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JUNYUAN
ECO TRAIL
@ PASIR RIS PARK

Pasir Ris Mangrove

At the end of the #tags, # your CLASS eg:
#jyssbio #mangroveflora #avicennia #leaves #4E1






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Pasir Ris Mangrove


Map of the Mangrove Boardwalk

Look at the flora and fauna around you, can you identify some of these plants
and animals?

Plants and animals living in mangrove areas have special characteristics that
enables them to adapt to the environment

Mangrove Habitat


What are the environmental characteristics of a mangrove
environment?

Climate (in tropical zone average temperature and
approximately 1,500-3,000mm of rain fall)
Light (long day, high intensity of full sun light)
Soil (Made up of Sand, Silt and Clay, Oxygen poor)
Nutrients (Organic nutrients and Inorganic nutrients)
Brackish water (Salt water + Fresh water), High tidal range

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Plants and animals are adapted to live in environment with variability in the
salinity, oxygen poor soil, fluctuating tide levels etc.


Scan the QR codes to find out more about some of the adaptations of the
mangrove plants

See if you can spot these flora and fauna along the trail!


Flora
There are 3 main zones in a mangrove forest, The Coastal Zone, Middle Zone &
Inland Zone





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Avicennia species
(Area B & G)





Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora #avicennia
This species dominates the
zone closest to the sea



Jot down what you noticed about the different parts of the Avicennia species.
What adaptations do they have?
Roots
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora
#avicennia #mangroveroots


Leaves
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora #avicennia
#mangroveleaf












Fruiting bodies/
Flowers
Insta Picture

#jyssbio
#mangroveflora
#avicennia
#mangroveflower


Secretes excess salt through
the leaves (See if you could
find something like this:

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Rhizophora species
(To the left of Area G)





Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora #rhizophora
This species dominates the
middle zone of the
mangrove forest


Jot down what you noticed about the different parts of the Rhizophora species.
What adaptations do they have?
Roots
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora
#rhizophora #mangroveroots


Leaves
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora
#rhizophora #mangroveleaf









Fruiting bodies/ Flowers
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora
#rhizophora #mangrovefruit

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Able to filter out salt
from the water
(Ultrafiltrators)
Excess salt stored in
old leaves that
would be shed
Seed of the
Rhizophora plant are
viviparous (It starts
growing its leaves
while still on the
mother tree)
When the seed falls
into the soil, the tip of
the seed acts like a
spear and spears into
the soft soil

Video of vivipary seed
dispersal
Bruguiera species
(Area G)





Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora #bruguiera

This species dominates the
inland zone of the mangrove
forest.
They are the least tolerant to
salt



Jot down what you noticed about the different parts of the Bruguiera species.
What adaptations do they have?
Roots
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora
#bruguiera
#mangroveroots

Leaves
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora
#bruguiera
#mangroveleaf



Fruiting bodies/ Flowers
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora
#bruguiera #mangrovefruit


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Kneed Roots;
Buttresses Roots
Able to filter out salt
from the water
(Ultrafiltrators)




Viviparity seeds


Nipah Palm
(Area D)






Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora #nipah

This species are found in
mangrove/swampy habitats



Jot down what you noticed about the different parts of the Nipah Palm species.
What adaptations do they have?
Leaves

Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangroveflora #nipah #mangroveleaf

#jyssbio #mangroveflora #nipah #mangrovefruit




Fruiting bodies/ Flowers


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Used to make roofs in the past
Used for tying things together
Seeds inside are edible (attap
chee that we find in our ice
kachang)
Sap from the plant can be made
into Gula Melaka

Scan QR code to see more uses



Fauna
The mangrove habitat is home to many creatures that you and I may not notice
as we journey through the boardwalk.

Keep your eyes peeled and look out for some of these amazing animals!



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Mudskippers


Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangrovefauna #mudskipper

This species of fish are found
on the mud flats and usually
near roots



What adaptations do they have?

Able to spend time out of the water (Breathe through their SKIN! &
hold water in their mouth and gills)
Protruding eyes located at the top of their head (Able to stay
underwater while looking out for predators)




Tree-climbing Crabs


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Usually found on trees,
crevices and holes of trees





Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangrovefauna #mangrovecrabs

How many Tree-climbing crabs did you spot?
What adaptations do they have?



Nerita




Insta Picture

#jyssbio #mangrovefauna #nerita

This species of snails are
found on trees, rocks,
boardwalk pillars



What adaptations do they have?

They feed on algae during low tide
During high tide they hold on to trees/ pillars/ rocks above the sea
level to stay away from predators
Staying in the shell also helps the Nerita prevent excessive water loss
due to the hot climate


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Monitor Lizard

If you are lucky enough to spot a Monitor lizard

SNAP A PHOTO!

#jyssbio #mangrovefauna #monitorlizard


Usually found sunbathing/
swimming. They can grow up
to 2meters




What adaptations do they have?

Excellent swimmers, able to swim great distances to hunt for food/
seek shelter
Hunts on crabs, fish, insects and dead animals
Able to climb trees to hunt



Test your knowledge!
1. Construct a possible food chain in the mangrove habitat (Pen & Paper)
2. Any edible plants that were identified during the board walks?
3. What do humans rely on the mangroves for?
4. How humans impact the mangroves negatively? What can we do to
protect the mangroves?









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Pasir Ris Coastal Habitat




Map of Pasir Ris Beach

The coastal habitat is very often overlooked, however it is actually teeming with
many different types of flora and fauna.

Organisms living in coastal areas have special adaptations that enables them to
survive the tidal inundations, saline environment and direct heat from the sun.

Coastal Habitat


What are the environmental characteristics of a coastal environment?

Climate (in tropical zone average temperature and
approximately 1,500-3,000mm of rain fall)
Light (High intensity of full sunlight)
Ground (Sandy)
2 High and 2 low tides a day


As you walk along the sandy beach, identify any marine organisms lying on the
Pasir Ris Beach
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beach. Check out this weird looking Marine sand worm!


Scan to watch the sand worm spotted by Mr Seah!

Have you ever wondered where are the organisms mainly located along our
Singapore beaches? They could be found on manmade structures such as the
rock bund (picture below)



We would be focusing on looking at the flora and fauna that are found on these
rock bunds

The rock bunds are located along the Pasir Ris beach

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Flora
Seaweed (algae) are the most commonly found flora found near rock bunds. Being washed up
by the waves; young seaweeds get attached to the rock surface and continue to grow. There
are 3 categories of seaweeds (Green, Red and Brown).


Scan to see the various types of seaweeds (algae)
Brown Algae



Insta Picture

#jyssbio #coastalflora #brownalgae
Found on rocks, exposed during low tides


Pictures and details of brown algae


Characteristics
Texture:
Colour:
Size:






Uses
Food, used in cosmetics, etc




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Green Algae

Insta Picture

#jyssbio #coastalflora #greenalgae
Found on rocks, exposed during low tides


Scan to see the most common green algae
found on beaches in Singapore



Characteristics
Texture:
Colour:
Size:


Uses
Food products, health
supplements, bio-fuel etc





















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Fauna
Organisms living on rock bunds are exposed to the blistering sun, tidal changes
and predation. They would have to have special adaptations to survive in this


Look closely, what are some of the organisms that you can spot on the rock
bunds?

Barnacles
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #coastalfauna #barnacles






Scan the QR code to watch them feed and their
characteristics
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Characteristics
Size:
How it feeds:
Feeds on:


Limpets

Insta Picture

#jyssbio #coastalfauna #limpets


Found on rocks, mobile, grazes
on algae found on rocks



Scan to see how limpets move
and interesting facts about them



Characteristics
Has a dome shaped shell
Muscular foot that enabes them to grip on to
surface

Adaptations
During low tide, limpets holds a some water in
their shell and firmly attaches their foot to the
rocks, to protect them from drying out in the hot
sun. Feeds on algae during high tide

Uses
Food
Bait for fishing



Star Limpet
Common
Limpet
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Black Mussels

Insta Picture

#jyssbio #coastalfauna #mussels


Found on rocks, anything
that they could attach to






Characteristics
Has a hard shell
Able to compete with barnacles for space to
grow
What it feeds on:

Adaptations
The shell protects the mussels from
potential predators and prevent them from
drying out when the tide recede

Scan to see black mussels found in other
countries
Uses
Food
Bait for fishing





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Nerita
Insta Picture

#jyssbio #coastalfauna #nerita


This species of snails are
found on rocky shores and
mangrove areas


Some common neritas found
on beaches of Singapore

What adaptations do they have?

During high tide they feed on the algae growing on rocks
Staying in the shell also helps the Nerita prevent excessive water loss
during low tide


Test your knowledge!
1. Construct a possible food chain (Pen & Paper)
2. What are the common adaptations that these rocky shore organisms
possess?
3. Could you spot any form of competition (eg: space, food etc) among
these organisms
4. What do humans rely on the breakwaters for?
5. How humans impact the coastal habitat negatively? What can we do to
protect the coastal habitat?



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Pasir Ris Fisheries




Pasir Ris Fishery (Kelong)

Fisheries

Fisheries are offshore platforms that are built for various purposes. They are
mainly used for fishing, rearing fishes, crabs, lobsters and other marine animals
for sale. Large deep nets are placed into the sea to rear these organisms.

Task
What are some of the services/ activities that could be done at the
kelongs?

Scan to see some activities that at the kelong