetite, loose stool, magersucht and lassitude due to
deficiency of the spleen-qi, dyspnea and spontaneous perspiration due to deficiency of the lung and kidney.
3. Promoting the production of body fluid to quench thirst.
It is used for the treatment of thirst due to impairment of body fluid and diabetes.
4. Tranquilizing the mind and invigorating wisdom.
It is used for the treatment of insomnia, amnesia, palpitation or severe palpitation due to
deficiency of the heart-qi
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
5-10 grams of ginseng are decocted solitarily with slow fire. Decoctions of ginseng and other medicinal
substances are usually mixed together for internar use; or, 1-2 grams of powder are taken orally, 2-3
times each day. To treat patients with prostration, the dosage may increase to 15-30 grams for
decoction, which is to he taken in several separate doses.
CAUTION
Those with sufficient vital-qi, excess syndrorne and heat syndrome are contraindicated. Black false
hellebore, faeces trogopterorum or Chinese honey locust should be avoided to be used together with
ginseng. Ginseng efficacy may be reduced if one continues to drink tea or have radish during the period
of ginseng administration.


Sanqi

Notoginseng

Radix Notoginseng

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Jin bu huan, Shen san qi and Han san qi
ORIGIN
It is the dried root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, Araliaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
Great quantities are brought from Yunnan Province.
Artificial cultivation is the main source of the medicine at present.
CHARACTERISTICS
The main root is 1-6 cm long and 1-4 cm in diameter, taking the shape somewhat like a spindle or a
circular cone.
There is a stem trace on the top of the root surrounded by tumour-like projections, and circular marks of
the broken branch roots can be seen on its sides. The surface of the root is bright and greyish-brown
tinged with green, with horizontal lenticels, unconnected longitudinal wrinkles and some remaining greyish-
yellow corks. The root is firm in texture, its bark often gets apart from its xylem if it is smashed. The
cross section looks greyish-green, yellowish-green or greyish-white. The colour of the xylem in the centre
is darker and cutin-like with radial grains. The root tastes a little bitter at first and turns sweet afterwards
(See Fig. 2).
DIFFERENTIATION
1.Dried rhizome of Curcuma wenchowensis Liao Yao Mss., Zingiberaceae.
lt is often artificially prepared by a process of carving, taking the shape of an ellipse, a circular cone or
a spindle. lt is yellowish-brown in colour, 3-6 cm long and 2-3 cm in diameter. There are no stem marks
on its top; the artificially carved wrinkles and tumour-like projections make it right the true notoginseng in
appearance. Its body is heavy and firm, the cross section looks dark brown or yellowish-green and waxy.
It smells somewhat pungent and tastes slightly bitter and acrid.
2. Dried tuberous root of Tacca plantaginea (Hance) Prenth., Taccaceae.
Also named shui tian qi, it is 2-4 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter, looking quasi-spheroidal or
elliptical and somewhat curved. Its surface is greyish-brown, with tough wrinkles and small-sized dotted
projections showing traces of the fibrous roots. On its top, there are usually remaining leaf beds. The root
gives out very little smell and tastes bitter.
3. Dried rhizome of Panax japonicus C.A. Mey, Araliaceae.
lt is also called zhu gen qi, with a length of 5-22 cm and a diameter of 0.8-2.5 cm. The rhizome takes
the shape or a slightly curved oblate cylinder, resembling a bamboo shoot with segments. Its surface is
rough, greyish-brown or yellowish-brown in colour, and with close dense joints, the space between which
is 0-8-2 cm. Above each joint there is a round stalk trace that deeply caves in. lt is hard and brittle in
texture and easy to be broken. The cross section is relatively smooth, with a colour of yellowish-white or
light yellow. Also can be seen from the cross section a number of dotted light yellow marks of the
fibrovascular bundle in circular arrangement. The rhizome smells faintly aromatic and tastes bitter and a
little sweet.
PREPARATION
Notoginseng powder. It is the fine powder prepared through a process of cleaning, drying and grinding
of the crude root.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet and slightly bitter in taste and warm in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the
channels of the liver and stomach.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Arresting bleeding and removing blood stasis.
The root is effective for various kinds of internal and external hemorrhage. With its virtue in arresting
bleeding while removing blood stasis, it is especially suitable for patients with both bleeding and blood
stasis.
2. Relieving swelling and pains.
It is often prescribed to treat traumatism, pain caused by ecchymoma, and carbuncle, swelling and
other skin and external diseases.
The root can also be exhibited for coronary heart diseases, angina pectoris and bites of venomous
snakes.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
It is commonly adrninistered 3-10 grams daily, preferably in form of powder or pills. When it is
exhibited as an ingredient of a recipe, it is better to be ground and swallowed along wth the decoction of
other ingredients, 1-3 grams daily. Take optimum amount when applied externally.
CAUTION
For pateints suffering from deficiency of yin with dry mouth due to hemorrhage, it should be used in
combination with drugs that can nourish yin and can remove heat from the blood.

Daihuang
Rhubarb
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Jiang jun, Jiu jun, Shu jun, Chuan jun, Sheng dai huang, Jiu dai huang, Shu dai huang and
Dai huang tan.
ORIGIN
It is the dried root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Reg. or
Rheum officinale Baill, Polygonaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
Rheum palmatum L. is rnainly produced in Qinghai. Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf is mainly
produced in Gansu. Rheum Officinale Baill. is mainly produced in Sichuan.
CHARACTERISTICS
It assumes the shape of a cylinder, a cone, an ellipse or an irregular lump, 3-17 cm in length, and 3-10
cm in diameter. After the periderm is removed, the surface is yellowish-brown or reddish-brown, with
whitish retcular veins and asteroid dots scattered. The periderm is brown in colour, with restiform
holes,and coarse furrows. It is hard in texture, occasionally, the centre is soft and loose in some. The
cross section is light reddish-brown or yellowish-brown in colour and granular in outlook. Pith of the
rhizome is broader; with asteroid dots annulary arranged or scattered. The xylem of the root is well-
developed, with radial veins and evident stratiform annulations and with no asteria. lt is fragrant in smell,
bitter and slightly puckery in taste. It sticks to the teeth and gives a sensation of sand grain when being
chewed (See Fig. 3).
DIFFERENTIATION
Among the main counterfeits of rhubarb are those of Sect. Rheum. They are dried root and rhizome
of Rheum franzenbachii Milnt, dried root and rhizome of Rheum hotaoense C. Y. Cheng et C. T. Kao,
dried root and rhizome of Rheum wittrochii Lundstr and dried rhizome of Rheum emodi Wall. Their
rnain characteristics are as follows:
l. They are usually cylinder-like or cone-like in shape, some are artificially cut vertically and
transversely into irregular strips and lumps. Generally, these counterfeits are 4-8 cm in length, and 1-4 cm
in diameter. The outer skin is brown and most of which has been removed. The surface is yellowish-
brown in colour. The cross section is orange red or yellowish-brown in colour. The xylem is broader and
radiation veins are fine and close. There are no asteria (different natured vascular bundles) in the cross
section of the rhizome. The smell is not delicately fragrant but turbid. The taste is first puckery and then
bitter.
2. Make some drops of rhubarb extract on a sheet of filter paper, dilute the extract with thin alcohol
and observe under an ultraviolet lamp. The genuine rhubarb extract gives brown or reddish-brown
fluorescent rings and that of the counterfeits gives a blueish purple fluorescence.
Among other counterfeits are dried root and rhizome of Rumex obtusifolius L., Rumex chalepensis
Mill and dried root of Rumex japonicus Houtt.
PREPARATION
Raw rhubarb
Clean, cut into thick slices or lumps and d ry.
Liquor-moistened rhubarb
Moisten the raw rhubarb slices with liquor and thenroast.
Liquor-stewed rhubarb
Put liquor and raw rhubarb slices in a container and put the container in a bigger container in which proper
amount of water is poured, heat the bigger container.
Roasted rhubarb
Stir the raw rhubarb slices while it is roasted, cool it down when it becomes black outside and dark brown
inside.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is bitter in taste and cold in nature. lts therapeutical action is related to the channels of the spleen,
stomach, large intestine, liver and pericardium.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Purging away pathogenic heat and relaxing the bowls. It is used for the treatment of constipation due to
heat of excess type, abdominal pain due to indigestion, uncomfortableness due to diarrhoea and dysentery.
2. Removing pathogenic heat from the blood and toxic material from the body.
It is used for the treatment of hematemesis and epistaxis due to blood-heat, and conjuntival congestion,
pharyngodynia, gingival swelling and pain and other symptoms caused by pathogenic fire in the upper part
of the body. It is also prescribed for the treatment of skin and external diseases due to noxious heat as
well as burn, acute appendicitis and abdominal pains.
3. Removing blood stasis and restoring menstrual flow.
The drug is used for the treatment of amenorrhea due to blood stasis and traumatic injuries.Besides, it
can also be used to treat hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract, jaundice and stranguria.
Raw rhubarb has stronger efficacy n relieving constipation by purgation. Liquor-moistened rhubarb is
less stronger but efficacious in clearing away heat of excess type in the upper-jiao. Liquor-stewed
rhubarb has a mild laxative effect. lt can reduce some side effects such as abdominal pain and increases
its function in promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis. Roasted rhubarb has a very weak
laxative effect and is effective in arresting bleeding. Therefore it can be applied to treat hemafecia with
accumulation in the large intestine.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
For internal use, 3-30 grams each day. Do not decoct too long if used for purgation. For external use,
make proper amount of powder into paste and then apply the paste to the affected area.
CAUTION
Women in pregnancy, during menstrual and lactation periods should not use it, or use it with care.


Chuanxiong

Chuanxi ong Rhizome
Rhizoma Chuanxiong


OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Xiong qiong and Fu xiong
ORIGIN
Medicinal chuanxiong rhizome is the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Umbelliferae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Sichuan Province and also seen in Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi and Hubei provinces.
Most of them are cultivated.
CHARACTERISTICS
Chuanxiong rhizome is an irregularly tuberous lump like a fist, and 2-7 cm in diameter. lts surface is
yellowish-brown in color, coarse and wrinkly, and has many parallel bulgy, wheel-like nodes. There is a
circular concave stem trace at its top, and there are many root traces at its lower end. lt is hard in texture
and not easy to break, The cross section is yellowish-white or pale yellow in color, and has many little
yellowish-brown oil dots scattered about. lt has a strong specific fragrance and a pungent and bitter taste.
When chewed, it produces a slightly tingling sensation in the mouth first and a sweet sensation thereafter
(See ]Fig. 4).
PREPARATION
Raw chuanxiong rhizome is cleaned, moistened, sliced and dried.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is pungent in taste and warm in nature. lts therapeutical action is related to the channels of the liver,
gallbladder and pericardium.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Promoting blood and qi circulation.
It is usually prescribed for patients with irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, retention of
placenta, dystocia, etc. The drug serves as one of the key medicinal herbs in the treatment of woman
diseases. However, it can not be used for long. It is also prescribed for patients with stagnant swelling
caused by injury, hypochondriac pain due to depressed qi, carbuncles and boil. In recent years, it is applied
to the treatment of coronary heart disease and angina pectoris.
2. Dispelling pathogenic wind and relieving pain.
The herb is often prescribed for patients with headache, body pain and arthritis. This is a nice medicine
for headache and usualy used together with other materia medica to treat headache, migraine and overall
headache caused by pathogenic wind and cold, or headache due to pathogenic wind-heat. lt is also applied
in the treatment of arthralgia due to wind-cold dampness, muscular constricture and pain of the limbs.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
3-9 grams of the herb are decocted in water for oral use, take one dose daily.
CAUTION
lt is contraindicated in patients with menorrhagia and headache caused by excessive fire due to yin
deficiency.






Chuanbeimu

Sichuan Fritillary Bulb

Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Jian bei and Chuan bei
ORIGIN
Medicinal Sichuan fritillary bulbs are the dried bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don., Fritillaria
unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia, Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. and Fritillaria delavayi Franch,
Liliaceae. The bulbs of the above-mentioned first three are called "Songbei" or "Qingbei". And the last
one is called "Lubei".
DISTRIBUTION
Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don. is mainly produced in Sichuan, Yunnan provinces and Tibet Autonomous
Region. Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K. C. Hsia is mainly produced in Sichuan Province.
Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. is mainly produced in Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces. Fritillaria
delavayi Franch. is mainly produced in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai provinces and Tibet Autonomous
Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
The shapes of the tendril-leaved fritillary bulbs vary with their distribution (See Fig. 5).
Songbei
lt is conical or spherical in shape. The base of the bulb is wde and the top is thin and sharp, wth a
diameter of 3-9 mm. Its outside layer consists of two scale leaves, which are different in size and closed
up at the top. There are also one or two little scale leaves inside. The outside scale leaves, rolling inward,
are obtuse or slightly sharp at the top and flat or wide in the base. The surface of the leaves is smooth,
white in color and powdery in outlook. It is hard but brittle in texture and the cross section is white in
color. It is faint in odor and slightly bitter in taste.
Qingbei
It is oblate or conical in shape, larger than Songbei, 0.4-1.4 cm in length and 0.4-1.6 cm in diameter. The
outside two scale leaves are similar in size, concave and closed side to side, with an even opening at the
top.
Lubei
It is a prolonged circular cone, 0.7-2.5 cm in length and 0-5-2.5 cm in diameter, with some yellowish-
brown stains on the surface. The outside two scale leaves are similar in size, closed side to side, forming
an uneven opening at the top of the cone.
DIFFERENTIATION
Dried bulbs of Tulipa edulis Baker and Iphigenia indica Kunth. et Benth., or dried tuber of
Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Feang. are the common fakes. The bulb of Iphigenia indica
Kunth., et Benth., has severe toxicity, while the bulb of Tulipa edulis Baker has weak toxicity. The
efficacy of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Feang. differs from the genuine Sichuan fritillary bulb.
So, it is utterly harmful that these fakes are used as genuine medicine.
The appearances of these fakes evidently differ from the real medicine. The chief difference is that
these fakes do not divide, while the genuine Sichuan fritillary bulbs (Songbei, Qingbei and Lubei) split
into two parts.
PREPARATION
Sichuan fritillary bulb is rid of the fibrous roots and coarse skins, and dried. Pound it upon use.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is bitter and sweet in taste and slightly cold in nature. Its therapeutical action is related to the
channels of the lung and heart.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Clearing away heat and moistening the lung; relieving cough and reducing sputum.
lt is mainly used in the treatment of cough due to heatphlegm, irritating dry cough due to retention of
pathogenic heat in the lung, dry cough without phlegm, cough due to yin deficiency and phlegm with blood.
2. Clearing away heat and resolving mass.
It is used in the treatment of scrofula and subcutaneous nodule and acute mastitis in the inicial stage.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
3-9 grams of the medicine are decocted, take the decoction daily. If the powder is prescribed, 1-2
grams are taken each time.
CAUTION
lt is contraindicated in patients with productive cough due to cold-dampness. Besides, it can not be
used together with Radix Aconiti.

Taizishen
Pseudostellaria Root

Radix Pseudostellariae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Hai er shen and Tong shen
ORIGIN
lt is the dried tubrous root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax ex Pax et
Hoffm.,Caryophyllaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in the east, the middle, the north and the northwest of China.
CHARACTERISTICS
Pseudostellaria root takes the shape of a long and thin spindle or a long and thin stick, slightly curved, with
a length of 3-10 cm and a diameter of 0.2-0.6 cm. Stalk marks can be seen on the top. The surface of the
root is yellowish-white and fairly smooth, with negligible longitudinal wrinkles and traces of fibrous roots at
the concavities. The root is hard and crisp in texture. The cross section is even and cutin-like, light
yellowish-white in colour; or looks powdery, whitish in colour. The medicine has a faint smell and a slightly
sweet taste (See Fig. 6).
DIFFERENTIATION
l. Dried tuberous root of Melandrium tatarinowii (Regel.)Y.W. Tsui var. albifforum (Franch.) Z.
Cheng, Caryophyllaceae.
The root takes the shape similar to that of pseudostellaria root, the main difference lies in that the
former has several warty projected bud bases on its top. On the surface, there are apparent longitudinal
wrinkles or corrugations and black horizontal dents in which there are projected traces of fine roots. The
medicine tastes slightly sweet and bitter.
2. Dried tuberous root of Disporum sessile D. Don., Liliaceae.
The plant has a cluster of roots growing together. A single root is shaped similar to pseudostellaria root
and the main difference is that there are knotty stalk bases on the top. lts surface is greyish-yellow with
fine and dense longitudinal wrinkles. On the cross section, a thin yellowish-white wooden core can be
seen.
PREPARATION
Pseudostellaria root: The crude root is carefully cleaned and dried
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The medicine is sweet and slightly bitter in taste and neutral in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to
the channels of the spleen and lung.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
Replenishing qi to invigorate the spleen and promoting the production of body fluid and nourishing the lung,
it is used for fatigue and poor appetite due to hypofunction of the spleen, asthenia, spontaneous
perspiration and thirst caused by insufficiency of qi and yin during convalescence, and unproductive cough
due to dryness of the lung.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decoted for oral use, 9-30 grams daily.
CAUTION
Because the tonifying efficacy of the medicine is relatively slow-acting, large dosage and persistent
administration are needed to achieve marked effectiveness, and because of its tendency to tonify and
nourish yin and qi, it is better to be used in patients with qi deficiency accompanied by insufficiency of yin
fluid.


Tianma
Gastrodia Tuber
Rhizoma Gastrodiae

OTHER CHINESE NAME
Ming tian ma
ORIGIN
It is the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Bl., Orchidaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is rnainly produced in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. Other producing regions include
North-east China and North China.
CHARACTERISTICS
lt is long and elliptical in shape, shrunk, crooked and slightly flat, usually 3-15 cm in length, 1.5-6 cm in
width and 0.5-2 cm in thickness. At one end of the tuber, there is a reddish-brown withered bud or a
remaining stem. At the other end of the tuber, there is an umbilcate scar. Gastrodia tuber is usually peeled,
the surface of the drug is yellowish-white or yellowish-brown in color and has longitudinal wrinkles and
some spotted segmental annulations. It is hard and semitransparent, and not easy to be broken. lts cross
section is smooth, cutin-like and has rosin-like lustre. Sometimes, it is hollow in some. It is peculiar in
odour, sweet and slightly pungent in taste (See Fig. 7).
DIFFERENTIATION
The common fakes of gastrodia tuber are the roots of Mirabilis jalapa L. and Dahlia pinnata Cav., or
the tuber of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Generally, these fakes are also spindlelike and slightly
crooked in shape, however, they have no spotted segmentar annulations and longitudinal wrinkles on the
surface. In addition, the cross section has no resin-like lustre.
PREPARATION
Get rid of the fibrous roots and peel the raw gastrodia tuber, then steep it in hot water or steam it till it
becomes soft, cut it into slices and dry them.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet in taste and neutral in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the liver channel.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Calming the endopathic wind and relieving convulsion and spasm.
lt is prescribes for patients with symptoms caused by up-stirring of liver-wind marked by convulsion. lt
is commonly used, in compatibility with other materia medica, to treat patients with the above-mentioned
symptoms, no matter they are caused by syndromes of cold type or heat type.
2. Calming the liver and suppressing liver-yang.
This medicine is used in the treatment of such symptoms as vertigo and headache caused by the
hyperactivity of liver-yang. It can also be used in the treatment of vertigo due to the up-stirring of the
wind-phlegm syndrome.
3. Rernoving obstruction in the channels to relieve pain.
It is applied in the treatment of arthralgia due to the wind, cold and dampness, or in the treatment of
lassitude and insensibleness of the limbs caused by deficiency of the liver and kidney.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Be decocted for oral use, 3-9 grams daily. If the powder is administered, 1-1.5 grams each time.
CAUTION
Care should be taken when prescribing for patients with deficiency of yin.




Wujiapi
Acanthopanax Bark
Cortex Acanthopanacis
OTHER CHINESE NAME
Nan wu jia pi
ORIGIN
lt is the dried bark of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W Smith, Araliaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Hubei, Henan, Shaanxi, Anhui, Zhejiang and Hebei provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
The bark takes the shape of an irregular reel, 5-15 cm long, about 0.2 cm thick and 0.4-1.4 cm in
diameter. The outer surface is greyish-brown with slightly twisted longitudinal wrinkles and horizontal
lenticels. The inner surface is light yellow or greyish-yellow with fine longitudinal grains. lt is light in
weight, brittle in texture and is easy to be broken. The cross section looks uneven, greyish-white in colour.
The drug smells a bit fragrant and tastes bitter and a bit hot (See Fig. 8).
DIFFERENTIATION
Confusions about medicinal acanthopanax bark are commonly seen. Besides genuine products, root-barks
or stalkbarks of some plants belonging to the same genus may be passed off as acanthopanax bark in
administration. In most parts of North China, dried root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge.,
Asclepiadaceae is applied for medical purposes by the name of xiang jia pi or North wu jia pi. Actually,
it is taken as a separate herbal medicine by the name of xiang jia qi (Chinese silkvine root bark, Cortex
periplocae Radicis) in "Chinese Pharmacopeia, 1985 ed." Prolonged and excessive administration of
this medicine may result in drug poisoning. However it is effective for edema caused by heart diseases
and has a cardiotonic action, and can be used differentially. There are several aspects characterizing
Chinese silkvine root bark, as are described as follows.
It is in the shape of a trough (some are in irregular pieces), 3-10 cm in length, 0.2-0.4 cm in thickness
and 1-2 cm in diameter. The outer surface is greyish-brown or yellowish-brown, with soft corks,
commonly looking scaly and easy to be taken off; the inner surface is light yellow or light yellowish-brown
and relatively smooth, with fine longitudinal grains. It is light in weight, brittle in texture and casy to be
broken. The cross section looks uneven and yellowish-white in colour. The bark possesses a peculiar
fragrance but tastes bitter.
PREPARATION
The rude barks are cleaned, sliced into thick pieces and dried.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is acrid and bitter in taste, warm in nature and therapeutically related to the channels of the liver and
kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
With the functions of dispelling wind and dampness and strengthening the bones and muscles, it is
administered in such condition as numbness and pains due to pathogenic wind dampness, muscular
constructure of the extremities, lassitude in the loins and knees, retardation of walking in children, general
weakness and fatigue, edema and beriberi.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decocted for oral use, 4.5-9 grams daily. lt can also be taken in form of liquor infusion.
CAUTION
Acanthopanax bark is contraindicated in patients with hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency.


Wuweizi
Magnolia Vine Fruit (Schisandra Fruit)
Fructus Schisandrae

OTHER CHINESE NAME
Bei wu wei zi
ORIGIN
Medicinal magnolia vine fruit is the mature fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. or
Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils., Magnoliaceae. Habitually, the former is called "Beiwuweizi"
(northern magnolia vine fruit) and the latter is called "Nanwuweizi" (southern magnolia vine fruit).
DISTRIBUTION
Beiwuweizi is mainly produced in Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang and Hebei provinces. Nanwuweizi is
mainly produced in Hubei, Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Beiwuweizi
lt is irregularly round or oblate in shape and 5-8 mm in diameter. The surface of the fruit is red or dark
red in color, wrinkly and glossy, and the pulp is very soft, faint in smell and sour in taste. There are one or
two yellowish-brown kidney-shaped seeds which, after pounded, are slightly fragrant in odor, pungent and
faintly bitter in taste.
Nanwuweizi
lt is smaller in size, thinner in pulp and reddish-brown or dark brown in surface, having no lustre (See
Fig. 9).
PREPARATION
Raw magnolia vine frit
Get rid of the impurities and dry.
Vinegared m,agnolia vine fruit
Raw magnolia vine fruits are steamed with vinegar and dried thereafter.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sour and sweet in taste and warm in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the
lung, heart and kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Astringing the lung and nourishing the kidney.
It is usually prescribed for patients with persistent cough and asthma of insufficiency type.
2. Astringing seminal emission and diarrhea.
lt is used in the treatment of spermatorrhoea, protracted diarrhea, enuresis and frequent micturition. lt is
also prescribed for patients with diarrhea before dawn due to cold of insufficiency type of the spleen and
kidney.
3. Producing the body fluid and arresting sweating.
It is used in the treatment of spontaneous perspiration, night sweat, thirst due to impairment of body
fluid, palpitation and insomnia.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Generally, 3-9 grams of the fruits are decocted, take the decoction daily. Pound them upon decocting. lf it
is used in the treatment of astringing the lung and relieving cough, the dosage may be less (1.5-3 grams),
and if it is applied for the purpose of nourishing or supplementing yin, the dosage may be larger (6-9
grams).
CAUTION
lt should be used with care for patients with pathogenic factors attacking the exterior of the body or
with heat of excess type.


Bajitian
Morinda Root
Radix Morindae Officinalis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Ba ji and Ba ji rou
ORIGIN
Medicinal morinda root is the dried root of Morinda officinalis How, Rubiaceae.

DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian.
CHARACTERISTICS
Medicinal morinda root is cylinder-shaped (with oblate circumference of the section) and slightly
curved. They are different in size. The diameter of the root is usually 0.5-2 cm. The surface, with
vertical wrinkles and transverse crackles, is yellowish-grey or dark grey. In some roots, the bark is
transversely cracked and the xylem is exposed. The bark is thicker, violet or light violet in colour, and
easy to separate from the xylem. The xylem, with a diameter of 1-5 mm, is hard and yellowish-brown or
whitish-yellow in colour. Morinda root is odorless, sweet and slightly puckery in taste (See Fig. 10).
DIFFERENTIATION
l. Dried root or root bark of Morinda umbellata L., Rubiaceae.
The dried root of Morinda umbellata L. is cylinder-shaped, slightly curved, and different in size. The
diameter of the root is usually 5-15 mm. The surface is usually yellowish-grey or greyish-brown, with a
little violet redness in some. Still in some roots, the bark is cracked and the xylem is exposed, however,
the root does not look pearl-chain shaped. It looks rough and has many vertical wrinkles or transverse
lines on the surface. The bark is thinner (usually 1-4 mm), yellowish-grey, yellowish-brown or greyish-
violet in colour, and rather easy to separate from the xylem. The xylem is thicker (3-9 mm in diameter),
radiation-shaped in the transverse section, and yellowish-brown in colour. The dried root is hard and
tough, odorless, and slightly sweet in taste.
2. Dried root or root bark of Morinda shuanghuaensis C.Y. Chen et M. S. Huang, Rubiaceae.
The root, shorter or longer, is cylinder-shaped (5-25 mm in diameter) and slightly curved. The surface,
covered with vertical wrinkles and transverse crackles, is rough, greyish-brown or dark brown in colour,
The bark is cracked and the xylem is exposed in some roots but the whole root presents no pearl-chain
shape. The bark, brown or violet-brown, is thinner (1-2 mm thick in transverse sectiori) and generally
easy to separate from the xylem. The xylem, with radiation in the transverse section, is thicker (4-14 mm),
hard and tough. The dried root is odorless and a little sweet in taste.
There are roots of other plants, e.g., Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Baill. var. sinensis Oliv. and
Damnacanthus officinarum Huang, (Rubiaceae.) which are the fakes for morinda root. Generally
speaking, the colour of the surface, ratio of the bark to the xylem, extent of bark breakage and grains of
xylem are the main indexes to differentiate the false froim the genuine. Sometimes, microscope is needed
in differentiation.
PREPARATION
1.Morinda root: Raw morinda root is deprived of impurities and dried.
2.Morinda root bark: Raw morinda root is cleaned, steamed and deprived of xylems when it is still hot.
Cut it into segments and dry them.
3.Salted morinda root: Cleaned morinda root is moistened with salt water, steamed, deprived of xylems
when it is still hot. Cut it into segments and dry them.
4.Licoriced morinda root: licorice root (Gtyyrrhiza) is ground and then decocted. Cleaned morinda root is
moistened with the decoction of licorice roots, steamed, deprived of xylems when it is still hot. Cut into
segments and dry them.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Morinda root is sweet in taste, pungent in flavour and slightly warm in nature. Its therapeutic action is
related to the channels of the kidney and liver.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Reinforcing the kidney and supporting yang.
It is effective in the treatment of impotence, frequent micturition, sterility due to coldness in the uterus,
irregular menstruation, cold and pain in the lower abdomen, etc.
2. Expelling wind and removing dampness.
It is effective in the treatment of lumbago , leg pain and lassitude.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decocted for oral use, 3-9 grams a day.


CAUTION
Morinda root is contraindicated in patients with dryness of mouth and tongue, dribbling urination and
constipation caused by hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency.


Danshen
Red Sage Root
Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Zi dan shen and Xue dan shen
ORIGIN
The drug is the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., Labiatae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hebei and Shandong provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Red sage root is short and thick, and in some, stalk bases can be seen on the top. The plant Salvia
miltiorrhiza has several roots that are in the shape of a slightly curved long cylinder, and some of which
have branches and fine fibrous roots. The root is 10-20 cm in length and 0.3-1 cm in diameter. Its
surface is rough, brownish-red or dark brownish-red in colour with longitudinal wrinkles. The outer skin of
the maternal root is loose, usually purple brown, with scales easy to be stripped. The root is hard and
fragile. Its cross section is loose with fissures or looks smooth and dense; the bark looks brownish-red, the
xylem greyish-yellow or purple brown and the fibrovascular bundle, yellowish-white in radial arrangement.
The root has a faint smell and a slight bitter and puckery taste.
The artificially cultivated red sage root is thicker, 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is reddish-brown
with longitudinal wrinkles; the phloem clings tightly and is not easy to be flayed. lt is solid in texture. The
cross section looks comparatively even and a little cutin-like (See Fig. 11).
PREPARATION
Red Sage Root: The crude root is cleaned and cut into thick slices before dried.
Liquored Red Sage Root: Slices of red sage root are moistened with liquor and cauterized thereafter.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Red sage root is bitter in taste and slightly cold in nature. The therapeutic action is related to the channels
of the heart and liver.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis.
It is used to cure stasis due to blood-heat, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, mass in the
abdomen, postpartum lochiorrhea and other syndromes. lt can also be administered for treatment of angina
pectoris in coronary heart disease, hypochondriac pain due to stagnation of the liver-qi, and stomachache
due to blood stasis and sluggish flow of qi.
2. Relieving restlessness and tranquilizing the mind.
The drug is used to cure impairment of ying (the vessels in which blood and qi are lodged) during the
course of febrile diseases, vexation and insomnia. Liquor infusion of red sage root taken before retiring to
bed can cure neurasthenia.
3. Subduing swelling and relieving pain.
It is used to subdue swelling and relieve pain in carbuncles, sores and other skin and external diseases,
swelling and pain of the joints and muscles due to arthritis of heat type, etc.
The drug can be administered for the treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans and hypertension.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decocted for oral use, 9-15 grams daily. The dosage can be increased to 30-60 grams for
patients with angiitis and arthritis of heat type.
CAUTION
Red sage root is not suitable for patients with only deficiency but no stasis, or with deficiency
accompanied by cold, or with tendency to bleed.
It should not be administered together with black false hellebore.

Gancao
Licorice Root
Radix Glycyrrhizae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Guo lao, Sheng gan cao, Mi gan cao and Zhi gan cao
ORIGIN
lt is the dried root and rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. or Glycyrrhiza
glabra L.,Leguminosae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Inner Mongolia and Gansu. Shaanxi, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hebei,
Qinghai and Xinjiang are secondary to the main producing provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Licorice root is cylinder-shaped, 25-100 cm in length and 0.6-3.5 cm in diameter. The root periphloem
varies in tightness. Root surface is reddish-brown or greyish-brown and covered with marked vertical
wrinkles, furrows, lenticels and sparse rootlet traces. The cross section of the root reveals itself to be
slightly fibroid, yellowish-white in colour, powdery, clear in stratiform annules and radialized cracks are
found in some. The rhizome is cylinder-shaped, with bud traces on the surface and with a pith in the
centre of the cross section. lt is weak in smell and peculiarly sweet in taste (See Fig. 12).
PREPARATION
Sliced Licorice Root
The root is cleaned, cut into thick slices and dried.
Honeyed Licorice Root
The dried slices are stirred and roasted while honey is added.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet in taste and neutral in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the heart, lung,
spleen and stomach.a
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Tonifying the spleen and moistening the lung.
It is efficacious in the treatment of syndromes due to deficiency of qi in the spleen and stomach and cough
with dyspnea.
2. Supplementing qi and restoring pulse.
It is prescribed to treat insufficiency of blood and deficiency of qi, manifested as spontaneous sweating,
palpitation, and knotted and intermittent pulses.
3. Relieving spasm and pain.
It is applied in the treatment of stomachache, abdominal pain and spasm and pain of muscles.
4. Clearing away heat and toxic substances.It is often used to treat pyogenic infections, e.g.
carbuncles, deep-rooted carbuncles, furuncles, multiple abscesses, scrofula, ulcer, sore thorat, etc. It is
also
efficacious in the treatment of pesticides poisoning and food poisoning.
5. Coordinating the actions of various ingredients in a prescription.
In a prescription, many medicinal matters are mixed together. Radix Glycyrrhizae has the function of
reducing or relieving deviation or toxicity of other medicinal matters in a prescription.
Raw Radix Glycyrrhizae has stronger actions in purging intense heat, detoxicating, moistening the lung
and relieving cough. And it is often prescribed in the treatment of sore throat, food poisoning and in
relieving poisonous action of any drug.
Honeyed Radix Glycyrrlizae is sweet in taste and warm in nature, and has a better action in
supplementing
qi and relieving spasm and pain. lt is often used in the treatment of anorexia, abdominal pain and loose
stool due to weakess of the spleen and stomach, fever caused by overexertion and fatigue, cough due to
consumptive lung diseases, palpitation and intermittent pulse, epilepsy induced by terror and spasm of
muscles.

ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
1.5-9 grams are decocted, take the decoction daily.
CAUTION
lt is usually not prescribed for patients with retention of dampness manifested as fullness sensation in
the chest and vomiting. Long-time administration or overdosage may result in side effects, e.g. edema
and hypertention. The symptoms of side effects may disappear gradually after the drug withdrawal.
It is imcompatible with Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Radix Knoxiae, Flose Genkwa, Radix
Euphorbiae Kansui and sargassum, do not prescribe these drugs together.


Longyanrou
Longan Aril
Arillus Longan


OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Gui yuan rou and Yuan rou
ORIGIN
lt is the dried pseudo-carp of Euphoria longan (Lour.) Steud., Sapindaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Fujian, Guangdong, Sichuan provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous
Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
The drug is in form of longitudinally ruptured irregular pieces, and often, several pieces adhere each
other. A single piece is about 1.5 cm long, 2-4 cm wide and 0.1 cm thick. It is semitransparent, brown in
colour. One side of it is rugose and uneven while the other side is bright with fine longitudinal creases.
The aril is supple and moist in texture and gives out a faintly aromatic smell and sweet taste (See Fig. 13).
PREPARATION
The crude aril is cleaned.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The aril is sweet in taste and warm in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the channels of the
heart and spleen.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
Having the efficacy of tonifying the heart and spleen and nourishing the blood to calm the mind, longan
aril is an effective tonic usually administered for insufficiency of qi and blood due to impairment of the
heart and spleen resulting from overstrain, manifested as palpitation, amnesia and insomnia. Applied
individually, it can be decocted or steeped in hot water to be taken orally to cure deficiency of qi and blood
in the old and the weak during their convalescence.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Longan aril is administered 10-15 grams daily, or in a larger dosage, 30 grams. It can be prepared into
decoction, fluid extract, liquor infusion or pills.
CAUTION
Longan aril is contraindicated in patients with abdominal distention due to retention of dampness or
retention of fluid, phlegm or fire.


Baizhu
Bighead Atractylodes Rhizome
Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Yu zhu, Dong zhu, Chao bai zhu, Jiao bai zhu and Tu bai zhu

ORIGIN
lt is the dried root and rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., Compositae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Zhejiang, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Dried rhizome of bighead atractylodes is an irregular-shaped pumpy mass that is usually 3-13 cm in
length and 1.5-7 cm in diameter. lts surface looks greyish-yellow or greyish-brown with tuberculate
processes and disjointed longitudinal wrinkles and grooves. There are traces of fibrous roots and residual
stalk radicals and buds on its top. It is hard in texture and not easy to be broken. The cross section looks
uneven, in a colour range from yellowish-white to pale brown, with spotty brownish-yellow oil cavities.
The cross section of the oven-dried rhizome is cutin-like with fissures, the colour being relatively darker.
The rhizome smells aromatic, tastes sweet and slightly acrid. It is a little sticky when chewed (See Fig.
14).
PREPARATION
Bighead Atractylodes Rhizome: Clean the crude rhizome. Cut it into thick slices and dry them.
Soil-stir-roasted Bighead Atractylodes Rhizome: They are slices of bighead atractylodes rhizome stir-
roasted with fine powder of the dried soil of kitchen range.
Bran-stir-roasted Bighead Atractylodes Rhizome: Slices of bighead atractylodes rhizome are stir-roasted
with bran.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is sweet and bitter in taste and warm in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the
spleen and stomach.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Invigorating qi and strengthening the spleen.
As an important medicine to invigorate qi and strengthen the spleen, it is used in inappetence and
diarrhoea, abdominal distention, lassitude and asthenia and other symptoms caused by insufficiency of the
spleen-qi resulting in dysfunction of the spleen in transport.
2. Eliminating dampness to alleviate water retention.
It is used in syndromes as phlegm retention and edema due to retention of water within the body
resulting from dysfunction of the spleen in water transport and caused by insufficiency of the spleen-qi.
Bighead atractylodes rhizome is an effective medicine in treating phlegm retention and edema, sticking
itself out both in reinforcing qi to strengthen the spleen and in eliminating dampness to alleviate water
retention.
3. Suppressing sweating and preventing abortion.
It is used in spontaneous perspiration due to lowered superficial resistance against diseases and
threatened abortion brought on by deficiency of the spleen-qi.
lt is advisable to use the raw rhizome in eliminating dampness and water retention and the soil-stir-
roasted rhizome to inforce the spleen and alleviate diarrhoea. The bran-stir-roasted is suitable for
replenishing qi and strengthening the spleen to relieve dryness.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decocted in water for oral use, 5-15 grams daily.
CAUTION
Bighead atractylodes rhizome is only indicated in damp syndromes of middle-jiao. As it often impairs yin
in the process of dampness elimination, it should not be administered in patients with internal heat due to
deficiency of yin or with thirst due to dryness brought on by loss of body fluid.








Danggui
Chinese Angelica Root
Radix Angelicae Sinensis
OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Quan dang gui, Dang gui shen, Dang gui wei, Jiu dang gui and Tu dang gui
ORIGIN
It is the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels., Umbelliferae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Guizhou and Hubei provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
The dried root is in a shape similar to a cylinder, 15-25 cm long, and has 3-5 or more branch roots at the
lower part. Its surface is tinged from yellowish-brown deep to brown, with long longitudinal grains and
horizontal, long lenticels. The head of the root has a diameter of 1.5-4cm, the top is round and obtuse, with
annular veins and purple or yellowish-green remnants of stem and leaf sheaths. The surface of the main
root is concavo-convex; the branch roots, generally having a diameter of 0.3-1 cm, are thick at the upper
part and thin at the lower and are mostly twisted, with a few traces of fibrous roots. It is flexible in
texture; the cross section is yellowishwhite and light yellowish-brown. The bark is thick, with crevices and
many brown dotted secretory cavities. The colour of the xylem is lighter, showing yellowish-brown
stratiform circles. The drug emits strong fragrance and tastes sweet, acrid and a little bitter (See Fig. 15).
DIFFERENTIATION
1. Dried root of Levisticum officinale Koch., Umbelliferae.
Cylinder-shaped, the root varies in length, in a diameter of 0.7-2 cm. Some have branch roots. Its
surface looks greyish-brown and, distributed on it are longitudinal grains and horizontal, long lenticel-like
scars. It is flexible in texture. The cross section is yellowish-white or light yellowish-brown. lt gives out
a faint smell and tastes slightly sweet but tingles the tongue.
2. Dried root of Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth et Hook. f., Umbelliferae
Also named Northeast da huo, it is in shape of an irregular circular cone. lts main root is rather short,
only 1-2 cm, with a diameter of 4-6 cm. There are a number of branch roots that are more than 20 cm
in length and 0.4-1 cm in diameter. The surface is brownish-yellow or dark brownish-yellow. lt is
widened and shrunk, possessing no fragrance as that in Chinese angelica root. lt has an acrid taste which
tingles the tongue.
3. Dried root of Peucedanum decursivum Maxim., Umbelliferae.
Ye dang gui is its another name. lts main root is in a shape similar to an irregular cone, 3-6 cm in length,
1. 8-2 cm in diameter, having a dark brown surface with longitudinal grains. On its top, there are traces
of leafstalk bases; on the lower part exist several branch roots, 6-9 cm in length and 0-5-0.8 cm in
diameter. On the surface of the branch roots are longitudinal grains and horizontal, projected lenticel-like
scars. The root is hard or flexible in texture, liable to be bro.ken. Seeing from the cross section, it is
dark brown at the bark and yellowish-brown at the xylem. No fragrance as that in Chinese angelica root
can be smelled while a slight acridness can be tasted.
4. Dried root of Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata shan et Yuan, Umbelliferae
Its main root is short and thick and looks cylindric. At the lower part there are 2-3 or more branch
roots, 10-30 cm in length and l.5-3 cm in diameter. The head part of the main root is inflated, with
horizontal grains around and remnants of the leafstalks on its top. The surface of the root is greyish-
brown or dark brown, covered with longitudinal wrinkles and projected horizontal lenticels and slightly
projected fine root marks. The root is hard, but will turn soft when moistened. A brown ring can be
observed on the cross section; the bark looks greyish-white, presenting a number of sporadic oil spots in a
colour ranging from yellowish-brown to brown and the xylem looks greyish-yellow or yellowish-brown.
The root possesses a peculiar fragrance and a taste of bitterness and acridness that tingles the tongue a
bit.
PREPARATION
l. Chinese angelica root.
It refers to the thin slices of the crude Chinese angelica root prepared through a process of cleaning,
slicing and drying.
2. Liquored Chinese angelica root.
It refers to the slices of Chinese angelica root moistened with liquor and cauterized afterwards.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Chinese angelica root is sweet and acrid in taste, warm in nature and therapeutically related to the
channels of the liver, heart and spleen.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Replenishing blood and regulating menstruation.
lt is efflcacious in the treatment of flaccidity and pale complexion, vertigo, palpitation, irregular
menstruation, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea due to blood deficiency.
2. Promoting blood circulation to stop pain.
lt is efficacious for such conditions as traumatic injury, carbuncle, celluliti, sore, ulcer and other skin and
external diseases, arthralgia due to pathogenic wind-dampness, and abdominal pain due to stagnation of
blood during menstruation and delivery.
3. Loosing the bowels to relieve constipation.
It is efficacious for constipation due to the dryness of bowels and blood deficiency.
The raw Chinese angelica root (slices) is more eligible for enriching the blood and loosing the bowels,
while the liquored Chinese angelica root is more eligible for promoting blood circulation and restoring
menstrual flow.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
A daily dosage of 5-15 grams is administered for internal application in form of a decoction.
CAUTION
Chinese angelica root is contraindicated in patients with abdominal distention due to exuberant
dampness and diarrhoea.



Duzhong
Eucommia Bark
Cortex Eucommiae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Chuang du zhong, Mian du zhong, Hou du zhong, Yan du zhong and Chao du zhong.
ORIGIN
Medicinal eucommia bark is the dried bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Eucommiaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Medicinal eucommia barks are flakes, 3-7 mm thick and different in size; some are flat in shape, some
slightly rolled up inwardly (two sides). The outer surface is light brown or greyish-brown, with marked
wrinkles or longitudinal crackles. Some eucommia barks are thinner with a coarse outer layer, under
which there are many oblique square lenticels. The inner surface is smooth and dark violet in color. It is
crisp in texture and easy to break. The broken section is connected by silver-white, elastic, fine glue silks.
lt is faint in smell, slightly bitter in taste, and gives a sensation of colloid, when chewed (See Fig. 16).
DIFFERENTIATION
1. Trachelospermum axillare Hk.f.
The dried barks of the stem and root of Trachelospermum axillare Hk.f. of the oleander family, are
more
or less similar to that of eucommia. They are mostly rolled up, longer or shorter (some are irregular
flakes), and 2-5 mm thick. The outer surface is greyish-brown in colour or with greyish-yellow stripes, it
has markedly projecting transverse or round lenticels and transverse crackles. The inner surface is
greyish-
brown or whitish-vellow in colour and has transverse fine crackles too. It is hard and crisp in texture.
The
section is granular. When broken, there appear fewer white silks which have no elasticity and are very
easy
to break. It is faint in odour and slightly bitter in taste.
2. Euonymus bungeanus Maxim.
It is dried bark of winterberry euonymus, winged euonymus family. The outer surface is grey or greyish-
brown in colour, while the inner surface is pale yellow. The white gluesilks at the broken section are
sparse and crisp, which begin to break when pulled to 2 mm long. It is faint in odour and slightly sweet in
taste.
3. Euonymus yunnancnsis Franch.
It is the dried bark of yunnan winged euonymus, winge euonymus family. Its outer surface is orange
yellow or yellowish-brown in colour, while the inner surface is light yellow. At the broken section there
are white, elastic silks. The taste is bitter.
4. Euonymus vagans Wall.
lt is the dried bark of Euonymus vagans Wall, the winged euonymus family. The outer surface is grey,
and has markedly transverse wrinkles. It is crisp in texture, and easy to break. Elastic white silks are
usually noticed at the newly broken sections.
There are too many counterfeits to list here. They are generally differentiated from the genuine in the
following aspects: surface color, glue-silks (number and elasticity), shapes of lenticels, odor, taste, etc.

PREPARATION
Dried Eucommia Bark
Clean the crude bark, cut it into pieces or strips and dry them.
Salted Eucommia Bark
Pieces or strips of dried eucommia bark are moistened with salt-water and stir-roasted until they become
black and the silks break.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is sweet in taste and warm in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the liver and
kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Nourishing the liver and kidney and strengthening the bones and muscles.
It is efficacious in the treatment of deficiency of the liver-yin and kidney-yin manifestad as soreness and
weakness of the loins and knees; deficiency and coldness in the liver and kidney marked by impotence,
frequent micturition, etc.
2. Miscarriage prevention.
lt is efficacious in nourishing the kidney and preventing abortion, usually prescribed in the treatment of
threatened abortion and habitual abortion.
3. Calming and suppressing liver-yang.
lt is efficacious in the treatment of dizziness and vertigo due to hyperactivity of liver-yang.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Be decocted for oral use, 6-9 grams daily.
CAUTION
Eucommia bark is a drug, warm and recuperative in nature. Special care should be taken in prescribing
it for patients with excessive fire due to deficiency of yin.


Lingzhi
Lucid Ganoderma
Ganoderma Lucidum

OTHER CHINESE NAME
Ling zhi cao
ORIGIN
Lucid ganoderma is the whole plant of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. or Ganoderma
japonicum (Fr.) Lloyd., Polyporaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
Red lucid ganoderma is produced in East China, Southwest China, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Guangxi and
Guangdong provinces. Violet lucid ganoderma is produced in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangxi, Fujian and
Guangdong provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Red lucid ganoderma
Consisting of a pileus and a stipe, it can grow as high and wide as 12-20 cm. The shape of the pileus is
semicircular or kidney-like. lt is corky, having a hard, glossy, reddish-brown outer layer shell with ring-like
arrises and radial wrinkles. The edge is thin and slightly rolled inward. The pileus surface of the reverse
side (the side facing carth) is white and pale brown, consisting of numerous tubules within which spores
exist. The stipe, reddish-brown in color, grows laterally and is about 4 cm in diameter (See Fig.17).
Violet lucid ganoderma
Its shape is similar to that of red lucid ganoderma, but skin of pileus and stine is violetish-black or black
in color, the pileus surface of the reverse side is rust-brown (See Fig. 17).
PREPARATION
Wash lucid ganoderma before cutting it into thick slices. Get the slices dried.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet in taste and neutral in nature and acts on the channels of the kidney, lung, liver, heart and
spleen.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Tonifying the lung and kidney.
It is prescribed for patients with symptoms caused by deficiency of both the lung and kidney, including
cough and asthma which become worse on exertion, shortness of breath and fatigue.
2. Tonifying the liver and kidney.
It is usually used in the treatment of symptoms caused by deficiency in both the liver and kidney, such
as tinnitus, deafness and lassitude of the loins and knees.
3. Tranquilizing the mind by nourishing the heart.
It is used in the treatment of patients with palpitation, insomnia and amnesia due to insufficiency of the
heart-qi and deficiency of the heart-blood.
4. Strengthening the spleen and stomach to improve digestion.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Be decocted in water for oral use, 3-10 grams daily. It can also be made into forms of tincture or powder
for internal use.
CAUTION
lt is contraindicated in patients with exopathic diseases at their onset.


Heshouwu
Fleece-flower Root
Radix Polygoni Multiflori

OTHER CI-IINESE NAMES
Shou wu, Sheng shou wu and Zhi shou wu
ORIGIN
It is the dried tuberous root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., Polygonaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Henan, Hubei, Guizhou, Sichuan, Jiangsu provinces and Guangxi Zhuang
Autonomous Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
Fleece-flower root varies in size and is in shape of a mass or an irregular spindle. Its surface looks
reddish-brown or deep reddish-brown with uneven shrunk creases and shallow ruts as well as long,
horizontal lenticels and traces of fine roots. It is heavy proportionally, firm and not easy to be broken. The
section is light yellowish-brown or light reddish-brown in colour and looks powdery. At the cortex there
are 4-11 ring-like allotype vascular bundles, forming decorative patterns of cloudy floss. Seeing from the
section, the central part is comparatively large and sometimes looks wooden. The root smells faintly and
tastes a little bitter with some sweet and puckery flavour (See Fig. 18).

DIFFERENTIATION
1. Dried tuberous root of Pteroxygonum giraldii Damm. et Diels., Polygonaceae
Also called Hong yao zi and Qiao mai qi, it is different in size and looks brown from the surface. It is
usually in form of thick slice, about 10 cm in diameter and 1.5 cm in thickness. The section of the fresh
tuberous root looks whitish; it looks pink after it has been dried. lt presents no decorative patterns of
cloudy floss. lt has no smell but tastes bitter and extremely puckery.
2. Dried tuberous root of Polygonum cillinerve (Nakai) Ohwi., Polygonaceae.
Also called Xue san qi, Zhu sha lian and Huang yao zi, it is hard in texture and elliptical in shape
with brown epidermis. The cross section is uneven and in colour of loess, and sometimes shows indistinct
pattern of clouds and yellow fibrous veins. It smells slightly fragrant and tastes slightly bitter.
PREPARATION
l. Fleece-flower root.
It is in form of thick slices for decoction, prepared through processes of cleaning, slicing and drying.
2. Processed flecce-flower root.
It refers to slices of fleece-flower root mixed with black soyabean (Glyoine mas, Leguminosae)
decoction and steamed.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Bitter, sweet and puckery in taste, warm in nature, it is therapeutically related to the channels of the liver,
heart and kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Fleece-flower root is efficacious in the treatment of toxicosis, inflammation and constipation. It is
mainly used in the treatment of abscess, scrofula, sores and carbuncle, rubella, constipation and
hyperlipemia.
2. Processed fleece-flower root has the function of invigorating the liver and kidney, replenishing vital
essence and blood, nourishing the hair and strengthening the bones and muscles. lt is usually used to treat
such conditions as deficiency of blood with pale complexion, dizziness and tinnitus, early whitening of
beard and hair, weakness in loins and knees, numbness of the extremities, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis,
excess leukorrhea, weakness due to lingering malaria, and hyperlipemia. Frequent administration of the
drug alone can cure dyszoospermia.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decocted for oral use, 10-30 grams daily.
CAUTION
The drug is not suitable for patients with loose stools or with much damp-phlegm.


Yanhusuo
CORYDALIS TUBE
Rhizoma Corydalis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Xuan hu, Yuan hu and Cu yuan hu
ORIGIN
It is the dried tuber of Corydalis turtschaninovii Bess. yanhusuo Y.H. Chou et C.C. Hsu,
Papaveraceae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Zhejiang Province and also seen in Hebei and Shandong provinces and the
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
Corydalis tuber is in a shape of an irregular oblate spheroid with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 cm. lts surface is
yellow or yellowish-brown with irregular reticulate wrinkles. There are stalk marks somewhat sunk on its
top and swells can be seen at its bottom. lt is hard and crisp in texture. The cross section is yellow and
cutin-like with waxen luster. The tuber has a faint smell and a bitter taste (See Fig. 19).

PREPARATION
Corydalis tuber: It is cleaned and cut into thick slices, then dried or pounded into pieces.
Vinegared corydalis tuber: The selected and cleaned corydalis tubers are moistened and steamed with
vinegar, and then thickly sliced and dried or pounded into pieces.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Acrid and bitter in taste and warm in nature, it is therapeutically related to the channels of the liver,
spleen and heart.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
Having the efficacies of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis and promoting circulation of
qi to relieve pain, the drug is prescribed for alleviation of pain in the gastric cavity, abdomen and
hypochondrium due to stagnation of blood and qi, dysmenorrhea due to blood stasis, mass in the abdomen,
and abdominal pain due to blood stasis after delivery. It can also be used for hernial pain, general pain
(pain all over) due to stagnation of blood and qi, and traumatic injury.
Corydalis tuber is specialized in promoting circulation of blood. The raw drug is mainly used for chest
pain caused by stagnation of the heart blood, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, pain and tenderness in the
lower abdomen, etc. Vinegared corydalis tuber is liable to release its active principles when decocted and
is able to guide the drug into the liver, strengthening its effectiveness in alleviating pain. So it is often used
for hypochondriac pain due to stagnation of the liver-qi, stomachache due to stagnation of the stornach-qi,
hernial pain, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decocted for oral use, 3-9 grams daily; l.5-3 grams each time when the powder is taken orally.
CAUTION:
Corydalis tuber is not suitable for patients with pain of deficiency type and with no stagnation; or
patients with bleeding due to blood-heat and with preceded menstrual cycle.


Jinyinhua
HONEYSUCKLE FLOWER
Flos Lonicerae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Ren dong hua, Shuang hua and Er hua
ORIGIN
Medicinal honeysuckle flower refers to the dried flowerbuds or newly blossoming flowers of Lonicera
japonica Thunb., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., Lonicera confusa DC. and Lonicera dasystyla Rehd.,
Caprifolia ceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Shandong and Henan, provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Lonicera japonica Thunb.
The flower is long, club-shaped and slightly crooked, usually 2-3 cm in length. The upper part is thicker
(about 3 mm in diameter) and the lower part thinner (about 1.5mm). Its surface is yellow or yellowish-
brown in colour, and covered with short naps. At the base of each flower, there is a small green calyx,
which has five lobes at the upper part. The lobe is triangular in shape and has villi, about 2 mm long. The
corolla of the blooming flower is tubular in shape, labiatiflorous at the upper part. There are five yellow
stamina attached to the wall and only one pistil, with its ovary having no villi. It is delicately fragrant in
smell, weak and slightly bitter in taste (See Fig. 20).
Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.
lt is 2.5-4.5 cm in length, and 0.8-2 mm in diameter. Its surface is yellowish-white or yellowish-brown in
colour, with no or with sparse naps. The calyx, covered with no naps in the middle and lower part, has
five
lobes in the upper part, and each lobe is long and triangular in shape and covered with naps. The lower
labia of the corolla in a blooming flower is reversed. Its style has no villi.

Lonicera confusa DC.
It is 1.6-3.5 cm in length and 0.5-2 mm in diameter. The middle part of the calyx and the corolla are
densely covered with greyish-white naps. The ovary has naps too.
Lonicera dasystyla Rehd.
It is 2.5-4 cm in length and 1-2.5 mm in diameter. Its surface is light yellow and slightly purplish and
covered with no naps. The lobe of the calyx is short and triangular in shape. The upper labia of the
corolla in a blooming flower is irregular, the lower half of the style is densely covered with longer villi.
PREPARATION
Honeysuckle flower
Clean and dry.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet in taste and cold in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the channels of the lung, heart
and stomach.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Removing heat and toxic substance.
It is prescribes for the paitents with wind-heat syndrome due to affection by exopathogens, with incipient
epidemic febrile diseases, manifested as fever and slight adversion to wind-cold. It has the action of
removing heat and toxic substances and is efficacious in expelling wind-heat, and usually applied in the
treatment of boils, carbuncles and sore throat.
2. Removing heat from the blood and arresting dysentery.
It is used for dysentery due to toxic heat, and loose stool with pus and blood.
Frequent administration of its decoction is effective in removing toxic substance, removing heat from
the blood and arresting dysentery.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
6-15 grams are decocted, take the decoction daily. Proper amount is applied for external use.
CAUTION
Larger dosage is usually prescribed for the treatment of boils due to toxic heat. Smaller dosage is
prescribed for the treatment of fever due to epidemic febrile diseases.

Houpo
MAGNOLIA BARK
Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Chuan po, Zhi chuan po and Jiang hou po
ORIGIN
Medicinal magnolia bark is the dried stalk bark, root bark and branch bark of Magnolia officinalis
Rehd. et Wils or Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. var. biloba Rehd. et Wils., Magnoliaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Jiangxi provinces and Guangxi Zhuang
Autonomous Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
Dried stalk bark
lt is simply called " Tong po" (tube magnolia bark) for it is usually in form of a tube or a double-tube
object that is 30-35 cm long and 0.2-0.7 cm thick. The stalk bark which is near the root has a popular
name "Xue tong po" (boot magnolia bark) because it looks like a loudspeaker, the thicker end being 13-25
cm long and 0.3-0.8 cm thick. The surface of the bark is greyish-brown or dark greyish-brown. lt looks
rough, with marked elliptical lenticels and longitudinal wrinkles and, in some, with scales which are easy to
be taken off. The inner surface under the rough skin is yellowish-brown. The reverse side of the stalk
bark is purplish-brown or dark purplish-brown and smooth, with fine, dense longitudinal wrinkles and oil
marks when scratched. The bark is firm in texture and not easy to be broken. The cross section looks
granular and oily, the outer layer looking greyish-brown and the inner, purplish-brown or brown and, in
some, bright oily specks can be seen. It smells fragrant and tastes acrid, hot and a bit bitter (See Fig. 21).
Dried root bark (gen po)
It is in shape of a single tube or in irregular pieces, some are curved. It is hard in texture and relatively
easy to break down. The cross section looks fibrous.
Dried branch bark (zhi po)
It is tube-shaped, 10-20 cm long and 0.1-0.2 cm thick, crisp and easy to be broken. The cross section
looks fibrous.
DIFFERENTIATION
The main counterfeit of magnolia bark is commolnly called "Da pao tong", which is the dried trunk
bark of Schefflera hypoleuce (Kurz) Hams., Araliaceae. lt is tube-shaped, about 70 cm long and 0. 4
cm thick. The surface looks greyish-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and greyish-white corks and brown,
dotted lenticels which are 1 mm or leas in diameter. The surface of the reverse side is brownish-black
and smooth, with fine longitudinal grains, but not oily at all when scratched. "Da pao tong" is hard in
texture and not easy to be broken. The cross section looks fibrous with a range of white dotted
fibrovascular bundles in the middle, It tastes a little bitter, and acrid when prepared with ginger juice.
PREPARATION
Magnolia bark: Clean the crude bark, cut it into slices and pieces, and dry them.
Ginger-cauterized magnolia bark: Magnolia bark strips are moistened with ginger juice and cauterized.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The medicine is bitter and acrid in taste and warm in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the
channels of the spleen, stomach, lung and large intestine.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
With the efficacies of promoting circulation of qi, removing dampness, eliminating food stagnancy and
relieving asthma, magnolia bark is administered for incoordination between the spleen and stomach
manifested as fullness in the epigastrium and abdomen caused by retention of dampness, food, stagnancy
and stagnation of qi. As an important drug in relieving fullness or distention, it is stressed in treatment of
distention of excess type and symptoms such as cough, dyspnea and abundant expectoration.
Ginger-cauterized magnolia bark can eliminate irritation to the throat and can strengthen the effectiveness
in relief of epigastric distention and regulation of the stomach.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
To be decocted for oral use, 3-10 grams daily.
CAUTION
Magnolia bark tends to be warm and dry in nature and has stronger efficacy in promoting the
circulation of qi. It should be used carefully in patients with interior heat and loss of body fluid and with
deficiency of the spleen-qi and stomach-qi.


Sharen
AMOMUM FRUIT
Fructus Amomi

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Suo sha ren Yang chun sha and Chun sha ren
ORIGIN
Medicinal amomum fruit is the dried ripe fruit of Amomum villosun Lour. or Amomum longiligulare
T.L. Wu, Zingiberaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Guandong and Hainan provinces.
A small quantity is produced in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
Fruit of Amomum villosum Lour.:
It takes the shape of an ellipse or an ovum, l.5-2 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter, with three
inconspicuous ridges. The surface of the fruit is brown, with closely rooted thorn-like projections on its
body. There are remains of perianth on its top, and often a fruit stem on the base end. The peel of the
fruit is thin and soft. The seeds muster into a mass with three blunt ridges, and white diaphrams separate
the mass into three cavities, in each of which there are 6-15 seeds. The seed is in the shape of an
irregular polyhedron with a diameter of 2-3 mm; its surface, coated with membranous arils, is brownish-
red or dark brown with fine wrinkles. The seed is firm in texture and the endosperm is greyish-white.
The fruit has a strong aromatic flavour and a pungent, cool and slightly bitter taste (See Fig. 22).
Fruit of Amomum longiligulare. L. Wu.:
lt is in the shape of a long ellipse or an ovum, l.5-2 cm in length and 0.8-1.2 cm in diameter with three
apparent arrises. lts surface is covered with pathy branched soft thorns; fruit stem mark can be seen at its
base. The skin of the fruit is thick and hard. The seed mass is smaller, each diaphramseparated cavity
containing 5-17 seeds, and each seed has a diameter of l.5-2 mm. The fruit gives out less aromatic smell.
DIFFERENTIATION
1. Dried ripe fruit of Alpinia japonica (Thunb.) Miq., Zngiberaceae
Commonly called Fujian tu sha ren, the fruit is in form of a long ellipse or a spindle, 1-1.8cm in length
and 0.5-0.7 cm in diameter. Its surface is yellowish-brown and sometimes residual peel specks can be
seen tightly sticked to the fruit. The peel is brownish-yellow or greyish-green, with short soft naps on the
surface, more of which can be seen around the residual perianth. The seed mass consists of three
cavities, each containing several or a dozen seeds. The seed is an irregular polyhedron with a diameter of
about 4 mm. The fruit has a faint smell and an acrid and bitter taste.
2. Dried ripe fruit of Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith., Zingiberaceae
Commonly called GuiZhou tu sha ren, the fruit looks oviform or paraspherical, 2.5-3 cm in length and
1.5-2.2 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-brown with a dozen of projected longitudinal ridges. The
skin of the fruit is somewhat leathery with cylindral calyx on its top and fruit stem on its basal part. The
seed mass consists of three cavities, each containing 8-14 seeds ranging loosely. The seed is in the shape
of a polyhedron, 4-5 mm in length and 3-4 mm in diameter, its surface being dark grey and separated into
two parts by a crest furrow. The aril is white and membranous. The hilum is round, light in colour. The
fruit possesses a fragrant smell and an acrid and bitter taste.
3. Dried ripe fruit of Amomum chinenses Chun ex T.L. Wu., Zingiberaceae
It is commonly called indiginous litchi or Hainan false amomum fruit. The fruit peel is usually broken,
the seed mass is often dispersive. An intact fruit, 2-3 cm long and 1.5-2 cm in diameter, is elliptical or
ovate, with three inconspicuous ridges. The surface of the fruit is greyish-brown. The fruit peel is thick
and hard and coated densely with patchy, branched, soft and short thorns. The seed looks like an irregular
polyhedron, 2.5-3 mm in diameter; its surface looks reddish-brown or dark brown. The fruit has a faint
smell and a bitter and pungent taste.
4. Dried ripe fruit of Amomum muricarpum Elm., Zingiberaceae
It is characterized by its size which is usually 2-3 times larger than that of Amomum villosum Lour., and
by its thorns which are larger and more loosely rooted on its surface.
PREPARATION
Amomum fruit: Clean and dry the fruit. Pound it into powder when used.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Amomum fruit is acrid in taste and warm in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of
the spleen, stomach and kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Promoting circulation of qi to allay pain.
It is effective for syndromes such as retention of darnpness in the middle-jiao and stagnation of qi in the
spleen and stomach marked by abdominal pain and distention.
2. Warming the stomach to stop vomiting.
It is used for syndromes such as insufficiency of the spleen-yang, manifested as chest stuffiness and
vomiting or pernicious vomiting.
3. Warming the spleen to stop diarrhoea.
It is used for diarrhoeal syndrome due to insufficiency, coldness, dampness and stagnation of the
spleen. The drug is effective for miscarriage prevention therewith.


ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
It is administered 3-6 grams daily. It is better to be prepared into pills or powder and taken together
with warm decoction of other drugs. lf to be decocted, it should be put into the earthenware pot where
other ingredients have been boiled for some time.
CAUTION
Large dosage or prolonged period of administration should be avoided in those with insufficiency of qi
during pregnancy.



Gouqizi
WOLFBERRY FRUIT
Fructus Lycii

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Qi zi, Gan qi zi, Gou qi guo and Di gu zi.
ORIGIN
Medicinal wolfberry fruit is the ripe, dried fruit of Lycium barbarum L., Solanaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Qinghai and Gansu provinces, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Xinjiang
Uygur Autonomous Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
Medicinal wolfberry fruit is spindle-shaped, slightly flat, 6-18 mm in length and 3-8 mm in diameter. Its
surface is bright red or dark red in colour. There is a srnall convex style mark on the tip and a white stem
mark on the base. The peel is soft, tough and shrunk. The pulp (flesh of the fruit) is soft, sleek and sticky.
The seeds are flat and kidney-shaped and many in number. Wolfberry fruit is odorless, sweet and slightly
sour in taste (See Fig. 23).
PREPARATION
Wolfberry fruits are deprived of styles and stems, washed and dried.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet in taste and neutral in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the liver and kidney
channels.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Nourishing the liver and kidney.
It has the efficacies of nourishing the liver and kidney, and improving acuity of vision. lt is usually
prescribed for the patients with deficiency of the liver-yin and kidney-yin marked by dizziness, blurred
vision, hypopsia, soreness of loins and weakness of legs, spermatorrhea, diabetes, etc.
2. Nourishing yin and moistening the lung.
It is effective in the treatment of hectic fever and cough due to yin deficiency.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
6-12 grams of the wolfberry fruit are decocted, take the decoction daily.
CAUTION
Patients with loose stool due to insufficiency of the spleen should not use it.



Huangqi
ASTRAGALUS ROOT
Radix Astragali

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Mian qi, Jian qi, Sheng huang qi, Mi huang qi and Zhi huang qi


ORIGIN
Medicinal astragalus root is the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.)
Hsiao and Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge., Leguminosae.
DISTRIBUTION
The herb is mainly produced in Shanxi and Heilongjiang provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous
Region. It is also produced in Jilin, Gansu, Hebei, Shaanxi and Liaoning provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Astragalus root is cylindrical in shape and has fewer branches. The upper part of the root is thicker
and the lower is thinner. It is about 10-90 cm long and has a diameter of 1-3.5cm. The surface of the
root is greyish-yellow, with longitudinal wrinkles. It is pliable in texture. The cross section is pale yellow,
powdery with crevices and radial veins, like the centre of the flower chrysanthemum. It has almost no
smell and tastes slightly sweet (See Fig. 24).
PREPARATION
Slices of astragalus root
Raw astragalus root is cleaned, moistened, sliced and dried.
Honeyed astragalus root
Slices are moistened with honey water, stir-roasted thereafter.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
This herb is sweet in taste and warm in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the
lung and spleen.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Invigorating qi (the vital energy) and elevating the spleen-yang.
The herb is used in the treatment of patients with symptoms caused by deficiency of qi, such as
weakness and fatigue, or of patients with numbness of limbs and apoplectic sequelae. lt is also used in
such conditions as sinking of qi of middle-jiao, manifested as symptoms of prolapse of the viscera, e.g.
prolapse of rectum due to chronic diarrhea, and prolapse of uterus.
2. Consolidating superficial resistance to stop sweating.
It is used in patients with spontaneus sweating due to weakness and failure of superficial qi.
3. Promoting pus discharge and tissue regeneration.
It is used in the treatment of carbuncles and cellulitis which resist to rupture or which rupture but
refuse to heal due to deficiency of qi and blood.
4. Promoting diuresis to reduce edema.
It is used in patients with edema of limbs, dysuria, palpitation and shortness of breath, caused by deficiency
of the heart-yang and the kidney-yang.
5. lt is also used in the treatment of diabetes.
Slices of astragalus root are more efficacious in stopping sweating, promoting diuresis and promoting
pus discharge and tissue regeneraron. Honeyed astragalus root is more efficacious in invigorating the
spleen and replenishing qi.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
It is decocted with water for oral use, 9-30 grams daily.
CAUTION
It is contraindicated in patients with excess syndrome, yang syndrome and hyperactivity of yang due
to yin deficiency.


Huanglian
COPTIS ROOT
Rhizoma Coptidis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Chuan huang lian, Chuan ya lian, Chao huang lian, Jiang huang lian, Jiu huang lian and Yu
huang lian.

ORIGIN
Medicinal coptis roots are the dried rhizoma of Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C.Y.
Cheng et Hsiao or Coptis teetoides C.Y. Cheng, Ranunculaceae. The above-mentioned three coptis
roots are traditionally called "Weilian", Yalian and "Yunlian" respectively.
DISTRIBUTION
They are mainly produced in Sichuan and Hubei provinces. Other producing regions include Shaanxi,
Gansu and Yunnan provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Weilian
Many roots are usually connected together, forming a cluster, resembling a talon. A single coptis root,
often crooked, is 3-6 cm in length and 0.3-0.8 cm in diameter. Its surface is greyish-yellow or yellowish-
brown in color, rough and coarse, having irregular nodular salients and remaining fibrous roots or marks of
fibrous roots. Some segments of coptis root are very smooth, habitually called "Guoqiao". In most
cases,
brown bud leaves remain at the upper part and short stem of petioles remain at the top. The whole root is
hard in texture, with its cross section being uneven, bark being orange red or dark brown and xylem being
bright yellow or orange yellow. The pith part is sometimes hollow and the xylern is radiately arranged from
the view of the cross section. lt is faint in odor and extremely bitter in taste (See Fig. 25).
Yalian
Not branching, the root is cylinder-shaped, slightly crooked, 4-8cm in length and 0.5-1.0 cm in diameter.
The "Guoqiao" is longer and the remaining stem and petioles are fewer at the top (See Fig. 25).
Yunlian
lt does not branch. The whole root is thinner and smaller and curved, resembling a hook (See Fig. 25).
DIFFERENTIATION
Most of the fakes have no nodular salients, hard fibrous roots and remaining stem. They are not golden
yellow in the cross section and not extremely bitter. Saliva does not become yellow when chewing the
fakes.
PREPARATION
Slices of coptis root
Raw medicine is cleaned, cut into thin slices, and dried.
Liquored coptis root
Moisten the slices with rice wine, stir-roast the slices thereafter.
Gingered coptis root
Moisten the slices with ginger juice, stir-roast the slices thereafter.
Evodiaed coptis root
Moisten the slices with decoction of evodia, stir-roast the slices thereafter.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is bitter in taste and cold in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the heart,
spleen, stomach, liver, gallbladder and large intestine.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Clearing away heat and eliminating dampness.
Coptis root is used in the treatment of vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, hernorrhoid and other symptoms
caused by damp-heat in the intestine and stomach. This medicine may be used alone or with others.
2. Clearing away heart-fire to relieve fidgetiness.
This herb is used in the treatment of symptoms caused by excessive heart-fire, such as restlessness
and sleeplessness and syndrome of heart-heat during the course of febrile diseases, manifested as coma
and delirium. It is usually the key medicine in relieving the above-mentioned syrnptoms.
3. Purging pathogenic fire and lessening virulence of any pathogenic organism.
This herb is also used in the treatment of large carbuncles due to fire-toxin, swelling and pains of the
ears or eyes as well as canker sores. It can be used either alone or together with other materia medica,
either orally or externally.
Generally, the raw herb is more efficacious in clearing away heart-fire and small intestine-fire;
evodiaed coptis root is more efficacious in clearing away liver-fire and gallbladderfire; the liquored coptis
root is more efficacious in clearing away the fire of the upper jiao; and the gingered coptis root is more
efficacious in the treatment of vomiting and nausea due to stomach-fire.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
1.5-3 grams are to be decocted for oral use daily. 1-1.5grams are pound into powder to he taken
internally each time.
CAUTION
It is contraindicated in patients with symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea due to insufficiency and cold of
spleen and stomach.


Huangbai
PHELLODENDRON BARK
Cortex Phellodendri

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Chuan huang bai, Guan huang bai, Chao huang bai, Jiu huang bai, Yan huang bai and Huang
bai tan
ORIGIN
It is the dried bark (corks deprived) of Phellodendron chinense Schneid. (commonly called chuan
huan bai) or Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (commonly called guan huang bai), Rutaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
Chuan huang bai is mainly produced in Sichuan, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Hubei and Yunnan provinces.
Guan huag bai is mostly produced in Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei provinces and the Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
Chuan huang bai: In shape of a plate or a shallow trough, the bark is 3-6 rnm thick but varies in
length and width. The outer surface is yellowish-brown or dark yellowish-brown, even or with longitudinal
grooves, and in some, lenticel marks and greyish-brown rough residual outer layer can be seen. The inner
surface looks dark yellow or light brown, with fine, dense longitudinal ridges. It is light in weight and
relatively hard in texture. The section looks fibrous with splintery layers and deep yellow in colour. It has
a faint smell and a very bitter taste, and when chewed, one feels mucilaginous and the saliva is often dyed
yellow (See Fig. 26).
Guan huang bai: It is in shapes of plates or shallow troughs, 2-4 mm thick. The outer surface is
yellowish-green or light brownish-yellow, fairly even, with irregular longitudinal fissures; lenticel marks are
tiny and rarely seen, sometimes there are remains of greyish-white rough residual outer layer. The inner
surface is yellow or yellowish-brown. The bark is light in weight and hard in texture. The section looks
bright yellow or yellowish-green (See Fig. 26).
PREPARATION
1. Phellodendron Bark
Rid the bark of impurities. Spray and macerate it with water. Cut it into filaments and dry them.
2. Salt-roasted Phellodendron Bark
Mix the filaments of phellodendron bark with salt water and stir-roast them with slow fire.
3. Deep-roasted Phellodendron Bark
Filaments of phellodendron bark are stir-roasted till the filaments become black outwardly and yellow
inwardly.
4. Liquored Phellodendron Bark
Mix evenly the filaments of phellodendron bark with liquor and roast them.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Bitter in taste and cold in nature, its therapeutic effect is related to the channels of the kidney and
urinary bladder.



ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Having the heat-clearing and damp-drying actions, the drug is effective for diarrhoea caused by heat
and dampness, jaundice, yellowish and thick vaginal discharge, swelling and pain in the knees and feet,
strangury and otherwise.
2. Having the efficacies of purging pathogenic fire and lessening virulence of any pathogenic organism,
it is indicated for conjunctival congestion and pain, canker, ulcer with pyogenic infections, eczema, etc.
3. Having the efficacies of lowering asthenic heat and allaying ministerial fire, it is used in the treatment
of fever due to yin deficiency, hectic fever accompanied by night sweat, nocturnal emission and other
symptoms.
For clearing heat and curing sores, the raw drug is often used; for the treatment of conjunctival
congestion and pain and canker caused by heat of the upper-jiao, the liquored; for lower ing asthenic heat
and allaying ministerial fire, the salt-roasted; and for the treatment of impairment of blood by excessive
fire, the deep-roasted.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Taken internally in form of a decoction, it should be dosed out 3-12 grams daily. Applied externally, it
should be dosed in a proper amount.
CAUTION
Because of its extreme bitterness and coldness, the bark is liable to impair the stomach-qi and is
contraindicated in patients with insufficiency of the spleen-yang.


Yin'er
WHITE JELLYFUNGUS
Tremella

OTHER CHINESE NAME
Bai mu'er
ORIGIN
Medicinal white jellyfungus is the dried sporocarp of Tremella fuciformis Berk., Tremellaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is rnainly produced in Fujian, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces. Artificial cultivation is common at
present.
CHARACTERISTICS
Dried white jellyfungus is in irregular shape, consisting of many thin and leaf-like wrinkled petals. The
whole thing is yellowish-white or yellowish-brown in color, gelatinoid, semitransparent and faintly glossy.
It is hard and brittle with special odor (See Fig. 27).
PREPARATION
Raw white jellyfungus is cleaned and dried.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is slightly sweet in taste and neutral in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the
lung and spleen.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Nourishing yin and moistening the lung.
lt is used in the treatment of symptoms caused by insufficiency of the lung-yin, such as dry cough,
sensation of dryness and an itch in the throat and sputum with streaks of blood.
2. Nourishing the stomach to promote the production of body fluid.
It is used in patients suffering from dry mouth, thirst and dry stool due to insufflciency of the stomach-yin.
It can also be used in the treatment of patients with hemafecia caused by fire of deficiency type.
3. Restoring qi and moistening dryness.
It is prescribed for patients having such conditions as loss of body fluid, manifested as dryness of
mouth and tongue and fatigue caused by debilitation as well as vomiting and diarrhea.


ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
3-10 grams of the medicine are decocted, take the decoction daily. When used for nourishment, soak it
in cold water first, then add crystal sugar and decoct them, take the decoction and the swelled white
jellyfungus all together.
CAUTION
It is contraindicated in patients with cough of wind-cold type and in patients at onset of external
affection with dry mouth.

Chapter two
Animal Drugs

Mabao
HORSE BEZOAR
Caculus Equi
OTHER CHINESE NAME
Ma jie shi
ORIGIN
Medicinal horse bezoar is the stone in the stomach and intestine of Equus caballus (L.), Equidae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,
the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, etc.
CHARACTERISTICS
The shape of medicinal horse bezoar varies. Some are spherical, others are ovoid, and still others are oblate.
They are different in size, ranging from 6-20 cm in diameter and from 250-2500 grams in weight. The surface of horse
bezoar is also different in colour usually egg-white, greyish-white, and oil-brown. Some are smooth and lustrous,
some are lustrous but not smooth, or with disorderly fine lines. Horse bezoar is hard in texture and heavy in weight.
Its section is greyish-white in colour and has concentric or striped grains and glazy luster. There is often metal or
resin at the core. It is mildly stench in odor (See Fig. 28).
DIFFERENTIATION
Cement is often used as the raw materials of counterfeits. Stones of other animals are sometimes passed off as the
genuine. The following methods can be used to differentiate the false from the genuine.
l. Most of the counterfeits made of cement are not smooth in surface, and do not have concentric grains (some
have grains). Put drops of vinegar on the medicine (stone), if there are bubbles, the medicine is made of cement.
2. Put little amount of powder of horse bezoar on an aluminium foil. Heat the powder with fire beneath the foil.
Those which concentrate together and produce the odor of horse urine are genuine; those which can not concentrate
and produce no smell of horse urine are false.
PREPARATION
Cleaned horse bezoar is ground into fine powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet and salty in taste, and cold in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the heart and
liver.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
The medicine can relieve convulsion, resolve phlegm and clear away heat and toxic materials. It is efficacious in
treating epilepsy induced by terror, manic-depressive psychosis, accumulation of phlegm and heat in the chest,
coma, hematemesis, epistaxis and boils, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
It is ground into powder and administered orally with water, 0.3-l gram daily.
CAUTION
Prescribe horse bezoar with care to those who have cold syndrome of middle jiao and phlegm dampness.


Niuhuang
COW BEZOAR
Calculus Bovis
OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Chou bao, Xi huang, Xi huang and Xin huang.

ORIGIN
Cow bezoars, also called natural cow bezoars, are the gallstones (cholelithes, biliary calculi) of Bos taurus domesticus
Genelin, Bovidae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Zhejiang provinces and
Beijing Municipality.
CHARACTERISTICS
Natural cow bezoars can be classified into two types: the egg-shaped and the club-shaped.
The egg-shaped cow bezoars take the shape of an ovum, an irregular spheroid or a triangle, with a diameter of 1-3cm.
The surface is fine and smooth, usually golden yellow or yellowish-brown in color, some are lighter, some are darker.
All of them have slight luster, some are coated with a black bright membrane, called "black metal coat". Some are
rough and covered with crackles. The egg-shaped cow bezoars are light in weight, loose and crisp in texture, and
easy to be peeled off layer by layer. The section, which looks lighter in colour, has fine, close concentric circular
grains. Delicately fragrant in smell, bitter first and sweet thereafter in taste, they are easy to be chewed and not sticky
to the teeth, giving out a cool and refreshing sensation in the mouth.
The club-shaped bezoars are uneven on the surface, some having transverse, curved lines, while others having
"scales". They are usually 3 cm. in length, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, red-brown in color, with crackles and small lumps.
Fewet grains are found in the section which are darker in color and hollow in the centre (See Fig. 29).
DIFFERENTIATION
False matters of natural cow bezoars are usually in two types: counterfeits and bezoars of animals other than cow.
Counterfeits are usually made of powders of some plants, e.g. coptis root (Rhizoma Coptidis), fibraurea stem (Caulis
Fibraureae), turmeria (Rhizoma Curcumae Longae), etc., mixed together with cow
biles, eggs, hide glue, resin, etc. Bezoars of camels, bears, indian ostriches, yaks, pigs and the like are
usually passed off as genuine natural cow bezoars.
The following methods are commonly used in the differentiation of the false from the genuine:
1. Acupuncture. Heat a needle till it becomes red, then stab it into a bezoar, if this bezoar is a genuine one, it
splintery locally, the splintery pieces are thin-layers in shape, fine, close and crisp in texture, delicately fragrant in
odor, and t here is a white dot at the point of stabbing, the tip of the needle does not become yellow after withdrawal.
lf this bezoar is a false one, it does not splinter and leaves no white dot at the point of stabbing, there are no grains
found in the section and there is a slightly stench odor smelled.
2. Finger nail staining. Spray little amount of water on one finger nail, then put little amount of cow bezoar powder
on the same moistened finger nail. Those which immediately make the finger nail become yellow and have bright,
long-lasting luster, make the finger feel cool and refreshing are genuine. Those which make finger nail become yellow
but easy to faint, make finger nail have dim luster, and make the finger feel no cool and refreshing sensation are false.
3. Tasting. Put little amount of cow bezoar in mouth or lick the bezoar with tongue. Those which are bitter first,
sweet thereafter, produce cool and refreshing sensation down to the throat and have no odd and stench smell are
genuine. Those which are bitter only, have no cool and refreshing sensation and have stench smell are false. In
addition, If chewing a piece of bezoar, one feels no sand-like substance bumping against the teeth, does not feel it
sticky to the teeth, leaving no residue and making the tongue yellow, the bezoar is genuine; the false is converse.
4. Water steeping. Put a bezoar in the water, if it remains the same shape and size, it is a genuine one; if it swells
and cracks, it is a false one.
5. Heating. Take little amount of bezoar and heat it with fire. If it sends forth peculiar odor, it is genuine; the false
has no such odor.
PREPARATION
Grind the cow bezoar into fine powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is bitter, sweet in taste and cold in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the heart and liver.

ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Causing resuscitation and reducing phlegm.
It is efficacious in the treatment of coma, delirium and dysphoria during the course of febrile diseases, acute infantile
convulsion and apoplectic coma caused by accumulation of phlegm and heat in the body.
2. Calming the endopathie wind and arresting convulsion.
It is efficacious in the treatment of convulsion due to high fever.
3. Clearing away heat and toxic materials.
It is efficacious in the treatment of (1) breast cancer, scrofula, subcutaneous nodule, pulmonary and periappendicular
abscess; (2) sore throat, diphtheria, aphthous stomatitis due to pathogenic fire; (3) all sores, boils, carbuncles, fetal
toxicosis, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
lt is usually made into the forms of pills or powder. Take 0.15-0.35 gram after mixing it with water. Use it externally
according to doctor's order.
CAUTION
Prescribe with care for the pregnant women. Usually use it only for the cases with heat of excess type.


Quanxe
SCORPION
Scorpio

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Quan chong, Dan quan xie and Xie wei
ORIGIN
Medicinal scorpion is the dried whole body of Buthus martensii Karsch, Buthidae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Henan, Shandong, Hebei, Liaoning, Anhui and Hubei provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
The head, chest and anterior belly of the dried scorpion are flat and oval in shape and the inferior belly is tail-
shaped. The whole adult scorpion is about 6 cm in length. The head and chest are blackish-brown while the belly
and limbs are brownish-yellow. The thorn of the tail has a sharp, poisonous hook the tip of which is brown. There is
some black or brownish residue inside the chest and it is empty inside the inferior belly. Dried scorpion is very light
and brittle with fishy smell and salty taste (See Fig. 30).
PREPARATION
Kill the scorpions in boiling water or salt water, get them dried thereafter.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is poisonous and pungent in taste and neutral in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the liver channel.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Calming the endopathic wind to relieve convulsion and spasm.
Scorpion is used in the treatment of patients with symptoms caused by acute or chronic convulsion and tetanus,
such as spasm, convulsion and opisthotonus which are of the excess type. It is also applied in the treatment of
apoplexy and facial paralysis.
2. Removing obstruction in the channels to relieve pain.
lt is used in the treatment of arthralgia due to wind and dampness. lt may be administered alone or with
other medicines. The scorpion powder may also be blended with wine for oral use.
3. Counteracting toxic substances and resolving mass and swelling.
Scorpion is usually prescribed for patients with boils, scofula, subcutaneous nodules and mumps. Fried scorpion
alone is efficacious in the treatment of mumps in children. lt can also be used externally.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Be decocted for oral use, take 2.5-4.5 grams daily. lt can also be ground into powder for external use.
CAUTION
Prescribe scorpion with care for patients with endopathic wind due to blood deficiency.
Guiban
TORTOISE PLASTRON
Plastrum Testudinis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Gui jia, Cu gui ban, Xue ban, Gui ke, Bai gui jia and Gui ban.
ORIGIN
lt is the dried plastron of tortoise, Chinemys reevesii (Gray), Testudinidae
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Hubei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Hunan provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Tortoise plastron is a prolonged elliptical plate, 8-15 cm long, 5-8 cm wide and 5 cm thick. The outer surface is
light yellow with purplish-brown radial veins distributed, and its most part is purplish-brown. Each plastron is
composed of 12 smaller angular plates. The inner surface is yellowish-white occasionally with some bloodstain and
flesh remains adhered to it. After getting rid of them, 9 bony plates can be seen. The junction lines of the plates are
somewhat jigsaw-like. The front end of the plastron is an obtuse arch, while the rear end has a triangular breach. Each
flank has a wing, called "bridge plate" or "wall plate", slantly upwards, wings are sometimes removed. lt is solid and
hard in texture and can be broken along the seam of the connected plates. It is a little fishy in smell and a bit salty in
taste (See Fig. 31).
DIFFERENTIATION
There are many fakes, the plastrons of Cuora amboinensis (Gray), Testudo elongata Blyth, Mauremys mutica
(Cantor), Testudo impressa (Guenther), Clemmys bealei (Gray), etc. of the Testudinidae are sometimes passed off
as tortoise (Chinemys reevesii Gray) plastron. The fakes are cited below to illustrate the differentiation.
1. Mauremys mutica (Cantor): It refers to the dried plastron of Mauremys mutica (Cantor) of the tortoise family
(Testudinidae). Its size and shape are similar to those of tortoise plastron (Chinemys reevesii (Gray). The outer
surface is yellow. On each component plate, there are decentred square annulations and dark brown pieces of various
size. The outer fringe line of the humeral plate is a little longer than the inner
middle line. (The outer fringe line of the humeral plate of tortoise plastron is two times longer than the inner middle
line.)
2. Cuora amboinensis (Gray): It refers to dried plastron of Cuora amboinensis (Gray) of the tortoise family
(Testudinidae).The plastron is plate-shaped and is similar to the size of tortoise plastron. Its front and rear ends are
all obtusely arciform, with the front being narrower and the rear wider. Its central part is a little bit concave. The outer
surface is mainly brown in colour, while its edge is yellow or brownish-yellow. Dark brown stains and decentred
square annulations of various size can be seen on each of the component plate. The inner edge of the humeral and
the feoral plates are l/3 to l/5 of their outer edge in length. There is a cross striation, which is a ligament tissue,
between thoracico-abdominal plates. And there is also a marked cross striation between the tongue plate and the
lower plate, which coincides with that between the thoracico-abdominal plates.
3. Testudo elongata Blyth.: It refers to the dried plastron of Testudo elongata Blyth. in the tortoise family
(Testudinidae). Being a little larger than tortoise plastron, its front end is somewhat amputated in shape, and its rear
end is deeply concave. While the bridge plates are usually warped and incomplete. The outer surface is brown in
colour, with decentred square annulations and greyish-black stains of various size on each plate. The humeral plate
is smaller than the thoracic plate, the abdominal plate is wider and longer, and the femoral plate is longer than the
thoracic and humeral plates. The para-plate is smaller than the groin plate.
PREPARATION
1. Tortoise plastron
Remove the flesh and skin after steaming, wash, dry, and pound the plastron.
2. Vinegared tortoise plastron
Roast the clean tortoise plastrons till they become yellowish, put the plastrons into vinegar when they are still
hot, dry them after cooling down. Pound the plastron when used.

NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is salty and sweet in taste, and slightly cold in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the channels of the liver,
kidney and heart.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Nourishing yin and suppressing hyperactive yang.
It is efficacious in the treatment of dizziness due to hyperactivity of yang caused by deficiency of yin, or, of
stirring-up of endopathic wind of deficiency type resulting from impairment of yin in the course of febrile
diseases.
2. Reducing fever of deficiency type.
It is efficacious in the treatment of hectic fever, consumptive fever and night sweat, all due to deficiency of yin.
3. Tonifying the kidney and strengthening the bones.
It is efficacious in the treatment of flaccidity and weakness of loins and feet, chondropathy and infantile metopism.
4. Nourishing the blood and tonifying the heart.
It is efficacious in the treatment of palpitation, insomnia and amnesia due to deficiency of the heart.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
9-24 grams daily for decoction.
If the plastron is to be decocted together with other medicinal substances, it should be decocted for some time,
then put in others and continue decocting. lt can also be made into forms of pills or powder.
CAUTION
It is contraindicated for those with insufflciency of the spleen-yang. Prescribe it with care for pregnant women,
too.


Hugu
TIGER BONE
Os Tigris

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Da chong gu, Lao hu gu, Hu jing gu and zhi hu gu
ORIGIN
Medicinal tiger bones are the dried bones of Panthera tigris L., Felidae
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Generally, the skull is round, with its upper and lower sides being slightly flat. The chin is short, the frontal bone
is flat. There is a shallow trough in the upper part of the forefrontal bone and a crest in the back part of the parietal
bone. The zygomatic bone is thick and bulky. There are three pairs of incisor teeth, one pair of canine teeth and four
pairs of.molar teeth in the maxilla, while in the mandible, there are three pairs of incisor teeth, one pair of canine teeth
and three pairs of molar teeth, totaling 30 teeth altogether. The canine teeth are bulky, strong and sharp. There are
seven cervical vertebrae, 13 thoracic vertebrae, 7 lumbar vertebrae, 3 sacral vertebrae (which are usually merged
together) and 22-28 coccygeal vertebrae (which are usually even in number). There are thirteen pairs of ribs and two
scapulae, the latter being fanshaped and semi -circular.
The bone in the upper part of the foreleg is called humerus, the middle part of which is tube-shaped, while the two
ends are bulky and smooth. In the inner lateral side of the lower end on the condyle, there is an ellipse-shaped hole,
which is customarily called "Feng Yan" (phoenix eye). The bones in the lower part of the foreleg are called ulna and
radius, the former being longer than the latter. The bone in the upper part of the hindleg is called femur which is
cylinder-shaped and customarily called "club bone". At the upper end of the femur, the bone is hemispherical,
protruding inwardly, while at the lower end there is a prolonged circular fossa where pattella is located. Pattella is
customarily called "Hujing" which is slightly round in shape, smooth inward-laterally, thick, hard and heavy. The
two bones at the lower part of the hindleg are tibia and fibula which are parallel and close. The tibia is thicker, bulkier
and tri-prismatic in shape, traditionally called "Zheng Gu" (primary bone) while, the fibula is thinner, customarily
called "Bang Gu" (secondary bone). There are five toes in the fore-foot and four toes in the hind-foot. There are
short claws on the tiptoes. Black strips are usually found on the remaining skin of the amputated extremities or feet.
All the tiger bones are yellowish-white in colour, fine, smooth and glossy in appearance and strong, hard and heavy
in texture. Cross section of the humerus is irregularly obtuseround or obtuse-quadrilateral in shape and, peripheral
bone compacta is 4-9mm in thickness. The cross section of the tibia is obtuse-round or obtuse-triangular in shape
and periplieral bone compacta is 4-5 mm in thickness. Both the humerus and the tibia have marrow cavity in the
centre respectively, which makes up one third of their diameter. There is a thin bone spongiosa around the marrow
cavity, the marrow usually becomes reticular in form and is greyish-yellow in colour. The cross section of the patella
is elliptic in shape which has two diameters, the longest and the shortest. The longest is 3.7 cm and the shortest is 2
cm. There is no marrow cavity in the centre of the patella, around which are bone compacta and cartilage tissuses. It
has a smell of seafood (See Fig. 32).
DIFFERENTIATION
The bones of lynxes, lions, black bears, wild boars and other animals are among the counterfeits for tiger bones.
There are also counterfeits made of bovine bones.
1. Bones other than tiger bones
They are usually the bones of forelegs and hindlegs of animals. For instance, most of the bear bones are crooked
and flat, wide and oblique near the joints. Their surfaces are relatively yellower in colour. The cross section of the
humerus or tibia is irregularly round or obtuse-quadrilateral. The peripheral bone compacta is 2-5 mm in thickness and
the marrow cavity is larger, being about two fifths of the total bone diameter. The reticulate lines of the marrow are
indistinct and the bear bones are lighter in general.
The tibia and fibula of pigs are slightly crooked. Four toe bones are distinct, with the middle two being bigger. All
the bones of pigs are light yellowish-white in colour and glossy and fine in texture. The marrow cavity makes up two
thirds of the bones diameter and the marrow becomes filamentary and reticular.
2. Counterfeits made of bovine bones
Bones of the four limbs are usually the counterfeits processed to imitate tiger bones. They can be differentiated in
the following ways.
(1) The "phoenix eye" in the bovine humerus of the forelegs is relatively far from the cubital articulation, about 4-
5cm away. The phoenix eye of tiger bone is on the condyle of humerus near the cubital articulation. The bovine fibula
of the hindleg is thicker and rounder, similar to the thickness of the tibia. The fibula of the tiger is smaller, prismatic
and slightly crooked.
(2) Bovine humerus and femur are straight, the ends at the joints are enlarged and bulb-shaped. While
those of the tiger bones are prismatic and slightly crooked.
(3) The colour of fur is unnatural, and fades after soaked in boiling water because they are artificially dyed.
(4) Trivial trace of knife-cutting and knife-engraving can be found on the surface of the "claw". On the
sole of the "claw", no flesh cushion exists. Trace of glue can be seen if the "skin" or fur is taken off.
When the "claw" is soaked in boiling water, the glue dissolves and the "claw" can be taken off the phalanx, the
artificial tenons and mortises on the "claw" and phalanx are then exposed.
(5) The cross section of humerus and femur is larger in appearance and thin in compacta, the marrow cavity is
larger too, making up two thirds of the total cross section.
PREPARATION
1. Medicinal tiger bone
Scrape residual flesh off the tiger bone completely and saw it into short segments.
2. Fried tiger bone
Fry the tiger bone segments until they become crisp, cool down the crisped bone segments.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
Tiger bone is pungent in taste and warm in nature. Its therapeutical action is related to the channels of the liver
and kidney.


ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Expelling wind and relieving pain
It is prescribed to treat rheumatisrn, marked by wandering pains, muscular constricture of limbs and limited movement
of the joints.
2. Strengthening the muscles and bones
lt is applied to treat flaccidity of muscles and bones, and weakness of lower lirnbs due to deficiency of the liver and
kidney.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Usually, tiger bones are processed into pills, powder or soaked in liquor, 3-6 grams are needed each
day.


Jineijin
CHICKENS GIZZARD-SKIN
Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli


OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Nei jin, Ji pi chi, Zhi nei jin, Bei nei jin, Jiao nei jin and Ji zhun pi
ORIGIN
Medicinal chicken's gizzard-skin is the dried lining membrane of the gizzard of Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson,
Phasianidae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is produced in most parts of China.
CHARACTERISTICS
Chicken's gizzard-skin is in shape of irregular rolls, the intact being approximately 3.5 cm long, 3 cm wide and 3 mm
thick. It is thin and looks semitransparent, yellow, yellowirh-green or yellowish-brown in colour, with notable stripe
wrinkles. The drug is crisp and brittle, the section is cutin-like with luster. It smells fishy and tastes somewhat bitter
(See Fig. 33).
PREPARATION
Chicken's gizzard-skin: Rid the gizzard-skin of impurities. Dry it and pound it into pieces.
Roasted chicken's gizzard-skin: Roast the chicken's gizzard skin with sands.
Vinegared chicken's gizzard-skin: Crush the chicken's gizzard skin into pieces and stir-roast them in a pot until they
swell, then spray them with vinegar. Take them out and get them dried.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet in taste and neutral in nature. lts therapeutic effect is related to the channels of t he spleen, stomach,
small intestine and urinary bladder.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Activating the spleen and promoting digestion.
It is administered for maldigestion, retention of food, infantile malnutrition and otherwise.
2. Controlling nocturnal emission and arresting enuresis.
It is used to treat spermatorrhea, enuresis, etc.
3. Inducing decomposition of calculi.
It is used in the treatment of gallstones and stones in the urinary system.
lt is preferable to use the raw drug for decomposition of calculi, to use the fried for activating the
spleen and promoting digestion and to use the vinegared for treatment of spermatorrhea and enuresis.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
3-9 grams are decocted, take the decoction daily. To get a better effect, grind it into powder to be
taken orally, l.5-3 grams each time.




Jinqian Baihuashe
MULTIBANDED KRAIT
Bungarus Parvus
OTHER CHINESE NAME
Xiao bai hua she
ORIGIN
lt refers to the viscerated and dried body of the young krait, Bungarus multicinctus Blyth, Elapidae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Guangdon and Guangxi provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
It rolls into the shape of a disk which is 3-15 cm in diameter, and the diameter of the snake body is
0.3-2 cm. Its head assumes the shape of prolonged ellipsoid, usually sitting at the centre of the coiled disk.
The tip of its tail is very thin, often kept in the mouth. Its back is black or greyish-black in colour. And there are
35-65 white ring-like girdles and a remarkable protruding ridge on the back. Its back scale is dense and lustrous, while
the abdominal scales are yellowish-white and slightly larger in size. Its inner surface is yellowish-white in colour. It is
a little fishy in smell, and slightly salty in taste (See Fig. 34).
DIFFERENTIATION
Of the common counterfeits, adult Bungarus multicinctus Blyth and kraits other than Bungarus multicinctus
Blyth are usually passed off as the genuine.
1. The adult Bungarus multicinctus Blyth
Mostly, the adult Bungarus multicinctus Blyth is cut into strips and each strip is connected to a head of other
snake, making a rolled disc. Or, the tail segment of the adult Bungarus multicinctus Blyth is cut and connected to a
head of other snake, coiling into a disc pretending to be a genuine one. These surgically made counterfeits are easy
to differentiate. The head is liable to separate from the body; the size of the head is often not in proportion to that of
the trunk; the parts of the snake are incomplete; the ring-like girdles are sparse; and the scales are larger.
2. Kraits other than Bungarus multicinctus Blyth
(1) Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) Viscerated and dried body of Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) of the
Elapidae is the common fake. It also coils into a disc and the size and shape are similar to those of the genuine. But
the tip of its tail is comparatively obtuse and there is a / \ " -shaped yellow line obliquely leading to the cervical part.
The snake has yellow cross striations, which are smaller in number, usually 23-33 and 3-5 scales wide, spanning
comparatively broader. It has a faint smell of seafood.
(2) Dinodon rufozonatum (Cantor) Viscerated and dried body of Dinodon rufozonatum (Cantor) of the
Colubridae is also the common fake. Like the genuine, it coils into a disc which is 3-3.5 cm in diameter. The front part
of the head is yellowish-brown, its hinder part is yellowish-white, and the back is greyish-brown or reddish-brown in
colour, with yellow or reddish-yellow ring-like strips. The strips are narrower, spanning 1-2 scales, and the length
between the strips is 3-6 scales wide. The scales are larger, and easy to fall off.
PREPARATION
Rid the viscerated and dried Bungarus multicinctus Blyth of furfures and cut it into segments.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet and salty in taste, warm in nature, and toxic. Its therapeutic action is related to the liver
channel.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Dispelling wind and removing obstruction in the channels.
It is often prescribed for obstinate rheumatism, numbness and spasm of the limbs, wry mouth from
apoplexy, hemiplegia, leprosy, scabies and tinea, scrofula and malignant boils.
2. Relieving convulsion.
It is prescribed for convulsion and spasm due to apoplexy, tetanus, and acute or chronic infantile convulsion.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
For internal use, take 3-4.5 grams daily for decoction and 1-1.5 grams for powder.

CAUTION
As it is toxic, overdosage should be avoided. Those with interior heat due to yin deficiency should abstain
from using it.


Zhenhzu
PEARL
Margarita

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Zhen zhu fen, Zhen zhu fen and Lian zhu fen
ORIGIN
Pearl is an article growing in Pteria martensii (Dunker), Pteriidae; Hyriopsis cumingii (lea), Unionidae; or
Cristaria plicata (Leach), Unionidae.
DISTRIBUTION
Natural pearl is mainly produced in Guangdong, Guangxi and Taiwan provinces. Fresh water cultivated pearl is
produced in Heilongjiang, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces and Shanghai Municipality.
CHARACTERISTICS
Natural pearls differ in size, the smallest being as small as a mustard seed and the largest as large as a soybean.
They are round, oblong or rod-like in shape. The surface is smooth or has shallow concavities, presenting a special
lustre in white, light pink, pale, yellowish-green or other colors. It is hard in texture, and when broken, one can see
stratifications on the broken surface. Sornetimes, there are foreign substances found in the centre of the pearl. It
gives out cracks when burnt. It is odorless and tasteless (See Fig. 35).
DIFFERENTIATION
The fake pearls are usually man-made, globular, oblong or oblate in shape, or in shape of an irregular
polyhedron, with a diameter of 1-2 mm. Its outer glossy layer is made of lead compound which is toxic,
while the kernel is made from polished shell piece. lt gives off violetish-brown fluorescence if observed
under ultraviolet lamp and a few of them giving off yellowish-green fluorescence. The fluorescence is stronger at the
middle of the pearl. Fakes made directly from pearl shell can also be seen.
PREPARATION
Pearl powder
It is usually pounded to pieces first, then made into fine powder through repeated grinding in water. Get the wet
powder dred.
Calcined pearl
Put pearls in an iron pot covered with a bowl. Calcine them until they give off the sound of cracking. Grind the
calcined pearls into fine powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet and salty in taste, and cold in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the heart and
liver.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Tranquilizing the mind and arresting convulsion.
Pearl is used in the treatment of epilepsy, palpitation due to fright, acute febrile infantile convulsion, etc. Some
people take the mixture of pearl powder and honey to treat restlessness and panic.
2. Improving acuity of vision and removing nebula.
It is applied in the treatment of conjunctivitis, pterygium, nebula and astringent pain in the eyes. It may be taken
orally, however it is usually used as eye drops in combination with other medicines.
3. Removing toxic substances and promoting granulation.
Pearl is prescribed to treat nonunion of ulcers.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Pearl is made into the forms of pills or powder, not decoction, 0.3-1.0 gram in each dosage. The extremely fine
powder may be used externally, e.g. puffing the powder to cover the sore throat, dressing ulcers and even making
preparations for eye use.
CAUTION
Pearl is contraindicated in patients without fire of excess type and stagnated heat.


Hamayou
FOREST FROG'S OVIDUCT
Oviductus Ranae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Ha shi ma you, Tian ji you and Ha shi ma you
ORIGIN
Medicinal forest frog's oviduct is the dried fallopian tube of Rana temporaria chensinensis David, Ranidae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Dried forest frog's oviduct is an irregular lump, crooked and overlapped. lt is 1.5-2 cm in length and 1.5-5
mm in thickness. lts surface, occasionally with dried greyish-white pellicles, is yellowish-white in colour
and is of liparoid lustre. lt is sating, able to expand 10-15 times bigger when exposed to water, stiking in
smell, sweet in taste and glutinous when chewed (See Fig. 36).
DIFFERENTIATION
Among the common counterfeits are artificially made products which, in reality, are potato (Solanum
tuberosum L.) or sweet potato (Lpomoea batatas L. Lam.). The common confusing fakes of other kinds
are dried fallopian tubes of Rana Limnocharis Bovie or Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor.
l. Counterfeits made of potatoes
They are irregular flat lumps and vary in size, with the largest being no more than a grain of corn.
There are knife cut traces on the edges. Their surfaces are greyish-white in colour, translucent and cutin-
like. They are hard in texture, no trace is left if pressed with hand. Only the surface expands to some
extent when exposed to water and becomes greyish-white in colour and granular in shape, the colour falls
off when touched by hand, and it remains hard at the core. It is faint in odor and weak in taste.
2. Counterfeits made of sweet potatoes
Though similar to tbe counterfeits made of potatoes in size and in shape, their surfaces are light
yellowish-brown in colour, translucent, cutin-like and hard in texture. The surface expands when exposed
to water and becomes smooth and slippery. They are weak in smell and sweet in taste.
3. Fallopian tubes of Rana Limnocharis Bovie or Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor
These fallopian tubes are, in appearance, clusters of lumps, or intestine-like crimps. They are harder
in texture, less crisp and swell to a less extent (about 3-7 times larger) wheh exposed to water.
PREPARATION
Forest frog's oviduct is cleaned and dried.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is sweet and salty in taste and neutral in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of
the lung and kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Tonifying the kidney and replenishing the vital essence.
It is efficacious in the treatment of asthenia after sickness or delivery, deficiency in vigour, palpitation
and insomnia.
2. Nourishing yin to moisten the lung.
It is often prescribed to treat cough, hemoptysis and night sweat due to pulmonary tuberculosis.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
5-15 grams are stewed in water, take the soup with sugar daily. It can also be made into pills and
powder.


CAUTION
Those with the initial symptoms of exopathic diseases and with anorexia and loose stool should be
cautious in takin it.


Chuanshanjia
PANGOLIN SCALES
Squama Manitis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Ling li jia, Shan jia, Shan jia pian, Jia pian, Pao shan jia, Chao shan jia and Shan jia zhu
ORIGIN
Medicinal pangolin scales are the scales of the pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla Linnaeus), Mandae.
DISTRIBUTION
Pangolin scales are mainly produced in Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guizhou, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Pangolin scales manifest themselves in different shapes: oblate, triangular, rhomobohedral or trapezoid; some are
flat, while others are bow-shaped. Be they big or small in size (usually 3-5 cm in length, 4-5 cm in width), all of the
scales are thicker in the middle part and thinner along the edges. The outer surface of each scale is yellowish-brown
or dark brown in colour and is lustrous. There are dozens of regularly arranged longitudinal lines and several
transverse lines on the wider end. Ther narrower end of the outer surface is smooth. The inner surface of the scale is
lighter in colour, and has a bow-shaped transverse ridge in the middle. There are several grains parallelling with the
ridge. The whole scale is a translucent cutin, tough and elaslic, not easy to break. It is faint in taste and has a slight
odor of seafood (See Fig. 37).
PREPARATION
1. Raw pangolin scales
The impurities are scraped off the scales before they are washed and dried.
2. Roasted pangolin scales
Classify the cleaned scales into different groups according to size. Put a group of scales in the heated sands
(which are usually in big cauldron with fire beneath), stir them, take them out after they get swelled. Wash the
swelled scales when they cool down. Then get them dried. Pound them into pieces when used.
3. Vinegared pangolin scales
When the scales get swelled in the heated sands, take them out and put them into vinegar immediately. Take
them out from the vinegar and dry them. Pound them into pieces when used.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The medicine is salty in taste and, slightly cold in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the
liver and stomach.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Promoting blood circulation and restoring menstrual flow.
It is efficacious in the treatment of amenorrhea and mass in the abdomen due to blood stasis, etc.
2. Expelling pathogenic wind and removing obstruction in the channels.
It is efficacious in the treatment of numbness and pain due to pathogenic wind-dampness, muscular constricture
and numbness of the extremities.
3. Stimulating milk secretion.
It is efficacious in the treatment of galactostasis.
4. Relieving swells and promoting pus discharge.
It is efficacious in the treatment of new or un-ruptured boils and carbuncles, scrofula, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Decoct the scales for oral use, 4.5-9 grams daily. The roasted pangolin scales are usually used.
CAUTION
Prescribe it with care for pregnant women.

Haigoushen
URSINE SEAL'S PENIS AND TESTES
Peni et Testes Callorhini

OTHER CHINESE NAME
Wa na qi
ORIGIN
The medicinal ursine seal's penis and testes are dried ones of Callorhinus ursinus L. or Phoca vitulina L.,
Phocidae.
DISTRIBUTION
They are produced near the coastline of the Bohai Sea and the Huanghai Sea (Yellow Sea).
CHARACTERISTICS
The medicinal ursine seal's penis is a dried cylinder-shaped object, with a thinner end, totaling 28-32 cm in length.
There are longitudinal folds and ruts and a longitudinal t endon on its surface. It is yellow or yellowish-brown in
colour, with brown speckles. The other end is a prolonged ellipse-shaped sac, usually 4 cm in length, 3 cm in width,
with yellowish-brown hair in some.
The medicinal ursine seal's testes are two in number, flat and elliptic in shape, brown in colour and translucent,
connected with two spermatic ducts in each. The spermatic ducts are yellow in colour, translucent and usually
twining round the penis. The epididymides are shrunk, milky-yellow in colour, and attached to the testes (See Fig.
38).
PREPARATION
Cleaned ursine seal's penis and testes are dried and ground into powder, or they are moistened with liquor first,
then roasted and ground into powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The medicine is salty in taste and hot in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the channels of the liver and
kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
The medicine can warm the kidney to invigorate yang and replenish the vital essence to reinforce the marrow. lt is
efficacious in the treatment of consumptive diseases, impotence, cold sperm, lassitude in the loins and legs due to
deficiency of the kidney-yang, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Moisten the ursine seal's penis and testes with liquor and roast them till they become crisp, then grind them into
powder, which may be further prepared into pills, 2-3 grams daily for powder or pills. The penis and testes can also
be stewed, 3-10 grams are usually the required quantity to be used each day. Still other preparation is the infusion
with liquor. Put one set of ursine seal's penis and testes in l.5 kg of liquor, steep them till the medicinal liquor is ready
for oral use.
CAUTION
The medicine is contraindicated in those who have excess of yang due to deficiency of yin, whose penises erect too
frequently, or who have phthisical cough or hectic fever duc to yin deficiency.


Lingyangjiao
ANTELOPES HORN
Cornu Saigae Tataricae

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Da bi ling, Ling yang fen, Ling yang pian and Quan huo ling yang jiao
ORIGIN
Medicinal substance is the horn of the male Saiga tatarica L., Bovidae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in the north part of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Yili and Bolotala river valley).

CHARACTERISTICS
The antelope's horn is like a long circular cone in shape, slightly curved. lt is 15-33 cm in length and whitish or
yellowish-white in colour, with its base part being whitish-grey. "Blood streak" or purplish-black streak can be seen
against light in a tender horn which is smooth and slippery like a jade and has no crackles; while an overgrown horn
has minute vertical crackles. With the exception of the tip part, the horn has 10-16 circular bulging ridges, the
distance between each two ridges is about 2 cm, just fitting the four fingers if grasping the horn body. The cross
section of the horn's base is circular in shape and 3-4 cm in diameter. There is a hard and heavy cone inside, which is
customarily referred to as "Gu Sai" (bone plug). The length of the bone plug accounts for one-third or one second,
of the total horn length. The bulging vertical ridge on the surface of the bone plug fits tightly into the concave
groove of the inner side of the horn cutin sheath. Observing from the view of vertical section, the joining part of
bone and cutin sheath is like sawtooth. After the bone plug is removed, the lower half of the horn becomes hollow
and the whole horn is translucent. Observing the horn against the sun light, a narrow passage in the centre of the
upper half leads to the tip of the horn, which is customarily called "Tong Tian Yan" (through-to-the-tip hole). It is
hard in texture, nothing in smell and light in taste (See Fig. 39).
DIFFERENTIATION
l. Mongolian gazelle's horn
It refers to the horn of Procapra gutturosa Pallas (Bovidae). Like a long circular cone in shape, faintly flat in
the side and slightly backward curved, it is 20-27 cm in length and 3-4 cm in diameter at the base. The base part,
round and rough, is greyish-brown or yellowish-brown in colour. There are 17-25 evidently annular bulging obtuse
ridges on the surface from the base to the centre. The distance between each two ridges is 3-6 mm. The whole
surface is covered with vertical furrows and the base part is round. The whole horn is opaque, has bigger "Gu Sai"
(bone plug) and has no Tong Tian Yan" (through-to-the-tip hole).
2. Long-tail Mongolian Gazelle's horn
It refers to the horn of Gazella subgutturosa Gldenstaedt (Bovidae). Like a long circular cone in form, a little
flat, and bow-shaped with its tip remarkably inwardly curved, the horn is 3-7 cm in diameter (at the base), black,
glossy and has vertical grains. There are oblique circular ridges in the lower middle part. The distance between each
two ridges is 1.5- cm. While in the central part, the ridges are semi -circular. The whole horn is opaque and has no "
Tong Tian Yan" (through-to-the-tip hole).
3. Counterfeit
It refers to the horn of Capra hircus L. (Bovidae) processed to simulate the horn of Saiga tatarica L. The
counterfeited horn is a long circular cone in shape, 18-22 cm in length, 3-4 cm in diameter (at the base) and yellowish-
brown on the surface. The central part is slightly curved, the tip is outwardupward curved, forming an "S". lts
surface is smooth and a little transparent. There are 14 counterfeited annular ridges and knife-cut trace on the middle
and lower parts. The distance between each two ridges is about 1 cm. Usually, there is no annular ridge 3.5 cm from
the tip end, no bone plug at the base and no "through-to-the-tip hole".
Besides, the horns of Procapra picticaudata H., Capra hircus L. or Capra ibex L. are sometimes mixed up
together with the Saiga tatarica L. horn to pass off as the genuine. Lead granules are sometimes inlaid inside the
Saiga tatarica L. horn, which can be found by naked eye or X-ray.
PREPARATION
1. Flat pieces of antelope's horn
Remove the "Gu Sai (bone plug) and soak the horn in warm water for some time. Take the horn out of water, cut
or pound it into flat pieces and dry.
2. Powder of antelope's horn
Remove the "Gu Sai" (bone plug), pound and grind the horn into powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is salty in taste and cold in nature. lts therapeutical action is related to the channels of the liver and heart.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Checking hyperactivity of the liver and relieving convulsion.
As important medicine for the treatment of up-stirring of liver-wind, infantile convulsion and epilepsy, it is applied to
the treatment of infantile convulsion, epilepsy, continuous high fever and occurrence in wind syndrome in case of
extreme heat.
2. Calming the liver and suppressing hyperactivity of the liver-yang.
It is efficacious in the treatment of dazzle and vertigo due to hyperactivity of the liver-yang.
3. Removing intensive heat from the liver and improving acuity of vision.
lt is applied to the treatment of headache and conjunctival congestion due to excessiveness of liver-fire.
4. Clearing away heat and toxic material.
It is efficacious in the treatment of unconsciousness, delirium and mania in the course of epidemic febrile
diseases.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
1-3 grams are decocted for two hours or more, take the decoction with water daily; 0.3-0.6 gram of the horn is
made into juice or powder and to be taken each time.


Lurong
PILOSE ANTLER
Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum


OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Guan lu rong, Nen lu rong, Xue rong pian and Lu rong fen
ORIGIN
Medicinal pilose antlers are the un-ossified pilose young horns of the male deer, sika or red deer
(Cervus Nippon Temminck or Cervus Elaphus Linnaeus), Cervidae. Pilose antlers can be classified into two kinds:
the pilose antlers of the sika (deer) and the pilose antlers of the red deer.
DISTRIBUTION
Pilose antlers of the sika (Cervus nippon Temminck) are mainly produced in Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei provinces and
Tianjin Municipality; the pilose antlers of the red deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus) are chiefly produced in
Heilongjiang, Qinghai provinces and Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous regions.
CHARACTERISTICS
l. Pilose Antlers of the Sika
These pilose antlers have a cylinder-shaped main trunk with one branch (usually called "one-branch fork or two
branches (usually called two-branch fork). Those that are bulky, round in the cross section of the main trunk, full-
grown at the tip, tender in texture, fine and close in pilose, brownish-red in colour, plump and glossy in the surface
are better.
(1) One-branch-fork antler. Its main trunk is 17-20 cm in length, 4-5 cm in diameter (at the amputation section). The
branch is thinner than the main trunk at the point from which it is 2 cm to the amputation section of the main trunk. Its
surface is brown or reddish-brown in colour, smooth and glossy, yellowish-red or yellowish-brown in pilose, with
finer and closer fur in the upper part of the antler. There is a greyish-dark fascia at the junction of the main trunk and
the branch. The amputation section is whitish-yellow in colour, not ossified in periphery, and has many fine holes in
the centre. The one-branch-fork antler is light in weight, slightly salty in taste.
(2) Two-branch fork antler The main trunk is 23-33 cm in length, thinner in diameter than that of the one-branch
fork antler, slightly bow-shaped and flat. The upper end of the main trunk is much thinner while the lower part has
ridges and lumps.
The two branch fork antlers are yellowish-red in the surface and have sparse, rough hair (See Fig. 40).
2. Pilose Antlers of the Red Deer
These pilose antlers are bulkier with more branches. Special names are given to the pilose antlers of the red deer:
the one having one branch is called "Dan Men"; the one having two branches, called "Lian Hua"; the one having
three branches, called "San Ca"; the one having four branches, called "Si Ca". Those produced in the north-east
provinces are called "east pilose antlers of the red deer", while those produced in the northwest provinces, called
"west pilose antlers of the red deer". Those which are fuller in appearance, lighter in weight, greyish-brown in hair,
and have no ridges in the lower part are better.
(1) East pilose antlers of the red deer
a. "One-branch" pilose antlers: The main trunk is 25-27 cm in length, 3 cm in diameter. The skin is greyish-black,
and the pilose is greyish-brown or yellowish-grey. The periphery of the amputation section is thicker and greyish-
black in colour, and there are fine holes in the central part of the section. lt is tender in texture.
b. "Two-branch" pilose antlers: The main trunk, with longitudinal ridges in the surface of the lower part, is
about 33 cm in length. The holes on the amputation section are bigger than those of the "one-branch" pilose
antlers.
c. "Three-branch" pilose antlers: These antlers are darker in colour and tougher in texture.
d. "Four-branch" pilose antlers: The hair is rough and sparse, the lower part of the main trunk has ridges and
lumps, the upper ends of the branches have no hair.
(2) West pilose antlers of the red deer
The main trunk is 30-100 cm in length, the section of which is often not round. The surface, with ridges clearly
seen, is usually dry and shrunk. The branches are long and curved. The hair is longer and rougher, grey or greyish-
black in colour. The amputation section, in which bony structure is seen, is darker in colour. West pilose antlers of
the red deer are stench in odor, salty in taste (See Fig. 40-2).
Most of the pilose antlers are amputated when the deer is still alive. Such pilose antlers are called "amputated
pilose antlers". Some pilose antlers are chopped off, with the skull attached, this is done when the deer is already
dead. Such pilose antlers are called "chopped pilose antlers". The shape of these pilose antlers is the same as that of
amputated pilose antlers. lt is smooth on the front part of the cranial bone. On both sides of the hinder part of the
cranial bone, there are a pair of arc bones, which are customarily called "Hu Ya" (tiger teeth). There are cerebral
cortices attached outside with dense hair.
DIFFERENTIATION
Most of the counterfeits are made of bone glue of other animal bones, wrapped up with similar fur. To confuse
the consumers, the counterfeits are usually sliced up. The slices, are heavier in weight, not easy to break. The
section of the slice is brownish-violet in colour, has no fine holes though some have concaves. The wrapping fur
can be peeled off.
PREPARATION
l. Slices
Shed the pilose, soak the antler in hot liquor and warm it by the fire till it becomes soft. Slice the antler, flatten
and dry the slices.
2. Powder
Shed the pilose (hair), chop the antler into pieces, and then grind the pieces into fine powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The medicine is sweet and salty in taste and warm in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the channels of the
kidney and liver.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Replenishing the kidney-yang.
The medicine is used to treat syndromes of insufficiency of the kidney-yang manifested as intolerance of cold,
cold extremities, impotence, premature ejaculation, sterility due to cold uterus, frequent micturition, sore in the loins
and legs, dizziness, tinnitus, mental fatigue, etc.
2. Replenishing the vital essence and blood strengthening the bones and muscles.
It is efficacious in the treatment of insufficiency of essence and blood, weakness of muscles and bones,
maldevelopment of children, infantile metopism, etc.
3. Regulating chong and ren channels and reinforcing the dai channel.
It is efficacious in the treatment of insufficiency-type cold of the chong and ren channels and runaway of the dai
channel manifested as metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, abundant leukorrhea, etc.
4. Warming and promoting pus discharge.
lt is efflcacious in the treatment of protracted skin and external diseases, deep seated abscess of yin type, etc.

ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Pure powder for oral use, 1-3 grams daily, three times a day. lt can be mixed with other drugs and preparaed into pills
or powder.
CAUTION
Start with small dosage of this medicine, increase the dosage slowly thereafter, so as to avoid side-effetts
manifested as dizziness and conjunctival congestion or symptoms of impairment of yin
Do not prescribe this medicine for those who have excess of .yang due to deficiency of yin, excess heat in the
blood system, excessiveness of stomach-fire, accumulation of phlegm and heat in the lung, exopathic and febrile
diseases.


Gejie
GECKO (RED-SPOTTED HOUSE LIZARD)
Gecko

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Dui ge jie, Ge jie gan, Xian chan and Ge she
ORIGIN
Medicinal gecko is the viscerated and dried body of Gekko gecko Linnaeus, Gechonidae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Guangdong Province. Small quantity can be
seen in Yunnan Province.
CHARACTERISTICS
Medicinal gecko is a dried flat one. Generally, the length of the head and neck is 3-6 cm, that of the trunk is 6-12
cm, that of the tail is 6-12 cm. The width of the back and abdomen is 6-11 cm. The head is triangular in shape, the
eyes are ussually concave. Its teeth are small and closely arranged with no canine teeth. The proboscis is semi -
circular in shape.
Proboscis scales are connected with nose scales but do not shut the nostrils. There are two nose scales, one is on
the right, the other on the left, separated by the frontal scale. There are, 24 (12 pairs) upper lip scales
and 21 lower lip scales (including chin scale). The stretched abdomen and back is elliptic in shape, with the abdomen
being thinner, back being greyish-black or silver-grey in colour. There are also whitish-yellow or greyish-green dots
or unmarked veins on the back. The vertebrae and ribs are projecting. Gecko has four legs, each leg has five toes
between which there are only vestiges of webs. There are sucking discs on the toe soles. The tail is thin and solid,
with coccyxes seen outwardly, and has the same colour as that of the back. There are seven silver-grey annular rings
round the tail. The whole body is covered with fine, close scales which are circular or polyangular in shape and have
faint luster. Dried gecko has a smell of seafood, and is a bit salty in taste (See Fig. 41).
DIFFERENTIATION
There are false medicinal geckoes of many kinds: dried bodies of Gekko chinensis Gray, Batrachuperus pinchonii
(David), Gekko swinhonis Guenther, leiolepis belliana rubritaeniata Mertens and others of the same or adjacent
families of gecko. The following are the common false medicinal geckoes.
1. Gekko chinensis Gray
It is deprived of viscera and dried. The dried one is flat in shape, greyish-brown in colour and smaller
than gecko in size. The head, neck and trunk total 5-8 cm long while the tail is 5-6.5cm. The head is a prolonged
ellipse, the proboscis is an obtuse arc. The back scales are connected with the nostrils. The eyes are concave, teeth
are fine and dense. The back is striped in grey and brown check, and dotted with bigger wart scales which are dark
brown or whitish-grey in colour. The scales on the abdomen are bigger and round, being overlapped. There are five
toes in each of the four legs, the toes have petal-like sucking discs. The tail is thin and long, longer than its body
(head, neck and trunk), with marked greyish-yellow rings. The dried body is pliable in texture, slightly salty in taste
and has a smell of seafood.
2. Leiolepis belliana rubritaeniata Mertens
lt is usually deprived of viscera, dried and flat, the length of the body (head, neck and trunk) is about 10-
15 cm, while the length of tail, about 20-30 cm. The tail is not only longer but also thicker and flatter. The head is
smaller and triangular in shape. There are four irregularly shaped big teeth, two on the upper jan, the other two on
the lower. Scales on the head are bigger and with arrises, while scales on the back are smaller and inlaid. The back of
the body is closely dotted with orangered round spots; the sides of the body have orange-red transverse stripes; the
abdomen is whitish-grey in colour and with bigger scales. The claws are big and strong, and there are 3-5 big
triangular scales on the internal side of the base part of the third toe.
PREPARATION
1. Gecko pieces: Cut gecko into pieces after the scales, head and legs are removed.
2. Wine-soaked gecko: Pieces of gecko are soaked in rice or millet yellow wine and roasted afterwards.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The medicine is salty in taste and neutral in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the channels of the lung and
kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Invigorating the lung-qi and relieving cough and asthma.
lt is efficacious in the treatment of cough due to deficiency of the lung, and cough and dyspnea due to failure of
the kidney in receiving air, or consumptive diseases.
2. Restoring the kidney-yang and replenishing the vital essence and blood.
lt is efficacious in the treatment of impotence due to insufflciency of kidney:yang and deficiency of vital essence
and blood.
ADMlNISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Gecko is usually made into the forms of decoction, pill, powder or tincture. 3-6 grams are decocted as in a dose, to
be taken daily. If powder is prescribed, take 1-2 grams of powder with water three times a day.
CAUTION
lt is contraindicant in those who have syndromes characterized by dyspnea and cough due to wind and
dampness or heat of excess type.


Wugong
CENTIPEDE
Scolopendra


OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Chi zu wu gong, Chuan wu gong, Jiu zhi wu gong, Wu gong mo, Tian long and Wu gong
ORIGIN
lt refers to the dried body of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch, Scolopendridae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Hubei, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Henan, Hunan and Anhui provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
The medicinal product is a flat and long rectangle, 9-17 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide. The whole body is made up of
22 segments, with the last segment being relatively smaller. The two segments on the head are darkish-red and
shrunk. From the second segment, each somite has a pair of feet on both sides, which are yellow or reddish-brown in
colour and curved like hooks. The dried body is fragile in texture and crevices are found on its cross section. lt has a
faint smell of seafood and of a peculiar irritating stench. lt is acrid, and a bit salty in taste (See Fig. 42).
PREPARATION
l. Raw centipede.
Kill the centipede in boiling water, stab a thin, long bamboo splint with one end into its head, the other into its tail, so
that the whole body is straightened. Dry the boiled centipede. Remove the bamboo splint upon use.
2. Centipede powder
Parch the dried body till it becomes crisp or yellow, then grind it into fine powder.
3. Liquored centipede
Remove the head and feet, break the trunk into segments, moisten them with liquor and roast at a slow fire till the
segments become dry.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is acrid in taste, warm in nature and toxic. Its therapeutic action is related to the liver channel.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Relieving convulsion and spasm.
It is often prescribed to relieve acute and chronic infantile convulsion and tetanus.
2. Detoxicating and resolving a mass.
It is prescribed for skin and external diseases, pyogenie infections, scrofula, ulceration and snakebite.
3. Removing obstruction in the channels to relieve pain.
lt is used for the treatment of obstinate tic pain in the head, and of arthralgia due to pathogenic wind-dampness.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
2.5-4-5 grams are decocted, take the decoction daily for internal use; or take 0.6-1 gram of powder each time.
Proper amount of powder of centipede may be applied to the affected area for external use.
CAUTION
Overdosage should be avoided as it is toxic. Liquored centipede is preferable for the longer-period users.
Pregnant women are inhibited form using it.


Xiongdan
BEAR GALL
Fe1 Ursi

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Gou xiong dan, Hei xia zi dan, run dan and Dong dan
ORIGIN
Medicinal bear gall refers to the dried gallbladder of the black bear (gelenaretos thibetanus Cuvier, Ursidae) and
the gall bladder of the brown bear (Ursus arctos L.,) Ursidac.
DISTRIBUTION
Gallbladder of the bear haunting about Yunnan Province, in China, is called yun dan (Yunnan bear gallbladder),
the quality of which is the best among others. Gallbladder of the bear haunting about Heilongjiang and Jilin
provinces in China, is called "dong dan" (East bear gallbladder), the quantity of which is the largest among others.
CHARACTERISTICS
The medicinal bear gallbladder is a prolonged, egg-shaped substance, the upper part of which is slender and
hollow, while the lower part is expanded and solid like a sac. It is usually 10-20 cm in length, 5-10 cm in diameter (the
lower part). lts surface is greyish-brown, blackish-brown or brownish-yellow in colour, while its wall is thin and
folded. It becomes translucent when it is drawn near a light and seen from the dark side. Filled in the sac-like lower
part is the dried bile, usually called "gallbladder kernel", which is either lumpish or hard and plate-like object. The
gallbladder which is amber-like, golden in colour (light or dark), light and crisp in texture, and has luster, is usually
called "golden gallbladder" or "copper gallbladder"; that which is black or blackish-green in colour, hard and crisp in
texture, and hard, plate-like in appearance, is usually called "iron gallbladder" or "black gallbladder"; that which is
yellowish-green in colour and crisp in texture is usually called "cauliflower gallbladder". All the above mentioned
gallbladder kernels are delicately fragrant in odor, and bitter first, sweet thereafter in taste, with a tingling sensation
felt in the tongue (See Fig. 43).
DIFFERENTIATION
Gallbladders of the pigs, the cows and the sheep are sometimes taken as genuine bear gallbladders. Other fakes
and adulterations can be seen.
The counterfeits can be differentiated by the following, methods:
l. Visual method
(1) Check the appearance, shape and the wall of the gallbladder as a whole.
(2) Check the opening of the gallbladder, where it is tied.
(3) Check the amount of the kernel. Those which are too plump and full are usually adulterated.
(4) Check the weight of the gallbladder, if too weighty, it is usually adulterated with heavy metals, e.g., lead or
iron sands.
(5) Put a little powder of gallbladder kernel on the index finger, mixed together with a drop of water, and rub the
powder with the thumb. lt is genuine if it produces delicate fragrance.
(6) The dried gallbladder kernel of the genuine is easy to break, each broken piece is a crystal polyhedron. lf the
bear gallbladder is adulterated with biles of pig, cow, etc., the kenel will become hard and is not easy to break, like
hard paste, having no luster.
2. Burning method
Put a little amount of kernel of gallbladder in the fire, the genuine only bubbles, the fake does not bubble but
flames or becomes liquid or bubbles but produces an unpleasant odor.
3. Water method
Fill a beaker with water. Put a small piece of kernel of gallbladder onto the surface of the water. You will see a
rapid circular motion on the water surface. It dissolves while circulating, and becomes a "yellow thread" falling
erectly down to the bottom of the beaker, the "yellow thread" does not diffuse.
The counterfeit does not circulate, only dissolves, or circulates intermittently. Those which do not circulate, with
a "yellow thread" beneath or circulate irregularly (not a circular motion) are adulterations. lf the gallbladder kernels of
pigs, cows, sheep and the like are put in water, you will find no "yellow thread".
4. Smelling rnethod
If adulterated with yak biles there is a smell of seafood; if with sheep biles, there is a smell of mutton; if
with aloe, there is an irretating smell.
5. Tasting method
The bear bile (or kernel) tastes bitter first, sweet thereafter. There is a prolonged, cool, refreshing and tingling
sensation in the tongue. It dissolves rapidly in the mouth, and gives a cool, refreshing sensation down to the throat.
It does not stick to the teeth when chewed.
The counterfeits and adulterations have no fragrant smell, cool, refreshing, sweet and tingling sensations to the
tongue but only bitter and fish-stench taste.
PREPARATION
Peel the dried gallbladder, grind the kernel into powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The drug is bitter in taste and cold in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the liver,
gallbladder and heart.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Removing heat from the liver to relieve convulsion and spasm.
It is efficacious in treating infantile convulsion, epilepsy, hyperspasmmia and eclampsia gravidarum caused by strong
liver-wind and extreme heat.
2. Improving acuity of vision and removing nebula
It is efficacious in the treatment of conjunctival congestion, swelling and pain of the eyes, photophobia and
nebula caused by flaming-up of liver-fire.
3. Clearing away heat and toxic materials
It is efficacious in treating sores, furuncle, carbuncles, hemorrhoid, sore throat, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
1-2.5 grams daily. It is usually made into the form of pills or powder, which is administered with water. lt can also
be used externally, with proper arnount.
CAUTION
Prescribe this medicine only for the patients who have the heat of excess type.
The skin and palms of the patient taking this medicine may become light-yellow, which may disappear within 1-2
days following drug withdrawal.



Jiangcan
BATRYTICATED SILKWORM
Bombyx Batryticatus

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Bai jiang can Tian chong, Jiang chong, Chao jiang can, Zhi jiang can and Jiang can mo
ORIGIN
It refers to the dried larva of Bombyx mori Linnaeus, Bombycidae which is dead due to the infection of Beauveria
bassiana (Bals.) Vaillant, Moniliaceae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Guangdong provinces and other sericultural regions.
CHARACTERISTICS
The dried larva is cylindroid, often curved and corrugated, 2-5 cm in length, 4-7 mm in diameter. Its surface looks
greyish-white or yellowish-white, coated with powdery frost (the serial hyphae and conidiospores). Its head is
somewhat round, yellowish-brown in colour; its body, with apparent somites, has eight pairs of projecting feet; and
its end part is somewhat binary branchy. The larva is hard but brittle in texture. The section looks even, white in the
outer layer and black brown in the middle, with luster and four lusterous rings (silk glandular rings). The drug smells
fishy and tastes a little salty (See Fig. 44).
PREPARATION
1. Batryticated silkworm
Get rid of the silk, wash and dry the worrn.
2. Bran-roasted. batryticated silkworm
Roast the batryticated silkworms with wheat bran until the silkworms become yellow. Sieve to get rid of the bran
and cool the silk worms.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is salty and pungent in taste, and neutral in nature. Its therapeutic effect is related to the channels of the liver
and lung.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Relieving convulsion and spasm.
It is effective for convulsin and epilepsy induced by terror, marked by the syndromes of up-stirring of liver-wind
and accumulation of phlegm and heat.
2. Dispelling wind and arresting pain.
It is effective for headache, conjunctival congestion, sore throat caused by wind-heat or liver-heat, and
toothache due to pathogenic wind-fire.
3. Detoxicating and resolving mass.
It is often used to t reat scrofula and subcutaneous nodule, furuncle and erysipelas, etc.
4. Dispelling wind and arresting itching.
Tlle drug can be otherwise administered for conditions such as urticaria and pruritus cutis.
Raw batryticated silkworm gives better efflcacy in dispelling wind and heat. Generally, the roasted is applied in
most cases.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
As an ingredient of a decoction, 3-10 grams of the worm are applied daily; to be taken in form of powder or pills, 3-
4.5 grams daily.


Chansu
TOAD VENOM
Lenenum Bufonis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Ha ma su and Ha ma jiang

ORIGIN
Medicinal toad venom is the dried white secretion of the auricular glands and the skin glands of Bufo bufo
gargarizans Cantor or Bufo melanotictus Bchneider, Bufonidae.
DISTRIBUTION
lt is mainly produced in Shandong, Hebei, Sichuan, Hunan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
The product is shaped into oblate balls or flat, thin pieces, brown or reddish-brown in colour. The ball-like ones
are firm and not easy to be broken. lts section, brown in colour, is cutin-like and lightly lustrous. The flat, thin pieces
are crisp and fragile, the section is reddish-brown and translucent. The drug smells fishy, tastes slighly sweet at first
and then gives a lasting tingling and hot sensation. Toad venom powder makes one sneeze when sniffed.
DIFFERENTIATION
The downright counterfeit in the drug is rarely seen. The so-called counterfeit here usually refers to adulterated
toad venom. The genuine and adulterated toad venom can be differentiated by the following common methods.
l. Smelling
The certified product (genuine product) smells a little fishy. Even a bit of powder can cause lasting sneezing if it
enters the nostrol. Counterfeit product gives out a smell of the adulterate materials: it gives out a fishy smell of egg if
egg white is adulterated into the product.
2. Tasting.
The certified product is bitter and gives a lasting tingling sensation and an irritating and puckery taste. The
counterfeit gives very little or no tingling sensation and pungent puckery taste at all.
3. Bubbling test
Take a piece of sample and emerge, it in water for 6-8 minutes. The certified product expands and swells, and milk-
white paste-like projections like cotton balls will appear and rise to the water surface. The residue will precipitate to
the bottom of the container after it dissolves in water. The conterfeit presents no white paste-like projections. It will
disperse if it contains flour while the grit or sand and other impurities will precipitate.
4. Saponin reaction
Dissolve a little sample in water. Shake the container. The certified product produces more bubbles and the
bubbling lasts for a long time, while the counterfeit gives out few bubbles or no bubbles at all.
5. Iodine test (Schiller's Test)
Put a few drops of iodine tincture on the sample. The certified product will present tawny colour, while the
counterfeit, if it contains wheat flour, bean flour or other kind of starch, present black, blue or dark brown colour.
6. Combustion test
Put a little sample on a piece of aluminiurn foil and give heating beneath. Bubbles and oily substances often come out
from the certified product, with the smoke being a little foul. Whereas there is no bubbling of the counterfeit, the
heated product looks very oily. As the smoke, comes out, a stinking or a peculiar smell assails the nostrils.
PREPARATION
Toad venom powder: Soak the toad venom in liquor till it becomes thick paste. Dry the paste and grind it into
powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The drug is acrid in taste, warm in nature and poisonous. lts therapeutic action is related to the heart channel.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Removing toxic substances and promoting subsidence of swelling.
It is used in the treatment of all kinds of carbuncle, cellulitis and other skin and external diseases, and
furunculosis marked by hurting swellings, swelling and sore throat, hurting tooth caries, etc.
2. Alleviating pains and inducing resuscitation.
lt is effective for heat stroke, faint, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal colic, fullness in the chest and abdomen,
etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
For external use, take proper amount of the drug and grind it into fine powder. Mix the powder with liquid to make
them into paste to be applied topically on the affected part, or make them into adhesive plaster to be stuck on the
affected area. For toad venom is only prepared in the form of pills or powder, and only 0.015-0.03 gram is
administered.
CAUTION
Toad venom is contraindicative in pregnant women. Avoid its enterin the eyes when it is applied externally.



Shexiang
MUSK
Moschus

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Yuan cun xiang and Xiang zhang
ORIGIN
Medicinal musk is the dried secretion obtained from the male musk gland, traditionally called fragrant sac between
the umbilical cord and the testicle of Moschus berezovskii Flerov, Moschus sifanicus Przewalski, or Moschus
moschiferus Linnaeus, Cervidae. After capturing a wild musk deer, cut the musk fragrant sac off the body, dry it in
the shade. Dried fragrant sac is habitually called "hair sac musk", open the sac, appears "the musk kernel". The
musk kernel can be directly obtained from the musk fragrant sac of the domestic musk deer and dried in the shade or
in an air-tight desiccator.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Tibet and Yunnan, less commonly produced in Hubei, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai,
Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and the Northeastern provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Hair sac musk
It is an oblate or elliptical cystid, 3-7 cm in diameter, and 2-4 cm in thickness. On the side where opening of the sac
is situated are the cortices which are brown in colour and smooth to some extent with dense white or greyish-brown
short hair arranged around the opening. On the other side are purplish-brown membranes of layers, which are
slightly wrinkled and resilient, occasionally muscular fibres, are found. After the sac is cut open, one can see layers
of membranas, the middle layer is brown or greyish-brown in colour and translucent; the inner layer is brown in
colour, within the inner layer, musk kernels of granular or powder form, small amount of vellus hair and scaled pieces
of inner membranas are contained. The scaled pieces of inner layer of membrane is custornarily called silver scales"
(See Fig. 45).
Musk kernels
The musk kernels which are taken from wild musk are soft in texture, lubricious and loose. The granular kernel is
habitually called "dang men zi", which is irregularly spherical or granular in shape. The surface, with few spotted
wrinkles, is purplish-black, lubricious and luminous. The cross section is darkish-brown or yellowish-brown. The
kernels taken from domestic musk are granular, short rod-like and irregular spherical in shape. The surface is rough,
purplish-black or dark brown, greasy and slightly lustrous. Small amount of hair and scaled pieces of inner
membranes are sometimes mixed in the kernels. The fragrance is strongand peculiar, the taste is slightly hot, bitter
and salty.
DIFFERENTIATION
Because the fragrance and other characteristics are peculiar, out-and-out counterfeits are very rare, adulteration is
usually the trick. Common adulterants are animal muscles, plant powder, silt, dried yeast, grease, glue, gum, etc. The
common rnethods of differentiation are:
1. Resilience
When held and pressed between the fingers, the real musk kernel is a little soft, resilient, not hard as to prick the
fingers. After loosening the grip, the sunken part on the surface of kernel will spring up automatically and return to
the normal state. The adulterations are hard and non-elastic.

2. Rubbing
Put an appropriate amount of musk kernel on the palm and rub it with the hands. The real musk can be crumpled
into a ball and the ball will spread out when being lightly pressed and twisted with the fingers. It does not adhere to
the hands, not dye the hands, not resist against the hands and not agglomerate. The adulterations can also be
crumpled into balls. But the balls rarely spread out when being lightly pressed. They adhere to the hands and dye
the hands. The adulterations give a sensation of hardness and are easy to agglomerate.
3. Tasting
Put small amount of the powder into mouth and chew. The genuine musk is acrid and sweet, or slightly bitter and
salty in taste. lt gives a sensation of tongue irritation and a strong refreshing sensation of fragrance down to the root
of tongue. It melts when being chewed and leaves no dregs. The adulterations of various kinds do not possess the
flavour and taste. They do not irritate the tongue, not have the genuine fragrance as the pure musk kernel and leave
dregs after chewed.
4. Heating
Put a sheet of tinfoil over fire, then spread some sample powder on it. The genuine musk kernel first splits and
moves up and down, then melts, expands and effervesces, forming beads. At the same time, a strong fragrance spills
over. The smell is cool, and refreshing, no stinking odor of hair and flesh. There are no flames and sparks. After
burnt to ashes, the dregs become white or greyish-white. The adulterations have a smell of burnt meat and other
odors of various kinds, with flames and thick smoke giving off. And the dregs are blackish-grey in colour
5. Water dissolving
Put small amount of musk kernel into hot water. The large portion of genuine musk kernel can slowly dissolve in
water. Its solution is light yellow and clear, with no fibrous impurities left. The adulterations can dissolve in water to
less extent, or does not dissolve at all. The solution is not clear, with residues left at the bottom of the container.
PREPARATION
Remove the impurities and grind the musk kernel into fine powder.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
It is acrid in taste and warm in nature. lts therapeutical action is related to the channels of the heart and spleen.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Inducing resuscitation and restoring consciousness.
It is used for coma and spasm in the course of febrile diseases, apoplexy, phlegm syncope, syncope resulting
from disorder of qi, and other consciousness loss syndromes of excess type.
2. Promoting blood circulation to relieve swelling.
It is efficacious in the treatment of traumatic injury, accumulation of blood stasis, general pains, sore throat,
carbuncles and boils.
3. Restoring menstrual flow and removing obstruction in the channels.
It is efficacious in the treatment of mass in the abdomen, amenorrhea, retention of dead fetus or placenta, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Usually made into pills or powder, not made into decoction, 0.03-0.1 gram daily. lt may be externally used,
accordingly.
CAUTION
Do not prescribe it to the pregnant women.


Biejia
FRESH-WATER TURTLE, SHELL
Carapax Trionycis

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Bie ke, Bie gai zi, Tuan yu jia, Cu bie jia and Zhi bie jia.
ORIGIN
lt is the dried carapace of Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann, Trionychidae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hebei, Henan and Hunan provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Elliptical or oval in shape, the shell is usually 10-15 cm, long and 9-14 cm wide with bulge on the dorsum. The outer
surface is blackish-brown or dark green in colour. It has a faint lustre, with fine reticular furrows and greyish-yellow
or greyish-white spots. The outer surface also has a vertical ridge in the middle and 8 symmetrical transverse
concave veins on both sides repectively. Sawtooth-shaped seams can be seen after the outer skin has been peeled
off. The inner surface is whitish in colour with protruding vertebras lying in the middle. The cervical bones are rolled
inwardly. There are 8 ribs on each side, stretching beyond the edge. The whole shell is solid and hard in texture and
has a weak fishy odor and an insipid taste (See Fig. 46).
PREPARATION
1. Steamed fresh-water turtle shell: Remove the skin and flesh off the shell completely after being
steamed, get it dried thereafter.
2. Vinegared fresh-water turtle shell: Roast the freshwater turtle shell together with sands,
immediately take it out and put it into vinegar when its surface becomes yellowish, dry it after getting
cooled. Pound it to pieces when used.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
The drug is salty in taste, and slightly cold in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels
of the liver and kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Nourishing yin and suppressing hyperactive yang, reducing fever and removing hectic fever due
to yin-deficiency.
It is used for the treatment of consumption of yin caused by febrile diseases, stirring up of endopathic wind of
deficiency type, hectic fever due to yin-deficiency tide fever and night sweat.
2. Resolving hard lumps.
It is used for the treatment of chronic malaria, malaria with splenomegaly, amenorrhea, and mass in the abdomen.
Steamed fresh-water turtle shell is more efftcacious in nourishing yin and suppressing hyperactive yang, while
vinegared fresh-water turtle shell is more efficacious in resolving hard lumps.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
9-24 grams daily for decoction. Decoct the shell first when the shell is used together with other materia medica.
CAUTION
Those with weakness and cold of the spleen and stomach or with poor appetite and loose bowels, and pregnant
women should abstain from using it.
Chapter Three
Other Kinds of Drugs


Dongchongxiacao
CHINESE CATERPILLAR FUNGUS
Cordyceps

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Dong chong cao and Chong cao
ORIGIN
Chinese Caterpillar Fungus is a complex which consists of stroma of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.)
Sacc., Clavicipitaceae, and a larva corpse of the host Hepialus armoricanus Oberthur, Hepialidae.
DISTRIBUTION
It is produced in the alpine zones of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces and Tibet Autonomous Region.
CHARACTERISTICS
Chinese caterpillar fungus is composed of a corpse of larva and a fungus, with the stroma of
Cordyceps sinensis (Berk) Sacc. (fungus) growing from the head of the corpse. The larva looks like a
silkworm, 3-5 cm in length, 0.3-0.8 cm in diameter. The body surface is deep yellow or yellowish-brown
and the head is redish-brown in color. There are 20-30 annual striae around the body, and the striae near
the head become thinner. Its tail is also like that of a silkworm. It has 8 pairs of feet, the middle 4 pairs
being the most
prominent. The stroma, slightly longer than the larva's corpse, is rod-like and twisted, growing from the
head of the larva. The corpse is fragile and substancial, white or pale yellow in color. The stroma,
yellowish-white in colour, is lightly pliable and hollow (See Fig. 47).
DIFFERENTIATION
There are several kinds of fake in the markets, commonly seen are the stem tubers of the plants
Stachys gaobombycis C.Y Wu and Stachys sieboldii Mig., Labiatae. These fakes are fusiform and
slightly twisted, with 3-15 annular segments, pale yellow in color, 2-5 cm in length and 0.3-l.0 cm in
diameter. They are brittle and the cross sections are whitish.
Other fakes include those processed and moulded with maize powder, wheat flour, plaster, etc.
Generally, the fakes are yellowish-white in color, the surface is smooth and the annular striae are obvious.
Its cross section is light white in colour. The whole body is heavy in weight and is sticky to the teeth when
chewed.
PREPARATION
Brush away the coarse cuticle of the larva's corpse and dry.
NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is sweet in taste and neutral in nature. lts therapeutic action is related to the channels of the lung and
kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Nourishing the lung and kidney, arresting bleeding and resolving phlegm.
It is efficacious in the treatment of cough with blood-tinged sputum, asthma and shortness of breath
due to lung deficiency, lassitude and pains of loins and knees, and impotence and seminal emission due to
kidney deficiency.
2. Nursing weakened health caused by consumptive diseases.
It is usually prescribed in the treatment of deficiency syndrome caused by overstrain or, in the
treatment of restoration of health during convalescence. Its restoring effect is slow, longer period of
administration is required.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
lt is decocted in water for oral use, 3-10 grams each day; or ground into powder for oral use, l.5-3.0
grams each dosage. It can also be made into pills or powder with other drugs.

CAUTION
Chinese caterpillar fungus is contraindicated in patients with symptoms of exterior syndrome or cough
due to pathogenic wind-cold.


Ejiao
DONKEY-HIDE GELATIN
Colla Corii Asini

OTHER CHINSE NAMES
Fu zhi jiao, Lu pi jiao, Sheng ejiao and Ejiao zhu
ORIGIN
It refers to gelatin made of the skin of ass (Equus asinus L., Equidae).
DISTRIBUTION
It is mainly produced in Shandong and Zhejiang provinces.
CHARACTERISTICS
Rectangular or cuboid in shape, it varies in size with different manufacturers. The surface is smooth
and lustrous, brownish-black or pitch-black in colour. It is slightly transparent when observed against light,
and is fragile, easy to break. The section is smooth, lustrous and brownish-black or pitch-black in colour.
It is weak in smell and slightly sweet in taste (See Fig. 48).
DIFFERENTIATION
Among the main counterfeits of donkey-hide gelatin are ox-hide gelatin and mixed hide gelatin which,
generally, are deep black, lustrous, poor in transparency and stinking in smell.
1. Ox-hide gelatin
Similar to donkey-hide gelatin in shape, it is sticky, hard in texture, not easy to break. The section is
pitch-black and has glass-like lustre. The gelatin has a faint smell of seafood and a weak taste of
sweetness. Put two grams of broken ox-hide gelatin on fire, it gives off a strong foul smell (donkey-hide
gelatin has a fragrant smell of sesame oil). Put five grams of ox-hide gelatin and 30 ml water in a
container bol and stir r the gelatin for 16 minutes, it dissolves completely. The solution is dull greyish-
brown and turbid, and no substances are separated out, no drops of oil are found on the surface. (While
the solution of donkey-hide gelatin is light brownish-red and turbid, with some white substances separated
out and drops of oil on the surface.)
2. Mixed hide gelatin
Similar to donkey-hide gelatin in shape and varying in thickness, it is sticky, hard in texture and not easy
to break. The section is greyish-black and has glass-like lustre. It is a little stinking in smell and slightly
sweet in taste. Burn the gelatin, it sends forth a smell of soya-bean oil mixed with the odor of seafood. The
solution is deep greyish and brownish-red and is turbid, with no substances separated out and with a few
drops of oil on the surface.
PREPARATION
1. Donkey-hide gelatin cube
Bake it soft and then cut into small cubes, dry the cubes.
2. Donkey-hide gelatin with clam powder
Donkey-hide gelatin cubes and clam powder are mixed and stirred while scalding, dry them
afterwards.
3. Donkey-hide gelatin with cattail pollen
Donkey-hide gelatin cubes and cattail pollen are mixed and stirred while roasting.
NATURE, TASTE AND CIIANNEL TROPISM
It is sweet in taste and neutral in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the lung, liver
and kidney.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
l. Tonifying and enriching the blood.
It has a good efficacy in tonifying and enriching blood and is applied to treating dizziness, palpitation,
sallow complexion, myoatrophy, myasthenia and insomnia with vexation due to deficiency of blood.
2. Arresting bleeding.
It is an important drug for bleeding-arresting and used in the treatment of hematemesis, apostaxis,
hemoptysis, hematuria, hemafecia, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis. Donkey-hide gelatin with cattail pollen is
the common drug to be prescribed for arresting bleeding.
3. Nourishing yin.
It is used to treat vexation and insomnia, flushed tongue and thready and rapid pulse due to yin
deficiency.
4. Moistening the lung.
It is used in treating chronic cough due to pulmonary tuberculosis or irritant cough due to deficiency of
yin, etc. Donkey-hide gelatin with clam powder is the first drug of choice in moistening the lung.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
5-10 grams are dissolved in water or yellow rice wine, take the gelatin solution daily. If the gelatin is
prescribed with other medicinal substances, dissolve the gelatin and decoct other medicinal substances
separately and then mix the gelatin solution and the decoction for oral use. Donkey-hide gelatin with
cattail pollen is most eligible for making pills and powder.
CAUTION
Because it is glutinous, greasy and not easy to digest, patients with weakness of the spleen and stomach
function manifested as poor appetite, indigestion, vomiting and diarrhoea are contraindicated.


Hupo
AMBER
Succinum

OTHER CHINESE NAMES
Xue po, Lao hu po and Hu po xie
ORIGIN
Amber is a kind of fossil resin that, in the ancient times, was the resin of Pinaceae, Pinus, which was
buried under ground for thousands of years. That dug out from under ground is called "Amber", while that
discovered in coal, "Coal Amber".
DISTRIBUTION
Amber is mainly produced in Guangxi and Yunnan provinces. Coal Amber is mainly produced in
Liaoning Province.
CHARACTERISTICS
l. Amber
Amber is, big or small, an irregular lump. That which is red in color is called "Bloody Amber". There is
also amber in brown or in dark brown. The cross section is glossy and lustrous. Bloody amber is loose in
texture and easy to crush into powder if twisted with fingers; while the dark brown amber is a little bit
harder. When burnt, amber gives out an odor similar to that of colophony. Amber is tasteless.
2. Coal amber
Common coal amber, different in size, is in shape of an irregular angular lump, a few variations are
milk-drop-shaped. lt looks pale yellow, red brown or dark brown, with lustre on the surface and is hard in
texture, not easy to break. The cross section has glass-like gloss. It gives out a nasty smeli of kerosene
when burnt.
DIFFERENTIATION
The common fake of amber is colophony, processed into two kinds: (1) melted-then-cooled colophony,
which is not changed in quality and remains yellow and glossy: (2) Buried colophony, i.e. colophony is
buried deeply in earth for some time and has turned from yellow to black and has no longer lustre. Both
the above fakes have a fragrant smell of turpentine oil. On differentiation, boil them in water. Colophony
will become soft and then melt, while amber will remain unchanged.
PREPARATION
1. Clean and grind it into powder.

NATURE, TASTE AND CHANNEL TROPISM
lt is sweet in taste and neutral in nature. Its therapeutic action is related to the channels of the heart, liver
and urinary bladder.
ACTIONS AND INDICATIONS
1. Relieving convulsion and tranquilizing the mind.
It is used in the treatment of pavor, palpitation, amnesia, dreaminess, insomnia, epilepsy, etc.
2. Alleviating water retention and relieving stranguria.
It is applied to the treatment of urine retention, stranguria complicated by hematuria and stranguria caused
by pathogenic heat.
3. Promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis.
lt is used in the treatment of amenorrhea caused by blood stasis and stagnation of vital energy.
4. Astringing ulcers and promoting tissue regeneration.
Used externally, it is efficacious in the treatment of ulcers, boils, swellings, etc.
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE
Amber can not be used in decoction. lt is prepared into pills or powder for direct oral use, 1.5-3.0
grams each day. Powder is also applied externally.
CAUTION
lt is contraindicated in patients with syndrome of interior heat due to yin deficiency or without blood
stasis.





























PUBLISHING HOUSE OF SHANGHAI COLLEGE OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

530 Lingling Road, Shanghai, China

Rare Chinese Materia Medica
Editor-in-Chief Dr. Zhang Enqin

ISBN 7-81010-184-6/R183
Copyright 1990 by Publishing House of Shanghai College of Traditional
Chinese Medicine.

All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from the publisher.

Printed in Sbanghai No. 3 Printing Works.